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1

Conference on 'Diagnostic Monitoring of Skill and Knowledge Acquisition'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the research in cognitive science has been concerned with identifying and describing the information processing skills and knowledge that are involved in problem solving and in acquiring an understanding of an area of expertise. In applying this k...

N. Frederiksen

1988-01-01

2

Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge  

SciTech Connect

Intended for researchers and students in AI, cognitive psychology, and computational geometry, this work presents an original theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

Davis, E.

1986-01-01

3

Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language generation (nlg) systems are computer software systems that pro- duce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. nlg systems, like most ai systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two nlg projects suggests that it is dicult to acquire correct knowledge for nlg systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (ka) technique

Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Roma Robertson

2003-01-01

4

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquaculture Technicians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for aquaculture technicians. The report begins with detailing the background of the creation of these guidelines, which occurred at the third annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference in Warwick, Rhode Island. Competency areas for aquaculture technicians outlined in the report are laboratory skills, math skills, knowledge of basic chemistry, field experience, knowledge of basic biology, mechanical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, internship experience, time management skills, computer skills, basic business skills and staying up-to-date.

2011-09-20

5

Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

Ride, Sally

2008-01-01

6

Acquired Skills Profiles for Environmental Science Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that developed software for the production of skills profiles for individual students as an appendix to the curriculum vitae submitted with employment applications. The software is specifically designed for students in modular degree programs in environmental education. (DDR)

Harrison, S. J.; Grieve, T.

1996-01-01

7

Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts  

PubMed Central

Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.

Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

2013-01-01

8

Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

Jones, Anne

2011-01-01

9

Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

2012-01-01

10

The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

2012-01-01

11

Approach to Acquiring and Applying Knowledge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem addressed in this paper is how to enable a computer system to acquire facts about new domains from tutors who are experts in their respective fields, but who have little or no training in computer science. The information to be acquired is tha...

G. G. Hendrix N. Haas

1980-01-01

12

Acquiring domain knowledge for negotiating agents: a case of study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employ the fuzzy repertory table technique to acquire the necessary domain knowledge for software agents to act as sellers and buyers using a bilateral, multi-issue negotiation model that can achieve optimal results in semi-competitive environments. In this context, the seller's domain knowledge that needs to be acquired is the rewards associated with the products and restrictions

Jose Jesus Castro-schez; Nicholas R. Jennings; Xudong Luo; Nigel R. Shadbolt

2004-01-01

13

49 CFR 383.135 - Passing knowledge and skills tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Passing knowledge and skills tests. 383.135 Section 383.135 Transportation...LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.135 Passing knowledge and skills tests. (a) Knowledge tests. (1) To...

2013-10-01

14

Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

2006-01-01

15

[Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].  

PubMed

This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702

Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

2013-08-01

16

Temporal guidance of musicians' performance movement is an acquired skill.  

PubMed

The ancillary (non-sounding) body movements made by expert musicians during performance have been shown to indicate expressive, emotional, and structural features of the music to observers, even if the sound of the performance is absent. If such ancillary body movements are a component of skilled musical performance, then it should follow that acquiring the temporal control of such movements is a feature of musical skill acquisition. This proposition is tested using measures derived from a theory of temporal guidance of movement, "General Tau Theory" (Lee in Ecol Psychol 10:221-250, 1998; Lee et al. in Exp Brain Res 139:151-159, 2001), to compare movements made during performances of intermediate-level clarinetists before and after learning a new piece of music. Results indicate that the temporal control of ancillary body movements made by participants was stronger in performances after the music had been learned and was closer to the measures of temporal control found for an expert musician's movements. These findings provide evidence that the temporal control of musicians' ancillary body movements develops with musical learning. These results have implications for other skillful behaviors and nonverbal communication. PMID:23392474

Rodger, M W M; O'Modhrain, S; Craig, C M

2013-04-01

17

From implicit skills to explicit knowledge: a bottom-up model of skill learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a skill learning model CLARION Different from existing models of mostly high - level skill learning that use a top - down approach (that is, turning declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge through practice), we adopt a bottom - up approach toward low - level skill learning, where procedural knowledge develops ?rst and declarative knowledge develops later

Ron Sun; Edward Merrill; Todd Peterson

2001-01-01

18

Acquired prior knowledge modulates audiovisual integration.  

PubMed

Orienting responses to audiovisual events in the environment can benefit markedly by the integration of visual and auditory spatial information. However, logically, audiovisual integration would only be considered successful for stimuli that are spatially and temporally aligned, as these would be emitted by a single object in space-time. As humans do not have prior knowledge about whether novel auditory and visual events do indeed emanate from the same object, such information needs to be extracted from a variety of sources. For example, expectation about alignment or misalignment could modulate the strength of multisensory integration. If evidence from previous trials would repeatedly favour aligned audiovisual inputs, the internal state might also assume alignment for the next trial, and hence react to a new audiovisual event as if it were aligned. To test for such a strategy, subjects oriented a head-fixed pointer as fast as possible to a visual flash that was consistently paired, though not always spatially aligned, with a co-occurring broadband sound. We varied the probability of audiovisual alignment between experiments. Reaction times were consistently lower in blocks containing only aligned audiovisual stimuli than in blocks also containing pseudorandomly presented spatially disparate stimuli. Results demonstrate dynamic updating of the subject's prior expectation of audiovisual congruency. We discuss a model of prior probability estimation to explain the results. PMID:20584180

Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Bremen, Peter; John Van Opstal, A

2010-05-01

19

Executive functioning and adaptive living skills after acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

Executive dysfunction is common following brain injury, with impairments involving attention, social pragmatics, higher-order thinking, judgment, and reasoning. Executive function impairments may have a direct impact on an individual's ability to return to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including employment, money management, driving, and maintaining a residence. Research has shown that neuropsychological executive function measures may be able to predict daily-living skills. There is limited research evaluating the relationship between executive functions and IADLs in adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI), with none investigating levels of proficiency as related to specific test scores. We hypothesize that neuropsychological executive function measures will have significant and moderate-to-strong correlations with participant-rated proficiency on functional tasks as measured by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory. Results support that IQ and some of the executive function measures (Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Trail-Making Test-Part B) correlated significantly and strongly and explained unique variance in all IADLs in this study. Data suggest that individuals with ABI who performed in the higher end of the low-average range or higher on measures of executive functioning tend to require little or no assistance to be independent with transportation, money management, living without support, and employment. Results also suggest that individuals with less executive dysfunction are likely to have greater overall community participation. PMID:23373638

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Talka, Kristin

2012-01-01

20

Effect of Hypermedia Structure on Acquired Knowledge Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What kind of influence does the structure of an educational hypermedia system have on the way its users understand its contents and organize the knowledge they acquire through its browsing? In this article, this already much discussed question, situated at the boundary between semiotics and cognitive science, is revisited in the light of results…

Fastrez, Pierre

2005-01-01

21

Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

2012-01-01

22

Clinical Skills Acquired during a Clerkship in Family Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the preceived acquisition of clinical skills by second-year medical students in six required clerkships is reported. The students completed self-assessments of their clinical skills when taking the family medicine clerkship. The principal contributions of the family medicine clerkship were in the management of common problems.…

Michener, J. Lloyd; And Others

1986-01-01

23

Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

2012-01-01

24

Knowledge and Skills for the Adult Educator: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from four Delphi questionnaires completed by 141 university professors of adult education present their rankings of priority knowledge and skills that will be needed by future adult educators, as well as the types of learning experiences that would be most effective in gaining the priority skills and knowledge. (MF)

Rossman, Mark H.; Bunning, Richard L.

1978-01-01

25

Developing Knowledge and Skills in Engineers: A Learning Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the knowledge and skill requirements for manufacturing system design and describes an innovative "learning laboratory" approach to educating graduate level manufacturing engineers. The laboratory provides a mechanism that gives engineers a wide range of knowledge and skills in design and implementation, much of which cannot be…

Platts, K.W.

2004-01-01

26

Coherence and the Development of Professional Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It can be difficult for students to relate theoretical knowledge and practical skills when making the transition from the classroom to professional practice. The concept of coherence has been suggested as an appropriate way to address how the relationships involved (i.e. between theoretical knowledge and practical skills and between classroom…

Smeby, Jens-Christian; Heggen, Kåre

2014-01-01

27

Developing Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Teach Diverse Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many teacher educators have suggested multiple ways to prepare teacher candidates to teach for diversity, the knowledge, skills and dispositions are not easy to acquire. The purpose of this research is to investigate how an M.Ed licensure program prepared teacher candidates to teach with concern for equity and diversity. The…

Lee, Young Ah; Herner-Patnode, Leah

2010-01-01

28

Long-Term Retention of Basic Mathematical Knowledge and Skills with Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the long-term retention of basic mathematical techniques in a first-year calculus course, involving a sample group of engineering students at the University of Pretoria. The study investigates which and how much of the basic mathematical knowledge and rote skills acquired in the first year of study is retained after a further…

Engelbrecht, J.; Harding, A.; Preez, J. Du

2007-01-01

29

Acquiring Skills: Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'…

Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.

30

Acquiring Conflict Resolution Skills as Cultural Learning: An Israeli Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A University of Haifa (Israel) introductory course in educational anthropology taught skills for conflict resolution, focusing on interethnic openness and tolerance. Student-developed scenarios of educational conflicts, and their resolutions revealed differences between Jewish and Arab students in conflict-resolution style. Implications are…

Eisikovits, Rivka A.; Karnieli, Mira

1992-01-01

31

Encouraging Students To Acquire Key Skills and Manage Their Own Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Kingdom higher education system is being encouraged to provide opportunities for students to acquire key skills/employability skills and to become better learners with a greater awareness of their individual learning needs, including the need to develop habits that will lead to lifelong learning. A number of issues need to be resolved…

Pickles, T. Anthony

32

Analysis of Essential Skills and Knowledge for Teaching Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies and posits guidelines for assessing the skills and knowledge of online distance ducators. Findings derived from Cooper?s (1998) synthesis research method reveal sixteen skills that may be grouped into six areas that are thought to be essential for educators to teach successfully online. The study also shows that factors, like…

Lee, Jia-Ling; Hirumi, Atsusi

2004-01-01

33

Development of Information Search Expertise: Postgraduates' Knowledge of Searching Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of the development of information searching expertise by 12 postgraduate research students. Six of the students were studying education, and six were studying engineering. The paper focuses on the students' perception of the importance of searching skills and the growth of their knowledge with these skills as they…

Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Law, Nancy

2007-01-01

34

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

35

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a) No certificate...operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, required by this...

2009-01-01

36

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a) No certificate...operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, required by this...

2010-01-01

37

Motor Skill: Feedback, Knowledge, and Structural Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback processing and structural constraints on movement are discussed. For aiming movements of the hand, the time to process feedback has been generally overestimated. Visual information about the target and especially the hand is important as is the rapid processing of kinesthetic feedback. We argue that skilled aiming movement is a product of tightly coupled efferent and afferent information within

Christine L. MacKenzie; Ronald G. Marteniuk

1985-01-01

38

The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.  

PubMed

Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PMID:22390659

Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

2012-09-01

39

Health Information Technology Knowledge and Skills Needed by HIT Employers  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Methods Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. Results HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. Conclusion The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.

Fenton, S.H.; Gongora-Ferraez, M.J.; Joost, E.

2012-01-01

40

Application of ACQUIRE, an automated knowledge acquisition system, to industrial maintenance and maintenance training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired Intelligence Inc. is developing a knowledge-based intelligent tutoring system, ACQUIRE, to work in conjunction with ACQUIRE-KAS, an automated knowledge acquisition system. The authors describe the authoring tools and the development of the industrial maintenance training application. The authors discuss knowledge acquisition, the major issue involved in developing knowledge-based systems, and knowledge-based instructional systems. The specific methodology and automated tools

P. Sihota; S. Yap; B. Schaefer; R. Wagstaff

1991-01-01

41

Do Learning Skills Acquired in the University Access Programme Enhance Participation in Academic Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I critically evaluate whether or not learning skills acquired in the university access programme enhance participation in academic practice. University access programmes have been developed with a view to preparing and empowering under-prepared students who did not meet the university criteria. The article claims that even though…

Hlalele, D. J.

2010-01-01

42

A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

The process of eliciting knowledge from human experts and representing that knowledge in an expert or knowledge-based system suffers from numerous problems. Not only is this process time-consuming and tedious, but the weak knowledge acquisition methods typically used (i.e., interviews and protocol analysis) are inadequate for eliciting tacit knowledge and may, in fact, lead to inaccuracies in the knowledge base. In addition, the intended knowledge representation scheme guides the acquisition of knowledge resulting in a representation-driven knowledge base as opposed to one that is knowledge-driven. In this paper, a formal methodology is proposed that employs techniques from the field of cognitive psychology to uncover expert knowledge as well as an appropriate representation of that knowledge. The advantages of such a methodology are discussed, as well as results from studies concerning the elicitation of concepts from experts and the assignment of labels to links in empirically derived semantic networks.

Cooke, N.M.; McDonald, J.E.

1986-10-01

43

Counteracting skill decay: four refresher interventions and their effect on skill and knowledge retention in a simulated process control task.  

PubMed

In process automation, skill decay has not been investigated systematically. In two experimental studies, refresher interventions (RIs) were compared to support skill and knowledge retention of a start-up procedure on a simulated process control task. Based on theories of proceduralisation, the 'testing-effect' and mental practice, four different RIs were designed. In Study 1 (N = 68), two experimental groups (EGs) received either an RI called 'Practice' or an RI called 'Skill Demonstration'. Both RIs support skill retention, but the Skill Demonstration-RI performed with a higher mental workload. In Study 2 (N = 68), two EGs received an RI called 'Symbolic Rehearsal' or an RI called 'Procedural Knowledge Test', and aimed at supporting knowledge retention. Both EGs supported knowledge retention but showed moderate skill decay. Results imply that RIs affect skill and knowledge retention differently and should be applied in accordance with the task requirements and their dependence on accurate skill or knowledge maintenance. PMID:24382262

Kluge, Annette; Frank, Barbara

2014-01-01

44

Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

2002-01-01

45

A Neural Network Based Approach to Knowledge Acquirement in Conceptual Design of Mechanical Derive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting an appropriate drive type that meets design requirements depends on a large amount of experiential knowledge in conceptual design of mechanical drive, whereas the complexity of conceptual design results in a great difficulty existing in knowledge acquirement. To tackle it, a BP network based approach to knowledge acquirement is proposed, in which a binary coding method is used to

Ruifeng Bo

2007-01-01

46

21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

Greenhill, Valerie

2010-01-01

47

Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

Phillips, Amy

2009-01-01

48

The Effects of Argument Stance on Scientific Knowledge Inquiry Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down…

Horng, Ruey-Yun; Lu, Po-Hui; Chen, Pei-Hua; Hou, Shih-Huan

2013-01-01

49

Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

Haddow, Gaby

2012-01-01

50

Exposure, knowledge or skill the computer literacy dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was a time when computer knowledge was so esoteric that only specialists needed to be educated. Only large organizations had computers and skills were needed only by the professional staff. Now the scene has changed. Computers are being used in the smallest of firms. Today there are millions of computers in homes, and there are offices with more computers

Theodore C. Willoughby

1983-01-01

51

Autonomously acquiring declarative and procedural knowledge for ICAT systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems is critically dependent on the ability to define and encode knowledge. This knowledge engineering effort can be broadly divided into two categories: domain knowledge and expert or task knowledge. Domain knowledge refers to the physical environment or system with which the expert interacts. Expert knowledge consists of the set of procedures and heuristics employed by the expert in performing their task. Both these areas are a significant bottleneck in the acquisition of knowledge for ICAT systems. This paper presents a research project in the area of autonomous knowledge acquisition using a passive observation concept. The system observes an expert and then generalizes the observations into production rules representing the domain expert's knowledge.

Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

1993-01-01

52

Fostering Historical Knowledge and Thinking Skills Using Hypermedia Learning Environments: The Role of Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how high-school students utilized a hypermedia learning environment (HLE) to acquire declarative knowledge of a historical topic, as well as historical thinking skills. In particular, we were interested in whether self-regulated learning (SRL; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000) processing was related to the…

Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Robertson, Jane

2010-01-01

53

Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n?=?249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses.

2012-01-01

54

A Case Study of the Mathematical Learning of Two Teachers Acquiring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers an analysis of the learning of practicing teachers as they acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics. While some professional developers have shifted part of their focus to helping practicing teachers acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics (e.g., Stein & Silver, 1996), the results from studies often describe what translates…

Hartman, David R.

2010-01-01

55

Preschoolers Use Questions as a Tool to Acquire Knowledge from Different Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children use questions as tools to acquire new knowledge? The current experiment examined preschool children's ability to direct questions to appropriate sources to acquire knowledge. Fifty preschoolers engaged in a task that entailed asking questions to discover which special key would open a box that contained a prize. Children solved…

Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Cristine H.; Bills, Megan; Mejias, Caroline

2010-01-01

56

Effects of Negative Information on Acquiring Procedural Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually, the material for learning is given in a positive form, i.e. xxx is yyy. This type of information will help organize the core of the target knowledge. Instead of this type of information, negative information, i.e. xxx is not zzz, will help sharpen the edge or extent of the target knowledge. Hence, it is expected that the negative information

Masaaki Kurosu; Yousuke Ookawa

2002-01-01

57

Authoring tool: Acquiring sharable knowledge for Smart CDSS.  

PubMed

Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) assist clinicians in making clinical decisions by using experts' knowledge stored in the knowledge base. However, sharing and reusing the knowledge is a challenging task. Many systems are developed to facilitate sharing of medical knowledge and allow its reusability. These systems are compliant to standard approaches such as HL7 Arden Syntax and HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) to incorporate medical logic in standard format. The main drawback with these systems is the complicated procedure in the development of clinical knowledge by ordinary clinicians. The proposed research work is focusing on developing authoring tool that creates sharable clinical knowledge base using standards such as HL7 Arden Syntax, HL7 vMR and HL7 CDA. Moreover, the authoring tool provides user friendly GUI to facilitate clinicians in creating standard based executable clinical knowledge base. We are closely working with oncologists and clinicians of a prominent cancer hospital to deploy the tool for Head and Neck Cancer diagnosis and treatment recommendations. PMID:24109928

Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Afzal, Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung

2013-01-01

58

A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.  

PubMed

The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples. PMID:23121446

van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

2012-01-01

59

Comprehension Deficits from Inability to Shift Schemata: Interference of Existing Knowledge on Acquiring New Knowledge from Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A specific skill necessary to expand vocabulary is that of acquiring additional meanings for words that have common, already known meanings. A study was conducted to determine if presenting subjects with the known meaning of a word before requiring them to learn a new meaning for it would result in a learning detriment. The study used homonyms…

Kinzer, Charles K.

60

Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate. PMID:22169537

Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

2011-12-20

61

Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's Layout Drives Structural Brain Changes  

PubMed Central

Summary The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1–8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9–18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the “nature versus nurture” debate.

Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

2011-01-01

62

ISS Update: Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM)  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan talks to Brion Au, Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) Payload Developer, about the EarthKAM investigation being performed aboard the Inter...

63

The Implications of the Skills-based Approach for Training Design: A Paradigmatic Shift in Work-Related Training and in Organisational Knowledge Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design of work-related learning must consider the following: flexibility, learning to learn in changing contexts, social participation, and different types of work-related knowledge. New approaches to acquiring skills and knowledge are needed. Trends influencing these factors include change of focus from training to learning, increasing learner…

Sellin, Burkart

2003-01-01

64

Knowledge and Skill Areas Associated with Disability Management Practice for Rehabilitation Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the reported preparedness of disability management practitioners (N=311) using the Disability Management Skills Inventory. Factor analysis revealed 94 knowledge and skill items distributed across three competency areas. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences in perceived importance of various knowledge and skill areas,…

Scully, Susan M.; Habeck, Rochelle V.; Leahy, Michael J.

1999-01-01

65

KEATS (Knowledge Engineering and Training System): A System to Support Knowledge Engineering and Training for Decision-Making Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the development of advanced training technologies for decision-making skills. Training systems must, like decision aids, be based on expert knowledge of the target decision domain. Initial knowledge acquisition activities using struct...

D. Johnston, F. H. Brecke, G. Slemon, J. McGarvey, P. Hays

1989-01-01

66

49 CFR Appendix to Subpart G of... - Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines Appendix...REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills Pt. 383, Subpt. G, App...to Subpart G of Part 383âRequired Knowledge and SkillsâSample Guidelines...

2010-10-01

67

49 CFR Appendix to Subpart G of... - Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines Appendix...REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills Pt. 383, Subpt. G, App...to Subpart G of Part 383âRequired Knowledge and SkillsâSample Guidelines...

2009-10-01

68

Surveying knowledge and skills in the health sciences: results and implications.  

PubMed Central

The MLA Knowledge and Skills Task Force was appointed in May 1989. The task force decided to survey a sample of the membership to define the knowledge and skills required for competent professional performance and to enable MLA to establish educational policies which would ensure acquisition and maintenance of the necessary knowledge and skills throughout a professional career. This report presents the initial findings of the survey, upon which MLA's educational policy statement, Platform for Change, is based.

