Science.gov

Sample records for acquire knowledge skills

  1. Sports Medicine: Does the Family Physician Need to Acquire New Knowledge and Skills?

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge and skills required to be competent in practising sports medicine can be defined and are discussed. Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common type of sports-related trauma, and their management requires diagnosis, acute treatment, and rehabilitation. Many other areas of management are involved, particularly exercise, with all its ramifications in children, adults, and the chronically sick. Use and abuse of drugs must be discussed with the athlete so that errors of legitimate use will not be made, and harmful effects can be explained. Family physicians in Canada receive variable training at both undergraduate and residency levels, but it probably forms a good foundation for amplification. PMID:21264032

  2. ACQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRKMAIER, EMMA; JACK, WILLIAM

    ONE-DAY WORKSHOPS WERE SET UP IN NINE DIFFERENT REGIONAL CENTERS IN MINNESOTA TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM OF TEACHING READING SKILLS IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. EACH CENTER WAS ASSIGNED SPECIFIC AND RELATED TOPICS TO WORK ON, FOREIGN LANGUAGE SPECIALISTS TO SERVE AS GROUP INSTRUCTORS, AND GUEST SPEAKERS. THE FIRST FOUR WORKSHOPS WERE CONCERNED WITH…

  3. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  4. Indigenous Knowledge and Learning. Papers Presented in the Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge and Skills and the Ways They Are Acquired (Cha'am, Thailand, March 2-5, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand).

    This proceedings documents an international workshop that focused on the research linking indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning with rural intervention programs. Research into indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning could lead to an improvement in rural intervention programs by building upon the knowledge and skills indigenous to rural…

  5. Skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    2014-10-30

    Two practical 'how-to' guides have been launched by NHS Improving Quality to support health and care professionals to improve their skills and knowledge continually. The Learning Handbook ( media.nhsiq.nhs.uk/learninghandbook ) helps readers take a systematic approach to learning, capture and share learning that can inform best practice, and focus on activities that will give them the greatest chance of improved outcomes. It is designed to help people obtain the best value out of all learning opportunities. The Intelligence Handbook ( media.nhsiq.nhs.uk/intelligencehandbook ), on the other hand, guides readers through the process of finding, filtering and understanding intelligence and will help them distil new information and use it to best advantage. Both handbooks signpost to further reading and resources. PMID:25355119

  6. Knowledge & Know-How. Meeting Ohio's Skill Gap Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Business Roundtable, Columbus.

    The Ohio Skill Gap Initiative was conducted to determine the following: (1) what foundational skills--and skill levels--do entry-level employees need to succeed in today's workplace and (2) whether the students graduating from Ohio's public schools possess the foundational skills that will permit them to acquire the knowledge and "know-how" needed…

  7. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  8. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  9. Acquired Skills Profiles for Environmental Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. J.; Grieve, T.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that developed software for the production of skills profiles for individual students as an appendix to the curriculum vitae submitted with employment applications. The software is specifically designed for students in modular degree programs in environmental education. (DDR)

  10. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar

  11. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  12. Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay

    The Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory is used to assess both existing and needed levels of knowledge and skills for consulting with school staff. The inventory is self-administered, and requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete. For each item, knowledge and skill are rated low, medium, or high; and need for improvement is rated none,…

  13. Identification et validation des savoir-faire et des connaissances acquises dans la vie et les experiences de travail. Rapport comparatif France/Royaume-Uni = Identification and Accreditation of Skills and Knowledge Acquired through Life and Work Experience. Comparative Report of Practice in France and the United Kingdom. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perker, Henriette; And Others

    In France and the United Kingdom (UK), procedures have been devised to allow the skills and knowledge acquired through life and work experience to be identified and accredited. In France, achievements from social and working life are identified in two ways: the personal and occupational competencies of workers are evaluated through a "bilan de…

  14. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  15. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  16. Domain-Specific Knowledge and Why Teaching Generic Skills Does Not Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricot, André; Sweller, John

    2014-01-01

    Domain-general cognitive knowledge has frequently been used to explain skill when domain-specific knowledge held in long-term memory may provide a better explanation. An emphasis on domain-general knowledge may be misplaced if domain-specific knowledge is the primary factor driving acquired intellectual skills. We trace the long history of…

  17. [Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].

    PubMed

    Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

    2013-08-01

    This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702

  18. A Comparison of Student Skill Knowledge Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Elizabeth; Nugent, Rebecca; Dean, Nema

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental goal of educational research is identifying students' current stage of skill mastery (complete/partial/none). In recent years a number of cognitive diagnosis models have become a popular means of estimating student skill knowledge. However, these models become difficult to estimate as the number of students, items, and skills grows.…

  19. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  20. Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

  1. Preschoolers acquire general knowledge by sharing in pretense.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar kind of animal). For instance, in one scenario, the nerp ate and disliked a carrot. When subsequently asked generic questions about real nerps, children's responses suggested that they had learned general facts (e.g., nerps dislike carrots). In Experiment 2, thirty-two 4- to 5-year-olds learned from scenarios lacking pretend speech or sound effects. The findings reveal a long overlooked means by which children can acquire generic knowledge. PMID:22416755

  2. The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

  3. Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

  4. The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio

    As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning

  5. Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, David S.

    This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

  6. Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

  7. Educational Assessment Knowledge and Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The 1990 Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (AFT, NCME, & NEA, 1990) made a documentable contribution to the field. However, the Standards have become a bit dated, most notably in two ways: (1) the Standards do not consider current conceptions of formative assessment knowledge and skills, and (2) the Standards…

  8. Impact of online training on delivering a difficult medical diagnosis: Acquiring communication skills.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Agnoletti, Marie-France

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with developing and assessing the training of physicians to deliver a difficult diagnosis to patients. The training is provided by a web-based self-training package. This online training emphasizes the structural, functional and relational dimensions of interviews delivering a serious diagnosis, and a logical set of recommendations for behavior towards the patient. The content is illustrated by numerous delivery interview sequences that are described and for which commentary is provided. This online package was expected to enable physicians to acquire new skills and change their mental picture of diagnosis delivery. Here we discuss the assessment of training in managing the delivery of a serious diagnosis. The approach taken and the methods used to measure knowledge and skills are presented. PMID:25959340

  9. Counselling on breastfeeding: assessing knowledge and skills.

    PubMed Central

    Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately after the course, as well as 3 months later. Immediately after the course the participants' knowledge of breastfeeding had increased significantly compared to controls. Both their clinical and counselling skills also improved significantly. When assessed 3 months later, the scores remained high with only a small decrease. The implementation of the course was also evaluated. The methods used were participatory observation, key interviews and focus group discussion. In the 33 sessions of the course, the average score was 8.43 out of 10. Scores were highest for content and methodology of the theory sessions, and lowest for "use of time", "clinical management of lactation", and "discussion of clinical practice". "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course" therefore effectively increases health workers' knowledge and their clinical and counselling skills for the support of breastfeeding. The course can be conducted adequately using the material and methodology proposed, but could be more satisfactory if the time allocated to exercises and clinical practice sessions were increased. PMID:10427934

  10. Apraxia impairs intentional retrieval of incidentally acquired motor knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R; Saliger, Jochen; Karbe, Hans; Koch, Iring; Weiss, Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Apraxia caused by left hemispheric stroke typically impairs skilled sequential movements. After stroke, apraxic patients need to reacquire motor skills by motor learning. The current study assessed for the first time incidental motor sequence learning in apraxic patients. Forty-eight human subjects (henceforth called "patients") with left hemispheric stroke affecting the middle cerebral artery territory (18 with apraxia and 30 without apraxia) and 17 age-matched healthy controls were tested on a visuomanual serial reaction time task. Subjects performed four blocks consisting of repetitions of a complex six element sequence containing ambiguous pairwise transitions before a new and unfamiliar sequence was introduced in block 5. Reaction time (RT) disadvantages in this fifth block indicated incidental sequence-specific motor learning. The intentional retrieval of the learned motor knowledge was assessed subsequently with a free recall task. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was performed to investigate for the first time the lesion correlates of deficits in learning and retrieving sequential motor knowledge. Despite generally prolonged RTs, apraxic patients showed sequence-specific motor learning as could be observed in nonapraxic patients and healthy controls. However, apraxic patients showed reduced intentional retrieval of the learned sequence. VLSM revealed that impaired intentional retrieval of motor sequence knowledge resulted from dorsal premotor cortex lesions. Apraxic patients showed a dissociation of preserved incidental motor (sequence) learning and deficient intentional retrieval of this incidentally learned motor knowledge. The data suggest that novel approaches for treating apraxia should focus on incidental motor learning, but that automatic rather than intentional retrieval strategies should be enforced. PMID:21632932

  11. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  12. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  13. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  14. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  15. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  16. Cognitive learning strategies: their effectiveness in acquiring racquetball skill.

    PubMed

    Tennant, L M

    2000-06-01

    Racquetball players were compared to assess whether a Self-directed strategy (self-monitoring), a Task-oriented strategy (attentional focusing), or a Combined use of both strategies would be beneficial in acquisition of racquetball skills. According to skill (Beginning, Advanced), players (N=80) were assigned into treatment groups. After treatment, participants executed diagonal lob serves and rallies for Acquisition and Retention phases (Session 1). During Session 2, subjects competed in a modified play setting (Transfer phase). Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed differences by skill during the basic tests favored Advanced players. During modified play, the Task-oriented group won significantly more points and games compared to the Self-directed and Control groups, regardless of skill. Results are discussed relative to skill and the literature on learning strategies. PMID:10883768

  17. How Do Primary School Students Acquire the Skill of Making Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darus, Faridah Binti; Saat, Rohaida Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Science education in Malaysia emphasizes three components: namely knowledge, scientific skills which include science process skills and manipulative skills; scientific attitudes; and noble values. The science process skills are important in enhancing students' cognitive development and also to facilitate students' active participation during the…

  18. Improving teaching skills: from interactive classroom to applicable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Predrag

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from more traditional to more interactive lecturing can be successfully achieved by applying numerous teaching techniques. To use lecture time in the most efficient way, a lecturer should first instruct students to acquire basic knowledge before coming to class. Various in-class activities then can be used to help students develop higher thinking skills and gain better understanding of the studied material. These in-class activities can take many forms (multiple-choice questions of various complexities, compare-and-contrast tasks, quantitative and problem-solving tasks, questions dealing with interpretations of tables, graphs, and charts, etc.) and should be designed to help student integrate their knowledge, to facilitate communication among students, and at the same time to allow the lecturer to closely monitor the learning process as it happens in the classroom. PMID:26847251

  19. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939

  20. Acquiring Skills: Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.

    This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'

  1. Acquiring Skills: Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.

    This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'…

  2. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes colloquium.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, James W; King, Lonnie J; Maccabe, Andrew T; Heider, Lawrence E

    2004-01-01

    Three projects recently funded by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) through the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) focused on the veterinary school applicant pool, leadership skills in the veterinary profession, and a veterinary teaching hospital business model, respectively. The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKAs) Colloquium was designed to present the results of these three projects, to discuss their importance for the future of the veterinary profession, and to develop action plans accordingly. In all, 24 veterinary colleges were represented at the workshop and a total of 72 attendees participated, achieving a broad representation of the veterinary profession ( both academic and non-academic). Through an orchestrated combination of general sessions and facilitated small group discussions, recommendations for implementation and initial action plans for next steps were developed. From these, a list of potential AAVMC follow-up activities was developed, including advocating and facilitating programs across schools to engage and educate faculty regarding the results of these projects; developing realistic information on careers in veterinary medicine; organizing an AAVMC leadership consortium; working toward further development and implementation of the veterinary teaching hospital (VTH) business model; coordinating and sponsoring a national forum on the future of the VTH; reviewing admissions processes; integrating leadership into veterinary curricula; and organizing opportunities for faculty development in leadership. PMID:15551244

  3. Long-Term Retention of Basic Mathematical Knowledge and Skills with Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, J.; Harding, A.; Preez, J. Du

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the long-term retention of basic mathematical techniques in a first-year calculus course, involving a sample group of engineering students at the University of Pretoria. The study investigates which and how much of the basic mathematical knowledge and rote skills acquired in the first year of study is retained after a further…

  4. Developing Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Teach Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Although many teacher educators have suggested multiple ways to prepare teacher candidates to teach for diversity, the knowledge, skills and dispositions are not easy to acquire. The purpose of this research is to investigate how an M.Ed licensure program prepared teacher candidates to teach with concern for equity and diversity. The…

  5. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of

  6. Autonomously acquiring declarative and procedural knowledge for ICAT systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems is critically dependent on the ability to define and encode knowledge. This knowledge engineering effort can be broadly divided into two categories: domain knowledge and expert or task knowledge. Domain knowledge refers to the physical environment or system with which the expert interacts. Expert knowledge consists of the set of procedures and heuristics employed by the expert in performing their task. Both these areas are a significant bottleneck in the acquisition of knowledge for ICAT systems. This paper presents a research project in the area of autonomous knowledge acquisition using a passive observation concept. The system observes an expert and then generalizes the observations into production rules representing the domain expert's knowledge.

  7. Developing Knowledge and Skills in Engineers: A Learning Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platts, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge and skill requirements for manufacturing system design and describes an innovative "learning laboratory" approach to educating graduate level manufacturing engineers. The laboratory provides a mechanism that gives engineers a wide range of knowledge and skills in design and implementation, much of which cannot be…

  8. Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

  9. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Tomas O; Kager, René W J

    2015-09-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabilistic phonotactics is potentially blocked for L2 acquisition. The facilitatory effects of L2 probabilistic phonotactics and categorical filtering effects of L1 phonotactics were compared and contrasted in a series of cross-modal priming experiments. Dutch native listeners and L1 Spanish and Japanese learners of Dutch had to perform a lexical decision task on Dutch words that started with /sC/ clusters that were of different degrees of probabilistic wellformedness in Dutch but illegal in Spanish and Japanese. Versions of target words with Spanish illegality resolving epenthesis in the clusters primed the Spanish group, showing an L1 filter; a similar effect was not found for the Japanese group. In addition, words with wellformed /sC/ clusters were recognised faster, showing a positive effect on processing of probabilistic wellformedness. However, Spanish learners with higher proficiency were facilitated to a greater extent by wellformed but epenthesised clusters, showing that although probabilistic learning occurs in spite of the L1 filter, the acquired probabilistic knowledge is still affected by L1 categorical knowledge. Categorical phonotactic and probabilistic knowledge are of a different nature and interact in acquisition. PMID:26529903

  10. Preserved memory in retrograde amnesia: sparing of a recently acquired skill.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Cohen, N J; Zouzounis, J A

    1984-01-01

    Recent work with amnesic patients has revealed a preserved capacity for acquiring and retaining new skills despite otherwise profound anterograde impairment. In addition to their anterograde impairment, amnesic patients also have retrograde memory loss for some information acquired prior to the amnesic event. The present experiment addresses for the first time the question of whether preservation of memory for skills is also a feature memory impairment. To determine the susceptibility of a recently learned skill to retrograde amnesia, we taught patients to read mirror-reversed words before and during the early part of a prescribed course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and then tested retention of the skill after the course of treatment had been completed. Patients prescribed bilateral or right unilateral ECT and depressed patients not receiving ECT acquired the mirror-reading skill at the same rate and then retained it at the same level. For the patients prescribed ECT, intact learning and retention of the skill occurred despite retrograde amnesia for the previous testing sessions and for the words that they had read previously. PMID:6728178

  11. Increasing Aspiring Principals' Readiness to Serve: Knowledge and Skill Application Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiseman, Jeffrey W.; Militello, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Most leadership programs emphasize knowledge over skills, being skillful over how to be skillful, knowledge about skills over skill application, and ad hoc and hard-to-assess field activities over focused and observable skill practice. "Knowledge and skill application laboratories" provide opportunities to experiment with--and receive…

  12. Machine Methods for Acquiring, Learning, and Applying Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    A research plan for identifying and acting upon constraints that impede the development of knowledge-based intelligent systems is described. The two primary problems identified are knowledge programming, the task of which is to create an intelligent system that does what an expert says it should, and learning, the problem requiring the criticizing…

  13. Preschoolers Use Questions as a Tool to Acquire Knowledge from Different Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Cristine H.; Bills, Megan; Mejias, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    How do children use questions as tools to acquire new knowledge? The current experiment examined preschool children's ability to direct questions to appropriate sources to acquire knowledge. Fifty preschoolers engaged in a task that entailed asking questions to discover which special key would open a box that contained a prize. Children solved…

  14. A Case Study of the Mathematical Learning of Two Teachers Acquiring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers an analysis of the learning of practicing teachers as they acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics. While some professional developers have shifted part of their focus to helping practicing teachers acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics (e.g., Stein & Silver, 1996), the results from studies often describe what translates…

  15. Can Student Teachers Acquire Core Skills for Teaching from Part-Time Employment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…

  16. Do Learning Skills Acquired in the University Access Programme Enhance Participation in Academic Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlalele, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I critically evaluate whether or not learning skills acquired in the university access programme enhance participation in academic practice. University access programmes have been developed with a view to preparing and empowering under-prepared students who did not meet the university criteria. The article claims that even though…

  17. Acquiring Writing Revision and Self-Regulatory Skill through Observation and Emulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2002-01-01

    Studies the influences of modeling and social feedback on the acquisition of writing revision with 72 college students. Social feedback during enactive performance assisted learners from all modeling groups in acquiring writing and self-regulatory skills. (Contains 25 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  18. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  19. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  20. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  1. Analysis of Essential Skills and Knowledge for Teaching Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ling; Hirumi, Atsusi

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and posits guidelines for assessing the skills and knowledge of online distance ducators. Findings derived from Cooper?s (1998) synthesis research method reveal sixteen skills that may be grouped into six areas that are thought to be essential for educators to teach successfully online. The study also shows that factors, like…

  2. The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

    2012-09-01

    Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PMID:22390659

  3. Comprehension Deficits from Inability to Shift Schemata: Interference of Existing Knowledge on Acquiring New Knowledge from Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Charles K.

    A specific skill necessary to expand vocabulary is that of acquiring additional meanings for words that have common, already known meanings. A study was conducted to determine if presenting subjects with the known meaning of a word before requiring them to learn a new meaning for it would result in a learning detriment. The study used homonyms…

  4. On Accuracy of Knowledge Acquisition for Decision Making Processes Acquiring Subjective Information on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Yutaka

    This paper presents a mathematical model for decision making processes where the knowledge for the decision is constructed automatically from subjective information on the Internet. This mathematical model enables us to know the required degree of accuracy of knowledge acquisition for constructing decision support systems using two technologies: automated knowledge acquisition from information on the Internet and automated reasoning about the acquired knowledge. The model consists of three elements: knowledge source, which is a set of subjective information on the Internet, knowledge acquisition, which acquires knowledge base within a computer from the knowledge source, and decision rule, which chooses a set of alternatives by using the knowledge base. One of the important features of this model is that the model contains not only decision making processes but also knowledge acquisition processes. This feature enables to analyze the decision processes with the sufficiency of knowledge sources and the accuracy of knowledge acquisition methods. Based on the model, decision processes by which the knowledge source and the knowledge base lead to the same choices are given and the required degree of accuracy of knowledge acquisition is quantified as required accuracy value. In order to show the way to utilize the value for designing the decision support systems, the value is calculated by using some examples of knowledge sources and decision rules. This paper also describes the computational complexity of the required accuracy value calculation and shows a computation principle for reducing the complexity to the polynomial order of the size of knowledge sources.

  5. ISS Update: Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) - Duration: 11 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan talks to Brion Au, Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) Payload Developer, about the EarthKAM investigation being performed aboard the Inter...

  6. Prospective Secondary Science Teachers' Argumentation Skills and the Interaction of These Skills with Their Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Patton, Bruce R.; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if prospective secondary science teachers enhance their argumentation skills and the interaction of the change in their argumentation skills with their conceptual knowledge during an argumentation-based guided inquiry course. 37 prospective secondary science teachers constituted the study sample. They were grouped according…

  7. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5) Offspring can learn foraging skills from their mothers (matrilineal social learning). (6) Food abundance is limited, such that average individual energy reserves are low Additionally, the following factors increase the likelihood of alternative specializations co-occurring in a predator population: (1) The predator exerts effective top-down control of prey abundance, resulting in frequency-dependent dynamics. (2) There is stochastic Variation in prey population dynamics, but this Variation is neither too extreme in magnitude nor too 'slow' with respect to the time required for an individual forager to learn new foraging skills. For a given predator population, we deduce that the degree of specialization will be highest for those prey types requiring complex capture or handling skills, while prey species that are both profitable and easy to capture and handle will be included in the diet of all individuals. Frequency-dependent benefits of selecting alternative prey types, combined with the ability of foragers to improve their foraging skills by learning, and transmit learned skills to offspring, can result in behaviourally mediated foraging specialization, and also lead to the co-existence of alternative specializations. The extent of such specialization is predicted to be a variable trait, increasing in locations or years when intra-specific competition is high relative to inter-specific competition. ?? 2009 M. Tim Tinker.

  8. Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

  9. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  10. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  11. English in Hong Kong: Word Knowledge Skills of Science Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    Examines the English language standard of a group of Hong Kong science undergraduates using the ACER Word Knowledge Test Form F. Results show a significant difference in apparent English skill levels between Hong Kong, American, and Australian students.(Author/VWL)

  12. The Effects of Argument Stance on Scientific Knowledge Inquiry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Ruey-Yun; Lu, Po-Hui; Chen, Pei-Hua; Hou, Shih-Huan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down…

  13. Knowledge and Skills Transfer between MBA and Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Melvin; Burns, David; Lu, Xinyi; Winsor, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in…

  14. Assessing Job Knowledge and Generally Useful Skills of Young Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmann, J. Stanley

    1977-01-01

    Discusses data collection and presents data analysis of NAEP's (National Assessment of Educational Progress) career and occupational development (COD) assessment, designed to determine how knowledgeable young Americans are about the work of the world and how well developed their basic skills (needed to obtain almost any job) are. (SH) Aspect of…

  15. Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

  16. Pregnancy, Birth, Infant and Child Care: Midwifery Skill and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This presentation, which is based in part on a cross-cultural survey of East Africans and also on research conducted in Ethiopia, highlights the importance of traditional knowledge of midwifery. Examples of traditional skills in pregancy and birth care, and of child care and child rearing in several East African countries, are offered. It is…

  17. Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

  18. The Developing English Skills and Knowledge (DESK) Program Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohloff, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the DESK (Developing English Skills and Knowledge) Program at Louisiana State University (LSU) is to help deaf and hard of hearing students make a smooth transition from high school to postsecondary institutions and, in doing so, to ensure their academic and professional success. This handbook documents, in a "how-to" format, Dr.…

  19. Knowledge and Skills Transfer between MBA and Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Melvin; Burns, David; Lu, Xinyi; Winsor, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in

  20. The Developing English Skills and Knowledge (DESK) Program Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohloff, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the DESK (Developing English Skills and Knowledge) Program at Louisiana State University (LSU) is to help deaf and hard of hearing students make a smooth transition from high school to postsecondary institutions and, in doing so, to ensure their academic and professional success. This handbook documents, in a "how-to" format, Dr.

  1. Developing Curriculum: Knowledge and Skills Essential for an International Salesforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    A study explored the additional knowledge and skills an international salesforce needs based upon 95 respondents from Wisconsin manufacturing companies. Six areas were evaluated by sales representatives involved with international sales and marketing to identify the education and training needed within the next 3 years by the work force. Four…

  2. Improving Teaching Skills: From Interactive Classroom to Applicable Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Making the transition from more traditional to more interactive lecturing can be successfully achieved by applying numerous teaching techniques. To use lecture time in the most efficient way, a lecturer should first instruct students to acquire basic knowledge before coming to class. Various in-class activities then can be used to help students…

  3. Counteracting skill decay: four refresher interventions and their effect on skill and knowledge retention in a simulated process control task.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Annette; Frank, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In process automation, skill decay has not been investigated systematically. In two experimental studies, refresher interventions (RIs) were compared to support skill and knowledge retention of a start-up procedure on a simulated process control task. Based on theories of proceduralisation, the 'testing-effect' and mental practice, four different RIs were designed. In Study 1 (N = 68), two experimental groups (EGs) received either an RI called 'Practice' or an RI called 'Skill Demonstration'. Both RIs support skill retention, but the Skill Demonstration-RI performed with a higher mental workload. In Study 2 (N = 68), two EGs received an RI called 'Symbolic Rehearsal' or an RI called 'Procedural Knowledge Test', and aimed at supporting knowledge retention. Both EGs supported knowledge retention but showed moderate skill decay. Results imply that RIs affect skill and knowledge retention differently and should be applied in accordance with the task requirements and their dependence on accurate skill or knowledge maintenance. PMID:24382262

  4. Fostering Historical Knowledge and Thinking Skills Using Hypermedia Learning Environments: The Role of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Robertson, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined how high-school students utilized a hypermedia learning environment (HLE) to acquire declarative knowledge of a historical topic, as well as historical thinking skills. In particular, we were interested in whether self-regulated learning (SRL; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000) processing was related to the…

  5. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses. PMID:22852577

  6. Skills for caring: valuing knowledge of applied science in nursing.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, David

    The purpose of this article is to consider the implications of over-emphasizing the role of the nurse in terms of interpersonal relationships and emotional engagement. It seeks to explain why nurses are frequently more comfortable with the relational aspects of their work and less comfortable with their many tangible contributions. It examines why nurses often undervalue their considerable knowledge of applied science. It also evaluates why a change in attitude is necessary, and why nurses should enhance and give more prominence to their technical knowledge and skills. Finally, it includes a brief examination of current trends in nurse recruitment and retention, and their implications for the future of the profession in respect of the balance between interpersonal and technical skills. PMID:18414295

  7. Development of a Research Ethics Knowledge and Analytical Skills Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Holly A.; Kass, Nancy E.; Ali, Joseph; Sisson, Stephen; Bertram, Amanda; Bhan, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this of this project was to develop and validate a new tool to evaluate learners’ knowledge and skills related to research ethics. Methods A core set of 50 questions from existing computer based on-line teaching modules were identified, refined and supplemented to create a set of 74 multiple-choice, true/false and short answer questions. The questions were pilot tested and item discrimination (ID) calculated for each question. Poorly performing items were eliminated or refined. Two comparable assessments were created. These assessments were administered as a pre-test and post-test to a cohort of 58 Indian junior investigators before and after exposure to a new course on research ethics. Half of the investigators were exposed to the course on-line, the other half in person. Item discrimination (ID) was calculated for each question and Cronbach’s Alpha for each assessment. A final version of the assessment that incorporated the best questions from the pre-/post-test phase was used to assess retention of research ethics knowledge and skills three months after course delivery. Results The final version of the REKASA includes 41 items. The final version of the REKASA had a Cronbach’s alpha of .837. Conclusion The results illustrate, in one sample of learners, the successful, systematic development and use of a knowledge and skills assessment in research ethics capable of reliably assessing the application of important analytic and reasoning skills, without reliance on essay or discussion-based examination. PMID:22052994

  8. Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim The main objective of this study was to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine among the health professionals working in the teaching hospitals of Puducherry Region of India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among various healthcare professionals using a proper sampling frame obtained from a list of teaching hospitals located in Puducherry Union Territory, India. A total of 120 teaching faculties and practitioners from the preclinical, para-clinical and clinical departments were taken up for the study. A pre-validated self-administered questionnaire was used for the survey to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and skills of telemedicine. The questionnaires were mailed to the respondents and the completed questionnaires were analysed as per the study objectives using descriptive statistics for the quantitative data and content analysis for the qualitative data. Results The knowledge level of the respondents was found to be good with 41% of the respondents, 35% possess fair knowledge and 24% don’t have adequate knowledge of telemedicine. With regard to the attitude towards telemedicine 39% of the respondents possess high attitude, 31% possess moderate attitude and 30% possess low level of attitude. Investigations on the skills of the respondents on telemedicine showed that 19% respondents are highly skilled or experts, 25% are moderately skilled which includes learners or beginners, and 56% are unskilled in handling telemedicine and its related equipments. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that although the respondents experience and knowledge are limited in telemedicine technology a fair number of them have positive attitude towards telemedicine. It is the need of the hour to educate and train the teaching faculty, practicing physicians, residents, medical students and other health professionals about telemedicine and issues related to its use. PMID:27134899

  9. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  10. An old problem: how can we distinguish between conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired in an implicit learning task?

    PubMed

    Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Lange, Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    A long lasting debate in the field of implicit learning is whether participants can learn without acquiring conscious knowledge. One crucial problem is that no clear criterion exists allowing to identify participants who possess explicit knowledge. Here, we propose a method to diagnose during a serial reaction time task those participants who acquire conscious knowledge. We first validated this method by using Stroop-like material during training. Then we assessed participants' knowledge with the Inclusion/Exclusion task (Experiment 1) and the wagering task (Experiment 2). Both experiments confirmed that for participants diagnosed as having acquired conscious knowledge about the underlying sequence the Stroop congruency effect disappeared, whereas for participants not diagnosed as possessing conscious knowledge it only slightly decreased. In addition, both experiments revealed that only participants diagnosed as conscious were able to strategically use their acquired knowledge. Thus, our method allows to reliably distinguish between participants with and without conscious knowledge. PMID:21106394

  11. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  12. 20 CFR 702.419 - Action by employer upon acquiring knowledge or being given notice of injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or being given notice of injury. 702.419 Section 702.419 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... acquiring knowledge or being given notice of injury. Whenever an employer acquires knowledge of an employee's injury, through receipt of a written notice or otherwise, said employer shall forthwith...

  13. Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grèzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P

    2005-08-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation. PMID:15616133

  14. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  15. Naming Speed, Letter-Sound Automaticity, and Acquiring Blending Skills among Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MoID) typically are not taught decoding skills because they have difficulty mastering critical blending skills. In response to this skill deficit among students with MoID, an "Initial Phonics" instructional sequence was created that included student development of rapid and automatic retrieval of…

  16. Examining the Impact of Pedagogy on Student Application of Learning: Acquiring, Sharing, and Using Knowledge for Organizational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Williams, Jacqueline; Smith-Gratto, Karen; Black, Sylvia Sloan; Kane, Betty Turner

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix to Subpart G of... - Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines... REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills Pt. 383, Subpt. G, App. Appendix to Subpart G of Part 383—Required Knowledge and Skills—Sample...

  18. Surveying knowledge and skills in the health sciences: results and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Roper, F W; Mayfield, M K

    1993-01-01

    The MLA Knowledge and Skills Task Force was appointed in May 1989. The task force decided to survey a sample of the membership to define the knowledge and skills required for competent professional performance and to enable MLA to establish educational policies which would ensure acquisition and maintenance of the necessary knowledge and skills throughout a professional career. This report presents the initial findings of the survey, upon which MLA's educational policy statement, Platform for Change, is based. PMID:8251975

  19. An Assessment of Workplace Skills Acquired by Students of Vocational and Technical Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah; Hamzah, Ramlah

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the employability skills of technical students from the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Indigenous People's Trust Council (MARA) Skills Training Institutes (IKM) in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 850 final year trainees of IKM and ITI. The sample was chosen by a random sampling procedure from…

  20. The Use of ICT to Support the Development of Practical Music Skills through Acquiring Keyboard Skills: A Classroom Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Liz M. Y.; Jones, Ann C.; Scanlon, Eileen; Joiner, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in music classrooms, with the focus on the secondary school music curriculum in the United Kingdom. In particular, it reports on a study of learners in a UK school using software designed to support practical music skills. The paper begins by briefly raising and…

  1. The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

  2. Employability Skills: Perspectives from a Knowledge-Intensive Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Chris; Hine, Damian; du Plessis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While the global education debate remains focused on graduate skills and employability, the absence of a shared language between student, academic and industry stakeholder groups means that defining industry skills requirements is both essential and difficult. The purpose of this paper is to assess graduate skills requirements in a

  3. Employability Skills: Perspectives from a Knowledge-Intensive Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Chris; Hine, Damian; du Plessis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While the global education debate remains focused on graduate skills and employability, the absence of a shared language between student, academic and industry stakeholder groups means that defining industry skills requirements is both essential and difficult. The purpose of this paper is to assess graduate skills requirements in a…

  4. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and... SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills and... and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The DOE contractor...

  5. An Activity-Based Study on Providing Basic Knowledge and Skills of Measurement in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maral, Sahide; Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    Even though one of the prerequisites of inquiry-based science classes is acquiring measuring skills, there is not enough emphasis in the schools today on developing these skills. The current study, which has been designed with the thought that this situation may be caused by the fact that teachers do not have a sufficient level of measurement…

  6. Just Pretending Can Be Really Learning: Children Use Pretend Play as a Source for Acquiring Generic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2013-01-01

    Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios

  7. Just Pretending Can Be Really Learning: Children Use Pretend Play as a Source for Acquiring Generic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2013-01-01

    Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios…

  8. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.

  9. The Purpose of the PhD: Theorising the Skills Acquired by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside the PhD

  10. The Purpose of the PhD: Theorising the Skills Acquired by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside the PhD…

  11. Recognition of Tacit Skills and Knowledge: Sustaining Learning Outcomes in Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Kersh, Natasha

    2004-01-01

    The part played by tacit skills and knowledge in work performance is well recognised but not well understood. These implicit or hidden dimensions of knowledge and skill are key elements of "mastery," which experienced workers draw upon in everyday activities and continuously expand in tackling new or unexpected situations. This paper, based on the…

  12. Needed Functions, Knowledge, and Skills for Hospital Education Directors in the 1980's: A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H.; Eldredge, Stephen

    A study indentified and ranked the 10 highest rated functions, 10 highest rated areas of knowledge, and 9 highest rated skills needed by hospital education directors in the 1980's. In addition, designers of the study sought to determine the learning approaches that are most appropriate in obtaining the identified knowledge and skills. Using a…

  13. Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

  14. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  15. Comparing Multicultural with General Counseling Knowledge and Skill Competency for Students Who Completed Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Jennifer T.; Schaefle, Scott E.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; LeBeauf, Ireon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a counselor education program in teaching multicultural counseling knowledge and skills. Standardized examination scores and rater evaluations compare multicultural with general counseling knowledge and skill competency for students who completed a counseling master's program. The relationship between…

  16. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational

  17. The Effects of Peer Coaching on the Evaluation Knowledge, Skills, and Concerns of Gifted Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…

  18. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  19. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  20. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1046 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL... effective and efficient manner, the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform assigned tasks....

  1. Computational Skills, Working Memory, and Conceptual Knowledge in Older Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Donald J.; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor…

  2. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  3. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and

  4. Enhancing Teacher Quality through Knowledge- and Skills-Based Pay. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan; Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert; Milanowski, Anthony

    This report describes knowledge- and skills-based pay systems. It recommends ways that state and district policymakers can strengthen a district's capacity for knowledge- and skills-based pay and describes how these types of pay systems differ from existing compensation schemes that try to address the problem of teaching's flat career structure.…

  5. Effective Student Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom: Knowledge + Skills + Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Todd; Swanson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Effective Student Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom: Knowledge + Skills + Attributes" is to more clearly articulate the student assessment knowledge, skills and attributes expected under the Teaching Quality Standard Ministerial Order of applicants for Alberta interim professional teacher certification. The document aims

  6. Comparing Multicultural with General Counseling Knowledge and Skill Competency for Students Who Completed Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Jennifer T.; Schaefle, Scott E.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; LeBeauf, Ireon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a counselor education program in teaching multicultural counseling knowledge and skills. Standardized examination scores and rater evaluations compare multicultural with general counseling knowledge and skill competency for students who completed a counseling master's program. The relationship between

  7. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In

  8. Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: Important Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…

  9. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among students in university residences.