Roper, F W; Mayfield, M K

1993-01-01

69

Acquisition of knowledge in sequential control systems-merging the knowledge acquired from different cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper a method for knowledge representation and acquisition in sequential control systems was proposed. The objective of that paper was to simplify the acquisition of knowledge and the transition from the specification of sequential control systems design to the Petri net modeling. The method utilized a Petri-net based representation of the concepts for knowledge acquisition in sequential

Yigang Cai; M. Shih; T. Sekiguchi

1992-01-01

70

Equipping Intelligent Agents with Commonsense Knowledge acquired from Search Query Logs: Results from an Exploratory Story  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to knowledge about user goals represents a critical component for realizing the vision of intelligent agents acting upon user intent on the web. Yet, the manual acquisition of knowledge about user goals is costly and often infeasible. In a departure from existing approaches, this paper proposes Goal Mining as a novel perspective for knowledge acquisition. The research presented in this chapter makes the following contributions: (a) it presents Goal Mining as an emerging field of research and a corresponding automatic method for the acquisition of user goals from web corpora, in the case of this paper search query logs (b) it provides insights into the nature and some characteristics of these goals and (c) it shows that the goals acquired from query logs exhibit traits of a long tail distribution, thereby providing access to a broad range of user goals. Our results suggest that search query logs represent a viable, yet largely untapped resource for acquiring knowledge about explicit user goals.

Strohmaier, Markus; Kröll, Mark; Prettenhofer, Peter

71

Knowledge of Social Skills among Institutionalized Juvenile DelinquentsAn Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of researchers have developed social skills training programs for juvenile delinquents, based on the assumption that they lack social skills. In order to assess knowledge of social skills among juvenile delinquents, a sample of 411 adolescent offenders was obtained. The sample consisted of all adjudicated male delinquents aged 12 to 15 admitted to a state training school over

CAROL VENEZIANO; LOUIS VENEZIANO

1988-01-01

72

Experiments are the key to understanding socially acquired knowledge in cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We agree with Rendell and Whitehead that cetaceans acquire knowledge from caretakers and peers, and that a clear understanding of this process can provide insight into the evolution of mammalian cognition. The passive observational methods they advocate, however, are inadequate for determining what cetaceans know. Only by experimentally investigating the cognition of cetaceans can we hope to understand what they

Eduardo Mercado; Caroline M. DeLongb

2001-01-01

73

What will encourage employees to acquire and share knowledge at work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few would question that knowledge management (KM) has arrived as a major discipline. Although KM solutions to date have largely been biased towards the technological, there is a growing recognition that the 'softer' human and cultural aspects of organizational life must also be addressed. Empirical data from two studies is used to explore the influences upon employees' attitudes towards acquiring

Adrian Patch; David Guest; Kate Mackenzie Davey; Jenny Kidd

74

Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

2011-01-01

75

A Values, Skills and Knowledge Framework for Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrated values, skills and knowledge (VSK) framework for initial teacher preparation programmes. The VSK framework articulated, in broad terms, the desired skills and knowledge components for beginning teachers, with the underlying core values permeating the programmes. The paper has two parts, the…

Chong, Sylvia; Cheah, Horn Mun

2009-01-01

76

A Values, Skills and Knowledge Framework for Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrated values, skills and knowledge (VSK) framework for initial teacher preparation programmes. The VSK framework articulated, in broad terms, the desired skills and knowledge components for beginning teachers, with the underlying core values permeating the programmes. The paper has two parts, the first of which details the development as well as

Sylvia Chong; Horn Mun Cheah

2009-01-01

77

ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

2011-01-01

78

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

2011-01-01

79

Recognition of Tacit Skills and Knowledge: Sustaining Learning Outcomes in Workplace Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The part played by tacit skills and knowledge in work performance is well recognised but not well understood. These implicit or hidden dimensions of knowledge and skill are key elements of "mastery," which experienced workers draw upon in everyday activities and continuously expand in tackling new or unexpected situations. This paper, based on the…

Evans, Karen; Kersh, Natasha

2004-01-01

80

The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

2012-01-01

81

The Relationship between Linguistic Skills and Arithmetic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language is implicated in children's mathematical development, few studies have focused specifically on how different linguistic skills relate to children's mathematical performance. Building on the model proposed by LeFevre et al. (2010), this study examined how general verbal ability and phonological skills were differentially related…

Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

82

A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

83

Knowledge Management in the Learning Society. Education and Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on understanding knowledge and learning in the contexts of economic development and social cohesion. A preliminary overview is presented of the knowledge processes at work in different sectors, and the book identifies a number of ways in which microlevel or sectoral understanding of the knowledge-based economy is important in…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

84

Acquiring Information Technology Skills by Freshmen Students at Kuwait University: The Language Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of academic courses for freshmen students aiming at improving their information technology skills is crucial due to the large number of students admitted every year. Kuwait University introduced a service course in information technology skills to freshman students in the College of Science to be taught in English, and a similar course to freshmen students in the College

Samir N. Hamade

2007-01-01

85

A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

2007-01-01

86

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leaders: Tactical Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper covers the combat performances, knowledges, and skills critical to the Infantry rifle squad leader in planning and directing his squad's actions when assigned security missions as part of a rifle platoon conducting or participating in tactical m...

H. E. Kelly F. K. Cleary

1969-01-01

87

Cognitive Skill Acquisition Through a Meta-Knowledge Processing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging trend for taking a more collaborative approach to life-long learning is picking up pace. So, too, is the rate at which online learning systems are implemented by novice courseware designers. Nevertheless, if we want to sustain the momentum, we must understand more about how to manage the computer-human interaction (CHI) and, henceforth, the cognitive skills acquisition process involved

Elspeth McKay

2002-01-01

88

Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

2005-01-01

89

Assessing knowledge skills in the NHS: a training needs analysis approach.  

PubMed

This feature discusses the use of a training needs analysis exercise carried out by library staff at the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (NHSGGC) Library Network to support the development of a fit for purpose programme of information skills training. A survey was designed based on a well-known information skills competency framework and used to gain an understanding of the knowledge skills needed by staff and how library training could best support these. The survey received a good response rate and led to the successful writing of a training plan for the Library Network for the delivery of information skills training. H.S. PMID:23692458

Hamilton, Seona

2013-06-01

90

The Purpose of the PhD: Theorising the Skills Acquired by Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside the PhD…

Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine

2010-01-01

91

Skill reacquisition after acquired brain injury: a holistic habit retraining model of neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Persistent cognitive, emotional and behavioral dysfunction following brain injury present formidable challenges in the area of neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a model and practical methodology for community based neurorehabilitation based upon: 1. Evidence from the "automatic learning" and "errorless learning" literature for skills relearning after brain injury; 2. A widely applicable task analytic approach to designing relevant skills retraining protocols; 3. Analysis of organic, reactive, developmental, and characterological obstacles to strategy utilization and relearning, and generation of effective therapeutic interventions; and 4. Procedures for (a) promoting rehabilitative strategy use adapted to acute and chronic neurologic losses, (b) an individual's inherent reinforcement preferences and coping style, (c) reliant on naturalistic reinforcers which highlight relationships to functional goals, utilize social networks, and (d) employ a simple and appealing cognitive attitudinal system and set of procedures. This Holistic Habit Retraining Model and methodology integrates core psychotherapeutic and learning principles as rehabilitation process ingredients necessary for optimal facilitation of skills retraining. It presents a model that generates practical, utilitarian strategies for retraining adaptive cognitive, emotional, behavioral and social skills, as well as strategies for overcoming common obstacles to utilizing methods that promote effective skills acquisition. PMID:18525133

Martelli, Michael F; Nicholson, Keith; Zasler, Nathan D

2008-01-01

92

More than Words: An Early Grades Reading Program Builds Skills and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years ago, as a way to ensure that students not only learn to decode but also understand what they decode, the Core Knowledge Foundation, the nonprofit that publishes the Core Knowledge curriculum, created a language arts program for kindergarten through second grade. The program includes two 60-minute strands: (1) a "Skills Strand," in which…

Dubin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

93

Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Phonological Awareness in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…

Tibi, Sana

2005-01-01

94

Number Knowledge for Prediction of Specific Reading Skills and Achievement in First Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that, of several reading readiness factors, knowledge of alphabet letter names is the best predictor of phonics skills other than vowel recognition and of reading abilities involving words in insolation, and that number knowledge is the best predictor of reading abilities involving words and syntax. (FL)

Dermott, R. Allan; And Others

1980-01-01

95

Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

96

Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

97

Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a physics by inquiry class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and rebuttal evidence and justification scores developed during the course. It was also found that improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal evidence scores was content independent whereas improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal justification scores was content dependent. The results showed that prospective science teacher conceptual physics knowledge was improved from the beginning to the end of the instruction. More specifically, their declarative and situational knowledge scores increased from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that prospective science teacher argumentation scores can be related to physics conceptual knowledge pretest and posttest scores. In addition, it was found that argumentation gain scores were not related to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level. According to these findings, implications regarding prospective science teacher education and explicit teaching about argumentation were discussed.

Acar, Omer

98

Acquiring Expertise and Cognitive Skills in the Process of Constructing an Expert System: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the educational implications of having a group of 17 first-year New Zealand nursing students develop a medical expert system. Goals of the study were to determine whether, in the process of developing the expert system, the learners could: (1) acquire a more in-depth understanding of the specific subject domain under study…

Lai, Kwok-Wing

99

A quantitative survey of intern's knowledge of communication skills: an Iranian exploration  

PubMed Central

Background It is a high priority that health care providers have effective communication skills. It has been well documented that the doctor-patient relationship is central to the delivery of high quality medical care, and it has been shown to affect patient satisfaction, to decrease the use of pain killers, to shorten hospital stays, to improve recovery from surgery and a variety of other biological, psychological and social outcomes. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge of interns in Iran about communication skills. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-report questionnaire was conducted among interns. Data analysis was based on 223 questionnaires. The internal consistency of the items was 0.8979. Results Overall, knowledge levels were unsatisfactory. Results indicated that interns had a limited knowledge of communication skills, including identification of communication skills. In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of interns on breaking bad news and sex education. The confidence of males about their communication skills was significantly higher than for females. Analysis of the total scores by age and sex showed that there was a statistically significant main effect for sex and the interaction with age was statistically significant. Free response comments of the interns are also discussed. Conclusions It is argued that there is a real need for integrating a communication skills course, which is linked to the various different ethnic and religious backgrounds of interns, into Iranian medical curricula. Some recommendations are made and the limitations of the study are discussed.

Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Lyne, Owen D; Zeinaloo, Ali A

2005-01-01

100

A confirmatory factor analytic approach on perceptions of knowledge and skills in teaching (PKST).  

PubMed

This paper reports the cross-validation of the factor pattern of the Perceptions of Knowledge and Skills in Teaching (PKST) survey, which was used to assess the self-perceived pedagogical knowledge and skills of pre-service and beginning teachers. The sample comprised 323 pre-service teachers enrolled in a 1-yr. post-graduate teacher education program in Singapore. The survey had 37 items distributed across six scales: student learning, lesson planning, instructional support, accommodating diversity, classroom management, and care and concern. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to cross-validate the survey's factor pattern. The results showed that the model was an acceptable fit to the data. The PKST survey can thus be adapted by different teacher education programs to assess pre-service and beginning teachers' progress in developing their pedagogical knowledge and skills. PMID:22662412

Choy, Doris; Lim, Kam Ming; Chong, Sylvia; Wong, Angela F L

2012-04-01

101

[Role of pharmacists in disaster medicine: required knowledge and skills].  

PubMed

Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, Okayama University dispatched a medical assistance team based on the request of Iwate Prefecture. The first team was followed by 12 medical teams. I was one of the members of the fourth and fifth medical teams sent to Rikuzen-takata and Ofunato for a week beginning March 16th to support medical relief operations as a pharmacist during the sub-acute phase of the disaster. As a member of the team at the temporary clinic in Rikuzen-takata, pharmacists such as myself required physical assessment skills to perform related tasks, along with expertise in drug dispensing and consultation. In my next medical team, which headed the pneumonia unit at Oofunato Hospital, I played a critical role in the effective use of medicine reserved/provided for disasters, including antibiotics. Throughout the relief operations, strong clinical reasoning and decision making, as well as good teamwork, proved vital, especially in emergency situations. For future community medical systems, emergency/disaster medicine should be included in pharmacy education. The School of Pharmacy at Okayama University will establish emergency medicine program in the next school year, in cooperation with the Medical, Dental and Health Care Departments. PMID:24389607

Nakura, Hironori

2014-01-01

102

Acquiring knowledge by foreign partners from international joint ventures in a transition economy: learning-by-doing and learning myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and tests a model of how firms acquire knowledge from their international joint venturing experience. Based on survey responses from 73 Singapore and 89 Hong Kong firms with respect to their joint ventures set up in China, the results indicate that both overseeing effort and management involvement are significant channels of knowledge acquisition. The former channel is

Eric W. K. Tsang

2002-01-01

103

Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge.  

PubMed

Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in kindergarten, predicted the level of arithmetic in first grade, and later growth through third grade. Study 2 (n = 378) further showed that these associations were mediated by counting sequence knowledge measured in first grade. These studies add to the literature by demonstrating the importance of written language for arithmetic development. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that linguistic and spatial skills can improve arithmetic development by enhancing children's number-related knowledge. PMID:24148144

Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2014-05-01

104

Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

2011-10-01

105

Additional Evidence of Far Transfer of Scientific Reasoning Skills Acquired in a CLASP Reformed Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

2014-04-11

106

Soft Skills: An Important Asset Acquired from Organizing Regional Student Group Activities  

PubMed Central

Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills.

de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

2014-01-01

107

Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.  

PubMed

Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

2014-07-01

108

Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

2013-01-01

109

Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents' civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers' qualifications and students' classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4…

Zhang, Ting; Torney-Purta, Judith; Barber, Carolyn

2012-01-01

110

Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new way…

Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.

2006-01-01

111

An Approach to Integrating Knowledge, Language Skills and Attitudes in Citizenship Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes specific citizenship materials included in a supplement to the WESTCOAST Reader, a Canadian newspaper intended to help adults learning to read English as a second language. The supplement helped to integrate the knowledge component of citizenship education with the development of language skills and attitudes. (Author/CB)

Acosta, Joan

1989-01-01

112

Facilitating the Development of Disciplinary Knowledge and Communication Skills: Integrating Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While proficiency in academic writing and communication skills, such as teamwork, are seen as desirable graduate outcomes in higher education, they have taken a secondary place to the teaching of specific disciplinary knowledge within curricula. Traditionally, writing, such as writing a researched report, has been a source of anxiety for students…

Najar, Robyn L.

113

Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

Williams, Laurel Lyn

2009-01-01

114

The Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Knowledge and Skills Survey for Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated the empirical properties of the 33-item Teacher Knowledge and Skills Survey (TKSS) 2.0 for positive behavioral support (PBS) in schools. Through an examination of internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the theorized construct, the construct validity of the survey was evaluated. Results…

Blum, Craig; Cheney, Douglas

2009-01-01

115

Student Teachers' Development of a Positive Attitude towards Research and Research Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…

van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc

2012-01-01

116

The Knowledge, Experience, Skills, and Characteristics TESOL Employers Seek in Job Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a competitive marketplace, job candidates need to know what TESOL employers are seeking in new hires. A 12-month study of TESOL job announcements examined the types of work offered and the candidate knowledge, experience, skills, and personal characteristics TESOL employers were seeking in full-time hires. An analysis of 169 job advertisements…

Bailey, Caprice L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.; Dewey, Dan P.

2013-01-01

117

Validation of the modified Fresno Test: assessing physical therapists' evidence based practice knowledge and skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health care educators need valid and reliable tools to assess evidence based practice (EBP) knowledge and skills. Such instruments have yet to be developed for use among physical therapists. The Fresno Test (FT) has been validated only among general practitioners and occupational therapists and does not assess integration of research evidence with patient perspectives and clinical expertise. The purpose

Julie K. Tilson

2010-01-01

118

Transfer of knowledge and skills: some implications for nursing and nurse education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of transfer has enormous importance to nursing as it begins to highlight potential problems in the transfer of knowledge and skills from the campus to the clinical area, from one part of the clinical area to another (e.g. surgical to medical), and from community to the clinical area. Thus, any adequate conceptualization of transfer must account for problems

William Lauder; William Reynolds; Neil Angus

1999-01-01

119

Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

2008-01-01

120

Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

2007-01-01

121

A Comparison of Information Technology Training Sources, Value, Knowledge, and Skills for Louisiana's Secondary Vocational Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 619 of 1,126 secondary vocational teachers in Louisiana indicated that most recognized the value of information technology but rate their knowledge and skills to use it in instruction as average to below average. Many have limited Internet access. Many use self-directed methods to learn about technology. (Contains 50…

Kotrlik, Joe W.; Harrison, Betty C.; Redmann, Donna H.

2000-01-01

122

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Counterintelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The skills, knowledges, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to deny the enemy access to military information, to detect and counter enemy attempts to penetrate security, and to deceive the enemy as to our true intentions and plans...

F. L. Brown

1968-01-01

123

Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina

2008-01-01

124

Do One-to-One Initiatives Bridge the Way to 21st Century Knowledge and Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from an investigation of the overall effectiveness of Michigan's Freedom to Learn (FTL) One-to-One initiative. The major goal of the FTL initiative was to help students to gain 21st century knowledge and skills while increasing their learning and achievement through the integration of over 20,000 laptop computers…

Lowther, Deborah L.; Inan, Fethi A.; Ross, Steven M.; Strahl, J. Daniel

2012-01-01

125

The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…

Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

126

Critical IS professional activities and skills\\/knowledge: A perspective of IS managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized the activity competency model to investigate the perceived importance of crit- ical professional activities and skills\\/knowledge required by three levels of information system (IS) managers. Our findings indicated that the perceived importance of critical IS professional activities were significantly different among the management levels, but not significantly different for various industry types. Carrying a critical IS activity

Jen-Her Wu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Jack Chang

2007-01-01

127

Knowledge and Skills Inventory. the Operations/Training Officer S-3. Combat Arms Maneuver Battalion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the U. S. Army Infantry School (USAIS), Work Unit CAMBCOM conducted research that identified the knowledges and skills of the principal staff officers (S1, S2, S3, S4) of the six types of maneuver battalions (Infantry, Lt Infantry, Mecha...

1970-01-01

128

Effects of an Online Problem Based Learning Course on Content Knowledge Acquisition and Critical Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how the online problem based learning (PBL) approach employed in an online learning environment influenced undergraduate students' critical thinking skills (CTS) and content knowledge acquisition. The pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study. The subjects included the students who were enrolled at the…

Sendag, Serkan; Odabasi, H. Ferhan

2009-01-01

129

Educational Skills and Knowledge Needed and Problems Encountered by Continuing Medical Education Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 112 general practitioners in Quebec who organize continuing medical education and interviews with 18 identified their skill and knowledge needs in the areas of needs assessment, adult education principles, and group leadership techniques. Their primary problems included motivating and maintaining physicians' interest in formal…

Maltais, Paule; Goulet, Francois; Borduas, Francine

2000-01-01

130

Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

131

The Perceptions of Teacher Skills and Knowledge by Regular and Special Educators of Mildly Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results indicate that, while there is consonance between the self-perceived skills and knowledge of special educators and how regular educators view them, there is an apparent dissonance between how regular educators view themselves and special educators' perceptions of regular elementary teachers. (Author)

Furey, Eileen M.; Strauch, James D.

1983-01-01

132

University and Elementary School Perspectives of Ideal Elementary Science Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the teaching of science is valued; the best approach to science teaching; and planning for science instruction. When asked of their teaching effectiveness while teaching science, principals referred to enjoying science teaching and improving their practice, while teachers and science teacher educators discussed content knowledge. Administrators valued conducting experiments and hands-on science while teaching science, while their educational counterparts valued creating student connections and providing real-life applications to science for students. In their professional opinions, administrators preferred a hands-on approach to science teaching. Teachers and science teacher educators stated that they view scientific inquiry, exploration, and discovery as effective approaches to teaching within their classrooms. Administrators predicted that teachers would state that lack of resources affects their lesson planning in science. However, teachers and science teacher educators asserted that taking time to plan for science instruction was most important.

Sewart, Bethany Bianca

133

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

134

Are Librarians the Ultimate Knowledge Managers? A Study of Knowledge, Skills, Practice and Mindset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…

Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne

2008-01-01

135

An investigation into teaching games for understanding: effects on skill, knowledge, and game play.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the games for understanding model by comparing it to a technique approach to instruction and a control group. The technique method focused primarily on skill instruction where the skill taught initially was incorporated into a game at the end of each lesson. The games for understanding approach emphasized developing tactical awareness and decision making in small game situations. Two physical education specialists taught field hockey using these approaches for 15 lessons (45 min each). The control group did not receive any field hockey instruction. Data were collected from 71 middle school children. Pretests and posttests were administered for hockey knowledge, skill, and game performance. Separate analyses of variance or analyses of covariance were conducted to examine group differences for cognitive and skill outcomes. The games for understanding group scored significantly higher on passing decision making than the technique and control groups during posttest game play and significantly higher than the control group for declarative and procedural knowledge. The games for understanding group scored significantly higher on control and passing execution than the other groups during posttest game play. For hockey skill, there were no significant differences among the treatment groups for accuracy, but the technique group recorded faster times than the control group on the posttest. PMID:10522286

Turner, A P; Martinek, T J

1999-09-01

136

Effects of a Laboratory-Centered Inquiry Program on Laboratory Skills, Science Process Skills, and Understanding of Science Knowledge in Middle Grades Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a laboratory-centered inquiry program on laboratory skills, science process skills, and knowledge/understanding. The inquiry approach used in the Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) program and a traditional science textbook approach were compared in terms of the three…

Mattheis, Floyd E.; Nakayama, Genzo

137

Parental Involvement and the Developmental Stages of Writing: Knowledge and Skills to Assist Children and Parent Perceptions on Their Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A kindergarten parent workshop series on the developmental stages of writing was created and assessed. The intended outcome was to empower parents with writing knowledge and writing skills so that they could apply this knowledge and skills at home with their child. The researcher developed the workshops from parent involvement research,…

Fernandez-Kaltenbach, Elena

2009-01-01

138

Perceptions of Career and Technology and Training and Development Students regarding Basic Personal Computer Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 58 students in career and technology teacher education and training and development was surveyed to determine self-perception as to their competency in five constructs containing 43 elements related to personal computer knowledge and skills. In an analysis of all computer knowledge and skill elements combined, there was no…

Davis, Jason L.; Davis, Harley

2007-01-01

139

Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills Through Project-Based Science Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of their local park in the borough of Queens, New York City. Students' questions included a wide range

Kabba E. Colley

2006-01-01

140

Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

Colley, Kabba E.