    PubMed

    Friedland, R H; Jankelowitz, S K; de Beer, M; de Klerk, C; Khoury, V; Csizmadia, T; Padayachee, G N; Levy, S

    1991-02-01

    Using an anonymous questionnaire to obtain baseline data on sexual behaviour and knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among students in university residences, the following information was obtained: Knowledge of AIDS was found to be high, although misconceptions regarding transmission of the virus were prevalent. Mosquito bites (15%) and the donating of blood (31%) were incorrectly identified as methods of transmission of the virus. Deep kissing was recognised by only 27% of the students as a possible method of transmission while 22% and 13% of the students, respectively, failed to identify the sharing of razor blades and blood transfusions as possible means of contracting HIV infection. The students' knowledge had not greatly affected sexual behaviour. Two-thirds of the respondents had previously had sexual contact; 38% were sexually active at the time of the study, and of these 74% had engaged in unprotected intercourse with casual partners in the previous 6 months. There was a negative attitude towards condom use and over 80% of sexually active students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of contracting AIDS. Campus Health (82%), State health services (51%), and public advertisements (60%) were preferred sources of AIDS information. Newspapers/magazines (80%) and leaflets (69%) were identified as the preferred media. In reality, significantly fewer students obtained their information from Campus Health (15%; P less than 0.05), State health services (19%, P less than 0.05) and leaflets (44%; P less than 0.05). It can be concluded that education programmes should be developed by credible organisations to ensure that an awareness of AIDS results in appropriate sexual behaviour. PMID:1994485

  10. Knowledge and Behavioural Factors Associated with Gender Gap in Acquiring HIV Among Youth in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001). Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%), had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2%) and did not use condom during last sex (6.4%) were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3%) than men (2.2%). Significantly (P<0.01) less percentage (81.3%) of women as compared to men (83.8%) perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public health The present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women’s legal protection, and rising women’s access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS. PMID:26425492

  11. The Relationship between Linguistic Skills and Arithmetic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2013-01-01

    Although language is implicated in children's mathematical development, few studies have focused specifically on how different linguistic skills relate to children's mathematical performance. Building on the model proposed by LeFevre et al. (2010), this study examined how general verbal ability and phonological skills were differentially related…

  12. Assisting critical care nurses in acquiring leadership skills: development of a leadership and management competency checklist.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses need to be more effective leaders and managers in healthcare. Delivering quality and cost-effective patient outcomes have become goals of all nurses. To achieve these goals, nurses must practice and attain leadership ability. This article describes a program to help nurses gain quality leadership skills. PMID:17312408

  13. Unravelling the Lifelong Learning Process for Canadian Workers and Adult Learners Acquiring Higher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…

  14. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  15. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team

  16. Education through Fiction: Acquiring Opinion-Forming Skills in the Context of Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…

  17. Failure to Acquire New Semantic Knowledge in Patients With Large Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Peter J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined new semantic learning in two profoundly amnesic patients (E.P. and G.P.) whose lesions involve virtually the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL) bilaterally. The patients were given five tests of semantic knowledge for information that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia in 1992 and 1987, respectively. Age-matched and education-matched controls (n = 8) were also tested. On tests of recall, E.P. and G.P. each scored 10% correct on a test of 20 easy factual questions (controls = 90%), 2% and 4% correct on 55 questions about news events (controls = 85%), and 0% and 4% correct on a test of 24 famous faces. On three tests of recognition memory for this same material, the patients scored at chance levels. Similarly, the patients were unable to judge whether persons who had been famous for many decades were still living or had died during the past 10 years (E.P. = 53%; G.P. = 50%; controls = 73%; chance = 50%). Lastly, neither patient E.P. nor patient G.P. could draw an accurate floor plan of his current residence, despite having lived there for 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The results demonstrate that the capacity for new semantic learning can be absent, or nearly absent, when there is virtually complete damage to the MTL bilaterally. Accordingly, the results raise the possibility that the acquisition of conscious (declarative) knowledge about the world cannot be supported by structures outside the MTL, even with extended exposure. PMID:15523609

  18. Oral Skills and Knowledge of Languages: A Resource in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    Ethiopia is a country with an old and rich oral tradition. The older generation is more knowledgeable than the younger in oral literature, and there is a need to document such knowledge before it is lost. Traditional health knowledge has come into focus as self-care for ailments has become more prevalent. Indigenous knowledge and its transmission…

  19. A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

    We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

  20. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert

  1. Developmental Trends and Interrelationships among Preprimary Children's Knowledge of Writing and Reading Readiness Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Kay W.

    Forty-eight children, equally divided among three-, four-, and five-year-old groups, were subjects in a study that explored the development and interrelationships among several facets of writing knowledge and reading readiness skills. Three categories of tasks were administered: knowledge of functions, knowledge of forms, and reading readiness…

  2. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

  3. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  4. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Caldern, Antonio; Arias-Estero, Jos Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game

  5. The Effects of Two Instructional Models--Tactical and Skill Teaching--On Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…

  6. Going Beyond Classroom Learning: Acquiring Cultural Knowledge via On-Line Newspapers and Intercultural Exchanges via On-Line Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    1998-01-01

    Reports a pilot study on the use of two Internet technologies (online newspapers and online chat rooms) to enhance college-level advanced Spanish students' learning, improve their language and reading skills, and increase their cultural knowledge. Pre- and post-program student surveys indicated that the program successfully enhanced students'…

  7. Assessment of Knowledge and Competences in Agricultural Engineering Acquired by the Senior Secondary School Students for Farm Mechanisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, Joseph; Ogba, Ernest; Egbe, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the agricultural engineering knowledge and competencies acquired by the senior secondary students for farm mechanization in technical colleges in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the…

  8. The Relationship of Sexual Responsibility to Knowledge of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas; Bormann, Lynda

    Because there is no cure or vaccine for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), many authorities have recommended education as the primary means for controlling the spread of the disease. However, knowledge about AIDS represents a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for reduction of risky behavior. Although hetereosexual high school and

  9. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  10. A Tentative Framework of General Work Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes for Secondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuga, Karen F.; Lindstrom, Michael R.

    A study was conducted in Minnesota to identify generic knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) that are germane to all of the fields of vocational education--that all students will need for future roles in the family and work force. The research consisted of a review of the literature pertaining to generic skills needed for work and a validation…

  11. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... use of deadly force and limited arrest authority as set forth in 10 CFR part 1047; 7. Proficiency in... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and Qualification for Security Skills and... B of Part 1046—Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge A. Applicability....

  12. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  13. Using Assessment to Improve Early Elementary Students' Knowledge and Skills for Comprehending Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Sara E.; Duke, Nell K.; Billman, Alison K.; Betts, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although assessment of student progress in word reading skills is common, students' knowledge and skills for comprehending informational text are rarely assessed. Despite research indicating the need for instruction in this area and a growing national understanding of its importance that is reflected in the Common Core State Standards, few

  14. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge. 1046.15 Section 1046.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills...

  15. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge. 1046.15 Section 1046.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills...

  16. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge. 1046.15 Section 1046.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills...

  17. The Development of Reading Comprehension in FL Teaching--Combining Knowledge and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutjeharms, Madeline

    Techniques and approaches useful for developing reading comprehension and reading skills in second language learners are discussed and illustrated with examples from German. Literature is reviewed on: the effectiveness of reading while listening, transfer of skills and knowledge from one language to another, the role of guessing in reading…

  18. Helping Preservice Teachers with Inaccurate and Fragmentary Prior Knowledge to Acquire Conceptual Understanding of Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohst, Andrea; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research on learning has brought forth many insights that are relevant for teachers (for example, knowledge about learning strategies). However, teachers sometimes have intuitive fragmentary knowledge that is partly incorrect. Such knowledge hinders the acquisition of psychological knowledge. Tried-and-tested interventions dealing…

  19. Soft Skills: An Important Asset Acquired from Organizing Regional Student Group Activities

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  20. Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

  1. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  2. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Loveall, Susan J; Conners, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed that individuals with DS performed similarly to controls on 2 measures of orthographic knowledge, but more poorly on phonological recoding and a third measure of orthographic knowledge. The first two orthographic tasks included real words as stimuli; the third task used letter patterns, not real words. These results suggest that individuals with DS may have a relative strength in word-specific orthographic knowledge but not in general orthographic knowledge. PMID:26914465

  3. Evidence based library and information practice in Australia: defining skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Suzanne

    2011-06-01

    This guest feature from Suzanne Lewis, a long-time advocate of evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP) in Australia, discusses a current trend within the movement that focuses on the skills, knowledge and competencies of health librarians. In particular, the feature describes three specific Australia-based research projects, on expert searching, indigenous health and future skills requirements for the health library workforce respectively, that exemplify this trend. These projects illustrate how the evidence base can be strengthened around the skills and knowledge required to deliver services that continue to meet the changing needs of health library and information users. PMID:21564500

  4. Parenting predictors of cognitive skills and emotion knowledge in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1 year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1 year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  5. Parenting Predictors of Cognitive Skills and Emotion Knowledge in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. One year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge one year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  6. Writing a bachelor thesis generates transferable knowledge and skills useable in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Solveig M; Robertsson, Barbro

    2013-11-01

    Generic skills or transferable skills have been discussed in terms of whether or not skills learned in one context can be transferred into another context. The current study was aimed to explore nurses' self-perceptions of the knowledge and skills they had obtained while writing a Bachelor's thesis in nursing education, their experience of the extent of transfer and utilization in their current work. Responding nurses (N=42) had all worked from 1 to 1.5 years after their final examination and had completed a questionnaire that was structured with open-ended questions. Only five nurses reported that they were unable to use any of the knowledge and skills they had obtained from writing a thesis. A majority of the nurses (37/42) could give many examples of the practical application of the skills and knowledge they had obtained. Our findings indicate that writing a thesis as part of an undergraduate degree program plays a major role in the acquisition and development of knowledge and skills which can subsequently be transferred into and utilized in nursing practice. PMID:23141688

  7. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to

  8. Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Kabba E.

    2006-01-01

    This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

  9. Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Kabba E.

    2006-01-01

    This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of

  10. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of

  11. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  12. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  13. Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…

  14. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and

  15. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  16. Adolescent Mothers' Self-Esteem and Role Identity and Their Relationship to Parenting Skills Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…

  17. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.119 Section 65.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and...

  18. Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Rsnen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N=1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in

  19. How Does Knowledge Promote Memory? The Distinctiveness Theory of Skilled Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Van Overschelde, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but…

  20. Integrating Problem-Based Learning with ICT for Developing Trainee Teachers' Content Knowledge and Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Mehdi; Karami, Zohreh; Attaran, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Professional teachers can guarantee the progress and the promotion of society because fostering the development of next generation is up to them and depends on their professional knowledge which has two kinds of sources: content knowledge and teaching skill. The aim of the present research was studying the effect of integrating problem-based…

  1. Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It

  2. Understanding physicians' professional knowledge and practice in research on skilled migration.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Anja

    2016-08-01

    Research on the integration of migrant professionals into high-skilled labor markets either focuses on differences between nation states which may be exacerbated by national closure or it celebrates the global versatility of professional knowledge, especially in the natural and health sciences. Building on a pragmatist approach to professional knowledge, the article argues that professional knowledge should not be seen as either universal or local, but both the institutionalized and the incorporated aspects of cultural capital are characterized by 'local universality'. Professionals recreate professional knowledge in specific 'local' situations by relating to universal standards and to internalized 'libraries' of situated expert experience. While the more common notion of knowledge as a socially contested resource continues to be relevant for research on skilled migration, professional knowledge should also be seen as emerging in situations in response to socio-material problems. These problems can be structured by the nation-state, but they can also be transnational in nature. PMID:26158400

  3. Creativity: A Knowledge Base, Metacognitive Skills, and Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.

    1995-01-01

    This review of the literature examines three aspects of creative thinking and production: (1) metacognitive processing; (2) the knowledge base; and (3) personality variables. It is concluded that all three are essential elements, they operate interactively, and the results of creative thinking and problem solving are best assessed through…

  4. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…

  5. Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a physics by inquiry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Omer

    Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and rebuttal evidence and justification scores developed during the course. It was also found that improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal evidence scores was content independent whereas improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal justification scores was content dependent. The results showed that prospective science teacher conceptual physics knowledge was improved from the beginning to the end of the instruction. More specifically, their declarative and situational knowledge scores increased from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that prospective science teacher argumentation scores can be related to physics conceptual knowledge pretest and posttest scores. In addition, it was found that argumentation gain scores were not related to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level. According to these findings, implications regarding prospective science teacher education and explicit teaching about argumentation were discussed.

  6. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  7. Relationship between the users' contact time in educational programs on diabetes mellitus and self-care skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Maia, Mariana Almeida; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Check the relationship between the users' contact time in educational programs and self-care and knowledge variables in diabetes mellitus. METHOD A longitudinal study with a quantitative approach with the participation, in the initial phase, of 263 users linked to Basic Health Units in Belo Horizonte, Brazil during the years 2012 and 2013. The data were collected with respect to the total contact time of the users' participation in the educational program as regards knowledge and self-care in acquired diabetes mellitus. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for comparison of means, considering a 0.05 significance level. RESULTS The final sample included 151 users. The analysis showed that the improvement in self-care scores was statistically higher during an educational intervention of eight hours or more (p-value <0.05). In relation to the scores for knowledge, there was a statistically significant improvement at the end of the educational program. It was not possible to identify a value for the contact time from which there was an increase in mean scores for the ability of knowledge. CONCLUSION To improve the effectiveness of the promotion of skills related to knowledge and self-care in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to consider the contact time as a relevant factor of the educational program. PMID:27007421

  8. Developing a tool for assessing scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, B. V.; Baram-Tsabari, A.

    2011-12-01

    Although much effort is being invested in science communication training, the efforts are rarely accompanied by systematic evaluation of learning outcomes; existing evaluations are mainly anecdotal, or specific to a particular program. Standardized assessments will allow comparisons across programs and identification of best practices. This presentation describes the development and piloting of a tool for measuring scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication. The instrument collects four types of data: (1) background information, (2) communication skills, (3) views about science communication, and (4) knowledge about the context of science communication. In the specific area of communication skills, a rationale is proposed for establishing learning goals in seven areas: content, knowledge organization, clarity and language, style, analogy, narrative, and dialogue. The resulting instrument may be used as a baseline survey or as a tool for pre-post evaluation of the learning outcomes of a wide range of science communication training programs and courses.

  9. Just pretending can be really learning: children use pretend play as a source for acquiring generic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori

    2013-09-01

    Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios about an animal and were then asked questions about real animals. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds treated the pretend scenarios as informative about the kind of animal represented in the pretense but as uninformative about another kind of animal. In Experiments 2 and 3, 4- and 5-year-olds resisted learning from scenarios that contradicted their existing knowledge and expectations. Together, these findings show that children's learning from pretense shows specificity for the kinds represented in pretense and that children's learning from pretense is selective. PMID:23148938

  10. The influence of intentional and incidental learning on acquiring spatial knowledge during navigation.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Marieke; Fritschy, Eva; Postma, Albert

    2006-03-01

    In order to study the influence of intentional and incidental learning conditions on route learning, young adults walked a route through a university building. Half of the participants focused their attention on the route (intentional learning condition), while the other half did not (incidental learning condition). Five tests of spatial knowledge were employed: a route-length-estimation, landmark recognition, landmark ordering, map-drawing and navigation task. The intentional group performed better than the incidental group on the map-drawing and navigation task. No difference between the intentional and incidental group was found on the landmark-recognition and landmark-ordering task. Moreover, the intentional group overestimated the walking distance, while the incidental group underestimated it. These results suggest that route knowledge (landmark recognition and landmark ordering) requires less effortful processing than survey knowledge (developing a map-like representation and actual navigation). PMID:15844006

  11. Training Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates with Knowledge and Skills on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Joan M.; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Design. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students’ preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Assessment. Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. Conclusion. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling. PMID:26246620

  12. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  13. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  14. University and Elementary School Perspectives of Ideal Elementary Science Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewart, Bethany Bianca

    Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the teaching of science is valued; the best approach to science teaching; and planning for science instruction. When asked of their teaching effectiveness while teaching science, principals referred to enjoying science teaching and improving their practice, while teachers and science teacher educators discussed content knowledge. Administrators valued conducting experiments and hands-on science while teaching science, while their educational counterparts valued creating student connections and providing real-life applications to science for students. In their professional opinions, administrators preferred a hands-on approach to science teaching. Teachers and science teacher educators stated that they view scientific inquiry, exploration, and discovery as effective approaches to teaching within their classrooms. Administrators predicted that teachers would state that lack of resources affects their lesson planning in science. However, teachers and science teacher educators asserted that taking time to plan for science instruction was most important.

  15. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  16. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in

  17. Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new way

  18. The Knowledge, Skills and Personal Qualities of Early Childhood Resource Consultants as Agents of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.

    2006-01-01

    This naturalistic investigation explored the knowledge, skills, and personal qualities demonstrated by two early childhood resource consultants when preschool children with special needs were included in community-based early childhood settings. This article describes the dilemmas, challenges and barriers faced by the resource consultants as they…

  19. Theory and Practice of the Constructive Jigsaw Method in Advancing Domain Knowledge and Skills in Parallel.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

      The Learning Sciences constitute a rapidly expanding discipline that focuses on the learning potential of humans. In this paper, I will discuss the particular learning mechanism involved in the concomitant advancement of domain knowledge and 21st century skills, as well as the Constructive Jigsaw Method of knowledge construction through collaboration-that is, collaborative problem solving. An especially important focus on knowledge construction separates routine experts from adaptive experts. While routine experts develop a core set of skills that they apply throughout their lives with increasing efficiency, adaptive experts are much more likely to change their core skills and continually expand the depth of their expertise. This restructuring of core ideas and skills may reduce their efficiency in the short run but make them more flexible in the long run. The Constructive Jigsaw Method employs a learning mechanism that encourages the development of adaptive experts. Under this method, students first study a piece of material in an expert group. One member from each of several expert groups then joins a new study group, a jigsaw group. The members of this new group then combine what they have learned, creating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the concept through collaboration, communication, and innovation. PMID:26935073

  20. Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new way…

  1. Young Learners: An Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Man Ching Esther

    2015-01-01

    The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…

  2. Real Scenarios and Complementary Lectures: A Classroom Training Approach to Increase Counselor Awareness, Knowledge, and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Brew, Leah; Denby, Ramona

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a classroom approach for training counseling students in the area of cross-cultural competence. The authors describe real scenarios that form the foundation for an intensive classroom discussion and lecture format regarding cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

  3. Effects of an Online Problem Based Learning Course on Content Knowledge Acquisition and Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendag, Serkan; Odabasi, H. Ferhan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the online problem based learning (PBL) approach employed in an online learning environment influenced undergraduate students' critical thinking skills (CTS) and content knowledge acquisition. The pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study. The subjects included the students who were enrolled at the…

  4. Creating Multicultural Classrooms. Developing Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: Diversity Training Makes a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Camille; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    As the population becomes more diverse, social work educators will bear a larger responsibility for educating culturally competent practitioners. To enhance student learning, research should consider those factors that influence students' multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. This information potentially can help students better prepare…

  5. Related Core Academic Knowledge and Skills. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists the industry-identified core academic knowledge and skills that should be possessed by all Georgia students who are enrolled in occupational cluster programs and are preparing to enter the work force or continue their occupational specialization at the postsecondary level. First, 63 related communications competencies are…

  6. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Child Abuse Training on the Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…

  8. Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

  9. Deaf College Students' Mathematical Skills Relative to Morphological Knowledge, Reading Level, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.

    2007-01-01

    This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and…

  10. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x

  11. The Knowledge, Skills and Personal Qualities of Early Childhood Resource Consultants as Agents of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.

    2006-01-01

    This naturalistic investigation explored the knowledge, skills, and personal qualities demonstrated by two early childhood resource consultants when preschool children with special needs were included in community-based early childhood settings. This article describes the dilemmas, challenges and barriers faced by the resource consultants as they

  12. Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science

  13. Career Investigation Instructional Modules: Implementation Materials for Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Marty

    This curriculum guide for middle school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information

  14. Career Connections Instructional Modules: Implementation Materials for Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Marty

    This curriculum guide for high school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information

  15. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations…

  16. Developing Teachers' Knowledge and Skills at the Intersection of English Language Learners and Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Téllez, Kip; Mosqueda, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The growth of teachers' professional knowledge and skills has been the topic of policy, research, and even philosophy for many decades. The assessment of English Learners (ELs), a more specific concern, has become an interest of the educational community in just the past 40 years (e.g., Harris, 1969). The authors' task in this chapter is to…

  17. Teacher Knowledge and Initial Teacher Education in the English Learning and Skills Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    Recent reforms of initial teacher education (ITE) in the learning and skills sector (LSS) in England are standards based and emphasise subject specialism. The reforms are underpinned by objectivist epistemological assumptions which are incompatible with socio-cultural theories of professional knowledge, and ignore the diverse teaching roles and

  18. Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…

  19. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  20. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  1. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  2. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute rigger certificate must meet the following requirements:...

  3. Digital News Stories: Building Language Learners' Content Knowledge and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The study explored how the use of digital news stories promoted the development of content knowledge and oral language skills. The study involved 15 advanced Spanish students who used VoiceThread, an interactive multimedia tool, to create and exchange digital news regarding current events over the course of one semester. Both quantitative and…

  4. Facilitating the Development of Disciplinary Knowledge and Communication Skills: Integrating Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najar, Robyn L.

    While proficiency in academic writing and communication skills, such as teamwork, are seen as desirable graduate outcomes in higher education, they have taken a secondary place to the teaching of specific disciplinary knowledge within curricula. Traditionally, writing, such as writing a researched report, has been a source of anxiety for students

  5. Youth Knowledge, Interpersonal Skills, and Media Attitudes After Anti-Tobacco Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M.

    2004-01-01

    To see if youth tobacco use prevention training improves knowledge, interaction skills, and awareness of media influences, junior high and high school students (161 at pre-test, 176 at post-test) from southeastern U.S. public schools completed questionnaires before and after anti-tobacco lessons. After training, high school (but not junior high)…

  6. Probation Officer Knowledge/Skill Maps. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    These knowledge/skill maps are intended to assist individuals responsible for developing training courses for probation officers. Maps are provided for the following task areas: processing juveniles taken into custody (dependents, status offenders, and delinquents); juvenile intake and processing; adult or juvenile investigation; procedures for…

  7. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  8. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of

  9. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

  10. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  11. Conducting Psychological Assessments in Schools: Adapting for Converging Skills and Expanding Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry; Scull, Janet; Hattie, John; Clinton, Janet; Larkins, Geraldine; Cicconi, Vincent; Kumar, Doreen; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue for a revision of the knowledge, skills and competencies of school psychologists and specialist teachers. Evidence-based practice of psychologists and teachers, the accountability movement, and calls for improved service delivery have led to changes in the practice of both professions. The changes in technology and the…

  12. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  13. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  14. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  15. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  16. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  17. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must—...

  18. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations

  19. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  20. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  1. The Knowledge, Experience, Skills, and Characteristics TESOL Employers Seek in Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Caprice L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.; Dewey, Dan P.

    2013-01-01

    In a competitive marketplace, job candidates need to know what TESOL employers are seeking in new hires. A 12-month study of TESOL job announcements examined the types of work offered and the candidate knowledge, experience, skills, and personal characteristics TESOL employers were seeking in full-time hires. An analysis of 169 job advertisements…

  2. The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…

  3. Move beyond "Seat-Time" and Narrowly Defined Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The ninth recommendation in ACTE's high school reform position statement is to move beyond "seat-time" and narrowly defined knowledge and skills. United States high schools operate on a well-established set of expectations for size, time of day and seasons of the year that programs and classes are offered, how instructional material is delivered,…

  4. The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Caldern, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport

  5. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,

  6. Moblogging Type and Its Relation with Usability and Development of Knowledge Management Skills for Blind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Akram Fathy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…

  7. Updating Polytechnic Teachers' Knowledge and Skills through Teacher Design Teams in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…

  8. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  9. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method. PMID:24039917

  10. The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

  11. The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique

  12. Towards a machine learning framework for acquiring and exploiting monitoring and diagnostic knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganaris, Stefanos; Fisher, Doug; Kulkarni, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of detecting and diagnosing faults in physical systems, for which neither prior expertise for the task nor suitable system models are available. We propose an architecture that integrates the on-line acquisition and exploitation of monitoring and diagnostic knowledge. The focus of the paper is on the component of the architecture that discovers classes of behaviors with similar characteristics by observing a system in operation. We investigate a characterization of behaviors based on best fitting approximation models. An experimental prototype has been implemented to test it. We present preliminary results in diagnosing faults of the Reaction Control System of the Space Shuttle. The merits and limitations of the approach are identified and directions for future work are set.

  13. Expression of game-related and generic knowledge by dementia patients who retain skill at playing dominoes.

    PubMed

    Greiner, F; English, S; Dean, K; Olson, K A; Winn, P; Beatty, W W

    1997-08-01

    Patients with dementia who remain skilled at musical performance or playing bridge fail explicit memory tests for information related to their skills, suggesting that implicit memory mediates their preserved skills. To reexamine this issue, 23 dementia patients and 15 elderly controls of comparable domino-playing skill were compared on tests of naming, verbal fluency, and domino knowledge. On an explicit test of domino knowledge, the patients scored well below the elderly controls, performing no better than students who were unfamiliar with the game. But when game-like situations were created with real dominoes, both the skilled controls and the patients with dementia chose optimal moves and verbally explained their choices equally well. On naming and fluency tests, the skilled patients showed no advantage over patients of comparable dementia severity who had no retained skill. In dementia, some complex knowledge seems intact but is accessible only in particular contexts. PMID:9270588

  14. Assessment of Teachers' Reactions to a Knowledge- and Skills-Based Pay Structure at an International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Joel Courtney

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reactions to a knowledge- and skills-based pay (KSBP) system implemented in a large international school. Such systems are designed to set teacher compensation based on demonstrated professional knowledge and skills as opposed to the traditional scale based on years of experience and degrees attained. This study fills

  15. Middle Level Leadership for the 21st Century: Principals' Views on Essential Skills and Knowledge; Implications for Successful Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anfara, Vincent A.; Brown, Kathleen M.; Mills, Rebecca; Hartman, Kimberly; Mahar, Robert J.

    Middle-level principals are essential to current school reform initiatives. A study was undertaken to report what the respondents identified as the essential performance-based skills and knowledge needed for middle-level leadership, and to assess and project the impact of these knowledge and skill areas on administrator preparation programs. These

  16. Assessment of Teachers' Reactions to a Knowledge- and Skills-Based Pay Structure at an International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Joel Courtney

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reactions to a knowledge- and skills-based pay (KSBP) system implemented in a large international school. Such systems are designed to set teacher compensation based on demonstrated professional knowledge and skills as opposed to the traditional scale based on years of experience and degrees attained. This study fills…

  17. Parental Involvement and the Developmental Stages of Writing: Knowledge and Skills to Assist Children and Parent Perceptions on Their Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Kaltenbach, Elena

    2009-01-01

    A kindergarten parent workshop series on the developmental stages of writing was created and assessed. The intended outcome was to empower parents with writing knowledge and writing skills so that they could apply this knowledge and skills at home with their child. The researcher developed the workshops from parent involvement research,

  18. The Impact of Traditional and Alternative University Teacher Preparation Program Options on Secondary Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, Rebecca B.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of secondary teacher candidates through traditional (n = 13) or alternative (n = 15) options did not statistically significantly impact knowledge, skills or dispositions. Results for content knowledge, as measured at entrance to the program based on the Pre-Professional Skills Test, indicate that candidates who entered the…

  19. Multicultural Art Education in an Era of Standardized Testing: Changes in Knowledge and Skill for Art Teacher Certification in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraehe, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores changes in multicultural knowledge and skill to which beginning art teachers are held accountable through standardized teacher testing in Texas. Standardized testing of preservice art teachers' knowledge and skill has been the basis of the state's certification of beginning art teachers and accreditation of art teacher

  20. Enhancing practice teachers' knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean

    2014-06-01

    This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development. PMID:24974553

  1. Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2011-05-01

    For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new chemistry curriculum for Israeli high school students. As part of this endeavor, we developed the Taste of Chemistry module, which focuses on context-based chemistry, chemical understanding, and higher order thinking skills. Our research objectives were (a) to identify the challenges and difficulties chemistry teachers faced, as well as the advantages they found, while teaching and assessing the Taste of Chemistry module; and (b) to investigate how they coped with teaching and assessing thinking skills that include analyzing data from graphs and tables, transferring between multiple representations and, transferring between chemistry understanding levels. Research participants included eight teachers who taught the module. Research tools included interviews, classroom observations, teachers-designed students' assignments, and developers-designed students' assignments. We documented different challenges teachers had faced while teaching the module and found that the teachers developed different ways of coping with these challenges. Developing teachers' assessment knowledge (AK) was found to be the highest stage in teachers' professional growth, building on teachers' content knowledge (CK), pedagogy knowledge (PK), and pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). We propose the use of assignments designed by teachers as an instrument for determining their professional growth.

  2. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  3. Knowledge Representation, Content Specification, and the Development of Skill in Situation-Specific Knowledge Assembly; Some Constructivist Issues as They Relate to Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Expands on constructivist theories that were discussed in an earlier issue. Highlights include cognitive flexible theory; multiple knowledge representations; prespecification of knowledge; teaching content versus skill; and cognitive flexibility hypertexts (CFHs), including the kinds of knowledge domains for which they should be used and the…

  4. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

  5. Role playing games: a methodology to acquire knowledge for integrated wastewater infrastructures management in a river basin scale.

    PubMed

    Prat, P; Aulinas, M; Turon, C; Comas, J; Poch, M

    2009-01-01

    Current management of sanitation infrastructures (sewer systems, wastewater treatment plant, receiving water, bypasses, deposits, etc) is not fulfilling the objectives of up to date legislation, to achieve a good ecological and chemical status of water bodies through integrated management. These made it necessary to develop new methodologies that help decision makers to improve the management in order to achieve that status. Decision Support Systems (DSS) based on Multi-Agent System (MAS) paradigm are promising tools to improve the integrated management. When all the different agents involved interact, new important knowledge emerges. This knowledge can be used to build better DSS and improve wastewater infrastructures management achieving the objectives planned by legislation. The paper describes a methodology to acquire this knowledge through a Role Playing Game (RPG). First of all there is an introduction about the wastewater problems, a definition of RPG, and the relation between RPG and MAS. Then it is explained how the RPG was built with two examples of game sessions and results. The paper finishes with a discussion about the uses of this methodology and future work. PMID:19448317

  6. Developing Health Literacy Knowledge and Skills Through Case-Based Learning

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of case-based learning to teach pharmacy students health literacy concepts and skills in managing patients with limited health literacy. Design. A health literacy patient case was developed and incorporated into a case-based learning laboratory. The case involved a patient with limited health literacy and required students to evaluate and formulate a care plan. Assessment. A comparison of pretest and posttest scores demonstrated that students gained health literacy knowledge and skills through completion of the patient case. Students believed that the case-based exercise was successful in meeting specific learning objectives for the course. Conclusions. Addition of a case-based learning was effective in teaching pharmacy students health literacy concepts and skills. PMID:24558285

  7. Medical providers' self perceived knowledge and skills for working with eating disorders: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Linville, Deanna; Brown, Tiffany; O'Neil, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that individuals suffering from an eating disorder (ED) consult their general practitioners more frequently than those without an eating disorder (Mond, Myers, Crosby, Hay, & Mitchell, 2010). However, little is known about medical providers' existing knowledge of and training in ED detection, intervention, and treatment. This study aimed to examine national medical providers' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and needs around eating disorder screening and intervention strategies. Utilizing survey design, a randomized sample of national medical providers responded to a 23-question survey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they did not think to screen for an eating disorder because it was not the presenting concern and nearly 59% of providers did not feel like they had the skills necessary to intervene with eating disorders. Training implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22188056

  8. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  9. Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Robin, Donald A.; Maas, Edwin; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer.…

  10. Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Robin, Donald A.; Maas, Edwin; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer.

  11. ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: Left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality

    PubMed Central

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Westbury, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of early event-related potentials (ERPs) to degrees of word semantic knowledge. Participants with strong, average, or weak vocabulary skills made speeded lexical decisions to letter strings. To represent the full spectrum of word knowledge among adult native-English speakers, we used rare words that were orthographically matched with more familiar words and with pseudowords. Since the lexical decision could not reliably be made on the basis of word form, subjects were obliged to use semantic knowledge to perform the task. A d′ analysis suggested that high-skilled subjects adopted a more conservative strategy in response to rare versus more familiar words. Moreover, the high-skilled participants showed a trend towards an enhanced “N2c” to rare words, and a similar posterior temporal effect reached significance ~650 ms. Generators for these effects were localized to left temporal cortex. We discuss implications of these results for word learning and for theories of lexical semantic access. PMID:18565637

  12. Diet-related knowledge, skill, and adherence among children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R A; Christensen, N K; Pichert, J W

    1985-05-01

    The dietary adherence of a sample of 97 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has been quantitatively described. Now, in an effort to understand the poor dietary adherence found, diet-related knowledge and skill and their relationship to dietary adherence among 90 diabetic children have been studied. Diet-related competencies assessed were the ability to: (1) recall the personal diet plan, (2) correctly fill one's plate from a buffet, with the diet plan in hand, and (3) choose an appropriate meal from a restaurant menu. Adherence to the diet was assessed by unobtrusive observations at meals. Error rates on the three tests of knowledge and skill were .21, .28, and .51, respectively. The mean error rate at mealtime was .35, only slightly higher than the error rate for filling a plate when the children knew they were being tested. In a multiple regression analysis, age (r = .37) and sex (R = .48) were associated with adherence to the diet plan. Ability to choose correctly from a menu, duration of diabetes, and ability to correctly fill a plate from a buffet also entered the regression equation (R = .54). The data suggest that many children did not possess the knowledge and skill required for good dietary adherence, regardless of motivation. Health educators may underestimate the complexity of the behaviors expected of chronically ill patients. PMID:3991274

  13. Pharmacists' knowledge and interest in developing counseling skills relating to oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohamed E K

    2016-04-01

    Background Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. Objectives This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Setting Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. Methods A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Results Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18 %), publications distributed to pharmacy (44 %), other methods (1 %) and more than one method (23 %). Ten percent were not interested in developing their skills on oral contraceptives. Conclusion This study identifies considerable gaps among community pharmacists' knowledge of oral contraceptives. It also shows variation in willingness and choice of learning strategies among pharmacists to develop their skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. PMID:26873480

  14. Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients. PMID:26538940

  15. Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison

    This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

  16. Curriculum Providing Cognitive Knowledge and Problem-Solving Skills for Anesthesia Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Ruth E.; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Background Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. Intervention A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Findings Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. Conclusions A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency. PMID:22132289

  17. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  18. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383

  19. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878

  20. Knowledge and Skill Retention of a Mobile Phone Data Collection Protocol in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.; Lori, Jody R.; Boyd, Carol J.; Andreatta, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With a large number of births occurring outside the formal health system it is difficult to determine the number of pregnant women in rural regions of Liberia. The exponential growth of mobile phone use in developing countries provides a potential avenue for data collection on maternal and child health in such rural, remote regions. Methods A pre-, post-, and one-year post-test design was used to collect data on knowledge and skill retention for seven essential items required for mobile phone use among traditional birth attendants (TBAs) trained in a short message service (SMS) texting data collection protocol (n=99) in rural Liberia. Results Sixty-three participants (63.6% retention) completed the one-year post-test and displayed evidence of statistically significant knowledge and skill retention in six of the seven tasks (p<.005) including the ability to: (a) turn on the phone; (b) use the mobile phone to make a call; (c) recognize they have coverage; (d) recognize the mobile phone is charged; (e) create a SMS text message without help; and (f) send a SMS text message without help. The TBAs continued to have difficulty with more complex tasks such as adding minutes to a phone. Discussion The mobile phone data collection protocol proved feasible with TBAs demonstrating knowledge retention in a one-year post-test, however clinical significance needs further investigation. The protocol increased communication and collaboration among TBAs, certified midwives, and clinic staff. PMID:24655593