2006-01-01

141

Enhancing practice teachers' knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets.  

PubMed

This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development. PMID:24974553

Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean

2014-06-01

142

Ertapenem versus cefepime for initial empirical treatment of pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospitals outside the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here compared the efficacy and safety of ertapenem and cefepime as initial treatment for adults with pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospital environments outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-ventilated patients developing pneumonia in hospital environments outside the ICU, in nursing homes, or in other skilled-care facilities were enrolled in this double-blind non-inferiority study, stratified

S. V. Yakovlev; L. S. Stratchounski; G. L. Woods; B. Adeyi; K. A. McCarroll; J. A. Ginanni; I. R. Friedland; C. A. Wood; M. J. DiNubile

2006-01-01

143

Developing Health Literacy Knowledge and Skills Through Case-Based Learning  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of case-based learning to teach pharmacy students health literacy concepts and skills in managing patients with limited health literacy. Design. A health literacy patient case was developed and incorporated into a case-based learning laboratory. The case involved a patient with limited health literacy and required students to evaluate and formulate a care plan. Assessment. A comparison of pretest and posttest scores demonstrated that students gained health literacy knowledge and skills through completion of the patient case. Students believed that the case-based exercise was successful in meeting specific learning objectives for the course. Conclusions. Addition of a case-based learning was effective in teaching pharmacy students health literacy concepts and skills.

Lopez, Tina

2014-01-01

144

Observing the Observer: Self-Regulation in the Observational Learning of Motor Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor skills are among the most basic and prevalent types of knowledge that individuals must acquire over the life span, and observational learning is one of the primary ways in which individuals acquire new knowledge and skills. Observational learning of a motor skill involves: (1) observation of the model, which allows one to imitate and understand a modeled demonstration, and

Michel Ferrari

1996-01-01

145

Enhancing the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of preceptors: an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

Within the context of nursing education in Australia, the registered nurse (RN) preceptor plays an invaluable role with nursing students; however, many are not specifically trained for this role. This study explored the perceptions of practicing preceptors from one health care facility after completion of a specially designed preceptor program. Results indicated that the participants perceived that the program had increased their knowledge of teaching and learning and increased their skills as preceptors. Further results suggested that when the RN preceptor's knowledge of the teaching and learning process increased, it led to an increase in the RN preceptor's generic preceptor skills. This increased the RN preceptor's confidence, leading to a more positive attitude toward student nurses and a positive effect on preceptor functioning, enhancing the preceptor's ability to include students more in daily nursing tasks. PMID:20540460

Smedley, Alison; Morey, Peter; Race, Paul

2010-10-01

146

Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific\\u000a knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’\\u000a divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred\\u000a and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled

Chun-Yen Chang

2010-01-01

147

Are adolescents getting smarter about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Changes in knowledge and attitude over the past 5 years.  

PubMed

A survey was administered to 1543 adolescents from southeastern Wisconsin to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and persons with the disease. Responses were compared with those of other studies involving adolescents using identical or similar test items. Results of the study demonstrate that knowledge of AIDS and of the modes of human immunodeficiency virus transmission have increased dramatically over the past 5 years. Ninety-eight percent of high school students in this study understood the modes of transmission and that merely touching a person with AIDS will not transmit the virus. However, results also revealed that many negative biases remain toward people who have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Forty-five percent of the students believed that homosexuals and intravenous drug users were "getting what they deserve." Recommendations are made that future educational efforts focus on changes in attitudes and behaviors in relation to adolescents' previously acquired knowledge of AIDS. PMID:2305735

Steiner, J D; Sorokin, G; Schiedermayer, D L; Van Susteren, T J

1990-03-01

148

Use of a continuing medical education course to improve fellows' knowledge and skills in esophageal disorders.  

PubMed

Advanced esophageal endoscopic procedures such as stricture dilation, hemostasis tools, and stent placement as well as high-resolution manometry (HRM) interpretation are necessary skills for gastroenterology fellows to obtain during their training. Becoming proficient in these skills may be challenging in light of higher complication rates compared with diagnostic procedures and infrequent opportunities to practice these skills. Our aim was to determine if intensive training during a continuing medical education (CME) course boosts the knowledge and skills of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal diagnostic test interpretation and performance of therapeutic procedures. This was a pretest-posttest design without a control group of a simulation-based, educational intervention in esophageal stricture balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. The participants were 24 gastroenterology fellows from 21 accredited US training programs. This was an intensive CME course held in Las Vegas, Nevada from August 7 to August 9, 2009. The research procedure had two phases. First, the subjects were measured at baseline (pretest) for their knowledge and procedural skill. Second, the fellows received 6 hours of education sessions featuring didactic content, instruction in HRM indications and interpretation, and deliberate practice using an esophageal stricture dilation model. After the intervention, all of the fellows were retested (posttest). A 17-item checklist was developed for the esophageal balloon dilation procedure using relevant sources, expert opinion, and rigorous step-by-step procedures. Nineteen representative HRM swallow studies were obtained from Northwestern's motility lab and formed the pretest and posttest in HRM interpretation. Mean scores on the dilation checklist improved 81% from 39.4% (standard deviation [SD]= 33.4%) at pretest to 71.3% (SD = 29.5%) after simulation training (P < 0.001). HRM mean examination scores increased from 27.2% (SD = 16.4%) to 46.5% (SD = 15.8%), representing a 71% improvement (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlations indicated there was no correlation between pretest performance, medical knowledge measured by United States Medical Licensing Examination examinations, prior clinical experience, or procedural self-confidence and posttest performance of esophageal dilation or HRM interpretation. The education program was rated highly. This study demonstrated that a CME course significantly enhanced the technical skills and knowledge of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. CME courses such as this may be a valuable adjunct to standard fellowship training in gastroenterology. PMID:21309911

Kim, H C; Pandolfino, J E; Komanduri, S; Hirano, I; Cohen, E R; Wayne, D B

2011-08-01

149

Relationships among process skills development, knowledge acquisition, and gender in microcomputer-based chemistry laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated how instruction in MBL environments can be designed to facilitate process skills development and knowledge acquisition among high school chemistry students. Ninety-eight college preparatory chemistry students in six intact classes were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: MBL with enhanced instruction in Macroscopic knowledge, MBL with enhanced instruction in Microscopic knowledge, and MBL with enhanced instruction in Symbolic knowledge. Each treatment group completed a total of four MBL titrations involving acids and bases. After the first and third titrations, the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic groups received enhanced instruction in the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic modes, respectively. During each titration, participants used audiotapes to record their verbal interactions. The study also explored the effects of three potential covariates (age, mathematics background, and computer usage) on the relationships among the independent variables (type of enhanced instruction and gender) and the dependent variables (science process skills and knowledge acquisition). Process skills were measured via gain scores on a standardized test. Analysis of Covariance eliminated age, mathematics background, and computer usage as covariates in this study. Analysis of Variance identified no significant effects on process skills attributable to treatment or gender. Knowledge acquisition was assessed via protocol analysis of statements made by the participants during the four titrations. Statements were categorized as procedural, observational, conceptual/analytical, or miscellaneous. Statement category percentages were analyzed for trends across treatments, genders, and experiments. Instruction emphasizing the Macroscopic mode may have increased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements. Instruction emphasizing the Symbolic mode may have increased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements and decreased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements. Instruction emphasizing the Microscopic mode may have increased percentages of conceptual/analytical and miscellaneous statements. Males made higher percentages of procedural comments than did females, while females made higher percentages of conceptual/analytical comments than did males. The use of insoluble unknowns may have increased percentages of procedural and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of observational and conceptual/analytical statements. The exploratory nature of the fourth titration may have decreased percentages of observational statements across all treatments.

Krieger, Carla Repsher

150

Retention of knowledge and skills in first aid and resuscitation by airline cabin crew.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the retention of CPR and AED skills, first aid knowledge and perceived levels of confidence for a sample of 35 cabin crew 12 months after recurrent training. The 35 cabin crew undertook a mock resuscitation scenario using the AED and bag-valve-mask carried in the medical kit. Of the 35 subjects, 33 subjects failed to use the bag-mask correctly, 18 performed chest compressions at the incorrect site, only 13 achieved the correct compression depth, only 20 placed the AED pads correctly, and the average time to first shock was 110 s after commencement of the resuscitation. While theoretical first aid knowledge was high, the participants held low levels of self-confidence in their CPR and AED skills. The results of this study indicate that cabin crew may not have sufficiently high levels of skill to manage a cardiac arrest adequately. This suggests that existing approaches to training of cabin crew require further investigation and modification. PMID:17976894

Mahony, Paul H; Griffiths, Robin F; Larsen, Peter; Powell, David

2008-03-01

151

Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Critical Thinking Skills in Developmental Biology†  

PubMed Central

The primary goal of this project was to assess long-term retention of concepts and critical thinking skills in individuals who completed a Developmental Biology course. Undergraduates who had completed the course between 2006 and 2009 were recently contacted and asked to complete a professional goals survey and a multiple-choice developmental biology assessment test (DBAT) targeting four levels of learning. The DBAT was designed to assess students’ retention of knowledge and skills related to factual recall, concept application, data analysis, and experimental design. Performance of the 2006–2009 cohorts was compared to that of students enrolled in 2010 who completed the DBAT at the beginning and the end of the semester. Participants from the 2010 course showed significant learning gains based on pre- and posttest scores overall and for each of the four levels of learning. No significant difference in overall performance was observed for students grouped by year from 2006–2010. Participants from the 2006–2009 cohorts scored slightly, but significantly, higher on average if they enrolled in graduate or professional training. However, performance on individual question categories revealed no significant differences between those participants with and without postundergraduate training. Scores on exams and a primary literature critique assignment were correlated with DBAT scores and thus represent predictors of long-term retention of developmental biology knowledge and skills.

Darland, Diane C.; Carmichael, Jeffrey S.

2012-01-01

152

Curriculum Providing Cognitive Knowledge and Problem-Solving Skills for Anesthesia Systems-Based Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. Intervention A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Findings Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. Conclusions A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.

Wachtel, Ruth E.; Dexter, Franklin

2010-01-01

153

The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

1990-01-01

154

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Use of Indirect Supporting Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper covers the knowledges, skills, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to detect, locate, and identify targets suitable for engagement with mortar and artillery fires. (Author)

F. L. Brown

1969-01-01

155

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Maintenance of Clothing And Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with the knowledges, skills, and performances required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to enable him to ensure the proper maintenance of clothing and equipment issued to his men, including special cold weather and tropical equipment, an...

D. J. Jarden J. A. Moody J. V. Lee

1968-01-01

156

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Rifle, 5.56MM, M16.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper covers the critical combat performances, knowledges, and skills required of the Infantry rifle squad leader when using and supervising the use of the M16 rifle as an automatic or semiautomatic weapon to include zeroing, firing positions, deliver...

H. E. Kelly T. O. Jacobs R. A. Taylor

1968-01-01

157

Comparison of Active-Learning Strategies for Motivational Interviewing Skills, Knowledge, and Confidence in First-Year Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare 3 strategies for pharmacy student learning of motivational interviewing skills, knowledge of motivational interviewing principles, and confidence in and attitudes toward their application. Design. Following a motivational interviewing lecture, first-year students were randomized to perform practice activities (written dialogue, peer role-play, or mock-patient counseling activities). Motivational interviewing skills, knowledge, confidence, and attitudes were measured. Assessment. All students demonstrated improvement in skills, knowledge, and confidence. Students in the mock-patient counseling group demonstrated significantly better motivational interviewing skills during practice and trended toward higher scores on the summative evaluation. They also demonstrated a significant improvement in knowledge compared with that of the written dialogue group during practice. Feedback at the end was generally positive, with students expressing recognition for the value of motivational interviewing. Conclusions. Students demonstrated their best performance of motivational interviewing during assessments using interactions with mock or standardized patients.

Stewart, Autumn L.; O'Neil, Christine

2012-01-01

158

First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed.

Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

1995-01-01

159

What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

2012-01-01

160

Knowledge-based control of grasping in robot hands using heuristics from human motor skills  

SciTech Connect

The development of a grasp planner for multifingered robot hands is described. The planner is knowledge-based, selecting grasp postures by reasoning from symbolic information on target object geometry and the nature of the task. The ability of the planner to utilize task information is based on an attempt to mimic human grasping behavior. Several task attributes and a set of heuristics derived from observation of human motor skills are included in the system. The paper gives several examples of the reasoning of the system in selecting the appropriate grasp mode for spherical and cylindrical objects for different tasks.

Bekey, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.); Liu, H. (Telecom Research Labs., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Artificial Intelligence Systems Section); Tomovic, R. (Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Karplus, W.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.)

1993-12-01

161

Health services management development: what formal knowledge should support the skills and experience required?  

PubMed

This study reports on an analysis of 17 postgraduate programs in health services management. Public information was collected from websites in February 2010. Data analysed included core subject abstracts, admission requirements and length and aims of each course. Findings indicate that only three out of 16 subjects identified as core are common to more than 50% of the programs, with the eight most common individual subjects appearing in only a third of programs. This suggests diversity in what is deemed core foundational knowledge in managing health services and the approach taken to management development. We believe there should be greater consensus on core subjects in a specialist health services management qualification. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? With changes in the organisational structure of health organisations in Australia over the past two decades, managerial positions and roles have also changed. The educational preparation for those managerial roles would also be expected to have changed but core foundational knowledge should remain similar between the various academic institutions.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper indicates greater diversity in core knowledge areas in health services management education than expected despite a similar target audience.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? There are differences in what are deemed to be core foundational areas of knowledge required in specialist management development between academic programs. Management development requires a balance between knowledge, skills and experience and intending st PMID:23498856

Ritchie, David J; Yen, Margaret L

2013-05-01

162

Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method.

Worm, Bjarne Skj?dt

2013-01-01

163

Knowledge, skills, and attitudes of veterinary college deans: AAVMC survey of deans in 2010.  

PubMed

The purposes of this Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) study was to develop a profile of deans to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that current deans of schools and colleges of veterinary medicine consider important to job success and to inform the association's leadership development initiatives. Forty-two deans responded to an online leadership program needs survey, which found that knowledge, skills, and abilities related to communication, finance and budget management, negotiation, conflict management, public relations, and fundraising were recommended as the most important areas for fulfilling a deanship. Most respondents speculated that the greatest challenges for their institutions will be in the areas of faculty recruitment and retention and financing veterinary education. Reflecting on their experiences, respondents offered an abundance of advice to future deans, often citing the importance of preparation, communication, and leadership qualities as necessary for a successful and satisfying deanship. More than three-quarters of the respondents indicated moderate to high interest in an AAVMC multi-phase leadership training program to develop administrative leaders. A nearly equal number also indicated support for formal leadership training for current veterinary medical college and school deans. The study suggests leadership development topics that AAVMC could provide at existing meetings or through new programming. The study also suggests directions for individual institutions as they seek to implement leadership development activities at the local level. PMID:20847329

Haden, N Karl; Chaddock, Michael; Hoffsis, Glen F; Lloyd, James W; Reed, William M; Ranney, Richard R; Weinstein, George J

2010-01-01

164

Acquiring Knowledge about Biodiversity in a Museum--Are Worksheets Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of worksheets while learning about biodiversity in a natural history museum. Despite the frequent use of worksheets by school classes during out-of-school activities, their effectiveness in enhancing knowledge acquisition has been addressed by relatively few empirical studies. 148 Austrian grammar school…

Krombab, Angela; Harms, Ute

2008-01-01

165

An inquiry into the integration of indigenous knowledges and skills in the Kenyan secondary science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem-solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context-boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly Eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, I investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, tberefore, are more likely than men to generate a wide variety of data. Their role as caretakers also bestows on them the great responsibility of communicating everyday knowledge to current and future generations. 1The term 'schooled' refers to knowledge and skills that are designated for instruction in schools.

Kithinji, Wanja

166

Effects of aging and reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results on learning a motor skill.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence for age-related changes in both cognition and motor control, very little is known about the effect of age on learning of new motor skills. The present experiment addressed the interaction between aging and the role of knowledge of results (KR) on a motor learning task. Using a three-segment task on which each segment had specific timing goals, three different manipulations of relative frequency of information about performance were compared in younger and older adults. The three conditions were (a) 100% KR in which information about performance on each segment was provided after every trial, (b) 67% KR in which the performance information was faded over trials, and (c) 67% KR in which the performance information was faded over the segments within each trial. Following 90 acquisition trials, all subjects performed retention, transfer, and reacquisition tests. There were age-related differences for movement accuracy and consistency on acquisition and on the retention tests but not on the transfer test. However, none of these differences interacted with the frequency of KR manipulations. Surprisingly, there was no effect due to the fading schedules of KR. In general, these results indicated that younger and older adults use KR in a similar way to learn a motor skill. PMID:9172230

Wishart, L R; Lee, T D

1997-06-01

167

Postgraduate nursing student knowledge, attitudes, skills, and confidence in appropriately referencing academic work.  

PubMed

Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(8):447-452.]. PMID:25054474

Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine

2014-08-01

168

Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

NONE

1997-01-01

169

Management Knowledge and Skills Required in the Health Care System of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading.

Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

2012-01-01

170

The Impact of Science Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Reading Strategy Knowledge on More Traditional “High-Stakes” Measures of High School Students’ Science Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how well cognitive abilities predict high school students’ science achievement as measured by traditional content-based tests. Students (n = 1,651) from four high schools in three states were assessed on their science knowledge, reading skill, and reading strategy knowledge. The dependent variable, content-based science achievement, was measured in terms of students’ comprehension of a science passage, science

Tenaha O’Reilly; Danielle S. McNamara

2007-01-01

171

The music therapy clinical intern: performance skills, academic knowledge, personal qualities, and interpersonal skills necessary for a student seeking clinical training.  

PubMed

The music therapy curriculum consists of two distinct parts: the academic phase and the internship. The music therapy student must apply for a clinical internship during the last year of the academic phase, and the student is expected to evolve from student to professional music therapist during the internship phase. The present study sought to determine the skills, knowledge, and qualities clinical training directors considered most important for a prospective intern to possess. The sample population of the survey consisted of 25 clinical training directors from the Great Lakes Region. Results of the survey indicated that piano skills, knowledge of psychology, emotional maturity, and the ability to express needs and feelings were considered most important for the prospective intern to possess. PMID:10269791

Brookins, L M

1984-01-01

172

Knowledge and Perceptions About Community-acquired Staphylococcal Infections Among Health Care Workers in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai‘i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work locations (hospital, community, and non-clinical community). Overall, health care and related workers in community settings demonstrated disparities in knowledge regarding S. aureus and MRSA infections. They were also more likely to misperceive this growing threat. These findings provide support for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this evolving epidemic.

Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R

2013-01-01

173

Aging Q3: an initiative to improve internal medicine residents' geriatrics knowledge, skills, and clinical performance.  

PubMed

A growing number of older adults coupled with a limited number of physicians trained in geriatrics presents a major challenge to ensuring quality medical care for this population. Innovations to incorporate geriatrics education into internal medicine residency programs are needed. To meet this need, in 2009, faculty at the Medical University of South Carolina developed Aging Q(3)-Quality Education, Quality Care, and Quality of Life. This multicomponent initiative recognizes the need for improved geriatrics educational tools and faculty development as well as systems changes to improve the knowledge and clinical performance of residents. To achieve these goals, faculty employ multiple intervention strategies, including lectures, rounds, academic detailing, visual cues, and electronic medical record prompts and decision support. The authors present examples from specific projects, based on care areas including vision screening, fall prevention, and caring for patients with dementia, all of which are based on the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. The authors describe the principles driving the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Aging Q(3) program. They present data from multiple sources that illustrate the effectiveness of the interventions to meet the knowledge, skill level, and behavior goals. The authors also address major challenges, including the maintenance of the teaching and modeling interventions over time within the context of demanding primary care and inpatient settings. This organized, evidence-based approach to quality improvement in resident education, as well as faculty leadership development, holds promise for successfully incorporating geriatrics education into internal medicine residencies. PMID:22450181

Moran, William P; Zapka, Jane; Iverson, Patty J; Zhao, Yumin; Wiley, M Kathleen; Pride, Pamela; Davis, Kimberly S

2012-05-01

174

Role playing games: a methodology to acquire knowledge for integrated wastewater infrastructures management in a river basin scale.  