  1. First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442

  2. Detecting knowledge of incidentally acquired, real-world memories using a P300-based concealed-information test.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-11-01

    Autobiographical memory for events experienced during normal daily life has been studied at the group level, but no studies have yet examined the ability to detect recognition of incidentally acquired memories among individual subjects. We present the first such study here, which employed a concealed-information test in which subjects were shown words associated with activities they had experienced the previous day. Subjects wore a video-recording device for 4 hr on Day 1 and then returned to the laboratory on Day 2, where they were shown words relating to events recorded with the camera (probe items) and words of the same category but not relating to the subject's activities (irrelevant items). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and presentation of probe items was associated with a large peak in the amplitude of the P300 component. We were able to discriminate perfectly between 12 knowledgeable subjects who viewed stimuli related to their activities and 12 nonknowledgeable subjects who viewed only irrelevant items. These results have strong implications for the use of memory-detection paradigms in criminal contexts. PMID:25231899

  3. Evaluating a Cultural Competency Curriculum: Changes in Dental Students' Perceived Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Alrqiq, Hosam M; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana K

    2015-09-01

    In response to current and projected demographic changes in the United States, many dental schools have taken steps to increase the cultural competence of their students through various educational methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural competency curriculum at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM). The curriculum was evaluated using a pre and post design, utilizing an instrument developed for pharmacy students and modified for dental students. The questionnaire was comprised of 11 items designed to assess changes in students' awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing culturally competent care. Data were collected for two classes of second-year DMD students and first-year Advanced Standing students. The total number of returned surveys was 485, for a response rate of 79.5%. The students' post-curriculum mean scores were all higher than their pre-curriculum scores for overall cultural competence (pre 26.5±6.3 to post 29.8±7.2) and for individual subscores on awareness (pre 5.3±1.4 to post 5.5±1.5), knowledge (pre 7.2±1.9 to post 8.1±2.1), and skills (pre 14.1±4.4 to post 16.2±4.4). The improvements on all scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001), with the exception of the awareness component. This evaluation suggests that the cultural competency curriculum at GSDM has been effective in producing improvements in these students' cultural competence in the domains of knowledge and skills. PMID:26329024

  4. Knowledge-based control of grasping in robot hands using heuristics from human motor skills

    SciTech Connect

    Bekey, G.A. . Computer Science Dept.); Liu, H. . Artificial Intelligence Systems Section); Tomovic, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Karplus, W.J. . Computer Science Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The development of a grasp planner for multifingered robot hands is described. The planner is knowledge-based, selecting grasp postures by reasoning from symbolic information on target object geometry and the nature of the task. The ability of the planner to utilize task information is based on an attempt to mimic human grasping behavior. Several task attributes and a set of heuristics derived from observation of human motor skills are included in the system. The paper gives several examples of the reasoning of the system in selecting the appropriate grasp mode for spherical and cylindrical objects for different tasks.

  5. The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalyan, Figen

    2004-01-01

    Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

  6. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  7. Knowledge and skills for management of sexually transmitted infections among rural medical practitioners in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Mridha, Malay K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Vermund, Sten H.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) management is considered rudimentary among rural medical practitioners (RMPs) in Bangladesh. We sought to understand the level of knowledge and skills in STI management and to assess the impact of a two-day training orientation among RMPs in Tangail district. Data were collected through a baseline survey of 225 practicing RMPs in the study area and a three-month follow-up survey of 99 RMPs who participated in a two-day STI/HIV orientation training. The level of formal training among RMPs ranged from none (22.7%), to paramedical training (14.7%) and local medical assistant training (62.6%). The baseline survey revealed a low level of STI/HIV knowledge and misconceptions about the transmission of STI/HIV among RMPs. RMPs mostly prescribed first line antibiotics for treatment of common reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including STIs, but they rarely prescribed the correct dosages according to the national RTI/STI management guidelines. Only 3% of RMPs were able to correctly answer all four HIV transmission (unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, needle sharing and mother to child transmission) questions at baseline, while 94.9% of RMPs answered all four correctly at three months following the training (p=0.001). Only 10% of RMPs reported suggesting the recommended drug (azithromycin) and only 2% mentioned about the recommended dosage (2gm single dose) for the treatment of urethritis/cervicitis; compared to 49.5% suggested azithromycin at follow-up with 39.4% mentioned the recommended 2gm single dose (p=0.001). Our study found low level of knowledge and poor practices related RTI/STI management among RMPs. Short orientation training and education intervention shown promise to increase knowledge and management skills for RTIs/STIs. PMID:25954593

  8. Nursing Home Staff Intentions for Learned Communication Skills: Knowledge to Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristine N; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Bossen, Ann; Hein, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Staff education is critical to improving nursing home dementia care practice. However, a lag in translation to practice is a barrier to improving care. As part of a clinical trial testing effects of a communication intervention on behaviors of residents with dementia, participant-reported likelihood of using learned skills in practice was evaluated in relation to organizational and individual factors in 10 nursing homes. The authors hypothesized that organizational and individual factors would influence staff intention to use new skills in practice. Pre-and post-training comparisons confirmed that staff gained knowledge about communication effectiveness. Staff reported high likelihood for using skills in practice based on modified Duke Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Scale scores. Care organization was correlated with total DOI scores (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). DOI subscales correlations to organizational and individual attitudes are reported. Evaluating quality improvement interventions in relation to translation to practice is essential in today's nursing home environment. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(3), 26-34.]. PMID:26934971

  9. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.

  10. Evaluation of retention of knowledge and skills imparted to first-year medical students through basic life support training.

    PubMed

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-03-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which can be reenforced in succeeding years. Forty-two first-year medical students participated in this study. The entire procedure consisted of faculty training, assessment of knowledge of students by a pretest questionnaire, a lecture, a demonstration, and hands-on training using a mannequin (with special emphasis on the site, depth, rate, and sustainment of uninterrupted chest compressions). Posttest 1 was conducted to assess the knowledge gained. The retention of knowledge and skills in the second year was evaluated by posttest 2 and directly observed procedural skills, respectively. Student feedback was collected on five-point Likert scale. Analysis using a Freidman test indicated the mean rank for posttest 1 (2.81) to be significantly higher than the pretest (1.26), indicating a gain in knowledge. The mean rank for posttest 2 (1.93) was lower than for posttest 1 (2.81) but was significantly higher compared with the pretest (1.26), indicating a significant retention of knowledge during the second year. Directly observed procedural skill evaluation showed that 7% students could perform all the seven steps correctly and that 74% students could perform three or more steps correctly, signifying a good retention of skill. Two students taught BLS skills to their family members as well. The results of this study suggest that the program provides students with sound basic knowledge and adequate practical skills in BLS. PMID:24585468

  11. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival. PMID:25327571

  12. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population. PMID:26703672

  13. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L.; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers’ self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers’ cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon’s signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population. PMID:26703672

  14. Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed.

  15. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of

  16. Effects of Training Peer Tutors in Content Knowledge versus Tutoring Skills on Giving Feedback to Help Tutees' Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor--tutee pairs of fourth-year secondary school students were created and assigned to one of the two treatments.…

  17. Skills for the Knowledge and Service Society: Trends Determining Future Pre-Service and In-Service VET Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneeberger, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    The change-over to a knowledge and service society means greater opportunities for the highly skilled. Participation in tertiary education is increasing in all countries, and it can be seen that graduates are being absorbed into knowledge intensive services in the labour market. The international trend towards making vocational education and…

  18. The Role of Parent Education and Parenting Knowledge in Children's Language and Literacy Skills among White, Black, and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was…

  19. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  20. Non-genetic health professionals' attitude towards, knowledge of and skills in discussing and ordering genetic testing for hereditary cancer.

    PubMed

    Douma, Kirsten F L; Smets, Ellen M A; Allain, Dawn C

    2016-04-01

    Non-genetic health professionals (NGHPs) have insufficient knowledge of cancer genetics, express educational needs and are unprepared to counsel their patients regarding their genetic test results. So far, it is unclear how NGHPs perceive their own communication skills. This study was undertaken to gain insight in their perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. Two publically accessible databases were used to invite NGHPs providing cancer genetic services to complete a questionnaire. The survey assessed: sociodemographic attributes, experience in ordering hereditary cancer genetic testing, attitude, knowledge, perception of communication skills (e.g. information giving, decision-making) and educational needs. Of all respondents (N = 49, response rate 11 %), most have a positive view of their own information giving (mean = 53.91, range 13-65) and decision making skills (64-77 % depending on topic). NGHPs feel responsible for enabling disease and treatment related behavior (89-91 %). However, 20-30 % reported difficulties managing patients' emotions and did not see management of long-term emotions as their responsibility. Correct answers on knowledge questions ranged between 41 and 96 %. Higher knowledge was associated with more confidence in NGHPs' own communication skills (rs = .33, p = 0.03). Although NGHPs have a positive view of their communication skills, they perceive more difficulties managing emotions. The association between less confidence in communication skills and lower knowledge level suggests awareness of knowledge gaps affects confidence. NGHPs might benefit from education about managing client emotions. Further research using observation of actual counselling consultations is needed to investigate the skills of this specific group of providers. PMID:26590592

  1. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  2. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well

  3. An inquiry into the integration of indigenous knowledges and skills in the Kenyan secondary science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithinji, Wanja

    A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem-solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context-boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly Eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, I investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, tberefore, are more likely than men to generate a wide variety of data. Their role as caretakers also bestows on them the great responsibility of communicating everyday knowledge to current and future generations. 1The term 'schooled' refers to knowledge and skills that are designated for instruction in schools.

  4. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain? PMID:26630604

  5. Communication Skills for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Argiro L.

    One of the most neglected aspects of teacher training is thorough preparation in the diverse communication skills that are needed by good teachers in today's schools. Pre-professional teachers require a grounding in communication theory, a thorough knowledge of how children acquire competence in their native language over years of growth and

  6. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM. PMID:12378432

  7. Management Knowledge and Skills Required in the Health Care System of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading. PMID:23922519

  8. Management knowledge and skills required in the health care system of the Federation bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading. PMID:23922519

  9. A vertical curriculum to teach the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of medical informatics.

    PubMed

    McGowan, J; Raszka, W; Light, J; Magrane, D; O'Malley, D; Bertsch, T

    1998-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that medical schools must begin teaching the knowledge, skills and attitudes of information literacy and applied medical informatics as core competencies in undergraduate medical education. The University of Vermont College of Medicine recognized that these core competencies were lacking in its curriculum, and in 1992 it implemented a four year, integrated program to give students the information habits essential to twenty-first century practice. The first graduates of the program are now in residencies and feedback has enabled the College to refine the program to better meet the informatics education needs of the next generation of physicians. The result of these efforts is the Vertical Curriculum in Information Literacy and Applied Medical Informatics; its process of development, the product of the process, and its outcomes are discussed. PMID:9929261

  10. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  11. Strategy knowledge and strategy change in skilled performance: a study of the game Othello.

    PubMed

    Billman, D; Shaman, D

    1990-01-01

    Skill and skill development in playing the game Othello were investigated. In particular, we studied the role of strategies and strategy change, rather than focusing on knowledge of particular board patterns. The history of the development of the game suggests a shift from positional to mobility strategies, a change which also is reproduced in the development of individual players. The first two studies used historical analysis of tournament transcripts to study strategy change. The third study investigated one possible basis for the greater accessibility or ease of positional versus mobility strategy, namely differential encoding and memorability of typical board patterns. Study 3 demonstrated that completely naive as well as positional players remember positional games and moves more easily than mobility games and moves. The easier mastery of positional strategy may be caused in part by the greater ease of encoding typical positional patterns. We suggest that strategic change and conceptual reorganization may be particularly important for domains where the naive encoding of events is not the most apt. We also suggest that similarities exist between strategy change in Othello and other domains. PMID:2349975

  12. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and expense of treatment. Second, we encourage researchers to define dependent variables in a way that allows us to determine whether treatment intensity effects on child skills and knowledge are highly generalized versus potentially context bound. Third, we acknowledge that effects of treatment intensity on generalized knowledge and skills likely vary according to student characteristics. Finally, we discuss important research design and measurement issues that are relevant to isolating the likely conditional effects of treatment intensity on generalized outcomes. PMID:25914513

  13. Knowledge, skills, and productivity in primary eye care among health workers in Tanzania: need for reassessment of expectations?

    PubMed

    Byamukama, Emmanuel; Courtright, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary eye care knowledge, skills, and productivity of primary health workers at dispensaries in a district in Tanzania. Factors likely to contribute to knowledge, skills, and productivity were also assessed. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. All health workers employed at government dispensaries in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania were included. A skills score of respondents, comprising knowledge and ability to test visual acuity and diagnosis and management of common eye conditions, was measured through interview and direct observation. Factors associated with the skills score were assessed. Forty nine health workers were assessed. There was poor understanding of basic ocular conditions and how to assess visual acuity; the mean skills score of all respondents was 6.2 out of 12. There was little association between having received training and the skills score. The mean number of eye patients managed per health worker was three per month. Findings suggest that a reassessment of the roles and responsibilities in primary eye care of dispensary health workers, review of training curriculum and teaching, and supervisory procedures may be necessary. PMID:24037865

  14. What Are the Appropriate Skills and Knowledge Required for Entry into the Practice of Optometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level skills needed of optometrists, as of allied health occupations practitioners, include thinking skills, communication skills, sensitivity to personal and professional values and ethics, awareness of self and individual social responsibility, lifelong learning skills and habits, interpersonal and group competence, and management…

  15. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  16. Influence of Sex Education on Condom Knowledge and Condom Use Skills Among Texas College Students.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Penrose, Lindsay; Prien, Sam; Farooqi, Naghma

    2015-10-01

    Condoms have proven effective when used correctly; however, few studies have examined the relationship between a student's previous sex education and his or her general condom knowledge and ability to use a condom correctly. Educational systems in Texas provide a myriad of types of sexual education to their student populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the type of previous sex education with the condom knowledge and condom use skills among students attending college. Participants were recruited at health fairs conducted at a major Texas university during October 2010 and March 2011. Students were first asked to complete a computerized questionnaire and then participated in a condom demonstration. Of 180 students who completed both the questionnaire and the condom demonstration, 67% failed to apply the condom correctly. Further, the results were equally poor regardless of previous sex education format. The results of this study suggest that none of the current training mechanisms provide adequate information to ensure the proper use of condoms by college students and that alternatives need to be considered to protect the health and well-being of this important segment of the state's population. PMID:26457846

  17. Knowledge and skill in motion: layers of Tibetan medical education in India.

    PubMed

    Pordié, Laurent; Blaikie, Calum

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the transmission of Tibetan medical knowledge in the Himalayan region of Ladakh (India), taking three educational settings as ethnographic ports of entry. Each of these corresponds to a different operating mode in the standardisation of medical knowledge and learning processes, holding profound implications for the way this therapeutic tradition is known, valued, applied and passed on to the next generation. Being at the same time a cause and a consequence of intra-regional variability in Tibetan medicine, the three institutional forms coexist in constant interaction with one another. The authors render this visible by examining the 'taskscapes' that characterize each learning context, that is to say, the specific and interlocking sets of practices and tasks in which a practitioner must be skilled in order to be considered competent. The authors build upon this notion by studying two fields of transmission and practice, relating to medicine production and medical ethics. These domains of enquiry provide a rich grounding from which to examine the transition from enskilment to education, as well as the overlaps between them, and to map out the connections linking different educational forms to social and medical legitimacy in contemporary India. PMID:25074035

  18. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  19. Balance maintenance as an acquired motor skill: Delayed gains and robust retention after a single session of training in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Elion, Orit; Sela, Itamar; Bahat, Yotam; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2015-06-01

    Does the learning of a balance and stability skill exhibit time-course phases and transfer limitations characteristic of the acquisition and consolidation of voluntary movement sequences? Here we followed the performance of young adults trained in maintaining balance while standing on a moving platform synchronized with a virtual reality road travel scene. The training protocol included eight 3 min long iterations of the road scene. Center of Pressure (CoP) displacements were analyzed for each task iteration within the training session, as well as during tests at 24h, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post-training to test for consolidation phase ("offline") gains and assess retention. In addition, CoP displacements in reaction to external perturbations were assessed before and after the training session and in the 3 subsequent post-training assessments (stability tests). There were significant reductions in CoP displacements as experience accumulated within session, with performance stabilizing by the end of the session. However, CoP displacements were further reduced at 24h post-training (delayed "offline" gains) and these gains were robustly retained. There was no transfer of the practice-related gains to performance in the stability tests. The time-course of learning the balance maintenance task, as well as the limitation on generalizing the gains to untrained conditions, are in line with the results of studies of manual movement skill learning. The current results support the conjecture that a similar repertoire of basic neuronal mechanisms of plasticity may underlay skill (procedural, "how to" knowledge) acquisition and skill memory consolidation in voluntary and balance maintenance tasks. PMID:25797802

  20. Promoting Clinical Knowledge, Skills, and Empathy via a Creative Self-Suicide Assignment: Rationale, Purpose, and Student Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katrina; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Peters, Scott W.; Marbach, Christina R.; Day, Sally; Choucroun, Pierre; Baker, Ria E.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of American deaths. Given suicide's overall frequency and negative effects, specialized suicide training is warranted. This article describes a creative self-suicide assignment designed to enhance doctoral students' suicide assessment and intervention knowledge and clinical skills, and promote greater counselor empathy…

  1. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

    2007-01-01

    To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired

  2. An Examination of How Knowledgeable and Skilled Elementary Principals Lead Special Education Programs in Alabama: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Richard Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the importance of having principals who are not only effective leaders of general education programs but knowledgeable and skilled in special education and able to effectively lead special education programs. The researcher examined four principals of elementary schools (i.e., kindergarten through…

  3. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  4. Computer Modeling of the Instructionally Insensitive Nature of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Vinh Huy

    2009-01-01

    Stakeholders of the educational system assume that standardized tests are transparently about the subject content being tested and therefore can be used as a metric to measure achievement in outcome-based educational reform. Both analysis of longitudinal data for the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) exam and agent based computer

  5. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after

  6. Educational interventions to improve knowledge and skills of interns towards prevention and control of hospital-associated infections

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sandeep; Mahajan, Ruchita; Jad, Beena; Mahajan, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Context: We believe that there is significant educational deficit amongst interns regarding up-to-date formal knowledge and skills on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) which might compromise patient safety. This urgently requires curriculum innovations to ensure their formal training on HAIs prevention and control. Aim: Education of interns to improve their knowledge and skills toward HAIs prevention and control. Subjects and Methods: This pilot study was conducted in interns using a multimodal approach consisting of a combination of videos, PowerPoint presentation, and hands-on demonstration to provide applied and practical teaching on prevention and control of HAIs. Pre- and post-test assessment of knowledge, attitude, and skills was carried out by multiple choice questions, 5-point Likert scale, and Objective Structured Practical Examination respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test Results: A statistically significant improvement in the overall score rates between pre- and post-test of intern's was seen, suggesting that educational programs have a positive effect. Intern's felt benefitted from interventions focused on HAIs prevention and control and hoped that such sessions are integrated in the regular undergraduate curriculum. A majority of the students felt that their learning style assessment matched well with their own perception of learning preference. Conclusions: Assessment drives learning; hence strengthening the contribution of health-care workers to HAIs prevention programs should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve skills and develop appropriate attitudes, resulting in safety and quality of patient care. PMID:26380213

  7. The Writer's Individualized Transfer Tool: A Freeware Innovation for Fostering and Researching Transfer of Writing Skills and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khost, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions lack a program that promotes students' transfer--that is, reapplication or repurposing--of writing skills and knowledge across the curriculum, a phenomenon that research shows does not tend to happen without deliberate sustained support. This article introduces an online instrument, the Writer's Individualized…

  8. Emotion Knowledge Skills in Low-Income Elementary School Children: Associations with Social Status and Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Seifer, Ronald; Zakriski, Audrey; Eguia, Maria; Vergnani, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined relations between emotion knowledge and social functioning in a sample of low-income kindergarten and 1st graders. Individual differences in spontaneous emotion naming and emotion recognition skills were used to predict children's social functioning at school, including peer-nominated sociometric status,…

  9. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water

  10. Learning to Read Setswana and English: Cross-Language Transference of Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.