PubMed

Current management of sanitation infrastructures (sewer systems, wastewater treatment plant, receiving water, bypasses, deposits, etc) is not fulfilling the objectives of up to date legislation, to achieve a good ecological and chemical status of water bodies through integrated management. These made it necessary to develop new methodologies that help decision makers to improve the management in order to achieve that status. Decision Support Systems (DSS) based on Multi-Agent System (MAS) paradigm are promising tools to improve the integrated management. When all the different agents involved interact, new important knowledge emerges. This knowledge can be used to build better DSS and improve wastewater infrastructures management achieving the objectives planned by legislation. The paper describes a methodology to acquire this knowledge through a Role Playing Game (RPG). First of all there is an introduction about the wastewater problems, a definition of RPG, and the relation between RPG and MAS. Then it is explained how the RPG was built with two examples of game sessions and results. The paper finishes with a discussion about the uses of this methodology and future work. PMID:19448317

Prat, P; Aulinas, M; Turon, C; Comas, J; Poch, M

2009-01-01

175

The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

Dalyan, Figen

2004-01-01

176

Nature of Science Knowledge and Scientific Argumentation Skills in Taiwanese College Biology Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many believe that students with mature understanding of NOS engage in argumentation more, mixed results were found in empirical studies. In argumentation studies, consensus assessment was lacking and most researchers only evaluated the structural aspects of argumentation. However in the science classroom, an assessment that examines the "content correctness" in addition to the "structural complexity" is necessary because scientific argumentation that is structurally complicated but full of misconceptions cannot be considered strong. Therefore, the goal of this study was first to develop a method to evaluate the quality of students' scientific argumentation in both the content and structure aspects. The second goal was to examine to what extent NOS knowledge and argumentation skills correlate. Furthermore, through semi-structured interview, this study documented students' NOS understandings in the target aspects of NOS. Significant correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in the first year of the study. Although no correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in follow-up study, the score distribution implied that students with mixed views of NOS engaged more in scientific argumentation in which specific scientific data were required to support their claims. The qualitative analysis of students' NOS interview revealed that students with strong argumentation skills view science as an open entity that may be challenged and discussed. Further, all of the interview participants placed high values on empirical support. The majority of the participants held the misconception about theories and laws, and expressed that the theory of evolution is less persuasive than other theories because some parts of the supporting evidence lack empirical support.

Lai, Mei-Chun

177

Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2005-01-01

178

Item-Level Comparative Analysis of Online and Paper Administrations of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a comparative study conducted at the item level for paper and online administrations of a statewide high stakes assessment. The goal was to identify characteristics of items that may have contributed to mode effects. Item-level analyses compared two modes of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for up to four subjects at two grade levels.

Leslie Keng; Katie Larsen McClarty; Laurie Laughlin Davis

2008-01-01

179

Improving Critical Think Skills Through Online Synchronous Communications: A Study of Learners' Attitudes toward Building Knowledge Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the College learners' attitudes toward Online Synchronous Communications (OSCs) to build knowledge networks. Also, this study focuses on how to improve these learners' critical thinking skills via synchronous communicational activities. Based on the main purpose of this study and the concerns, the…

Kurubacak, Gulsun

2006-01-01

180

Identifying the Knowledge, Skills, and Values Needed to Perform Entry-Level Child Welfare Work in Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because child welfare workers serve the most vulnerable children and families, it is necessary that they have sufficient knowledge, skills, and values (competencies) to provide quality services. This study focuses on competencies that the Division of Child and Family Services, Utah (DCFS) views as essential for entry-level child welfare work, and…

Topuzova, Lazarina N.

2009-01-01

181

The Critical Reading of the Images Associated with Science-Related News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills, and attitudes framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the majority of adults, the media constitute their main source of information about science and science-related matters impacting on society. To help prepare young people to engage with science in the media, teachers are being exhorted to equip their students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to respond critically to science-related news reports. Typically, such reports comprise not only

Ruth Jarman; Billy McClune; Eric Pyle; Gangolf Braband

2012-01-01

182

Learning to Read Setswana and English: Cross-Language Transference of Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…

Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather

2008-01-01

183

Development of a Performance Assessment Task and Rubric to Measure Prospective Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…

Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter

2008-01-01

184

Recognizing the Importance of Aging Skills and Knowledge in Generalist Social Work Practice: Effective Strategies for MSW Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure…

Bonifas, Robin P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bailey, Kathleen A.

2009-01-01

185

Determining Training Requirements for Electronic System Maintenance: Development and Test of a New Method of Skill and Knowledge Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a study designed to develop and test methods of deriving, directly from an analysis of the system or its surrogate, an effective and economical set of skills and knowledge for operating and maintaining a weapon system. Two methods for analyzing electronic weapon systems were developed, one method for the operator task and one…

Shriver, Edgar L.

186

The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 3--Knowledge and Skills of Young Children. NCES 2009-081  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about knowledge and skills of young children. A smaller percentage of children born in 2001 who were in poverty demonstrated proficiency in…

Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

2009-01-01

187

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

188

Teaching the Viewing and Representing Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills in the English Language Arts Curriculum. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This professional development guide focuses on the Viewing and Representing strands of the TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills) and includes the areas of interpretation analysis and production, which help students in grades four through twelve become critical consumers, and capable producers, of media. The guide includes mini-lessons,…

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

189

Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

2007-01-01

190

Item-Level Comparative Analysis of Online and Paper Administrations of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a comparative study conducted at the item level for paper and online administrations of a statewide high stakes assessment. The goal was to identify characteristics of items that may have contributed to mode effects. Item-level analyses compared two modes of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for up to four…

Keng, Leslie; McClarty, Katie Larsen; Davis, Laurie Laughlin

2008-01-01

191

Impact of Web-Based Review on Long-Term Retention of Simulation-Acquired Knee and Shoulder Aspiration and Injection Skills  

PubMed Central

Background Musculoskeletal problems are the reason for one-quarter of primary care visits. Opportunities for internal medicine residents to perform joint aspirations and injections have declined. Simulation has been shown to improve procedure skills post completion of simulation courses, yet controversy exists about the durability of simulation-acquired skills. Objective To investigate whether web-based review preserves residents' joint procedure skills 6 to 30 months after a simulation course. Methods Postgraduate year–1 internal medicine residents participated in a simulation-based Joint Aspiration Injection Course consisting of web-based instructional material, guided practice on joint models, and a multiple-choice test. Procedure proficiency was scored by using a 3-component skills checklist. Six to 30 months later, residents who had participated in the simulation were randomly assigned to review or not to review the original web-based instructional material before retesting. The groups were compared by using Wilcoxon rank sum and matched pairs signed rank tests. Results Compared to the performance at the end of the simulation course, scores of all 3 procedure components declined (informed consent, 64.7–43.0 versus 30.6–23.8, P?acquired skills declined 6 to 30 months after a simulation course. However, rereview of web-based instructional material improved proficiency in informed consent, shoulder, and postprocedure instructions, shoulder and knee.

Preisner, Ruth; Jasti, Harish; Elnicki, Michael; Jeong, Kwonho

2012-01-01

192

High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

2005-01-01

193

Evaluation of a Knowledge- and Cognitive-Behavioral Skills-Building Intervention to Prevent STDs and HIV Infection in High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the efficacy of a school-based knowledge- and cognitive-behavioral skills-building prevention intervention. Results indicate that the intervention increased students' (N=513) knowledge of sexually transmitted disease and bolstered the skills related to prevention of risky sexual and drug-use behavior. Significant changes in risk…

Boyer, Cherrie B.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Tschann, Jeanne

1997-01-01

194

Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

Mihm-Herold, Wendy

2010-01-01

195

BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with abnormal interhemispheric transfer of a newly acquired motor skill.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene can alter cortical plasticity within the motor cortex of carriers, which exhibits abnormally low rates of cortical reorganization after repetitive motor tasks. To verify whether long-term retention of a motor skill is also modulated by the presence of the polymorphism, 20 participants (10 Val66Val, 10 Val66Met) were tested twice at a 1-wk interval. During each visit, excitability of the motor cortex was measured by transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) before and after performance of a procedural motor learning task (serial reaction time task) designed to study sequence-specific learning of the right hand and sequence-specific transfer from the right to the left hand. Behavioral results showed a motor learning effect that persisted for at least a week and task-related increases in corticospinal excitability identical for both sessions and without distinction for genetic group. Sequence-specific transfer of the motor skill from the right hand to the left hand was greater in session 2 than in session 1 only in the Val66Met genetic group. Further analysis revealed that the sequence-specific transfer occurred equally at both sessions in the Val66Val genotype group. In the Val66Met genotype group, sequence-specific transfer did not occur at session 1 but did at session 2. These data suggest a limited impact of Val66Met polymorphism on the learning and retention of a complex motor skill and its associated changes in corticospinal excitability over time, and a possible modulation of the interhemispheric transfer of procedural learning. PMID:24572097

Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Beaumont, Vincent; de Beaumont, Louis; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Théoret, Hugo

2014-05-15

196

Can a multisensory teaching approach impart the necessary knowledge, skills, and confidence in final year medical students to manage epistaxis?  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multisensory teaching approach in imparting the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage epistaxis in a cohort of fourth year medical students. Methods One hundred and thirty four fourth year medical students were recruited into the study from Aug 2011 to February 2012 in four groups. Students listened to an audio presentation (PODcast) about epistaxis and viewed a video presentation on the technical skills (VODcast). Following this, students completed a 5-minute Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) to test knowledge accrued from the PODcast and VODcast. Next, students observed a 10-minute expert demonstration of the technical skills on a human cadaver and spent half an hour practicing these techniques on cadaver simulators with expert guidance. The students’ confidence was assessed with Confidence Level Questionnaires (CLQs) before and after their laboratory session. The skill level of a subset of students was also assessed with a pre- and post-laboratory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Results Eighty two percent of the participants achieved a score of at least 80% on the IRAT. The CLQ instrument was validated in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement between the pre- and post-laboratory CLQ scores (p<0.01) and also between pre- and post-laboratory OSATS scores (p<0.01). Qualitative feedback suggested a student preference for this teaching approach. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that a multisensory teaching intervention effectively imparts the necessary knowledge, skill and confidence in fourth year medical students to manage epistaxis.

2013-01-01

197

A comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors (SKIPE).  

PubMed

This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern. PMID:24119517

Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

2013-01-01

198

Modular Approach (With Strategies) to Learning Motor Skills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructors and researches increasingly view the individual as an active participant in the process of learning. That is, rather than responding passively to environmental cues, learners can influence the way knowledge and skills are acquired. Thus, learn...

M. H. Anshel R. N. Singer

1980-01-01

199

Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and samples for the class to examine. This exercise could be adapted for any collection and any level of learning, as well as for any particular collection or suite of samples. Soils and local rock sequences could also be incorporated.

Pound, K. S.

2005-12-01

200

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information.

Ayl?kc?, Bahad?r Ugur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Colak, Hakan

2013-01-01

201

Kindergartners' Preacademic Skills and Mainstreamed Teachers' Knowledge: Implications for Special Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the need to identify the academic skills displayed by normally developing children in order to successfully prepare and place handicapped preschoolers into mainstreamed kindergartens. In order to determine kindergartners' entry level skills, a sample of 25 children designated by their teacher as \\

Sarah Rule; Mark S. Innocenti; Karen J. Coor; Marilyn K. Bonem; Joseph J. Stowitschek

1989-01-01

202

The role of health sciences librarians in the teaching and retention of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of lifelong learning.  

PubMed Central

For the past decade, the medical education community has recognized lifelong learning as a desirable educational outcome. Problem-based learning (PBL) appears to foster the requisite knowledge acquisition, skills, and attitudes. This paper briefly summarizes research that found no differences in perceptions of lifelong learning between graduates of PBL curricula and traditional curricula. The paper analyzes the assumptions that suggest such differences should exist and asserts that these assumptions are invalid within the global context of the education process. The paper concludes by suggesting a new way of looking at the teaching and retention of knowledge, skills, and attitudes of lifelong learning and the essential role that health sciences librarians must play in the process.

McGowan, J J

1995-01-01

203

Anatomy of a physics test: Validation of the physics items on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report the results of an analysis of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) designed to determine whether the TAKS is a valid indicator of whether students know and can do physics at the level necessary for success in future coursework, STEM careers, and life in a technological society. We categorized science items from the 2003 and 2004 10th and 11th grade TAKS by content area(s) covered, knowledge and skills required to select the correct answer, and overall quality. We also analyzed a 5000 student sample of item-level results from the 2004 11th grade exam, performing full-information factor analysis, calculating classical test indices, and determining each item's response curve using item response theory. Triangulation of our results revealed strengths and weaknesses of the different methods of analysis. The TAKS was found to be only weakly indicative of physics preparation and we make recommendations for increasing the validity of standardized physics testing.

Marshall, Jill A.; Hagedorn, Eric A.; O'Conner, Jerry

2010-06-29

204

Do you know where your fingers have been? Explicit knowledge of the spatial layout of the keyboard in skilled typists.  

PubMed

Two experiments evaluated skilled typists' ability to report knowledge about the layout of keys on a standard keyboard. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the relative direction of letters on the computer keyboard. One group of subjects was asked to imagine the keyboard, one group was allowed to look at the keyboard, and one group was asked to type the letter pair before judging relative direction. The imagine group had larger angular error and longer response time than both the look and touch groups. In Experiment 2, subjects placed one key relative to another. Again, the imagine group had larger angular error, larger distance error, and longer response time than the other groups. The two experiments suggest that skilled typists have poor explicit knowledge of key locations. The results are interpreted in terms of a model with two hierarchical parts in the system controlling typewriting. PMID:20516227

Liu, Xianyun; Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

2010-06-01

205

The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(CAI) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".  

PubMed Central

BioChem Thinker is a CAI program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar CAI in other biomedical areas.

Hershkovitz, B.

1997-01-01

206

Using a multimedia tool to improve cardiac auscultation knowledge and skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Today’s medical school graduates have significant deficits in physical examination skills. Medical educators have been searching\\u000a for methods to effectively teach and maintain these skills in students. The objective of this study was to determine if an\\u000a auscultation curriculum centered on a portable multimedia CD-ROM was effective in producing and maintaining significant gains\\u000a in cardiac auscultatory skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Controlled

David T. Stern; Rajesh S. Mangrulkar; Larry D. Gruppen; Angela L. Lang; Cyril M. Grum; Richard D. Judge

2001-01-01

207

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

208

Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is\\u000a often regarded as ‘just looking’ rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods\\u000a in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is\\u000a necessary. Because observation skills form the basis

Lucia Kohlhauf; Ulrike Rutke; Birgit Neuhaus

2011-01-01

209

Beyond knowledge and skills: the use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy  

PubMed Central

Background While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond “having” knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. Methods This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Results Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. Conclusions There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the professional training of healthcare professionals perceive teaching as more than the transmission of knowledge and technical skills. Process-oriented teaching practices that integrate technology as part of a carefully designed curriculum may have the potential to facilitate the development of capable healthcare graduates who are able to navigate the complexity of health systems and patient management in ways that go beyond the application of knowledge and skills.

2013-01-01

210

Knowledge, skills and attitude of evidence-based medicine among obstetrics and gynaecology trainees: a questionnaire survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine current evidence-based medicine skills and practice among trainees. Design Questionnaire study. Setting Electronic survey was sent to all obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midlands South Deanery, and responses collected were anonymous. Participants All obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland South Deanery. Main outcome measures Self-reported attitude, skills and knowledge in various components of evidence-based medicine. Results 69 trainees were included in the study of which 35 responded. Among all respondents, almost 72% of trainees use non-evidence-based methods to find answers for their clinical questions, whereas only 18% use appropriate evidence-based medicine practice for such queries. Just 35% of trainees have minimum skills of literature searching. Most of the trainees struggle to understand various components of evidence-based medicine. Nearly 80% of trainees do not have formal education or training with regard to evidence-based medicine. Conclusions This study highlights the inadequacy of evidence-based medicine skills among trainees and urges that evidence-based medicine be incorporated in formal training along with specialty study modules.

Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Doshani, Angi; Singhal, Tanu; Konje, Justin

2013-01-01

211

Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India  

PubMed Central

Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum.

Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

2014-01-01

212

Preventive medicine: self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students at the Medical University of Vienna.  

PubMed

Prevention and health promotion are gaining importance in modern medical curricula. Aim of this study was to evaluate the self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students towards health promotion and prevention. In 2012, at the Medical University of Vienna, 27% of the 633 fourth-year medical students (50.3% male and 49.7% female; mean age: 24 years) completed a questionnaire. Results show a high assessment of prevention in most respondents. Knowledge gaps were detected on occupational health and mother-child pass examinations. However, almost all students reported sufficient knowledge on screening and risk assessment of developing cardiovascular diseases. Almost all respondents estimated to be able to identify risky behaviours. Overall, estimation towards prevention of tomorrow's physicians is very positive. However, only 40% believed to have been adequately trained on preventive medicine so far. Relevant preventive aspects were added to the medical curriculum in 2012-2013 with the new block 'Public Health'. PMID:24468828

Borsoi, Livia; Rieder, Anita; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

2014-04-01

213

Associations of Postural Knowledge and Basic Motor Skill With Dyspraxia in Autism: Implication for Abnormalities in Distributed Connectivity and Motor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism often have difficulty performing skilled movements. Praxis performance requires basic motor skill, knowledge of representations of the movement (mediated by parietal regions), and transcoding of these representations into movement plans (mediated by premotor circuits). The goals of this study were (a) to determine whether dyspraxia in autism is associated with impaired representational (\\

Lauren R. Dowell; E. Mark Mahone; Stewart H. Mostofsky

2009-01-01

214

Acquisition of Procedural Knowledge about a Pattern of Stimuli That Cannot Be Articulated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introspective experiences that nine University of Tulsa (Oklahoma) faculty members (aged 29-52 years) have when acquiring cognitive skills without awareness were studied as they acquired nonconscious knowledge about a pattern of stimuli. Nonconsciously acquired knowledge was automatically used to facilitate performance, without conscious…

Lewicki, Pawel; And Others

1988-01-01

215

Do short courses in evidence based medicine improve knowledge and skills? Validation of Berlin questionnaire and before and after study of courses in evidence based medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessed knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds and training level led to a clinically meaningful improvement of knowledge and skills

Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R

2002-01-01

216

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

217

DEVELOPING STUDENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR HOME-BASED SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguish- ing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the interven- tion process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safe- ty, boundary, confidentiality, and ethical challenges. This article offers practical

Susan F. Allen; Elizabeth M. Tracy

2008-01-01

218

Developing Student Knowledge and Skills for Home-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguishing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the intervention process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safety, boundary, confidentiality, and…

Allen, Susan F.; Tracy, Elizabeth M.

2008-01-01

219

Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

2009-01-01

220

Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

2013-01-01

221

Automated knowledge acquisition - an aid to understanding the actions of a skilled operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operator of an accelerator experiment often appears to be a highly skilled magician. The diagnostics used, such as oscilloscope traces, may be only indirectly related to the state of the accelerator. The operator adjusts the knobs so that the experiment runs well, but is not always able to describe in words exactly what is happening. The tool described in

Rozelle M. Wright

1990-01-01

222

An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

223

Perceived Needs of Recent Graduates for Marketing-Related Knowledge and Skills: Implications for Pharmacy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 215 recent graduates of Purdue University School of Pharmacy investigated unmet needs for 9 marketing skill areas: measuring and forecasting demand; personal selling; public relations; purchasing and inventory control; strategic planning; managed care organizations; physician dispensing; physician prescribing and health care financers;…

Rupp, Michael T.; Szkudlarek, Beth A.

1991-01-01

224

Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

2010-01-01

225

Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-Specific Interest on Observation Competency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as "just looking" rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice…

Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

2011-01-01

226

Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…

Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

2012-01-01

227

Emotional management in a mass customised call centre: examining skill and knowledgeability in interactive service work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have demonstrated the variety of interactive service sector work yet relatively little research has focused on the middle ground of mass customised service work'. In particular; the complex character of emotional work in such workplaces remains under investigated. This article applies Bolton's emotion management framework to a high-commitment mass customised call centre to extend understanding of the skills and

Sarah Jenkins; Rick Delbridge; Ashley Roberts

2010-01-01

228

Knowledge Transfer and Information Skills for Student-Centered Learning in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowing how to select, organize, and use information in order to solve problems, handle new situations, and continue learning are key issues in the teaching and learning scenario in contemporary society. Teaching these skills is particularly critical for European universities and is currently recognized as vital in the context of the European…

Molina, Maria Pinto; Sales, Dora

2008-01-01

229

Knowledge Acquisition and Job Training for Advanced Technical Skills Using Immersive Virtual Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.

Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

230

Knowledge, attitude and skills before and after a module on pharmaceutical promotion in a Nepalese medical school  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceutical promotion is widespread and can impact prescribing by health professionals. Little research has been conducted on interactions between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. Teaching about pharmaceutical promotion is inadequate. A survey showed that many schools spend only about two hours teaching this important topic while others spend around six hours. Recently a manual on understanding and responding to promotion has been published by Health Action International (HAI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). From April to August 2011 the department of Clinical Pharmacology at KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducted a module on pharmaceutical promotion for second year students based on the manual. The module used active learning strategies such as brainstorming sessions, role plays and group activities. The study worked on the hypothesis that a module on pharmaceutical promotion will be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude and skills of medical students regarding pharmaceutical promotion. The impact of the module on knowledge, attitude and skills was tested using a retrospective-pre questionnaire. The scores according to gender and method of financing of medical education before and after the module were compared using appropriate non-parametric tests. Results Eighty-seven of the 100 second year students (87%) participated in the study. 47 were females (54%) and 39 (44.83%) were males and one did not state the gender. Seventy-seven students (88.5%) were self-financing while 9 were scholarship students. The median knowledge, attitude and skills score before the module were 9, 13 and 6 respectively while the overall score was 28. The scores increased significantly to 16, 15 and 14 respectively after the module while the overall score increased to 45. The median attitude scores and total scores were significantly higher among females both before and after the module. The scores did not vary with method of financing of medical education. All scores increased significantly at the end of the module. Conclusions The nine hour module held over a period of four months was effective in improving respondents' knowledge, attitudes and skills about pharmaceutical promotion. The module was not resource intensive and used resources already available in the institution. Similar modules can be considered in other medical and health profession schools in Nepal, South Asia and other developing countries.

2012-01-01

231

"What" and "how": Evidence for the dissociation of object knowledge and mechanical problem-solving skills in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Patients with profound semantic deterioration resulting from temporal lobe atrophy have been reported to use many real objects appropriately. Does this preserved ability reflect (i) a separate component of the conceptual knowledge system (“action semantics”) or (ii) the operation of a system that is independent of conceptual knowledge of specific objects, and rather is responsible for general mechanical problem-solving skills, triggered by object affordances? We contrast the performance of three patients—two with semantic dementia and focal temporal lobe atrophy and the third with corticobasal degeneration and biparietal atrophy—on tests of real object identification and usage, picture-based tests of functional semantic knowledge, and a task requiring selection and use of novel tools. The patient with corticobasal degeneration showed poor novel tool selection and impaired use of real objects, despite near normal semantic knowledge of the same objects’ functions. The patients with semantic dementia had the expected deficit in object identification and functional semantics, but achieved flawless and effortless performance on the novel tool task. Their attempts to use this same mechanical problem-solving ability to deduce (sometimes successfully but often incorrectly) the use of the real objects provide no support for the hypothesis of a separate action-semantic system. Although the temporal lobe system clearly is necessary to identify “what” an object is, we suggest that sensory inputs to a parietal “how” system can trigger the use of objects without reference to object-specific conceptual knowledge.

Hodges, John R.; Spatt, Josef; Patterson, Karalyn

1999-01-01

232

Using standardized patients to evaluate screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) knowledge and skill acquisition for internal medicine residents.  

PubMed

Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors present a pre-post clinical skill evaluation of a 10-hour screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for hazardous drinking and SUDs for primary care internal medicine residents using standardized patient examinations to better determine the impact of SBIRT training on clinical practice. Residents had large improvements in history taking, substance use screening skills, SUD assessment and diagnostic skills, and in SBIRT knowledge, including documentation, systems, and diversity issues. Residents made moderate improvements in brief intervention skills. Future SBIRT curricular evaluations would ideally include a controlled comparison with larger samples from multiple institutions. PMID:22738010

Satterfield, Jason M; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D; Tsoh, Janice Y; Batki, Steven L; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Wamsley, Maria

2012-01-01

233

Sicheres Wissen und Koennen im Franzoesischunterricht (Secure Knowledge and Skill in the Teaching of French)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work with "topic sheets," acquiring an understanding of them, their use in teaching and the concrete help of topic sheets in the pupil's personal activity, taking as an example the theme unit "Ma famille et moi." (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Greiner, Ingrid

1974-01-01

234

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...takeoff and landing. During the time that a qualifying pilot...satisfactorily completed training time acquired in an approved training program conducted in a full-scale (except for length) cabin...to serve may substitute this time for 50 percent of the...

2012-01-01

235

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...takeoff and landing. During the time that a qualifying pilot...satisfactorily completed training time acquired in an approved training program conducted in a full-scale (except for length) cabin...to serve may substitute this time for 50 percent of the...

2013-01-01

236

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...takeoff and landing. During the time that a qualifying pilot...satisfactorily completed training time acquired in an approved training program conducted in a full-scale (except for length) cabin...to serve may substitute this time for 50 percent of the...

2011-01-01

237

Knowledge and Skills Needed by MEMS Technologists as Ascertained by Industry Survey and Job Profiling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by L.A. West and Matthais W. Pleil for the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), describes the skills of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technologists. The authors provide this information through a survey taken of the industry and also job profiles from different companies. The presentation describes not only the positions available, but also the skills needed to attain these careers. The information mostly focuses on jobs in the United States, but also has a slight international focus. Students interested in this field will find this resource engaging on many different levels. It not only provides a nice synopsis of this career, but more importantly, it could shape the educational focus of interested students.

Pleil, Matthias; West, L. A.

2010-05-14

238

DATA ANALYSIS KNOWLEDGE AMONG PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION TEACHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether elementary education majors in the teacher education program at Montana State University (MSU) acquire and retain knowledge of statistical data analysis concepts and skills consistent with expectations specified in the NCTM \\

Cynthia S. Thomas

2002-01-01

239

What Are the Required Outcomes of Education--Professional Competencies, Personal Attributes and Social Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students need to be competent in a wide range of work knowledge, skills, and abilities, they also need to be "capable" human beings to take their place as contributors to the Australian community. Capability has been described as having confidence in one's ability to acquire and apply knowledge, new skills, and understanding, with…

Gow, Kathryn

240

14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2009-01-01

241

14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2010-01-01

242

The Effect of Concept Mapping with Different Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Knowledge Acquisition and Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…

Lim, Kyu Yon

2008-01-01

243

Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

2006-01-01

244

Utilizing STEM experiential learning to influence attitudes, skills, and knowledge in urban high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.

Considine, Shannon L.

245

Traditional vs anchored instruction for diabetes-related nutritional knowledge, skills, and behavior.  

PubMed

This paper describes a nutrition education experiment in which traditional direct instruction was compared with a problem-solving method called anchored instruction (AI). Participants were 69 children ages 9 to 15 years, with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), who attended a diabetes camp. Following pretesting, campers were assigned to AI or direct instruction control classes. Posttests involved evaluating diabetes knowledge, personal meal plan knowledge, ability to choose an appropriate meal from a buffet line, and ability to pack appropriate meals for an overnight campout. AI and direct instruction both produced significant knowledge gains in this study. However, because the scores for the two groups did not differ, this study was unsuccessful in replicating results of other studies or extending the findings to selected measures of actual behavior. PMID:8137704

Pichert, J W; Smeltzer, C; Snyder, G M; Gregory, R P; Smeltzer, R; Kinzer, C K

1994-01-01

246

Effects of a Single-Lesson Tobacco Prevention Curriculum on Knowledge, Skill Identification and Smoking Intention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in five students report experimenting with tobacco before the age of 13 and most prevention efforts take place in the school setting. This study measures the effect of a single-lesson tobacco prevention curriculum, conducted by a health education center, focusing on knowledge of tobacco, ability to identify refusal techniques, and intent not…

Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Thyagaraj, Sujan; Teufel, James; Phillips, Cheryl

2007-01-01

247

What Teachers Need To Know: The Knowledge, Skills, and Values Essential to Good Teaching. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers presented as chapters in this book outline the background and professional preparation teachers need in subject area knowledge, understanding of intellectual and emotional growth, learning theory, and moral principles. The volume is organized into four parts. Each part is introduced with a brief essay that relates the accompanying…

Dill, David D., Ed.; And Others

248

Cultivating Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills for Leading Change in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge

Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne

2010-01-01

249

Kindergarten Letter Knowledge, Phonological Skills, and Memory Processes: Relative Effects on Early Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergarten phonological awareness tasks are first compared as to their predictability of later literacy performance independent of letter knowledge for a group of German children. Results indicate that the phonological awareness tasks vary in their prediction of later literacy performance, which includes spelling and a variety of reading tasks in the first and second grades. A second concern was the

Jan Carol Näslund; Wolfgang Schneider

1996-01-01

250

Knowledge-based control of grasping in robot hands using heuristics from human motor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a grasp planner for multifingered robot hands is described. The planner is knowledge-based, selecting grasp postures by reasoning from symbolic information on target object geometry and the nature of the task. The ability of the planner to utilize task information is based on an attempt to mimic human grasping behavior. Several task attributes and a set of

George A. Bekey; Huan Liu; Rajko Tomovic; Walter J. Karplus

1993-01-01

251

Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

2012-01-01

252

How Word Reading Skill Impacts Text Memory: The Centrality Deficit and How Domain Knowledge Can Compensate  

PubMed Central

We examined text memory in children with word reading deficits to determine how these difficulties impact representations of text meaning. We show that even though children with poor word decoding recall more central than peripheral information, they show a significantly bigger deficit relative to controls on central than on peripheral information. We call this the centrality deficit and argue that it is the consequence of insufficient cognitive resources for connecting ideas together due to these children's resources being diverted from comprehension to word decoding. We investigated a possible compensatory mechanism for making these connections. Because a text representation is a synthesis of text information and a reader's prior knowledge, we hypothesized that having knowledge of the passage topic might reduce or eliminate the centrality deficit. Our results support this knowledge compensation hypothesis: the centrality deficit was evident when poor readers did not have prior knowledge, but was eliminated when they did. This presents an exciting avenue to pursue for possible remediation of reading comprehension in children with word identification difficulties.

Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.

2010-01-01

253

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

254

Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study.  

PubMed

This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226

Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T

2008-12-01

255

Effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge and skill in nursing students' learning of preoperative and postoperative care management: a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

Screen-based computer simulations are considered a method of skill teaching in health education. This study examined the effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge, skill, and the clinical decision-making process in teaching preoperative and postoperative care management to second-year students in an undergraduate school of nursing. It is a randomized controlled study. The study sample was composed of 82 students. They received education in screen-based computer simulation (n = 41) and skill laboratories (n = 41). Three instruments were used: a preoperative and postoperative care management cognitive level assessment test, skill control lists of preoperative and postoperative care management, and the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale. There was not a significant difference between the students' posteducation knowledge levels (P = .421), practical deep breathing and coughing exercise education skills (P = .867), or clinical decision-making scale total and subscale scores (P = .065). However, a significant difference was found between the admission of the patient in the surgical clinic after surgery skill scores of the students (P = .04). Education provided in the screen-based computer simulation laboratory was equivalent to that provided in the skill laboratory. PMID:22228217

Durmaz, Aylin; Dicle, Aklime; Cakan, Emre; Cakir, ?en

2012-04-01

256

A Foot in Many Camps: Literacy Teacher Educators Acquiring Knowledge across Many Realms and Juggling Multiple Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involved 28 literacy/English teachers in four countries: Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia. The goal of the study was to examine their backgrounds, knowledge, research activities, identity and support within the university. The teacher educators had a range of classroom teaching experience which they drew on in many ways. Most went…

Kosnik, Clare; Menna, Lydia; Dharamshi, Pooja; Miyata, Cathy; Beck, Clive

2013-01-01

257

Transfer of Knowledge between Education and Workplace Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first half of this chapter analyses the different knowledge cultures of higher education and the workplace, contrasting the kinds of knowledge that are valued and the manner in which they are acquired and used. In particular, performance in the workplace typically involves the integration of several different forms of knowledge and skill, under conditions that allow little time for

Michael Eraut

258

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1995-01-01

259

The anterior temporal lobes are critically involved in acquiring new conceptual knowledge: Evidence for impaired feature integration in semantic dementia?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations. Single-cell recordings in monkeys suggest that the ATLs are critically involved in visual associative learning; however, investigations of this region in humans have focused on existing knowledge rather than learning. We studied acquisition of new concepts in semantic dementia patients, who have cortical damage centred on the ventrolateral aspects of the ATLs. Patients learned to assign abstract visual stimuli to two categories. The categories conformed to a family resemblance structure in which no individual stimulus features were fully diagnostic; thus the task required participants to form representations that integrate multiple features into a single concept. Patients were unable to do this, instead responding only on the basis of individual features. The study reveals that integrating disparate sources of information into novel coherent concepts is a critical computational function of the ATLs. This explains the central role of this region in conceptual representation and the catastrophic breakdown of concepts in semantic dementia.

Hoffman, Paul; Evans, Gemma A.L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

260

The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…

Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

2010-01-01

261

Using Standardized Patients to Evaluate Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Knowledge and Skill Acquisition for Internal Medicine Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors…

Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria

2012-01-01

262

The Influence of Student Teacher Self-Regulation of Learning on Their Curricular Content-Knowledge and Course-Design Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the influence of EFL student teacher self-regulation of learning (SRL) on their curricular content-knowledge and course-design skills. Positivism guided this study at the levels of: ontology (one form of reality); epistemology (detachment from the subjects); and methodology, using nomothetic research strategy (causal…

Shawer, Saad

2010-01-01

263

What goal is of most worth? The effects of the implementation of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills on elementary science teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative, narrative study centered on the effects of the implementation of the science portion of the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) on the instruction of science at the elementary level, grades one through five. Fourteen teachers and five administrators were interviewed at two elementary schools (kindergarten through grade four) and one middle school (grades five

Pamela England Rodgers

2006-01-01

264

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Bayonet Knife and Hand-TO-Hand Combat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performances, knowledges, skills, habits, and attitudes covered in the report are those the Infantry rifle squad leader must possess to train and lead a rifle squad in combat. In combat the bayonet will most often be employed upon the individual initi...

H. E. Kelly

1968-01-01

265

The Impact of a Training Program Based on Pedagogical Knowledge on Improving the Speaking and Writing Skills Teaching Practices of Female English Language Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…

Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.

2011-01-01

266

Developing Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through Technology-Rich Tasks: The Influence of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has been shown to positively influence student learning when students explore technology-rich tasks that simultaneously require them to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), such as analyzing or evaluating information or creating new representations of knowledge. Educational technology researchers have posited that in order for…

Polly, Drew

2011-01-01

267

Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Their Levels of Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Did They Change since Their Graduation from Initial Teacher Preparation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated changes in beginning teachers' self-perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills after their first year of teaching. Surveys were administered to 322 graduating student teachers at the end of the initial teacher preparation programme and at the end of their first year of teaching to compare if there were any…

Choy, Doris; Chong, Sylvia; Wong, Angela F. L.; Wong, Isabella Y.-F.

2011-01-01

268

Meeting NCATE Standard 4: One University's Plan to Help Preservice Teachers Develop the Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions Necessary to Ensure That All Students Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard 4-Diversity of the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requires that preservice teachers, or candidates, demonstrate and apply proficiencies related to diversity. To that end, preservice teachers need to develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to enable them to successfully work with diverse…

Kerr, Jo-Anne; Dils, Keith

2011-01-01

269

The Effects of Learning Strategies Instruction on Metacognitive Knowledge, Using Metacognitive Skills and Academic Achievement (Primary Education Sixth Grade Turkish Course Sample)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of learning strategies instruction on metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive skills, and achievement. An experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was used in the research. The study was conducted in the 2008-2009 school year on 6th grade students at Orgeneral Tural and Dikmeli Primary Schools located…

Caliskan, Muhittin; Sunbul, Ali Murat

2011-01-01

270

The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353

Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

2014-01-01

271

The 'Dark Side' and 'Bright Side' of Personality: When Too Much Conscientiousness and Too Little Anxiety Are Detrimental with Respect to the Acquisition of Medical Knowledge and Skill  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety.

Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

2014-01-01

272

Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

Kerr, Rebecca

273

Correlates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among African-American college students: the effect of HIV knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills.  

PubMed

This study identifies theoretically based predictors of condom use in a sample of 253 sexually active African-American college students recruited from two historically African-American colleges. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model of AIDS-preventive behavior was employed to delineate the roles of HIV/AIDS knowledge, experiences with and attitudes toward condom use, peer influences, perceived vulnerability, monogamy, and behavioral skills. A predictive structural equation model revealed significant predictors of more condom use including: male gender, more sexual HIV knowledge, positive experiences and attitudes about condom use, nonmonogamy, and greater behavioral skills. Results imply that attention to behavioral skills for negotiating safer sex and training in the proper use of condoms are key elements in reducing high risk behaviors. Increasing the specific knowledge level of college students regarding the subtleties of sexual transmission of HIV is important and should be addressed. Heightening students' awareness of the limited protection of serial monogamy, and the need to address gender-specific training regarding required behavior change to reduce transmission of HIV should be an additional goal of college health professionals. PMID:10992684

Bazargan, M; Kelly, E M; Stein, J A; Husaini, B A; Bazargan, S H

2000-08-01

274

Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?  

PubMed

The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater. PMID:22487631

Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

2012-04-01

275

Emergent Literacy: Ways to Foster These Skills in Preschool Children from Low-Socioeconomic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergent literacy skills are important for children's academic achievement. Many preschool children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds have limited access to experiences that allow them to acquire emergent literacy skills such as letter knowledge, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. This article describes purposeful and age-appropriate instructional strategies that can be used by parents, teachers, and health care providers to ensure that

Kavin Ming; Tenisha Powell

2010-01-01

276

Destrezas Pre-Vocacionales: Curriculo Basico. Guia para el Maestro (Prevocational Skills: Basic Curriculum. Teacher's Guide).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Auxiliary Secretary of Vocational, Technical, and Higher Skill Instruction of Puerto Rico has the responsibility of offering prevocational services to students with disabilities. In the prevocational phase, the student receives academic instruction and acquires the knowledge and skills of general employment. This teacher's guide, in Spanish,…

Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

277

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China  

PubMed Central

Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China.

2014-01-01

278

Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

2013-01-01

279

Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Germann, Paul J.

280

Report on Thirty-Nine South Carolina Black Community Leaders' Knowledge/Opinions of the Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of an attitude survey of 39 selected Black community leaders in South Carolina toward South Carolina's Basic Skills Assessment Program (BSAP) and the Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery (CSAB) are presented. Of the 39 returned questionnaires, 10 were from public school educators, 7 were from school board members, and 13 were from officers…

Mizell, Hayes; McCurley, Betzi

281

Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

Conceição, Simone C. O.

2013-01-01

282

Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

2014-01-01

283

FORECAST 2000: a prediction of skills, knowledge, and abilities required by senior medical treatment facility leaders into the 21st century.  

PubMed

This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed. PMID:7816221

Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

1994-07-01

284

Beginning teachers’ perceptions of their levels of pedagogical knowledge and skills: did they change since their graduation from initial teacher preparation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated changes in beginning teachers’ self-perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills after their\\u000a first year of teaching. Surveys were administered to 322 graduating student teachers at the end of the initial teacher preparation\\u000a programme and at the end of their first year of teaching to compare if there were any differences in their self-perceptions.\\u000a The results of

Doris Choy; Sylvia Chong; Angela F. L. Wong; Isabella Y.-F. Wong

2011-01-01

285

Strategizing Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning toward Knowledge Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…

Mukama, Evode

2010-01-01

286

Is Prior Knowledge of Subject Matter More Important to the Development and Use of Meaningful Learning Skills?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I question the influence of prior subject?matter knowledge on the useful application of meaningful learning strategies. (Meaningful learning strategies are those aimed at, for example, interrelating new knowledge with previous knowledge, as distinct from rote strategies aimed at rote learning new knowledge ?? Biggs, 1982.) In doing this I will summarize how I have seen the development

Michael Prosser

1987-01-01

287

A Visual-Based Approach to the Mapping of Generic Skills: Its Application to a Marketing Degree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing complexity in the world, universities continue to face pressure to demonstrate that their graduates have acquired skills beyond discipline-based knowledge. These are generic skills like critical thinking, intellectual curiosity, problem-solving and so forth. In order to demonstrate this, universities have to show how their teaching…

Ang, Lawrence; D'Alessandro, Steven; Winzar, Hume

2014-01-01

288

The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after the treatment. These findings indicate that socioscientific issues-based instruction can provide benefits for students in agricultural education. Teacher educators should work with teachers to maximize the learning that can occur through the various aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction. Curriculum focusing on socioscientific issues-based instruction should be developed for specific courses in agricultural education. Finally, further investigation should be conducted to better understand how the aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction can be altered to further enhance student learning.

Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

289

The development of students' problem-solving skill from instruction emphasizing qualitative problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful learning of introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. In the physics department at the University of Minnesota, this duality is understood and attempts are being made to teach successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a problem-solving strategy that

Thomas Michael Foster

2000-01-01

290

Offline eLearning for undergraduates in health professions: A systematic review of the impact on knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background The world is short of 7.2 million health–care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource–limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline eLearning, we need to establish its effectiveness in terms of gaining knowledge and skills, students’ satisfaction and attitudes towards eLearning. Methods We conducted a systematic review of offline eLearning for students enrolled in undergraduate, health–related university degrees. We included randomised controlled trials that compared offline eLearning to traditional learning or an alternative eLearning method. We searched the major bibliographic databases in August 2013 to identify articles that focused primarily on students’ knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning, and health economic information and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. We synthesized the findings using a thematic summary approach. Findings Forty–nine studies, including 4955 students enrolled in undergraduate medical, dentistry, nursing, psychology, or physical therapy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of the 33 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 21 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. One study did not test for differences. Eight studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the eLearning intervention groups, whilst the other 5 testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups. No study found offline eLearning as inferior. Generally no differences in attitudes or preference of eLearning over traditional learning were observed. No clear trends were found in the comparison of different modes of eLearning. Most of the studies were small and subject to several biases. Conclusions Our results suggest that offline eLearning is equivalent and possibly superior to traditional learning regarding knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction. Although a robust conclusion cannot be drawn due to variable quality of the evidence, these results justify further investment into offline eLearning to address the global health care workforce shortage.