  11. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  12. Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Individuals Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Advanced Set Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children and the Council on Education of the Deaf have worked together for over a decade to maintain mutually agreed upon standards for teachers of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. This article presents the newly developed and validated standards of knowledge and skills for teachers who are working on advanced…

  13. An Enquiry into the Professional Competence of Inclusive Education Teachers in Beijing: Attitudes, Knowledge, Skills, and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Feng, Yajing; Deng, Meng; Liang, Songmei

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes, knowledge, and skills are widely recognised as the three pillars of professional competence of inclusive education teachers. Studies emerging from the Chinese context consider these three pillars important for the practice of Learning in Regular Classrooms--an idiosyncratic Chinese form of inclusive education. Our mixed methods study…

  14. Skills and Knowledge Needs Assessment To Support Multi-Craft Maintenance and Training Design. Report Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; And Others

    The needs assessment reported in this document was undertaken to identify the skills and knowledge needed in the maintenance department of Standard Steel of Burnham, Pennsylvania, so that curriculum could be developed to: (1) train most department employees for most tasks across crafts; and thereby (2) increase productivity by decreasing the time…

  15. How the Skills, Competencies, and Knowledge Areas Necessary for Success as Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jason Ignazio

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an extensive review of the literature about the skills/competencies and knowledge areas needed for success as an entry-level student affairs professional (Hyman, 1988; Kinser, 1993; Lovell & Kosten, 2000; Ostroth, 1981; Waple, 2006), no such study or studies have been conducted regarding how graduates of College Student Personnel…

  16. The Relative Value of Skills, Knowledge, and Teaching Methods in Explaining Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program Return on Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko; Chrysler, Earl

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide insight into alumni perceptions of Master of Business Administration (MBA) program return on investment (ROI). They sought to assess the relative value of skills, knowledge, and teaching methods in explaining ROI. By developing insight into the drivers of ROI, the real utility of MBA program ingredients can be

  17. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  18. Integrating Knowledge, Skills, and Values into the Curriculum Development Process at the University of Guelph-Humber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Frederick; Wolstenholme, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the curriculum development process that led to the intentional integration of knowledge, skills, and values in every course at a newly created institution, the University of Guelph-Humber (G-H). Among the many unique features of G-H, the integration of theory and practice in each course is one of the most important. The…

  19. Knowledge on Sexual Abuse and Self-Protection Skills: A Study on Female Chinese Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Lee, Yvonne Kit-Shan

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the level of sexual-abuse knowledge and self-protection skills in 77 female Chinese adolescents with mild mental retardation. Participants were more able to recognize inappropriate than appropriate touches and sexual requests. Also, they were inadequate in protecting themselves and had difficulty in reporting sexual abuse.

  20. Recognizing the Importance of Aging Skills and Knowledge in Generalist Social Work Practice: Effective Strategies for MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bailey, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure…

  1. Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

  2. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and…

  3. Mathematical Knowledge and Skills Expected by Higher Education in Engineering and the Social Sciences: Implications for High School Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Mehmet; zalp, Glmser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at

  4. The Relative Value of Skills, Knowledge, and Teaching Methods in Explaining Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program Return on Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko; Chrysler, Earl

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide insight into alumni perceptions of Master of Business Administration (MBA) program return on investment (ROI). They sought to assess the relative value of skills, knowledge, and teaching methods in explaining ROI. By developing insight into the drivers of ROI, the real utility of MBA program ingredients can be…

  5. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

    2007-01-01

    To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

  6. Mathematical Knowledge and Skills Expected by Higher Education in Engineering and the Social Sciences: Implications for High School Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…

  7. Student Use of Academic Knowledge and Skills in Work-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Joshua D.; Marks, Helen M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from in a large Mid-western district, this study analyses the use of academic skills in work-based learning. The primary question asked in this study has to do with the impact of participating in work-based learning on the use of academic skills. Four sets of academic skills were measured using surveys (language arts, math, science, and…

  8. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  9. Planning Skills. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vobejda, Allen

    This module on planning skills contains the product development unit in a manufacturing course for grades 10, 11, and 12. The module helps students develop thinking, communication, and problem-solving skills and acquire knowledge relating to creation, retrieval, and use of information found on common project plans. The content outline includes the…

  10. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  11. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as

  12. A Content Analysis to Investigate the Evidence of 21st Century Knowledge and Skills within Elementary Teacher Education Programs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruettgers, Mary Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Are graduates of teacher preparation programs adequately prepared with the skills and knowledge to teach in the 21st century classroom? This study consisted of a quantitative content analysis to investigate the presence of 21st century knowledge and skills within a stratified random sample of teacher preparation programs in the United States as…

  13. The Effects of Kinetic Structure on Knowledge About and Performance of a Psychomotor Skill: Teaching Students to Use the Compound Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Ellen Stephanie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates effects of method of presentation and structure on secondary student's acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills in teaching use of the compound microscope. Psychomotor skills and knowledge acquisitions were both found to be directly related to high structure and separated presentations. (SL)

  14. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  15. The role of primary caregiver vocabulary knowledge in the development of bilingual children’s vocabulary skills

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the impact of environmental factors (SES, the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Method We measured vocabulary skills of 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 7 who spoke Spanish as their native language and English as their second language. Data related to language environment in the home, specifically the percent of language exposure to each language and SES, were obtained from primary caregiver interviews. Primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge was measured directly using expressive and receptive vocabulary assessments in both languages. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge, the child’s percent exposure to each language, and SES were robust predictors of children’s English, but not Spanish, vocabulary skills. Conclusions These findings indicate that in the early school age, primary caregiver vocabulary skills have a stronger impact on bilingual children’s second-language than native-language vocabulary. PMID:24824882

  16. Can a multisensory teaching approach impart the necessary knowledge, skills, and confidence in final year medical students to manage epistaxis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multisensory teaching approach in imparting the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage epistaxis in a cohort of fourth year medical students. Methods One hundred and thirty four fourth year medical students were recruited into the study from Aug 2011 to February 2012 in four groups. Students listened to an audio presentation (PODcast) about epistaxis and viewed a video presentation on the technical skills (VODcast). Following this, students completed a 5-minute Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) to test knowledge accrued from the PODcast and VODcast. Next, students observed a 10-minute expert demonstration of the technical skills on a human cadaver and spent half an hour practicing these techniques on cadaver simulators with expert guidance. The students’ confidence was assessed with Confidence Level Questionnaires (CLQs) before and after their laboratory session. The skill level of a subset of students was also assessed with a pre- and post-laboratory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Results Eighty two percent of the participants achieved a score of at least 80% on the IRAT. The CLQ instrument was validated in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement between the pre- and post-laboratory CLQ scores (p<0.01) and also between pre- and post-laboratory OSATS scores (p<0.01). Qualitative feedback suggested a student preference for this teaching approach. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that a multisensory teaching intervention effectively imparts the necessary knowledge, skill and confidence in fourth year medical students to manage epistaxis. PMID:24479815

  17. Effects of Postgraduate Medical Education “Boot Camps” on Clinical Skills, Knowledge, and Confidence: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Christopher; Austin, Janice; Lopushinsky, Steven R; Donnon, Tyrone

    2014-01-01

    Background Throughout their medical education, learners face multiple transition periods associated with increased demands, producing stress and concern about the adequacy of their skills for their new role. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of boot camps in improving clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence during transitions into postgraduate or discipline-specific residency programs. Methods Boot camps are in-training courses combining simulation-based practice with other educational methods to enhance learning and preparation for individuals entering new clinical roles. We performed a search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and ERIC using boot camp and comparable search terms. Inclusion criteria included studies that reported on medical education boot camps, involved learners entering new clinical roles in North American programs, and reported empirical data on the effectiveness of boot camps to improve clinical skills, knowledge, and/or confidence. A random effects model meta-analysis was performed to combined mean effect size differences (Cohen's d) across studies based on pretest/posttest or comparison group analyses. Results The search returned 1096 articles, 15 of which met all inclusion criteria. Combined effect size estimates showed learners who completed boot camp courses had significantly “large” improvements in clinical skills (d  =  1.78; 95% CI 1.33–2.22; P < .001), knowledge (d  =  2.08; 95% CI 1.20–2.96; P < .001), and confidence (d  =  1.89; 95% CI 1.63–2.15; P < .001). Conclusions Boot camps were shown as an effective educational strategy to improve learners' clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence. Focus on pretest/posttest research designs limits the strength of these findings. PMID:26140112

  18. A comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors (SKIPE).

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern. PMID:24119517

  19. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and samples for the class to examine. This exercise could be adapted for any collection and any level of learning, as well as for any particular collection or suite of samples. Soils and local rock sequences could also be incorporated.

  20. A Foot in Many Camps: Literacy Teacher Educators Acquiring Knowledge across Many Realms and Juggling Multiple Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnik, Clare; Menna, Lydia; Dharamshi, Pooja; Miyata, Cathy; Beck, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study involved 28 literacy/English teachers in four countries: Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia. The goal of the study was to examine their backgrounds, knowledge, research activities, identity and support within the university. The teacher educators had a range of classroom teaching experience which they drew on in many ways. Most went…

  1. Predicting Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of Offline Reading Skills, Online Reading Skills, and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which new reading comprehension proficiencies may be required when adolescents read for information on the Internet. Seventh graders (N = 109) selected from a stratified random sample of diverse middle school students completed a survey of topic-specific prior knowledge and parallel scenario-based measures of…

  2. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  3. Survival Skills Units: Consumer Economics, Occupational Knowledge, Health, Government and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Diane, Ed.

    These eighteen Survival Skills units are intended to provide the adult basic education student with life skills information, new vocabulary, and reading practice at a readability level of 3.0 to 6.0. It is suggested that they be used only under an instructor's direction and that specialized vocabulary may need to be pre-taught. Each unit is…

  4. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

  5. The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework and its implications for continuing professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Kelly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework has been introduced as part of the Agenda for Change Reforms in the United Kingdom to link pay and career progression to competency. The purpose of this paper is to consider the implications for nurses, their managers and the impact on university departments delivering continuing professional development for nurses. The new system has the potential to increase the human resources management aspect of the clinical nurse managers' role and could have legal implications, for example if practitioners perceive that their needs for continuing professional development have been overlooked to the detriment of their pay and career aspirations. The new system also has implications for providers of continuing professional development in the universities and is likely to demand closer liaison between education providers and trust staff who commission education and training. The Knowledge and Skills Framework is of interest to nurses and nurse educators internationally because the system, if effective, could be introduced elsewhere. PMID:16616397

  6. Analysis of the roles of "serious games" in helping teach health-related knowledge and skills and in changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew W

    2007-11-01

    Researchers are developing sophisticated games specifically targeted to teach health-related knowledge and skills and to change health-related behaviors. Although these interventions, generally called "serious games," show promise, there has been limited evaluation of their effectiveness. This article offers a broad "consumer guide" for evaluating such health education interventions. Improving the development and evaluation of health-related serious games and educating potential purchasers of such products to be knowledgeable, demanding consumers will help move the field of serious games from "looks promising" to determining where such interventions will be effective and where they will not. PMID:19885166

  7. The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alison Adair

    The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or science TAKS expository text questions were reading skills and strategies, as well as word concepts.

  8. The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation - a review of current knowledge and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D. K.

    2009-07-01

    Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions), mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.

  9. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

  10. Beyond knowledge and skills: the use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond “having” knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. Methods This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Results Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. Conclusions There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the professional training of healthcare professionals perceive teaching as more than the transmission of knowledge and technical skills. Process-oriented teaching practices that integrate technology as part of a carefully designed curriculum may have the potential to facilitate the development of capable healthcare graduates who are able to navigate the complexity of health systems and patient management in ways that go beyond the application of knowledge and skills. PMID:23574731

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nurses about Standard Precautions for Hospital-Acquired Infection in Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Zabol University of Medical Sciences (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Hamed; Balouchi, Abbas; Masinaeinezhad, Nosratollah; Ebrahimitabs, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is one of the common problems and difficulties faced by hospitals in all countries around the world. Since nurses are part of the healthcare team that plays a unique role in the control of hospital infection, this study is conducted to analyze the knowledge and practice of healthcare personnel about standard precautions for hospital infection. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 170 nurses worked in medical surgical wards, pediatric wards, dialysis units of two teaching hospitals in Zabol city, Iran, in 2014. The sample population was selected through simple random sampling. The data collection instrument is composed of a researcher-made questionnaire titled “Hospital-acquired infection Control” based on precautions posited by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were fed into the SPSS software v.20 and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results show that 43% of the participants in this study had poor knowledge, 42% had average practice, and 37% had a moderate attitude about hospital infection. There was a significant relationship between knowledge and gender (r = 00.8 p = 0.02). However, the variables of age, marital status, employment, work experience, education, and place of work did not establish a significant relationship with the independent variables (p>0.05). Conclusion: As the results indicate a low level of awareness among the personnel about hospital infection, it is suggested to provide training sessions on the prevention and control of HAI to increase the awareness of personnel and hold practical courses for practicing these principles. PMID:26493432

  12. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  13. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks. The correlations with the posttests increased from one enactment to the next, demonstrating that the students' transfer performance improved as they gained more experience in DBS classrooms. Potential threats to the study's internal validity that were identified and discussed were improved teacher proficiency, the nature of the transfer tasks, the difficulty of the science content covered by the units, the similarity between the units and the transfer tasks, and the similarity between the transfer tasks. This dissertation demonstrates that: (a) appropriate learning environments can foster transfer, (b) transfer performance can improve over time, and (c) that it may be necessary to rethink and redefine the procedures for identifying and assessing real-world transfer.

  14. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  15. The Use of Functional Assessment and Frequency Building Procedures to Increase Product Knowledge and Data Entry Skills among Foremen in a Construction Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampino, Ralph N.; Wilder, David A.; Binder, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A functional assessment procedure, which was designed to identify insufficient skills that may have been responsible for employee performance problems, was administered to four foremen employed in a large construction organization. Results of this assessment procedure identified two skill areas, product knowledge and data entry, as deficient.…

  16. A Comparative Study of University of Wisconsin-Stout Freshmen and Senior Education Major's Computing and Internet Technology Skills/Knowledge and Associated Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sveum, Evan Charles

    2010-01-01

    A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors' computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC[superscript 3][R] Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator's Computing and Internet Skills Learning…

  17. Do short courses in evidence based medicine improve knowledge and skills? Validation of Berlin questionnaire and before and after study of courses in evidence based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessed knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills PMID:12468485

  18. Knowledge Acquisition and Job Training for Advanced Technical Skills Using Immersive Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.

  19. An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

    To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory

  20. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and

  1. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.

  2. Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

  3. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  4. Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

  5. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they

  6. Perceived Needs of Recent Graduates for Marketing-Related Knowledge and Skills: Implications for Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Michael T.; Szkudlarek, Beth A.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 215 recent graduates of Purdue University School of Pharmacy investigated unmet needs for 9 marketing skill areas: measuring and forecasting demand; personal selling; public relations; purchasing and inventory control; strategic planning; managed care organizations; physician dispensing; physician prescribing and health care financers;…

  7. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and

  8. Knowledge Transfer and Information Skills for Student-Centered Learning in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Pinto; Sales, Dora

    2008-01-01

    Knowing how to select, organize, and use information in order to solve problems, handle new situations, and continue learning are key issues in the teaching and learning scenario in contemporary society. Teaching these skills is particularly critical for European universities and is currently recognized as vital in the context of the European…

  9. Collaborative Doctoral Programmes: Employer Engagement, Knowledge Mediation and Skills for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates forms of collaborative doctoral programmes that enable employer engagement in innovation and skills development. Collaborative doctoral programmes exist in different national contexts for the development of the science and technology human capital. Such programmes are also seen as policy tools that enhance relationships…

  10. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  11. Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2012-01-01

    For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…

  12. Designing Online Strategy Instruction for Integrated Vocabulary Depth of Knowledge and Web-Based Dictionary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…

  13. Fostering Students' Knowledge and Argumentation Skills through Dilemmas in Human Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

    2002-01-01

    Examines the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Focuses on the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Signs of Knowledge: The Appropriation of a Symbolic Skill in a Five-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Maria; Pramling, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    In this empirical study, the appropriation of a symbolic skill by a five-year old child is analysed. His evolving production and understanding are investigated through his sign-making and his explanations of these when speaking with a researcher. The child is studied in his home. A contrasting case of another child of the same age also making…

  15. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  16. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  17. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-Specific Interest on Observation Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as "just looking" rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice…

  18. Integrating the Visual Arts--Building Young Children's Knowledge, Skills, and Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jill Englebright; Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Explores the visual arts as a means to develop skills and abilities across the curriculum and nurture aesthetic development. Considers benefits of art for socioemotional, psychomotor, and cognitive development; integration of art into the curriculum; and the role of adults, children's books, and the classroom for encouraging art appreciation.…

  19. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 380 - LCV Driver Training Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... longer combination vehicles pursuant to 49 CFR part 380, subpart B. The training courses for operators of... trucking industry. Emphasis must be placed on those regulatory factors that affect LCVs, including 23 CFR... and Skills Appendix to Part 380 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  20. Developing Student Knowledge and Skills for Home-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan F.; Tracy, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguishing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the intervention process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safety, boundary, confidentiality, and…

  1. An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

    To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory…

  2. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  3. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes, 12 hours. (e) A flight attendant must, for at least 5 hours, perform the assigned duties of a flight attendant under the supervision of a flight attendant supervisor qualified under this part who... flight attendant who has previously acquired such experience on any large passenger carrying airplane...

  4. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the

  5. Knowledge Production through Interdisciplinary Skills: Producing an Effective Postgraduate Research Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakunye, Pepukayi; Takhar-Lail, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to existing methodological knowledge by showing how a transformed research methods curriculum, which is beyond the milieu of schooling, can engage postgraduate students in a critical dialogue on how knowledge is produced in industry and higher education. Initial insights are drawn from two interpretive studies that employed…

  6. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  7. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921

  9. Relating indices of knowledge structure coherence and accuracy to skill-based performance: Is there utility in using a combination of indices?

    PubMed

    Schuelke, Matthew J; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Kowollik, Vanessa; Boatman, Paul R

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958) whose participants underwent training on a complex computer simulation indicated that coherence and the accuracy-based indices yielded comparable zero-order predictive validities. Support for the incremental validity of using a combination of indices was mixed; the most, albeit small, gain came in pairing coherence and closeness when predicting transfer. After controlling for baseline skill, general mental ability, and declarative knowledge, only coherence explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in transfer. Overall, the results suggested that the different indices largely overlap in their representation of knowledge organization, but that coherence better reflects adaptable aspects of knowledge organization important to skill transfer. PMID:19594246

  10. Knowledge and skill retention of in-service versus preservice nursing professionals following an informal training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a repeated-measures quasiexperimental study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Jhuma; Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants-28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals-were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups-in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills. PMID:23971033

  11. Acquiring Knowledge and Using It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilkstein, Rita

    1993-01-01

    Understanding why students are not naturally and easily able to generalize or apply what they have learned in other situations involves understanding what teachers want their students to learn; what learning is; what teaching is; and what is involved in generalizing or applying what has been learned. Research in educational psychology identifies

  12. What Are the Required Outcomes of Education--Professional Competencies, Personal Attributes and Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Kathryn

    Although students need to be competent in a wide range of work knowledge, skills, and abilities, they also need to be "capable" human beings to take their place as contributors to the Australian community. Capability has been described as having confidence in one's ability to acquire and apply knowledge, new skills, and understanding, with…

  13. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9 months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9 months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  14. When generating answers benefits arithmetic skill: the importance of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Kmicikewycz, Alexander Oleksij

    2008-09-01

    People remember information better if they generate the information while studying rather than read the information. However, prior research has not investigated whether this generation effect extends to related but unstudied items and has not been conducted in classroom settings. We compared third graders' success on studied and unstudied multiplication problems after they spent a class period generating answers to problems or reading the answers from a calculator. The effect of condition interacted with prior knowledge. Students with low prior knowledge had higher accuracy in the generate condition, but as prior knowledge increased, the advantage of generating answers decreased. The benefits of generating answers may extend to unstudied items and to classroom settings, but only for learners with low prior knowledge. PMID:18439617

  15. “Broadband” Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Chimusa, Emile R.; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-01-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The “omics” fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  16. Knowledge and Skill Differences between Expert and Novice Service Technicians on Technical Troubleshooting Tasks. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott Duncan

    The major purpose of a study was to identify the knowledge, skill, and cognitive process differences between expert and novice technicians on technical troubleshooting tasks. Identification of these differences was conducted through two investigations. Investigation 1 sought to describe differences in the declarative and procedural knowledge bases…

  17. Utilizing STEM experiential learning to influence attitudes, skills, and knowledge in urban high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, Shannon L.

    This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.

  18. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the

  19. Using Case Studies to Assess Candidates' Knowledge and Skills in a Graduate Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulanoff, Sharon H.; Fingon, Joan C.; Beltran, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    In this age of heightened accountability, academia is increasingly being asked to link assessment to candidate performance outcomes in multiple ways. Research demonstrates the importance of aligning assessment with content standards but cautions that it is critical that assessments match the content, cover a wide range of knowledge, are…

  20. Effects of a Single-Lesson Tobacco Prevention Curriculum on Knowledge, Skill Identification and Smoking Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Thyagaraj, Sujan; Teufel, James; Phillips, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    One in five students report experimenting with tobacco before the age of 13 and most prevention efforts take place in the school setting. This study measures the effect of a single-lesson tobacco prevention curriculum, conducted by a health education center, focusing on knowledge of tobacco, ability to identify refusal techniques, and intent not…

  1. How Word Reading Skill Impacts Text Memory: The Centrality Deficit and How Domain Knowledge Can Compensate

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined text memory in children with word reading deficits to determine how these difficulties impact representations of text meaning. We show that even though children with poor word decoding recall more central than peripheral information, they show a significantly bigger deficit relative to controls on central than on peripheral information. We call this the centrality deficit and argue that it is the consequence of insufficient cognitive resources for connecting ideas together due to these children's resources being diverted from comprehension to word decoding. We investigated a possible compensatory mechanism for making these connections. Because a text representation is a synthesis of text information and a reader's prior knowledge, we hypothesized that having knowledge of the passage topic might reduce or eliminate the centrality deficit. Our results support this knowledge compensation hypothesis: the centrality deficit was evident when poor readers did not have prior knowledge, but was eliminated when they did. This presents an exciting avenue to pursue for possible remediation of reading comprehension in children with word identification difficulties. PMID:19475514

  2. Graduate Employability, "Soft Skills" versus "Hard" Business Knowledge: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the UK and mainland Europe of the importance of higher education to the development of a knowledge-based economy. European universities are increasingly required to produce highly mobile graduates able to respond to the ever-changing needs of the contemporary workplace. Following the Bologna Declaration (1999),…

  3. Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice

  4. Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

  5. What Teachers Need To Know: The Knowledge, Skills, and Values Essential to Good Teaching. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D., Ed.; And Others

    The papers presented as chapters in this book outline the background and professional preparation teachers need in subject area knowledge, understanding of intellectual and emotional growth, learning theory, and moral principles. The volume is organized into four parts. Each part is introduced with a brief essay that relates the accompanying…

  6. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use of deadly force and limited arrest authority as set forth in 10 CFR part 1047; 7. Proficiency in... Knowledge B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1046 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL... force personnel shall prepare and review annually a task analysis detailing all of the required...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... use of deadly force and limited arrest authority as set forth in 10 CFR part 1047; 7. Proficiency in... Knowledge B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1046 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL... force personnel shall prepare and review annually a task analysis detailing all of the required...

  9. Influence of Gender and Knowledge on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity Skills in Nakuru District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…

  10. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. PMID:26745710

  11. Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?

    PubMed

    Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

    2012-04-01

    The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater. PMID:22487631

  12. Active-Learning Strategies to Develop Health Literacy Knowledge and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lakesha M.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Poirier, Therese I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To implement active-learning exercises in a required pharmacy course and assess their impact on students' knowledge and confidence in identifying and communicating with patients with low health literacy, as part of a required course in cultural competency, health literacy, and health beliefs. Design Active-learning activities including administering health literacy assessments, identifying informal signs of low health literacy, conducting mock patient counseling sessions, rating the readability of drug information, analyzing information in drug advertisements, and writing patient education materials were incorporated into the 6-sesssion health literacy portion of the course. Assessment A pretest and posttest showed that students' knowledge of health literacy increased, and a retrospective pretest found improvement in students' confidence in their ability to care for patients with low health literacy. In-class discussions provided informal evidence that students gained new knowledge from the active-learning activities. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was effective in teaching health literacy concepts to pharmacy students. PMID:21179248

  13. Open and Distance Education Systems: Do They Enhance Graduates' Soft Skills? The Results from 2009 Universitas Terbuka Tracer Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Dewi Juliah

    2013-01-01

    The vision and mission of Universitas Terbuka (UT) is to become a highly qualified open and distance education institution and to provide higher education access to all communities. Graduates of UT are expected to acquire adequate knowledge, hard skills and soft skills. Soft skills play important roles in the world of work. The aim of this article…

  14. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test. PMID:23265002

  15. Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

    2010-02-01

    Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

  16. Building young women's knowledge and skills in female condom use: lessons learned from a South African intervention.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, A C; Masvawure, T B; Smit, J A; Beksinska, M; Mabude, Z; Ngoloyi, C; Mantell, J E

    2016-04-01

    Partner negotiation and insertion difficulties are key barriers to female condom (FC) use in sub-Saharan Africa. Few FC interventions have provided comprehensive training in both negotiation and insertion skills, or focused on university students. In this study we explored whether training in FC insertion and partner negotiation influenced young women's FC use. 296 female students at a South African university were randomized to a one-session didactic information-only minimal intervention (n= 149) or a two-session cognitive-behavioral enhanced intervention (n= 147), which received additional information specific to partner negotiation and FC insertion. Both groups received FCs. We report the 'experiences of' 39 randomly selected female students who participated in post-intervention qualitative interviews. Two-thirds of women reported FC use. Most women (n= 30/39) applied information learned during the interventions to negotiate with partners. Women reported that FC insertion practice increased their confidence. Twelve women failed to convince male partners to use the FC, often due to its physical attributes or partners' lack of knowledge about insertion. FC educational and skills training can help facilitate use, improve attitudes toward the device and help women to successfully negotiate safer sex with partners. Innovative strategies and tailored interventions are needed to increase widespread FC adoption. PMID:26956041

  17. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  18. 3D Simulation as a Learning Environment for Acquiring the Skill of Self-Management: An Experience Involving Spanish University Students of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela-Ranilla, Jose María; Esteve-Gonzalez, Vanessa; Esteve-Mon, Francesc; Gisbert-Cervera, Merce

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze how 57 Spanish university students of Education developed a learning process in a virtual world by conducting activities that involved the skill of self-management. The learning experience comprised a serious game designed in a 3D simulation environment. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the…

  19. Self-Contained Training Materials for Teacher Education: A Derivation from Research on the Learning of Complex Skills. Acquiring Teaching Competencies. Reports and Studies. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Bryce B.

    The purpose of this paper is to select from among the bodies of research on complex skill learning those generalizations that seem to have some applicability to issues in designing training materials for teacher education. That selection entails a review of the principal points and findings within the domain and of the implications of the findings…

  20. Specifying voicing differences in children's productions of syllable-final stops: Knowledge versus skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2002-05-01

    Among the acoustic correlates of phonetic identity considered to be universal is the length of vocalic segments preceding syllable-final stops, which is a correlate to the voicing of those stops. However, findings reported earlier [S. Nittrouer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2312(A) (2001)] showed that the commonly described length effect (i.e., shorter segments before voiceless than before voiced stops) is attenuated in adults' samples from continuous discourse, and that listeners of all ages fail to make much use of this effect in perceptual decisions, preferring instead to base voicing judgments on dynamic spectral information. Subsequent to that study, acoustic measures (duration of the preceding vocalic segment and frequency of the first formant at voicing offset) of children's (5 and 7 years of age) productions of words differing in the voicing of syllable-final stops showed that by 5 years of age children's productions generally had the same acoustic structure as those of adults, but within-speaker variability on both measures was roughly twice as great in children's as in adults' productions. Thus, children were trying to coordinate the vocal-tract closing and glottal abduction gestures as adults do, but were not skilled enough to do so reliably. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  1. Health-care providers' perception of knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management in primary health-care centres in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, N M; Ibaid, A H Abu

    2015-10-01

    This survey in primary health-care centres in north Jordan aimed to assess health-care providers' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management. A multistage random sample was used to recruit nurses and physicians from 57 health centres. A total of 207 participants completed the Arabic version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants perceived themselves as having moderate preparation for disaster management [mean score 74.9 (SD 21.6)], moderate knowledge [mean 49.9 (SD 12.3)] and moderate to weak skills in disaster management [mean 35.3 (SD 12.7)]. Significant differences were revealed in participants' perceptions of their disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills according to their sex, specialty and exposure to a real disaster situation. Further education and training courses are needed to enhance providers' preparedness for disaster management in Jordan. PMID:26750161

  2. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corrêa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134

  3. Development of Implanted Deaf Children's Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid; Dardier, Virginie; Pajon, Cecile; Tan-Bescond, Geraldine; David, Kristell; Deleau, Michel; Godey, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of preverbal development have highlighted the recurrent difficulties experienced by deaf children in acquiring knowledge of the social rules and social skills pertaining to discourse. We expected cochlear implants in children with bilateral profound deafness to improve their use of verbal language, so that their communication…

  4. Evaluating the impact of an intensive education workshop on evidence-informed decision making knowledge, skills, and behaviours: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health professionals require a unique set of knowledge and skills in order to meet increasing expectations to use research evidence to inform practice and policy decisions. They need to be able to find, access, interpret, and apply the best available research evidence, along with information about patient preferences, clinical expertise, and the clinical context and resources, to such decisions. This study determined preferences for continuing education following an intensive educational workshop and evaluated the impact of the workshop on evidence informed decision making (EIDM) knowledge, skills, and behaviours. Methods An explanatory mixed methods, longitudinal study design was implemented among a convenience sample of various health care professionals attending the workshop. EIDM knowledge, skills, and behaviours were quantitatively measured at baseline and six month follow-up, with EIDM knowledge and skills measured additionally immediately following the educational workshop (post-test measurement). To determine participants preferences for continuing education, data were collected using quantitative survey (post-test measurement) and qualitative (individual telephone interviews after six-month follow-up) methods. Results EIDM knowledge and skills increased significantly from baseline to immediately following the intervention [5.6, 95% CI (3.7, 7.4), P < 0.001] and from baseline to six-month follow-up [3.7, 95% CI (2.1, 5.3), P < 0.001], with a significant decrease from immediately following the intervention to six-month follow-up [-1.9, 95% CI (-3.5, -0.3), P 0.018]. EIDM behaviours increased, but not significantly, from baseline to six-month follow-up [1.7, 95% CI (-0.3, 3.8), P 0.095]. At baseline and six-month follow-up there was a weak, non-significant positive correlation between EIDM knowledge and skills and EIDM behaviours (r = 0.29, P 0.069 and r = 0.24, P 0.136, respectively). Over time there was a shift in preferences for timing and frequency of online continuing education strategies. Willingness to participate in continuing education, however, remained evident. Conclusions An intensive educational workshop shows promise for increasing EIDM knowledge and skills. Increasing EIDM knowledge and skills may promote the capacity of health professionals to use research evidence when making practice and policy decisions and, in turn, lead to positive patient outcomes. PMID:24433582

  5. New Materials for the Undergraduate Classroom to Build Pre-Service Teachers' NGSS Skills and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.; Awad, A. A.; Baldwin, K. A.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bruckner, M. Z.; DeBari, S. M.; Dechaine, J.; Ebert, J. R.; Gray, K. R.; Hauge, R.; Linneman, S. R.; Monet, J.; Thomas, J.; Varrella, G.

    2014-12-01

    As part of InTeGrate, teams of 3 instructors at 3 different institutions developed modules that help prepare pre-service teachers to teach Earth science aligned with the NGSS. Modules were evaluated against a rubric, which addresses InTeGrate's five guiding principles, learning objectives and outcomes, assessment and measurement, resources and materials, instructional strategies and alignment. As all modules must address one or more Earth-related grand challenge facing society, develop student ability to address interdisciplinary problems, improve student understanding of the methods of geoscience, use authentic geoscience data, and incorporate systems thinking, they align well with the NGSS. Once modules passed the rubric, they were tested by the authors in their classrooms. Testing included pre- and post-assessment of geoscience literacy and assessment of student learning towards the module goal; materials were revised based on the results of testing. In "Exploring Geoscience Methods with Secondary Education Students," pre-service science teachers compare geoscientific thinking with the classic (experimental) scientific method, investigate global climate change and its impacts on human systems, and prepare an interdisciplinary lesson plan that addresses geoscience methods in context of a socioscientific issue. In "Soils and Society," pre-service elementary teachers explore societal issues where soil is important, develop skills to describe and test soil properties, and create a standards-based Soils and Society Kit that consists of lessons and supporting materials to teach K-8 students about a soil-and-society issue. In "Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface, and Human Activity," students explore the effects of running water on shaping Earth's surface both over geologic time and through short-term flooding events, and produce a brochure to inform citizens of the impact of living near a river. The modules are freely available at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/modules_courses.html and include Instructor Stories, where each author describes how they adapted the module to their teaching environment. The goal of showing different implementations of the materialst is to facilitate adoption and adaption beyond the team of authors.