Rasmussen, Kristine; Belisario, Jose Marcano; Wark, Petra A; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Loong, Stewart Lee; Cotic, Ziva; Papachristou, Nikos; Riboli-Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Kunz, Holger; Zhang, Yanfeng; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Svab, Igor; Atun, Rifat; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

2014-01-01

291

Behavior, nutrition and lifestyle in a comprehensive health and disease paradigm: skills and knowledge for a predictive, preventive and personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Health and disease of individuals and of populations are the result of three groups of risk factors: genetics, environment and behavior. Assessment, interventions and tailored changes are possible with integrated approaches more effective if respectful of individuals and different cultures. Assessment tools and integrated interventional strategies are available, but widespread knowledge, skills and competence of well trained individual Medical Doctors still lack. Mediterranean diet is an appropriate reference paradigm because encompasses consistent research background, affordable sustainability, widespread comprehensibility and attractiveness inside a cultural framework of competences and skills in which the Medical Doctors can personally manage the need of prediction (early diagnosis), prevention (intervention on healthy persons) and tailored therapy and follow-up for patients. This profile is flexible and adjustable according to specific needs and preferences due to different economic and ethno-cultural milieus. It can enhanced through on-site/e-learning Continuous Medical Education (CME), by training and using friendly and affordable equipments.

2012-01-01

292

Re-Positioning Australia's International Education in Global Knowledge Economies: Implications of Shifts in Skilled Migration Policies for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…

Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill

2012-01-01

293

Building Vocabulary Knowledge and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment through Hybrid Language Intervention: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a…

Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

2008-01-01

294

Name Writing and Letter Knowledge in Preschoolers: Incongruities in Skills and the Usefulness of Name Writing as a Developmental Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 114 preschoolers (M age = 53 months) completed a battery of literacy assessments to explore the interplay between name writing and letter knowledge in early literacy learners. Name writing was significantly related to children's letter knowledge, and the relationships were moderate to high. However, many children exhibited an…

Drouin, Michelle; Harmon, Jenna

2009-01-01

295

The European Challenge of KM and Innovation: A Skills and Competence Portfolio for the Knowledge Worker in SME's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization, bringing about universal and dynamic transformations in every sector of the economy, is placing organizations everywhere in new and different competitive situations. In this context, the improvement of enterprise performance and economic growth makes increased demands for timely knowledge in the workplace to deliver competitive, knowledge- intensive work, enabling institutions and nations to maintain their vitality

Anabela Sarmento

296

The Contribution of Project-Based-Learning to High-Achievers' Acquisition of Technological Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goals of this study were to look after the technological knowledge construction process by high-school high-achievers, and their ability to design and implement solutions for technological problems. More specifically, we examine the contribution of Project-based-learning (PBL), as pedagogical means for supporting the students' knowledge

Mioduser, David; Betzer, Nadav

2008-01-01

297

11 Sense of Presence in Virtual Training: Enhancing Skills Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge through Learning Experience in Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in educational and training technology are offering an increasing number of innovative and promising learning environments including three-dimensional and two-dimensional virtual worlds as well as computer simulations. These environments differ a lot as to both their technological sophistication and to the types of skills taught, varying for example from immersive 3D environments of high-fidelity to simulations of complex

Fabrizia MANTOVANI; Gianluca CASTELNUOVO

298

Framework for the Evolution of Acquiring Knowledge Modules to Integrate the Acquisition of High-Level Cognitive Skills and Professional Competencies: Principles and Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing profile of students, the expectations of business and the capabilities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) makes it necessary to change teaching practices, particularly in higher education. This paper proposes a methodological framework destined to force disciplinary course modules to evolve in order to…

Warin, Bruno; Kolski, Christophe; Sagar, Mouldi

2011-01-01

299

Nurse Managers' Perceptions Related to Their Leadership Styles, Knowledge, and Skills in These Areas--A Viewpoint: Case of Health Centre Wards in Finland  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic—to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing.

Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

2013-01-01

300

Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

2013-01-01

301

Interpersonal Skills Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was developed as part of a larger research project designed to identify evidence-based guidelines for the relative effectiveness of different training methods for acquiring and transferring skills involved in complex task domains. Broadly, the...

A. Fisher M. Gronowski P. McDermott S. Hutchins T. Carolan

2013-01-01

302

Cancer health professionals need funding, time, research knowledge and skills to be involved in health services research.  

PubMed

Inadequate knowledge about research processes within cancer health services has the potential to limit the development of evidence-based care. A survey was emailed to 201 health professionals working in cancer services in a major city to identify perceived levels of research knowledge and barriers to conducting research. Eighty-five people (42%) responded. Barriers to conducting research included time-constraints (84%), workload (72%), limited research funding (74%) and limited knowledge (34%). Gaps in research knowledge included performing quantitative analyses (79%), gaining funds (71%), using qualitative and quantitative research methods (62 and 67%) and formulating a research proposal (54%). More nurses reported having gaps in research knowledge than other professions. Two thirds (66%) of participants reported an interest in further education. There is a need for research training for practising health professionals and a focus on research as the basis for providing evidence-based care in undergraduate courses. Research, translation of research into practice and evidence-based care need to be incorporated into health professional roles throughout their careers. PMID:24510803

Johnson, Claire; Lizama, Catalina; Harrison, Megan; Bayly, Emma; Bowyer, Joshua

2014-06-01

303

Nursing information technology knowledge, skills, and preparation of student nurses, nursing faculty, and clinicians: a U.S. survey.  

PubMed

Because health care delivery increasingly requires timely information for effective decision making, information technology must be integrated into nursing education curricula for all future nurse clinicians and educators. This article reports findings from an online survey of deans and directors of 266 baccalaureate and higher nursing programs in the United States. Approximately half of the programs reported requiring word processing and e-mail skill competency for students entering nursing undergraduate programs. Less than one third of the programs addressed the use of standardized languages or terminologies in nursing and telehealth applications of nursing. One third of the programs cited inclusion of evidence-based practice as part of graduate curricula. Program faculty, who were rated at the "novice" or "advanced beginner" level for teaching information technology content and using information technology tools, are teaching information literacy skills. The southeastern central and Pacific regions of the United States projected the greatest future need for information technology-prepared nurses. Implications for nurse educators and program directors are discussed. PMID:12938896

McNeil, Barbara J; Elfrink, Victoria L; Bickford, Carol J; Pierce, Susan T; Beyea, Suzanne C; Averill, Carolyn; Klappenbach, Cari

2003-08-01

304

Research and services partnerships: Responding to needs of clinical operations partners: transferring implementation facilitation knowledge and skills.  

PubMed

This column describes a facilitation strategy that incorporates evidence-based implementation knowledge and practice-based wisdom. The authors also describe a partnership between research and clinical operations leaders in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to bridge the gap between implementation knowledge and its use. The initial product of the partnership, the Implementation Facilitation Training Manual: Using External and Internal Facilitation to Improve Care in the Veterans Health Administration, is a resource that can be used by others to guide implementation efforts. PMID:24492898

Ritchie, Mona J; Dollar, Katherine M; Kearney, Lisa K; Kirchner, Joann E

2014-02-01

305

The low skill trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has become popular to argue that certain workers have fallen into a trap in which they have poor skills, few job opportunities and a low return on training, while others have not. This paper demonstrates how such a trap can occur within a simple matching model with rent sharing. Rent sharing diminishes the worker's incentive to acquire skills;

Ken Burdett; Eric Smith

2002-01-01

306

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

307

Intercultural Communication Skills among Prospective Turkish Teachers of German in the Context of the Comparative Country Knowledge Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the study,…

Basbagi, R. Ragip

2012-01-01

308

A Continuing Educational Initiative to Develop Nurses' Mental Health Knowledge and Skills in Rural and Remote Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australian nurses (n=202) participated in mental health continuing education delivered via distance methods and regional workshops in rural areas. The majority increased content knowledge and thought audio- and videotapes were effective despite technical difficulties; 90% felt the experiential learning workshops and distance modules integrated…

Chang, Esther; Daly, John; Bell, Pamela; Brown, Tracey; Allan, Jan; Hancock, Karen

2002-01-01

309

Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 1, Organizing Geometric Knowledge, Chapter 2, Concepts and Skills in Algebra. Student's Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is the first of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. The first chapter, devoted to organizing geometric knowledge, deals with the distinction…

Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

310

Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (?=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (?=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (?=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (?=-.41) and variability of character size (?=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. PMID:23911643

Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W

2013-10-01

311

An evaluation of a science professional development model: Examining participants' learning and use of new knowledge and skills, organizational support and change, and student learning outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of this study was to determine in what ways science professional development would support kindergarten through sixth grade teachers in their implementation of a revised curriculum. The problem centered on evaluating the relationship between professional development involvement and teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills, organizational support and change, and student learning outcomes. Using data derived from survey responses and other sources (e.g., test scores, financial records, etc.), this study examined use of a science course of study, use of activities/experiments from workshops, use and adequacy of materials adoptions, administrative support, and achievement scores. This research was completed using an Ex Post Facto research design. Using the General Linear Model and causal-comparative analyses, thus study significantly concluded that teachers with a higher level of involvement in science professional development were more likely to use the revised course of study for lesson planning and to perceive materials adoptions as being adequate, and that districts that had participated in science professional development to revise curriculum showed more gains in student learning outcomes. Data on teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills implied that districts needed to continue to design teacher leadership situations that implement long-term professional development, build capacity for shared decision making, create a supportive environment for leaders, and incorporate assessments. Teacher leaders needed to actively engage in action research as a professional development strategy to promote reflection on their teaching and student learning. Data on organizational support and change implied that without logistical and financial support for teaching and learning in terms of hands-on materials, teachers would be unable to support future curriculum improvement efforts. Building principals needed to play a more active role in the implementation of curriculum. Data on student learning outcomes implied that both content knowledge and inquiry skills were critical bases for curriculum in terms of teacher efficacy and student achievement. Teachers needed to examine student work as a professional development strategy to also promote reflection on teaching and learning. Further research and professional development in the area of science assessment, in terms of scientific content and processes, was suggested.

Zender, Georgi Anne

312

Learning to love computer science: peer leaders gain teaching skill, communicative ability and content knowledge in the CS classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the benefits of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL), an NSF-sponsored program in the sciences, to peer leaders serving in the Computing Alliance for Hispanic Serving Institutions (CAHSI). Beyond the benefits to students enrolled in the PLTL courses, survey findings show the majority of peer leaders report increased self-efficacy in teaching computer science, improved content knowledge, and better communication

Sarah Hug; Heather Thiry; Phyllis Tedford

2011-01-01

313

Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Knowledge and Skills into the Daily Work of Police Officers: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training\\u000a for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge\\u000a of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping\\/stigmatization,\\u000a greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing

Sonya Hanafi; Masuma Bahora; Berivan N. Demir; Michael T. Compton

2008-01-01

314

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

315

How to build a course in mathematical-biological modeling: content and processes for knowledge and skill.  

PubMed

Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie

2010-01-01

316

How to Build a Course in Mathematical-Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill  

PubMed Central

Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical–biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments.

2010-01-01

317

Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.

Gupta, Gian

2005-01-01

318

Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

2012-02-16

319

Online eLearning for undergraduates in health professions: A systematic review of the impact on knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background Health systems worldwide are facing shortages in health professional workforce. Several studies have demonstrated the direct correlation between the availability of health workers, coverage of health services, and population health outcomes. To address this shortage, online eLearning is increasingly being adopted in health professionals’ education. To inform policy–making, in online eLearning, we need to determine its effectiveness. Methods We performed a systematic review of the effectiveness of online eLearning through a comprehensive search of the major databases for randomised controlled trials that compared online eLearning to traditional learning or alternative learning methods. The search period was from January 2000 to August 2013. We included articles which primarily focused on students' knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning and cost-effectiveness and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. Due to significant heterogeneity among the included studies, we presented our results as a narrative synthesis. Findings Fifty–nine studies, including 6750 students enrolled in medicine, dentistry, nursing, physical therapy and pharmacy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 50 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the online eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 27 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. Eleven studies did not test for differences. Six studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the online eLearning intervention groups, whilst 3 other studies testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups and 1 study showed mixed results. Twelve studies tested students' attitudes, of which 8 studies showed no differences in attitudes or preferences for online eLearning. Students' satisfaction was measured in 29 studies, 4 studies showed higher satisfaction for online eLearning and 20 studies showed no difference in satisfaction between online eLearning and traditional learning. Risk of bias was high for several of the included studies. Conclusion The current evidence base suggests that online eLearning is equivalent, possibly superior to traditional learning. These findings present a potential incentive for policy makers to cautiously encourage its adoption, while respecting the heterogeneity among the studies.

George, Pradeep Paul; Papachristou, Nikos; Belisario, Jose Marcano; Wang, Wei; Wark, Petra A; Cotic, Ziva; Rasmussen, Kristine; Sluiter, Rene; Riboli-Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Heng, Bee Hoon; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

2014-01-01

320

Acquired hyperpigmentations.  

PubMed

Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis. PMID:24626644

Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

2014-01-01

321

Childhood learning, life skills and well?being in adult life: a Senegalese case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is not easily converted into human capital and well?being in low?income countries, because these countries do not have a high degree of economic and labour market differentiation that makes it possible to convert acquired knowledge and skills. Consequently, to have completed primary or even secondary education does not necessarily lead to a better life situation than some types of

Holger Daun

2010-01-01

322

Second Language Learners' Theories on the Use of English Articles: An Analysis of the Metalingusitic Knowledge Used by Japanese Students in Acquiring the English Article System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the difficulties second language learners have using articles properly by examining the metalinguistic knowledge of the English article system that learners employ when selecting articles in a given situation. Attempts to better understand the process of "making sense" of the English article system by learners who are at different stages…

Butler, Yuko Goto

2002-01-01

323

Evaluation of home-based programs for teaching personal safety skills to children  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available program, the Red Flag, Green Flag Prevention Book, used by parents to teach their children personal safety skills. Children's knowledge and skills regarding the prevention of sexual abuse and abduction were assessed prior to, during, and after training. In one group, training consisted of parents using the prevention book to train their children. Parents of children in the second group used the prevention book with added instructions. Children who did not achieve criterion performance after training with the prevention book received behavioral skills training provided by the experimenter. All children acquired safety skills following behavioral skills training. Follow-up probes 2 months later showed skill maintenance among the older children. Parents reported satisfaction with the procedures and no signs of behavioral or emotional problems following the follow-up probe.

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Thiesse-Duffy, Ellyn

1988-01-01

324

Skills set development of doctoral graduates and post doctoral staff.  

PubMed

Three pillars used to develop skills of early stage researchers are increased mobility, cooperation among higher education institutes, and interaction with non-academic stakeholders. Experiences as a Borlaug Fellow and a doctoral candidate illustrate ways to leverage these pillars to enrich the doctoral and post-doctoral experience. The doctoral and post doctoral staff requires skills to discover, integrate, and apply knowledge as well as to teach. Mentoring, attending workshops and seminars are essential. To acquire professional competencies to meet challenges of the next decade, early stage researchers need to take up and create opportunities to observe and learn from experienced researchers, practitioners and colleagues. PMID:20491399

Marete, M

2010-01-01

325

Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.  

PubMed

When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™). PMID:23177732

Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

2013-03-01

326

Prevention of surgical skill decay.  

PubMed

The U.S. military medical community spends a great deal of time and resources training its personnel to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform life-saving tasks, both on the battlefield and at home. However, personnel may fail to retain specialized knowledge and skills if they are not applied during the typical periods of nonuse within the military deployment cycle, and retention of critical knowledge and skills is crucial to the successful care of warfighters. For example, we researched the skill and knowledge loss associated with specialized surgical skills such as those required to perform laparoscopic surgery (LS) procedures. These skills are subject to decay when military surgeons perform combat casualty care during their deployment instead of LS. This article describes our preliminary research identifying critical LS skills, as well as their acquisition and decay rates. It introduces models that identify critical skills related to laparoscopy, and proposes objective metrics for measuring these critical skills. This research will provide insight into best practices for (1) training skills that are durable and resistant to skill decay, (2) assessing these skills over time, and (3) introducing effective refresher training at appropriate intervals to maintain skill proficiency. PMID:24084308

Perez, Ray S; Skinner, Anna; Weyhrauch, Peter; Niehaus, James; Lathan, Corinna; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L

2013-10-01

327

Application of the acquired knowledge and implementation of the Sens-it-iv toolbox for identification and classification of skin and respiratory sensitizers.  

PubMed

The contribution of the Sens-it-iv project to the reduction and replacement of animal experimentation is 3-fold. The funding of basic research has expanded the existing scientific knowledge thereby strengthening the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving skin and respiratory sensitization. Examples are given on how a better understanding was used to improve existing test concepts. This knowledge was also applied to develop novel test systems. While some of test systems did not reach sufficient maturity for being considered for pre-validation others did and entered into the Sens-it-iv toolbox. In the process, developments outside the Sens-it-iv orbit were carefully followed and assessed in order to avoid duplication and to assure synergy between the ongoing activities (e.g. Cosmetics Europe Task Force for Sensitization). Tests from the Sens-it-iv toolbox were submitted to the European Reference Laboratory for Alternative Methods (EuRL-ECVAM) to initiate the rigid procedures for regulatory acceptance by national and international authorities. In spite of not being validated yet, selected tests were already applied in a weight-of-evidence approach in the context of REACH. Furthermore, several chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and consumer product companies are currently assessing selected tests and testing strategies for their value as tools for screening and hazard identification using in house compounds and mixtures. The main points of concern related to transfer to and implementation by industry were cost, through-put and applicability domain, rather than regulatory acceptance. These issues are currently addressed in applied research projects which are financially supported by individual companies, or consortia of companies, representing the various industry sectors. PMID:23063875

Roggen, Erwin L

2013-04-01

328

Systemic Acquired Resistance  

PubMed Central

Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR.

2006-01-01

329

Retrospective Reflection: Insight into Pre-Service School Librarians' Competencies and Skill Development as Revealed through Field Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to expand our understanding of how educators, and in particular school librarians, acquire and use professional-practice knowledge. This exploratory study, grounded in "lived practice" (Spillane, Hunt, and Healey, 2009) uses reflective analysis to amplify competencies and skill development in pre-service school library education.…

Stefl-Mabry, Joette; Dequoy, Elyse; Stevens, Sandra

2012-01-01

330

A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

2000-11-01

331

What goal is of most worth? The effects of the implementation of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills on elementary science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative, narrative study centered on the effects of the implementation of the science portion of the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) on the instruction of science at the elementary level, grades one through five. Fourteen teachers and five administrators were interviewed at two elementary schools (kindergarten through grade four) and one middle school (grades five and six). Classroom observations of each of the teachers were also conducted. The study focused on the effect of the implementation of the science TAKS on the amount of time spent on science as well as the instructional methods utilized in the elementary science classroom. Lower grade levels were found to have changed little in these areas unless strong administrative leadership---emphasizing curriculum alignment, providing adequate materials and facilities, and encouraging sustained, content-based professional development in science---was present in the school. At the fifth grade level, however, the amount of time spent on science had increased significantly, although the instructional methods utilized by the teachers were focused more often upon increasing ratings on the test rather than providing the research-based best practice methods of hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction. In addition, the study also explored the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of the state and local mandates concerning science instruction and preparation for the TAKS. Other topics that came to light during the course of the study included the teachers' views on accountability and the effects of the state assessments on children in their classrooms. It was found that most teachers readily accept accountability for themselves, but are opposed to one-shot high-stakes tests which they feel are damaging for their students emotionally and academically---adversely affecting their love of learning science.

Rodgers, Pamela England

332

From learning styles to learning skills: the executive skills profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that a typology of skills based on a framework of learning styles and experiential learning theory, rather than a framework of job performance or some other personality construct, provides a language and guidance for assessment methods to describe knowledge at the performance level of adaptation. It requires development of the concept of learning skills which are: domainspecific and knowledge-rich;

Richard E. Boyatzis; David A. Kolb

1995-01-01

333

Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

Murrah, William M., III

334

A Statics Skills Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as âÂÂconceptâ inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

Danielson, Scott

2011-05-19

335

Cardiac clinical skill assessments for registered nurses.  

PubMed

This article outlines a framework of clinical skill assessments that identify the knowledge and skills required for safe and competent care of cardiac patients. This framework categorizes identified cardiac skills into a logical sequence for assessment, aims to standardize the assessment process, and allows transportability of clinical skills. PMID:22449887

Boyde, Mary; Witt, Jane

2012-01-01

336

Promoting Students' Problem Solving Skills and Knowledge of STEM Concepts in a Data-Rich Learning Environment: Using Online Data as a Tool for Teaching about Renewable Energy Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related to renewable energy technologies and students' problem solving skills. Two purposefully selected Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science teachers were included in the study. Each teacher taught one class about RET in a lecture-based environment (control) and another class in a DRL environment (treatment), for a total of four classes of students (n=128). This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, control-group design. The initial hypothesis that the treatment group would have a significant gain in knowledge of STEM concepts related to RET and be better able to solve problems when compared to the control group was not supported by the data. Although students in the DRL environment had a significant gain in knowledge after instruction, posttest score comparisons of the control and treatment groups revealed no significant differences between the groups. Further, no significant differences were noted in students' problem solving abilities as measured by scores on a problem-based activity and self-reported abilities on a reflective questionnaire. This suggests that the DRL environment is at least as effective as the lecture-based learning environment in teaching AP Environmental Science students about RET and fostering the development of problem solving skills. As this was a small scale study, further research is needed to provide information about effectiveness of DRL environments in promoting students' knowledge of STEM concepts and problem-solving skills.