  6. Summary knowledge of results for skill acquisition: support for the guidance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R A; Young, D E; Swinnen, S; Shapiro, D C

    1989-03-01

    Summary knowledge of results (KR) involves the presentation KR for each of a set of trials (e.g., 10) only after the last trial in the set has been completed. Earlier, Lavery (1962) showed that, relative to providing KR after each trial, a 20-trial summary KR was detrimental to performance in a practice phase with KR present but was beneficial for a no-KR retention test. Using a relatively simple ballistic-timing task, we examined summary lengths of 1 (essentially KR after every trial), 5, 10, and 15 trials, searching for an inverted-U relationship between summary length and retention performance as predicated by a guidance hypothesis for KR. During acquisition when KR was present and being manipulated, all groups showed improvements in performance across practice, while increased summary lengths generally depressed performance. However, in a delayed no-KR retention test, there was an inverse relation between the summary length in acquisition and absolute constant error on the retention test. A guidance hypothesis is favored to explain how, relative to immediate KR, long KR summaries can provide detrimental effects in acquisition while enhancing retention performance. PMID:2522520

  7. Transferring ANDRILL Research on Antarctic Cenozoic Climate Change into the Classroom: Teaching Exercises that build Student Skills and Content Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; St. John, K.

    2009-12-01

    This set of undergraduate student-active learning exercises focuses on the status and role of Antarctica in Cenozoic climate change, and builds skills and knowledge required to evaluate sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the ANDRILL Project. Students discover new advances in understanding late Neogene Antarctic glacial history based on recent ANDRILL results. These exercises are part of the larger suite of activities in the project “Building Core Knowledge and Reconstructing Earth History”, which use authentic data to teach foundational concepts of climate change through sediment core archives (NSF Grant # 0737335). The Antarctic exercises involve a review of the composite benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope curve, and of global climate interpretations based in part on this record. Basic geographic and geologic knowledge of Antarctica and cryospheric processes are constructed in order to build the rationale for selecting drillsites in McMurdo Sound. Student attention is then focused on the use of sedimentary facies and depositional environments in core interpretation, with particular attention to the facies associations that are diagnostic of ice-proximal and ice-distal settings in high latitudes. This is constructed through diagrams, geological reasoning, use of core images and core logs, and culminates in the construction of models for ice-retreat and ice-advance sequences. The general climate record of the entire ANDRILL 1-B core log (1285 m) is then interpreted, by characterizing each of the key lithostratigraphic sub-units in terms of the dominant depositional environments represented. Students write a brief history of the late Miocene-Pliocene climatic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea region. Students conclude by evaluating facies patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Pliocene sequence completing calculations that lead to interpretations of orbitally paced Pliocene ice sheet oscillations.

  8. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan. PMID:22661028

  9. Child and adolescent psychiatry: which knowledge and skills do primary care physicians need to have? A survey in general practitioners and paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Thomas; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Bachmann, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role in the initial assessment and management of children and adolescents with mental health problems. However, it is unclear whether current medical education curricula sufficiently equip PCPs for this task. The aim of this study was to investigate, which child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP)-related skills and knowledge PCPs say they require in their daily practice. A questionnaire was generated, employing a modified two-step Delphi approach. Besides socio-demographic items, the questionnaire contained 17 CAP-related knowledge items and 13 CAP-related skills items, which had to be rated by importance in daily practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 348 office-based paediatricians and 500 general practitioners (GPs) in Germany. The overall return rate was 51.3 % (435/848). Regarding CAP-related knowledge, both paediatricians and GPs rated somatoform disorders and obesity as highly important for daily practice. Moreover, paediatricians also deemed regulatory disorders during infancy (e.g. crying, sleep disorders) as important, while GPs assessed knowledge on paediatric depression as relevant. For paediatricians and GPs, the most relevant CAP-related skills were communicating with children and adolescents and their parents. Additionally, paediatricians rated differentiating between non-pathologic and clinically relevant behaviour problems very relevant, while GPs considered basic psychotherapeutic skills essential. The CAP-related knowledge and skills perceived relevant for doctors in primary care differ from the majority of current medical school CAP curricula, which cover mainly typical, epitomic CAP disorders and are predominantly knowledge-oriented. Therefore, medical education in CAP should be amended to reflect the needs of PCPs to improve healthcare for children and adolescents with mental health problems. PMID:26250895

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

  11. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  12. The Influence of Student Teacher Self-Regulation of Learning on Their Curricular Content-Knowledge and Course-Design Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of EFL student teacher self-regulation of learning (SRL) on their curricular content-knowledge and course-design skills. Positivism guided this study at the levels of: ontology (one form of reality); epistemology (detachment from the subjects); and methodology, using nomothetic research strategy (causal…

  13. Developing Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through Technology-Rich Tasks: The Influence of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Technology has been shown to positively influence student learning when students explore technology-rich tasks that simultaneously require them to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), such as analyzing or evaluating information or creating new representations of knowledge. Educational technology researchers have posited that in order for

  14. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  15. Skills, Knowledge, and Personal Traits Necessary for Success as a Student Affairs Administrator: A Meta-Analysis of Thirty Years of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Cheryl D.; Kosten, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    Study synthesizes 30 years of research relating to successful student affairs administration using meta-analysis techniques. Findings suggest that a successful student affairs administrator has skills such as administration, management, and human facilitation; knowledge of student development theory and functional responsibilities; and traits of…

  16. Using Standardized Patients to Evaluate Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Knowledge and Skill Acquisition for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors…

  17. The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two

  18. The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…

  19. The Impact of a Computer Based Math Instruction Program on Fifth Grade Student Academic Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in One School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Brian B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences between two groups of fifth grade students' performance on the 2010 fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) math test. The sample consisted of a group of fifth grade students receiving the traditional instruction from their classroom teacher and a group of fifth grade…

  20. Predictors of Student Performance in Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics: The Correlation between Benchmark Tests and Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Math Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Timothy Dale

    2012-01-01

    School districts throughout Texas have used archived Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests as a benchmark to predict student performance on future TAKS tests without substantial quantitative evidence that these types of benchmark tests are valid predictors of student performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study…

  1. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…

  2. Teacher Design in Teams as a Professional Development Arrangement for Developing Technology Integration Knowledge and Skills of Science Teachers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills among in-service science teachers. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Tanzania, where 12 in-service science teachers participated in a workshop about technology integration in…

  3. Development of Initial and Advanced Standards of Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Putney, LaTisha L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1989, the delegate assembly of the Council for Exceptional Children began the process of developing standards of knowledge and skills for all beginning teachers of special education, including teachers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Now in its third major revision, these standards provide guidance to states' departments of…

  4. The Effect of a Workshop on School Counselor Trainee's Child-Centered Play Therapy Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes, and Self-Estimate of Counseling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The results of this experimental study have demonstrated that following participation in a 12-hour training in Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT), school counselor trainees significantly increased their CCPT knowledge and skills in employing CCPT, as compared to a control group. Participants reported that they had learned enough of the philosophy…

  5. The Effect of a Workshop on School Counselor Trainee's Child-Centered Play Therapy Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes, and Self-Estimate of Counseling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The results of this experimental study have demonstrated that following participation in a 12-hour training in Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT), school counselor trainees significantly increased their CCPT knowledge and skills in employing CCPT, as compared to a control group. Participants reported that they had learned enough of the philosophy

  6. A Study of the Relationship between Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) and Student Performance on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley-Jones, Catherine Spotswood

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) self-ratings and student Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores. The study assessed the relationship between LoTi ratings and TAKS scores of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students as reported in student records at Alamo Heights Independent School…

  7. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of

  8. In Search of Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic: K-12 Physical Education Teachers' Ratings of Their Knowledge, Skills, Preparation, Attitudes, Barriers, and Efforts to Address the Obesity Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kristie

    2013-01-01

    The New York State Physical Education Learning Standards for K-12 students were transformed into a survey administered to a sample of teachers of physical education (N = 261), ascertaining their ratings of their knowledge, ability/skill, education/training, and attitudes on the importance of future professionals receiving training to teach…

  9. The Relationship between Computer-Assisted Instruction and Alternative Programs to Enhance Fifth-Grade Mathematics Success on the Annual Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tommy Howard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) size and success on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics exam with fifth-grade students in Texas compared to the effect of alternative improvement approaches used by a control group. Research explored the use of…

  10. Developing Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through Technology-Rich Tasks: The Influence of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Technology has been shown to positively influence student learning when students explore technology-rich tasks that simultaneously require them to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), such as analyzing or evaluating information or creating new representations of knowledge. Educational technology researchers have posited that in order for…

  11. Manitoba Business and Vocational/Industrial Secondary Teachers' Responses to Updating of Their Professional/Technical Skills and Knowledge. [Section 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porozny, George H.; Cap, Orest

    This document, section 2 of a three-part study, reports on an effort to determine willingness of business and vocational/industrial teachers in Manitoba to update their professional skills and knowledge. One hundred sixty-three (out of 244) teachers sent usable returns to a survey to determine the extent to which they have obtained updating…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the…

  13. A Teacher Action Research Study: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, Application and Transfer in a Higher Education Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jack Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered

  14. Models of Rehabilitation and Evidence of Their Effectiveness: Production & Movements of Disability Knowledge, Skill & Design within the Cultures and Concepts of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This address begins with a study of self-help by a Mozambican in the 1590s and then imagines a period between the years 2050 to 2150, during which women caring for people with disabilities abolish the need for specialist educational, medical and social services, by multiplying and democratizing the necessary knowledge, skills and design to make…

  15. The Urban Teacher Residency Program: A Recursive Process to Develop Professional Dispositions, Knowledge, and Skills of Candidates to Teach Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Belknap, Bridget; Green, Colin; Shotel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    To be prepared to teach in an urban setting, preservice teachers must exit their teacher preparation program with a professional disposition toward equity and social justice as well as the knowledge and skills required to meet the needs of all students in their classroom. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)…

  16. The Perceptions of Cooperating Teachers Regarding the Skills and Knowledge of Student Teachers Working in Beginning and Middle School Instrumental Music Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Christopher David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the perceptions of cooperating teachers in beginning and middle school instrumental music regarding their student teachers' skills and knowledge both at the beginning and at the end of the student teaching experience. The related research has focused primarily on two areas of music teacher education.

  17. Using Standardized Patients to Evaluate Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Knowledge and Skill Acquisition for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors

  18. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were

  19. A Teacher Action Research Study: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, Application and Transfer in a Higher Education Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jack Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…

  20. An Identification of the Word Processing Skills and Knowledge Needed by Entry-Level Secretarial/Clerical Employees as Perceived by Members of the Local Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlan, Dolores M.

    In 1982-83, a study was conducted to investigate the technical skills and knowledge needed for employment in entry-level secretarial/clerical occupations in the business community of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and to determine the current and perceived future status of word processing approaches in local firms. A survey instrument was mailed…

  1. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353

  2. Generic Skills for Graduate Accountants: The Bigger Picture, a Social and Economic Imperative in the New Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunney, Diane; Sharplin, Elaine; Howitt, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The case for integrating generic skills in university accounting programmes is well documented in the literature, but the implementation of strategies designed to teach generic skills in the context of accounting courses has posed ongoing challenges for academics and course administrators. The imperative for generic skills in accounting programmes…

  3. Generic Skills for Graduate Accountants: The Bigger Picture, a Social and Economic Imperative in the New Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunney, Diane; Sharplin, Elaine; Howitt, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The case for integrating generic skills in university accounting programmes is well documented in the literature, but the implementation of strategies designed to teach generic skills in the context of accounting courses has posed ongoing challenges for academics and course administrators. The imperative for generic skills in accounting programmes

  4. An Assessment of an Educational Intervention on Resident Physician Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills Related to Adverse Event Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, Barbara G.; Tassone, Rosalie F.; Centomani, Nikki M.; Clary, Jennifer; Turner, Crescent; Sikora, Michael; Mayer, David; McDonald, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objective Reporting and learning from events linked to patient harm and unsafe conditions is critical to improving patient safety. Programs that engage resident physicians in adverse event reporting can enhance patient safety and simultaneously address all 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. Yet fewer than 60% of physicians know how to report adverse events and near misses, and fewer than 40% know what to report. Our study evaluated the effect of an educational intervention on anesthesiology residents' attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to adverse event reporting and the associated follow-up. Methods In a prospective study, anesthesiology residents participated in a training program focused on the importance of reporting methods and on reporting adverse events for patient safety. Quarterly adverse event reports were analyzed retrospectively for 2 years before the intervention and prospectively for 7 quarters after the intervention. Residents also completed a survey, before and 1 year after the intervention, that evaluated their attitudes, experience, and knowledge regarding adverse event reporting. Results After the intervention, the number of adverse event reports increased from 0 per quarter to almost 30 per quarter. We identified several categories of harm events, near misses, and unsafe conditions, including reports of disruptive providers. Of the harm events associated with invasive procedures, more than half were associated with lack of attending physician supervision. We also observed significant progress in the residents' ability to appropriately file a report, improved attitudes regarding the value of reporting and available emotional support, and a reduction in the perceived impediments to reporting. Conclusions An educational intervention increased the number of adverse event reports submitted by anesthesiology residents, improved their attitudes about the importance of reporting, and produced a source for learning opportunities and process improvements in the delivery of anesthesia care. PMID:21975618

  5. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  6. Acquired hyperpigmentations.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis. PMID:24626644

  7. Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Rebecca

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

  8. Nursing Informatics Competencies Among Nursing Students and Their Relationship to Patient Safety Competencies: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Abdrbo, Amany Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    With implementation of information technology in healthcare settings to promote safety and evidence-based nursing care, a growing emphasis on the importance of nursing informatics competencies has emerged. This study assessed the relationship between nursing informatics and patient safety competencies among nursing students and nursing interns. A descriptive, cross-sectional correlational design with a convenience sample of 154 participants (99 nursing students and 55 interns) completed the Self-assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies and Patient Safety Competencies. The nursing students and interns were similar in age and years of computer experience, and more than half of the participants in both groups had taken a nursing informatics course. There were no significant differences between competencies in nursing informatics and patient safety except for clinical informatics role and applied computer skills in the two groups of participants. Nursing informatics competencies and patient safety competencies were significantly correlated except for clinical informatics role both with patient safety knowledge and attitude. These results provided feedback to adjust and incorporate informatics competencies in the baccalaureate program and to recommend embracing the nursing informatics course as one of the core courses, not as an elective course, in the curriculum. PMID:26524185

  9. Correlates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among African-American college students: the effect of HIV knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, M; Kelly, E M; Stein, J A; Husaini, B A; Bazargan, S H

    2000-08-01

    This study identifies theoretically based predictors of condom use in a sample of 253 sexually active African-American college students recruited from two historically African-American colleges. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model of AIDS-preventive behavior was employed to delineate the roles of HIV/AIDS knowledge, experiences with and attitudes toward condom use, peer influences, perceived vulnerability, monogamy, and behavioral skills. A predictive structural equation model revealed significant predictors of more condom use including: male gender, more sexual HIV knowledge, positive experiences and attitudes about condom use, nonmonogamy, and greater behavioral skills. Results imply that attention to behavioral skills for negotiating safer sex and training in the proper use of condoms are key elements in reducing high risk behaviors. Increasing the specific knowledge level of college students regarding the subtleties of sexual transmission of HIV is important and should be addressed. Heightening students' awareness of the limited protection of serial monogamy, and the need to address gender-specific training regarding required behavior change to reduce transmission of HIV should be an additional goal of college health professionals. PMID:10992684

  10. Correlates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among African-American college students: the effect of HIV knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills.

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan, M.; Kelly, E. M.; Stein, J. A.; Husaini, B. A.; Bazargan, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies theoretically based predictors of condom use in a sample of 253 sexually active African-American college students recruited from two historically African-American colleges. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model of AIDS-preventive behavior was employed to delineate the roles of HIV/AIDS knowledge, experiences with and attitudes toward condom use, peer influences, perceived vulnerability, monogamy, and behavioral skills. A predictive structural equation model revealed significant predictors of more condom use including: male gender, more sexual HIV knowledge, positive experiences and attitudes about condom use, nonmonogamy, and greater behavioral skills. Results imply that attention to behavioral skills for negotiating safer sex and training in the proper use of condoms are key elements in reducing high risk behaviors. Increasing the specific knowledge level of college students regarding the subtleties of sexual transmission of HIV is important and should be addressed. Heightening students' awareness of the limited protection of serial monogamy, and the need to address gender-specific training regarding required behavior change to reduce transmission of HIV should be an additional goal of college health professionals. PMID:10992684

  11. Destrezas Pre-Vocacionales: Curriculo Basico. Guia para el Maestro (Prevocational Skills: Basic Curriculum. Teacher's Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    The Auxiliary Secretary of Vocational, Technical, and Higher Skill Instruction of Puerto Rico has the responsibility of offering prevocational services to students with disabilities. In the prevocational phase, the student receives academic instruction and acquires the knowledge and skills of general employment. This teacher's guide, in Spanish,…

  12. Colorin Colorado! ELL Starter Kit for Educators: Tools for Monitoring Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Keeping periodic track of the progress English language learners (ELLs) are making in their second language acquisition skills is essential. Learning a second language is a complex process. It's important for educators to gauge each student's abilities and skills regularly; each English language learner will acquire second language knowledge and…

  13. Learning Paramedic Science Skills from a First Person Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathy; Barr, Nigel; Oprescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Paramedic students need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform basic as well as complex clinical skills, to ensure patient safety, and to manage sophisticated equipment. Time and resource pressures on students, teaching staff and institutions have led health professional educators to develop and embrace alternative opportunities such…

  14. Strategizing Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning toward Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukama, Evode

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…

  15. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which

  17. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceio, Simone C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information

  18. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  19. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  20. Print exposure and performance on the exit level science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: A correlational study of secondary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Michael Everett

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pleasure reading habits and the science achievement of secondary students. The goal of this quantitative and non-experimental study was to examine the relationship between students' pleasure reading habits and their 11th-grade science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores. Pleasure reading habits were measured via relative levels of exposure to print, using the Title Recognition Test and Author Recognition Test, considered valid and reliable measurements of relative exposure to print. Science achievement was measured through the spring 2007 science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. The sample population included 454 students enrolled in one large suburban high school in north Texas. Data analysis results revealed statistically significant correlations between exposure to print and science achievement.