Thurmond, Brandi

337

Elementary school quality, the mathematics curriculum and the role of local knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.

Balfanz, Robert

1990-03-01

338

Using the Known to Chart the Unknown: A Review of First-Language Influence on the Development of English-as-a-Second-Language Spelling Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, there is a practical demand and necessity for research on how English-as-a-second language (ESL) learners acquire literacy skills, such as spelling. One important issue of this research agenda is how ESL learners apply first-language knowledge to learning to spell in English. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed that investigated the…

Figueredo, L.

2006-01-01

339

Are They Really Ready to Work? Employers' Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century U.S. Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In collaboration, The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Management conducted an in-depth study of the corporate perspective on the readiness of new entrants into the U.S. workforce by level of educational attainment. The study includes results…

Casner-Lotto, Jill; Barrington, Linda

2006-01-01

340

Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

2010-01-01

341

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

342

Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

343

Mediation: Skills and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediation-Skills and Techniques is an essential and comprehensive addition to the professional library of all mediators. It provides a thorough course of study of the mediation process, from convening the mediation to formalizing the settlement agreement. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to mediation, integrating knowledge and expertise from law, psychology, and sociology. Practical examples and case studies are used

Laurence Boulle; Colatrella Jr. Michael T; Anthony P. Picchioni

2008-01-01

344

Testing Historical Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines methods for including skill testing in teacher-made history tests. Focuses on distinguishing fact and fiction, evaluating the reliability of a source, distinguishing between primary and secondary sources, recognizing statements which support generalizations, testing with media, mapping geo-politics, and applying knowledge to new…

Baillie, Ray

1980-01-01

345

"Riding the bumpy seas": or the impact of the Knowledge Skills Framework component of the Agenda for Change initiative on staff in intermediate care settings.  

PubMed

This paper explores the compatibility of the recently modernized NHS pay structure, "Agenda for Change" (AfC) with the workforce flexibilities arising within intermediate care services in the NHS in England. The findings reported here were an unanticipated outcome of a larger, Department of Health (England) study which explored the impact of workforce flexibility on the costs and outcomes of older peoples' community-based services. The research coincided with the introduction of AfC, and, as such pay modernization was a strongly emergent theme from focus groups that involved 11 teams as part of the larger study. In principle, it appears that both intermediate care and AfC should support the concepts of interprofessional working, blurring of role boundaries and role substitution, however the findings from this study suggest otherwise. In particular, intermediate care was described as a largely non-hierarchical service structure where staff roles expand horizontally to take on a broad plethora of generic tasks. In contrast, AfC promotes a hierarchical framework for career progression that recognizes and rewards defined skills, expertise and responsibility. From this perspective, AfC was seen to reward specialization rather than skill sharing, and had difficulty differentiating between and rewarding staff with broad generalist roles. PMID:19705315

McClimens, Alex; Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Enderby, Pamela; Mitchell, Caroline

2010-01-01

346

Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived fro...

G. R. Hatterick J. R. Bathurst

1976-01-01

347

The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

Bishoff, Sandra Wells

2010-01-01

348

THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A POLYSENSORY INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM FOR TEACHING KNOWLEDGES AND SKILLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE PLASTICS. REPORT NO. 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIRTY STUDENTS IN GRADES 6 THROUGH 12 CLASSIFIED INTO HIGH, AVERAGE, AND LOW ABILITY GROUPS, USED EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE PLASTICS AND EQUIPMENT TO CONSTRUCT A FOAMED RUBBER ICE BUCKET TO PROVIDE AN INDICATOR OF THE SUCCESS OF THE POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT. A PRETEST DETERMINED EXISTING KNOWLEDGES AND…

NISH, DALE LEROY

349

Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

McLeod, Naomi

2011-01-01

350

Psychiatric Residents' Self-Assessment of Teaching Knowledge and Skills following a Brief "Psychiatric Residents-as-Teachers" Course: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum…

Grady-Weliky, Tana A.; Chaudron, Linda H.; DiGiovanni, Sue K.

2010-01-01

351

The Effect of an Integrated Course Cluster Learning Community on the Oral and Written Communication Skills and Technical Content Knowledge of Upper-Level College of Agriculture Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, and agronomic/economic technical content knowledge. The population (N = 182)…

Barnett, Cynthia; Miller, Greg; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance

2009-01-01

352

[Acquired von Willebrand's disease].  

PubMed

We describe a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. He suffered from an acquired tendency to bleed. The laboratory findings were identical to those of congenital von Willebrand's disease. The acquired form of this bleeding disorder is seen in association with immunologically active B cell lymphomas, certain other malignant tumours, and autoimmune diseases. The incidence and prevalence are unknown, but this disorder is probably uncommon. We discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Acquired von Willebrand's disease should be considered in patients with an acquired tendency to bleed, especially if the patient also has a lymphoproliferative, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. PMID:8332973

Berentsen, S; Hammerstrøm, J

1993-05-10

353

The Skill Development Processes of Apprenticeship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of apprenticeship in the Japanese tea ceremony, traditional crafts, and strategic thinking illustrate novices' growth in internal knowledge through reflective practice of skilled processes. As skilled experts, adult educators are engaged in continually improving the skilled processes they model. (SK)

Wolek, Francis W.

1999-01-01

354

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

355

Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.  

PubMed

Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p < 0.001). This research highlighted that for many students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). PMID:23305675

Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

2013-03-01

356

A comparison of a fifth-grade elementary school science research-based curriculum and an activity-centered traditional curriculum: Effects on conceptual knowledge, process skills and attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the student outcomes of process skills, conceptual knowledge and attitudes of a research-based, model curriculum (SLL) as defined by the National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE) and two similar programs that were activity centered, but traditionally taught science curricula (ACTS). Fifth-grade elementary students in a southeastern county participated in the study. The public school system has urban, suburban and rural schools within the county. Five public schools and one private school were included in the study contributing a total of 443 students in 18 classes taught by nine teachers. Students in both groups had participated in their science program for a minimum of one academic year. A state fifth grade science End of Grade (EOG) test form M, the Test of Basic Process Skills (BAPS) (Padilla, Cronin, & Twiest, 1985), and an attitude instrument (AI) (Simpson & Oliver, 1985; Simpson & Oliver, 1990; Simpson & Troost, 1982) were used to measure the student outcomes. Mean scores were analyzed by a t test and a two-way analysis of variance. At the end of a complete academic year of participating in the SLL or ACTS programs, the results indicated that the students taught with the SLL curriculum scored significantly higher on the fifth grade science EOG, the BAPS and the AI than those taught with the ACTS program. The outcomes provided evidence that the research-based curriculum promoted a higher level of conceptual development and process skills attainment and developed more positive attitudes than the students in the activity-centered traditional science program.

Maidon, Carolyn Howser

2001-07-01

357

Developmental and acquired dyslexias.  

PubMed

Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias. Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and phonological difficulties evident in explicit oral phonological tasks continues to be a focus for debate. Clear cases of developmental deep dyslexia have now been described and the syndrome has also been described as characterising early reading development in Williams syndrome (WS), where there are also semantic errors in other domains, including naming and receptive vocabulary and there may be a generalised difficulty with the activation of fine grain semantic specifications. In the domain of number, highly selective reading disorders characterised by high rates of semantic errors have been documented, indicating that semantic reading errors can be domain-specific. They can occur to number words despite intact ability to read Arabic numbers and they can occur to Arabic numbers and number words despite intact ability to read words in other domains. Current models of reading written words do not allow for such material-specific dissociation. Developmental surface dyslexia has also been described in a range of countries, languages and orthographies. Descriptions of cases for whom there is no phonological impairment in reading have generated contrary evidence for theories suggesting that phonological impairment underlies all developmental dyslexia. As reading develops in Williams Syndrome, phonological reading skills may improve with over-reliance on these leading to surface dyslexia. Surface dyslexia has also been reported in cases of developmental amnesia in which there are semantic memory impairments. Hyperlexia can take several forms including broad hyperdevelopment with elevated phonological reading abilities, lexico-semantic reading abilities and reading comprehension as in Turner's syndrome (TS). This advantage has early onset in school-starters. These specific modular effects do not have pervasive impact across systems but demonstrate the limitations of functional plasticity in developmental and genetic disorders. The framework Marshall (1984) outlined has provided a foundation for the development of systematic investigation of developmental disorders. PMID:17131596

Temple, Christine M

2006-08-01

358

Pathways to Knowledge Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the occupational structure of the Australian labor market evolved and how individuals fared in the process. It identified issues in defining skill and knowledge and followed Elias and McKnight (2001) in stating that sufficient evidence showed a very high correlation between job-required cognitive ability and ordinal skill

Cully, Mark

359

Generalisation of New Sequence Knowledge Depends on Response Modality  

PubMed Central

New visuomotor skills can guide behaviour in novel situations. Prior studies indicate that learning a visuospatial sequence via responses based on manual key presses leads to effector- and response-independent knowledge. Little is known, however, about the extent to which new sequence knowledge can generalise, and, thereby guide behaviour, outside of the manual response modality. Here, we examined whether learning a visuospatial sequence either via manual (key presses, without eye movements), oculomotor (obligatory eye movements), or perceptual (covert reorienting of visuospatial attention) responses supported generalisation to direct and indirect tests administered either in the same (baseline conditions) or a novel response modality (transfer conditions) with respect to initial study. Direct tests measured the use of conscious knowledge about the studied sequence, whereas the indirect tests did not ostensibly draw on the study phase and measured response priming. Oculomotor learning supported the use of conscious knowledge on the manual direct tests, whereas manual learning supported generalisation to the oculomotor direct tests but did not support the conscious use of knowledge. Sequence knowledge acquired via perceptual responses did not generalise onto any of the manual tests. Manual, oculomotor, and perceptual sequence learning all supported generalisation in the baseline conditions. Notably, the manual baseline condition and the manual to oculomotor transfer condition differed in the magnitude of general skill acquired during the study phase; however, general skill did not predict performance on the post-study tests. The results demonstrated that generalisation was only affected by the responses used to initially code the visuospatial sequence when new knowledge was applied to a novel response modality. We interpret these results in terms of response-effect distinctiveness, the availability of integrated effector- and motor-plan based information, and discuss their implications for neurocognitive accounts of sequence learning.

Rosenthal, Clive R.; Ng, Tammy W. C.; Kennard, Christopher

2013-01-01

360

[Efforts to achieve and effects of acquiring ISO 15189 in Tokushima University Hospital].  

PubMed

The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome. PMID:20077817

Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio

2009-12-01

361

Knowledge Network Modeling Based on Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human society entered the era of knowledge economy, lasting in-depth studies have been done to knowledge learning, knowledge management, and other fields. How to identify, acquire, develop, decompose, store, and transmit knowledge has become the focus of research. The creation of knowledge network supplies a better solution to this problem. Knowledge network is composed of knowledge points. Each knowledge

FAN Yan-jing; WANG Hua-yu

2008-01-01

362

Learning surgical technical skills.  

PubMed

Training issues raised by the recent introduction of laparoscopic surgical techniques led to this analysis of motor-skill learning principles as they apply specifically to the learning of technical surgical skills. The most accepted theories of motor-skill learning are presented, not as opposing views, but as complementary constructs. The behaviourist school of thought's main contribution is the executive routine or knowledge of the steps of a procedure. Schmidt's schema theory and MacKay's node theory suggest that perceptual information may play an important role in the quality of the performance. The conclusions reached from neuropsychologic testing experiments on surgeons are that visuospatial perceptual skills (the ability to represent mentally the physical environment and the movement to be performed) are the major determinants of surgical technical performance. Learners should make use of learning strategies that improve mental representation of a skill and the corresponding anatomy. Specific strategies discussed include imagery, mental practice and a systematic review of performance that focuses on the perceptual feedback received by the learner. PMID:7882206

DesCôteaux, J G; Leclère, H

1995-02-01

363

National Photonics Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

2008-11-17

364

Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities  

PubMed Central

The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children’s development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Lerner, Matthew D.

2011-01-01

365

Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

Lejeune, Michel

2011-01-01

366

High Skills: The Concept and Its Application to South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues the case for re-visiting the concepts of high and low skills as used in academic and political debates in the older industrial countries. There the concept of low skills has, for a number of reasons, acquired negative connotations in that low skilled jobs are seen to "drag down" the economy and therefore something which policy…

Ashton, David N.

2005-01-01

367

The Increasing Significance of How to Learn Motor Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The training of surgeons has traditionally been an apprenticeship. In recent times it has become increasingly difficult for trainees to acquire operative skills. The acquisition and refinement of these technical skills by the surgical trainee are central to surgical teaching. Much work has been done looking into the theories of motor skill learning, working on the assumptions that if they

M. S. Khan; D. Widdowson; E. Tiernan

2004-01-01

368

Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: A Policy Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A policy review examined the extent to which changes to the post-16 learning and skills policy environment, particularly in relation to further education (FE) colleges, were likely to support neighborhood renewal-related knowledge and skills development. It focused particularly on the development of skills and knowledge needed by regeneration…

Macleod, Dierdre; Taylor, Sue, Ed.

369

Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single training session run by junior doctors. Methods Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow-up questionnaire one week later. The questionnaire consisted of an eight item multiple-choice test on BLS knowledge, a four-level evaluation of self-assessed BLS skills and evaluation of fear based on a qualitative description and visual analog scale from 0 to 10 for being first responder. Results Sixty-three percent of the students (413/651) had participated in prior BLS training. Only 28% (179/651) knew how to correctly recognize normal breathing. The majority was afraid of exacerbating the condition or causing death by intervening as first responder. The response rate at follow-up was 61% (399/651). There was a significant improvement in correct answers on the multiple-choice test (p?Knowledge of key areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA.

2014-01-01

370

49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111 Transportation...STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All commercial motor vehicle...

2009-10-01

371

49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111 Transportation...STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All commercial motor vehicle...

2010-10-01

372

[Universities need to have high quality education as well as an effective quality control of their students' (products') knowledge and skill base].  

PubMed

In order for the schools of medicine to produce high quality physicians, they have to provide high quality education as well as they must ensure that knowledge building is taking place in the course of the programme and that the students whose efforts and/or abilities do not allow achievement of the required criteria are eliminated. Exams used to be the standard quality control tool. However, current information technologies allow doubling-up of this control; retaining the traditional examinations but preceding them with the requirement to complete multiple-choice tests. The text summarizes our experience with examining the students' mental presence during teaching with tests and our plans for the combined form of exit control using tests, completion of which will be prerequisite to admission to the exam itself. We do not believe that tests should completely replace exams but we do believe that the requirement to pass the exam should only take place following previous successful completion ofa test. This is achievable ifwe manage to establish a computer teaching room, i.e. examination room, and transform a vast number of questions into high quality multiple choice tests. PMID:20681477

Adam, Z; Komenda, M; Doubek, M; Krejcí, M; Tomíska, M; Schwarz, D; Vorlícek, J

2010-06-01

373

Teaching children fire safety skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the effectiveness of three training procedures (elaborative rehearsal, rehearsal-plus, and behavioral rehearsal) in producing children's acquisition and maintenance of fire safety skills, as well as knowledge of fire safety skills. In addition, reduction of fire-related fears was targeted. Fifty-two randomly assigned second- and third-grade children served as subjects. The children were assessed before, immediately following, and three

Jeff Randall; Russell T. Jones

1993-01-01

374

Teaching Laundry Skills to High School Students with Disabilities: Generalization of Targeted Skills and Nontargeted Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional procedure to teach laundry skills to four high school students with moderate mental disabilities utilized least prompts with multiple exemplars of materials to facilitate generalization of skills across community settings and multiple exemplars of nontargeted information presented as instructive feedback. Students acquired and…

Taylor, Paula; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

2002-01-01

375

Knowledge of accurate blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students  

PubMed Central

Objective Blood pressure measurement is a basic clinical procedure. However, studies have shown that many errors are made when health care providers acquire blood pressure readings. Our study assessed knowledge of blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students. Methods This was an observational, descriptive study. A questionnaire based on one created by the American Heart Association was given to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and final year students (n = 186). A one way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results Of the students 80% were confident that their knowledge of this clinical skill was adequate or better. However, the overall score on the knowledge test of blood pressure–taking skills was 52% (range, 24%–88%). The only significant difference in the mean scores was between the 1st and 2nd year students compared to the 3rd and 4th year students (p < .005). Of the 16 questions given, the following mean scores were: 1st year 10.45, 2nd year 9.75, 3rd year 7.93, and 4th year 8.33. Of the 16 areas tested, 10 were of major concern (test item score <70%), showing the need for frequent retraining of chiropractic students. Conclusion Consistent with studies in other health care disciplines, our research found the knowledge of blood pressure skills to be deficient in our sample. There is a need for subsequent training in our teaching program.

Crosley, Angela M.; Rose, James R. La

2013-01-01

376

Using Children's Mathematical Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new approach to teaching and curriculum takes seriously the knowledge children have when they enter school. Teachers use the knowledge each child has to make instructional decisions so that the child learns mathematics with understanding, how to solve problems, and the computational skills. Research concerning the problem-solving strategies…

Peterson, Penelope L.; And Others

377

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

378

Acquired Immunity to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works. There is no general agreement about the rate of onset of acquired immunity or what constitutes the key determinants of protection; much less is there a consensus regarding the mechanism(s) of protection. This review summarizes what is understood about naturally acquired and experimentally induced immunity against malaria with the help of evolving insights provided by biotechnology and places these insights in the context of historical, clinical, and epidemiological observations. We advocate that naturally acquired immunity should be appreciated as being virtually 100% effective against severe disease and death among heavily exposed adults. Even the immunity that occurs in exposed infants may exceed 90% effectiveness. The induction of an adult-like immune status among high-risk infants in sub-Saharan Africa would greatly diminish disease and death caused by P. falciparum. The mechanism of naturally acquired immunity that occurs among adults living in areas of hyper- to holoendemicity should be understood with a view toward duplicating such protection in infants and young children in areas of endemicity.

Doolan, Denise L.; Dobano, Carlota; Baird, J. Kevin

2009-01-01

379

Development of knowledge about the appearance-reality distinction.  

PubMed

7 studies of the acquisition of knowledge about the appearance-reality distinction suggest the following course of development. Many 3-year-olds seem to possess little or no understanding of the distinction. They fail the simplest Appearance-Reality (AR) tasks and are unresponsive to efforts to teach them the distinction. Skill in solving simple AR tasks is highly correlated with skill in solving simple perceptual Perspective-taking (PT) tasks; this suggests the hypothesis that the ability to represent the selfsame stimulus in two different, seemingly incompatible ways may underlie both skills. Children of 6-7 years have acquired both skills but nevertheless find it very difficult to reflect on and talk about such appearance-reality concepts as "looks like," "really and truly," and "looks different from the way it really and truly is." In contrast, children of 11-12 years, and to an even greater degree college students, possess a substantial body of rich, readily accessible, and explicit knowledge in this area. PMID:3807927

Flavell, J H; Green, F L; Flavell, E R

1986-01-01

380

Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis  

PubMed Central

We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure.

Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J.; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

2004-01-01

381

Job Hunting: Critical Knowledge and Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 1,121 counselors (59 percent) determined what information was needed by individuals to facilitate their career decision making and job seeking behavior. It also identified general themes within this career-related information through factor analysis of a lengthy questionnaire. (JOW)

Helwig, Andrew A.; And Others

1989-01-01

382

Developing a Political Economy of Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical political economy of skill. (Contains 104 references.) (SK)

Lloyd, Caroline; Payne, Jonathan

2002-01-01

383

Critical Thinking Skills: Definitions, Implications for Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite problems of skill definition and implementation, educators are now being urged to incorporate higher order thinking skills and instruction into their classrooms. A primary barrier is teachers' orientation toward covering or dispensing knowledge, rather than working with it. The current teacher-dominated format must change to a more…

Young, Lynne E.

1992-01-01

384

State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

385

Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

386

Predictive validity of critical thinking skills for initial clinical dental hygiene performance.  

PubMed

This study collected validity evidence on the utility of critical thinking skills and critical thinking disposition in predicting initial clinical performance. The predictive value of critical thinking skills scores and disposition scores was examined to determine their unique contribution beyond that provided by traditional predictors: grade point average, age, and number of college hours. The study involved three phases: establishing content validity of three outcome measures; assessing students' baseline critical thinking skills and disposition using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI); and assessing students' initial clinical competence, clinical reasoning, and clinical knowledge. All baccalaureate-level dental hygiene programs in the United States affiliated with a dental school (N=22) were invited to participate; of those, seven volunteered. A convenience sample of 207 first-year dental hygiene students was obtained. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that CCTST scores explained a statistically significant (p<.05) proportion of variance in students' initial clinical reasoning scores, acquired knowledge scores, and faculty ratings, above and beyond that explained by other predictor variables. CCTDI scores were not significant predictors of any outcome measure. It was concluded that CCTST is a good predictor of initial student outcomes and may have utility for student selection and retention. PMID:14650499

Williams, Karen B; Glasnapp, Douglas R; Tilliss, Terri S I; Osborn, Joy; Wilkins, Kris; Mitchell, Shannon; Kershbaum, Wendy; Schmidt, Colleen

2003-11-01

387

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

388

Acquired von Willebrand Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a rare complication of an autoimmune or neoplastic disease. It is associated mostly with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. The clinical manifestations are similar to congenital von Willebrand disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and von Willebrand factor

Ayalew Tefferi; William L Nichols

1997-01-01

389

Acquired blaschkolinear dermatoses.  

PubMed

Congenital and/or nevoid skin disorders following the lines of Blaschko may have a delayed onset after birth. They have to be differentiated from acquired dermatoses exhibiting the same linear pattern. In common dermatoses, such as psoriasis or lichen planus, lesions in a blaschkolinear distribution most often occur together with scattered lesions, but occasionally they may be isolated. Less common self-limited dermatoses such as lichen striatus and adult blaschkitis always present in a blaschkolinear fashion. In these diseases, or some other conditions occasionally distributed along these lines (chronic graft versus host reaction, fixed drug eruption, lupus erythematosus, atopic dermatitis, etc.), the cause of the disease may lead to the unmasking of tolerance to an abnormal keratinocyte clone that remained hidden in these lines. In addition to epithelial cells, other cells may be involved in the occurrence of acquired blaschkolinear dermatoses. In linear atrophoderma and linear fibromatosis, the histogenesis seems to involve hypothetic dermal clones. The extension of an acquired dermatosis on a preexisting linear nevoid disorder is an argument in favor of an early embryonic somatic mutation of a skin cell line. PMID:10398254

Grosshans, E M

1999-08-01

390

Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

2010-01-04

391

Contact hours, skills fairs, and competency assessment.  

PubMed

Various regulatory agencies have indicated the need to measure initial and ongoing competency among health care workers. Yet, what is competency and how can it be measured? In reality, competency assessment is about outcomes. Maintaining and advancing our knowledge, skills, and analytical abilities is important for achieving optimal patient outcomes. Competency assessment should go beyond the act of attending lectures and skills fairs. Competency assessment should be a time when nurses can demonstrate and document their problem-solving and decision-making skills, inclusion of best practices, and evidence of how those skills make a difference for the patients they care for. PMID:23985474

Pilcher, Jobeth; Stone, Lisa; Reynolds, Regina

2013-01-01

392

A Postmodern Framework for Developing Critical Thinking Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

MBA education has historically focused on the acquisition of knowledge about existing business arrangements and functions at the expense of how to generate or acquire new knowledge. In this paper we argue that acquiring new knowledge without having adopted a critical perspective is insufficient preparation for MBAs entering a work world of unprecedented change and novelty. We put forth a

Art Whatley; Loren Dyck

1999-01-01

393

The Measurement of Motor Skill Assemblages and Successful Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines the required abilities for a given job as a Task Skill Assemblage (TSA), and the stored skill and knowledge is possessed by a candidate for that job as the Personal Skill Assemblage (PSA). A method is suggested for measuring the degree of match between the TSA and PSA. (Author)

Worrall, N. R.

1974-01-01

394

[Acquired alopecia in childhood].  

PubMed

Hair loss and alopecia occur frequently in children. The prevalence of the underlying causes and conditions, treatment options and prognosis differ in part significantly from adulthood. This article focuses on frequent forms of acquired alopecia which are not associated with inflammation or scarring of the scalp. Special attention is given to alopecia areata as the most important entity and to trichotillomania as its most difficult differential diagnosis. Significant forms of diffuse hair loss include anagen-dystrophic and telogen effluvium, androgenetic alopecia and loose anagen hair. PMID:23571647

Hamm, H

2013-05-01

395

Teaching Skill in Theorizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses whether theoretical skills, meaning skills in evaluating and improving existing theories and in creating new theories, should be taught in psychology programs. Three questions are posed: (1) Should theoretical skills be taught at all?; (2) How are theoretical skills best taught?; and (3) Which theoretical skills should be…

Parrott, W. Gerrod

396

Knowledge Spillover Agents and Regional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely recognised that knowledge and highly-skilled individuals as “carriers” of knowledge (i.e. knowledge spillover\\u000a agents) play a key role in impelling the development and growth of cities and regions. In this chapter we discuss the relation\\u000a between the mobility of talent and knowledge flows. In this context, several issues are examined, including the role of highly-skilled\\u000a labour for

Michaela Trippl; Gunther Maier

2010-01-01

397

[Acquired necrotizing myopathies].  

PubMed

Necrotizing myopathies (MN) are defined by a specific histological pattern. They are characterized by a predominant muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration but with little or no associated inflammation. This histological pattern is observed in acquired myopathy but also in muscular dystrophy. Acquired NM can be secondary to drugs or toxics, and if not, autoimmune mechanisms have to be suspected. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is recognized as a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, different from other myositides. Generally, patients present a rapidly progressive and severe symmetrical proximal weakness with high serum creatine kinase level, associated in some patients with cardiac involvement. On the other hand, a slower progression may sometimes be observed, that could lead to erroneous diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy may be associated to specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle, or more recently described, against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Necrotizing auto-immune myopathy can also be described in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus or sclerodermia. In remaining cases, cancer association may be observed. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are now considered as a new entity, treatable by immunosuppressants and which should not be misdiagnosed as a muscular dystrophy. PMID:22998975

Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

2013-06-01

398

Social skills intervention with learning disabled children: Selecting skills and implementing training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the social difficulties faced by many learning disabled children, the present paper extends current knowledge and expertise in the area of social?skills intervention to learning disabled children. First, nine areas of social behavior which relate to a child's acceptance from peers are reviewed and detailed, and considerations regarding how to select appropriate target skills and treatment goals

Annette Marie La Greca; Gary B. Mesibov

1979-01-01

399

Track & Field: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of five guidelines in the Sports Skills Instructional Program, the booklet addresses ways to teach track and field to mentally retarded persons. The approach is designed to use volunteers as instructors. An overview considers such topics as clothing, equipment, and field preparation. The long term goal of acquiring basic fundamental skills,…

Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

400

Teaching Information Evaluation and Critical Thinking Skills in Physics Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physics curriculum at all educational levels can be enriched to include tools for strengthening students' information evaluation skills. The "Report of the Joint APS-AAPT Task Force on Graduate Education in Physics" calls for such training to be part of graduate programs, but training to acquire these lifetime skills can be incorporated in the…

Popescu, Adriana; Morgan, James

2007-01-01

401

Investigating Library Study Skills of Children in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether children in public schools are performing poorly because they have never acquired effective study skills, an investigation was undertaken of the library study skills of 467 randomly selected students representing grades 5, 8, and 11 in the Escambia County (Florida) Public Schools. Scores from the Gullette-Hatfield Test of…

Toifel, Ronald C.; Davis, Wesley D.

402

Developing students' physics problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course in acquiring the basic skills of physics problem-solving. The educational effectiveness of this protocol for mature students in distance education has been extensively evaluated, and it is now being used as the basis for an interactive multimedia learning package.

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

2005-11-03

403

Developing Students' Physics Problem-Solving Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course acquire the basic skills of physics problem solving. Discusses the evaluation of the educational effectiveness of this protocol and its use in an interactive multimedia learning package. Contains 16 references. (Author/JRH)

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

1997-01-01

404

User skill acquisition in office information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of learning to use a new software package is incremental. Users begin learning one function and as the need arises, they acquire skills necessary to use an- other function. This article develops advent models of this process and tests the models on longitudinal data from more than 300 users of an office automation sys- tem called PROFS over

Michael D. Cooper

1991-01-01

405

A Master Key to Workforce Skills Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadian society is undergoing a significant transformation, largely in response to the forces of globalization and the development of the knowledge/information economy. The key to the economic and social well being of Canada's diverse communities lies in the knowledge-and-skills base of its citizens. Canada must design policies and programs which…

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2006

2006-01-01

406

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

407

Are Minimally Invasive Procedures Harder to Acquire than Conventional Surgical Procedures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is frequently suggested that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is harder to acquire than conventional surgery. To test this hypothesis, residents’ learning curves of both surgical skills are compared. Methods: Residents had to be assessed using a general global rating scale of the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills) for every procedure they performed as primary surgeon during

Ellen Hiemstra; Wendela Kolkman; Saskia le Cessie; Frank Willem Jansen

2011-01-01

408

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

409

Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

Fortmuller, Richard

2009-01-01

410

Acquiring expertise. Technical report 1 October 80-30 September 83  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the roles played by knowledge and automatized skill in expert performance. Special attention is given to the importance of initial problem representations in expertise and to capacity limitations that make using such initial representations difficult at intermediate levels of skill. The role of strategy in skilled performance is discussed in light of the especial importance of domain specific knowledge to expertise. Suggestions are made for development of a theory of coaching based upon emerging cognitive psychological principles of expertise.

Lesgold, A.M.

1983-01-31

411

Supported Workplace Learning: A Knowledge Transfer Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of knowledge to the effective development of economic growth in the twenty-first century has led to a number of initiatives such as lifelong learning, skills development and knowledge transfer. Of these, knowledge transfer has predominantly been concerned with the commercial exploitation of research knowledge. This article suggests…

Burns, George R.; Paton, Robert R.

2005-01-01

412

MEDICINE AND CLINICAL SKILLS LABORATORIES  

PubMed Central

The main objective of the medical curriculum is to provide medical students with knowledge, skills and attitudes required for their practice. A decade ago, the UK Medical Council issued a report called “Tomorrow's Doctors”1 which called for the reduction in the factual content of the medical course with the promotion of problem-based and self-dedicated learning. This report was the basis for a move toward an extensive reform of the medical and nursing curricula. The new reformed curricula enhanced the integrated medical teaching and emphasized the teaching and learning of clinical skills. However, there were still concerns about the standards and appropriateness of the skills of new medical graduates.2 The changes in the teaching and learning methods, the radical changes in the health care delivery and the rapid growth of technology challenged the traditional way of clinical skills development and led to the emergence of clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) in the medical education of many medical and nursing schools. With the proliferation of the CSLs, it is important to evaluate and introduce the reader to their applications, bearing in mind the paucity of information on this subject particularly over the last couple of years. This article is based on literature review.

Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.

2007-01-01

413

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

414

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

415

Social Skills Intervention Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and

Frank M. Gresham; Stephen N. Elliott

1993-01-01

416

Translation of Etiology into Evidence-Based Prevention: The Life Skills Program IPSY  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra-and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program…

Weichold, Karina

2014-01-01

417

Sexually acquired hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings. Method: A search of published literature identified through Medline from 1966 to October 2001, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists taken from each article obtained. Textword and MeSH searches for hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G, delta, GB virus, GBV-C, and TT virus were linked to searches under the textword terms sex$, prevent$, and MeSH subheadings, microbiology, complications, drug therapy, therapy, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission, and prevention and control. Conclusions: In heterosexual relationships, hepatitis B is readily transmitted sexually and hepatitis C and D less so, with no evidence for sexual transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis types A‘D are all transmissible sexually in male homosexual relationships under certain conditions. In resource-poor countries sexual transmission is generally only a significant route of transmission for hepatitis B.

Brook, M

2002-01-01

418

Business Communication Skills in Information Systems (IS) Curricula: Perspectives of IS Educators and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the importance of communication skills for students, regardless of their disciplines, becomes evident, it is important to determine whether colleges provide students with adequate opportunities to acquire such skills. The authors compared information systems (IS) educator and student perceptions of communication skills in IS curricula. Gender,…

Alshare, Khaled A.; Lane, Peggy L.; Miller, Donald

2011-01-01

419

Microsurgical lab testing is a reliable method for assessing ophthalmology residents’ surgical skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Formal assessment of clinical competencies is necessary to ensure that all residents are acquiring important skills and, in the United States, will soon become a requirement for residency programme accreditation by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The Eye Surgical Skills Assessment Test (ESSAT), a laboratory-based surgical skills obstacle course, was developed in response to the need for

J B Taylor; G Binenbaum; P Tapino; N J Volpe

2007-01-01

420

Acquisition, Fluency Training, Generalization, and Maintenance of Dressing Skills of Two Developmentally Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whole task training and graduated guidance were used to teach independent dressing skills to two developmentally disabled 4-year-olds. After the boys acquired basic dressing skills, additional practice (fluency training) elevated their performance to socially validated rates. Follow-up showed that the skills were maintained and generalized to…

Young, K. Richard; And Others

1986-01-01

421

Student Perceptions of the Importance of Employability Skill Provision in Business Undergraduate Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies examining student perceptions of employability skill development in business undergraduate programs are limited. Assurance of student buy-in is important to ensure learners engage with skill provision; to enable them to articulate their capabilities to potential employers; and to facilitate the transfer of acquired skills. The author…

Jackson, Denise

2013-01-01

422

Development and validation of a test of integrated science process skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of science education is to help students to understand scientific knowledge and to develop students’ ability of the scientific approach to enquiry. The science process skills, along with the knowledge those skills produce are the instructional objectives of Malaysian science education. This paper describes the development and validation of a Test of Integrated Process skill, a paper-and-pencil objective

Edy Hafizan Mohd Shahali; Lilia Halim

2010-01-01

423

Inventories of psychological skills for athletic clubs and school life.  

PubMed

Some students who participate in athletic activities transfer the skills acquired in a sports context into other areas of life, while others do not. To identify the specific skills that are transferred or not from sports to the school environment, two inventories were developed: the "Psychological Skills Inventory for Athletic Clubs" and the "Psychological Skills Inventory for School Life." These inventories enable a comparison of skills in a sport context with skills in a school context. In the first stage, 307 Japanese first-year university students who had participated in high school athletic clubs volunteered to take part in a survey to develop these inventories. Analyses indicated that both inventories comprised identical subscales of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. In the second stage, the reliability and validity of these inventories was confirmed for 531 Japanese high school students who were members of athletic clubs for sports such as soccer and baseball. PMID:24724510

Ueno, Kohei

2014-02-01

424

Research: an essential skill of a graduate nurse?  

PubMed

This paper discusses a research project undertaken by undergraduate nursing students, which includes data collection and provides transferable skills as well as a secure grounding for future research work. There is an expectation that nurse graduates should have research skills, but disagreement about how these skills should be acquired. This paper puts forward the case that undergraduate nurses should have some experience of "hands-on" research for the same reason that they undertake training in clinical skill acquisition, i.e., the skills in question are an essential feature of their role as a nurse. It is further argued that a research project develops transferable skills, which are expected from graduates of any discipline, and are much sought after by employers. In the light of present and future changes in nursing roles such transferable skills would better equip nurses to meet such changing demands in their professional role. PMID:12593822

Blenkinsop, Christine

2003-02-01

425

Social Skills, Social Research Skills, Sociological Skills: Teaching Reflexivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that training in social research methods is a central part of sociology education. Maintains that, while social and communication skills are managerially and epistemologically important to successful research, they often are ignored. Argues for the inclusion of these skills in research methods courses. (CFR)

Jenkins, Richard

1995-01-01

426

Using acquired knowledge and new technologies in alcoholism treatment trials.  

PubMed

This article represents the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2001 RSA meeting in Montreal, Canada. The organizer and chair was Barbara A. Flannery and the discussant was Raye Z. Litten. The presentations were (1) The use of biomarkers in alcohol-dependence treatment trials, by John P. Allen; (2) Strategies for enhancing patient compliance in clinical treatment trials, by Helen M. Pettinati; (3) The predictive utility of an alcohol-craving measure, by Barbara A. Flannery; (4) What should be the primary outcome measures in a clinical trial, by Damaris J. Rohsenow; (5) Innovative strategies for assessing functional outcomes in alcoholism treatment clinical trials, by Ron A. Cisler. PMID:11923598

Flannery, Barbara A; Allen, John P; Pettinati, Helen M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Cisler, Ron A; Litten, Raye Z

2002-03-01

427

Machine Learning Techniques for Acquiring New Knowledge in Image Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to apply data mining (DM) to an optimized surveillance video system with the objective of improving tracking robustness and stability. Specifically, the machine learning has been applied to blob extraction and detection, in order to decide whether a detected blob corresponds to a real target or not. Performance is assessed with an Evaluation function,

Blanca Rodríguez; Óscar Pérez; Jesús García; José M. Molina

2008-01-01

428

The Defense Technical Information Center: Acquiring Information and Imparting Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) discusses how DTIC fits into the Department of Defense Scientific and Technical Information Program; its history, organization, users, and operations; types of information handled; subject classification; cataloging standards; Information Analysis Centers (IACs); and research and…

Molholm, Kurt N.; And Others

1988-01-01

429

Vocabulary Acquisition: Acquiring Depth of Knowledge through Network Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on a longitudinal study of young foreign language learners' acquisition of English adjectives. A series of tasks was developed to tap lexical relations between adjectives of emotion in order to study how a particular adjective, such as "thrilled," finds its place among other near-synonomous expressions in the subfield "happy." (Author/VWL)

Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

2000-01-01

430

Analyzing News Media Coverage to Acquire and Structure Tourism Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destination image significantly influences a tourist's decision-making\\u000a\\u0009process. The impact of news media coverage on destination image has attracted research \\u000a attention and became particularly evident after catastrophic events such\\u000a\\u0009as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake that triggered a series of lethal\\u000a\\u0009tsunamis. Building upon previous research, this\\u000a\\u0009paper analyzes the prevalence of tourism destinations among 162 international\\u000a\\u0009media sites. Term

Arno Scharl; Astrid Dickinger; Albert Weichselbraun

2008-01-01

431

How Do Homework Guides Help Students Acquire Procedural Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of using homework guides, and homework logs on students' abilities to solve word problems involving basic addition and subtraction facts were studied. Students received one of three versions of addition and subtraction timed tests once per week--every Thursday--that focused on measuring automaticity of basic addition and subtraction…

Hartlep, Nicholas D.

2008-01-01

432

Exploration decision: How much skill. How much luck  

SciTech Connect

The exploration decision (with elements of both luck and skill) requires a mixture of several talents if it is to bring forth the highest satisfaction, however measured: organizational abilities, factual knowledge, odds (chance) knowledge, calculation/assimilation knowledge, information integration skills, and perhaps even some mysticism. The authors examines the exploration decision process in a way that will allow one to get a better handle on the worth of these talents and the value of the information they deliver.

Capen, E.

1984-04-01

433

Factors analysis influencing knowledge transfer in knowledge association among Harbin enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic changing competing circumstances require Harbin enterprises pay close attention to acquiring the external knowledge. One of the effective approaches to gain the knowledge is to construct knowledge association with the universities and research institutes. Effective knowledge transfer is the base realizing Harbin enterprises to promote core competence. Based on the study on knowledge transfer processes of Harbin enterprises, this

Ma Yan; Ma Jian

2010-01-01

434

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Tool for Acquiring Spatial Data for Research and Commercial Purposes. New Course in the Geography and Cartography Curriculum in Higher Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the syllabus for the innovative course "Unmanned aerial observations of Terrain" introduced to the curriculum by the Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). It indicates the objectives of the new subject, its didactic purpose, methods used in the teaching process, specifications of teaching materials, and the knowledge and skills that students are expected to acquire. Finally, it presents the content of the course and description of lesson units. The subject will be obligatory for graduate students majoring in Geography, who are participants in the Geoinformatics and Cartography Master's program. Thirty-eight hours in a summer semester has been earmarked for the course. That includes 30 hours of instructor-guided laboratory and fieldtrip work, and 8 hours of individual work. The course aims to prepare future geographers to conduct a multi-step process that includes defining the purpose of using UAV in light of the chosen research problem, preparation of the mission, flight execution; geoprocessing of acquired aerial imagery; generation of cartomertic final products, and analysis of outcomes in order to answer the initially asked research question. This comprehensive approach will allow students, future experts in the field of geoinformatics and cartography, to gain the skills needed to acquire spatial data using an UAV, process them, and apply the results of their analysis in practice.

Jeziorska, J.

2014-04-01

435

[Knowledge management and healthcare organizations].  

PubMed

The present scenario is characterized by a high "environmental turbulence". Healthcare professionals and organizations must increase their knowledge, skills and attitudes for choosing wisely. Healthcare organizations are complex adaptive systems which should use integrated governance systems: knowledge management should be a strategic goal. These organizations should become learning organizations: they should build and renovate their knowledge in a systematic, explicit and definite way. PMID:24326705

Favaretti, Carlo

2013-10-01

436

Teachers' Practical Knowledge: Obtaining and Using Knowledge of Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted at the University of Southern Queensland (Australia) to document the knowledge of students held by a small number of highly effective primary school teachers and to identify the ways these teachers acquired their knowledge and used it during classroom instruction. This paper presents the findings of the…

Mayer, D.

437

Method for distributed object communications based on dynamically acquired and assembled software components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for acquiring and assembling software components at execution time into a client program, where the components may be acquired from remote networked servers is disclosed. The acquired components are assembled according to knowledge represented within one or more acquired mediating components. A mediating component implements knowledge of an object model. A mediating component uses its implemented object model knowledge, acquired component class information and polymorphism to assemble components into an interacting program at execution time. The interactions or abstract relationships between components in the object model may be implemented by the mediating component as direct invocations or indirect events or software bus exchanges. The acquired components may establish communications with remote servers. The acquired components may also present a user interface representing data to be exchanged with the remote servers. The mediating components may be assembled into layers, allowing arbitrarily complex programs to be constructed at execution time.

Sundermier, Amy (Inventor)

2002-01-01

438

Comparing new BSN RN self skills assessment to actual skills demonstration.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the self-skills assessment with the skill competence during an actual skills demonstration of newly hired bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) registered nurse graduates. This retrospective study included 32 randomly selected BSN registered nurse graduates from January 2010 to December 31, 2010. The participants were already hired into a midwest health system. Because this was a retrospective study, no demographic data were collected, and no consent from participants was needed. This study included a clinical skills check list where the participants rated themselves on specific skills utilizing a Likert scale ranging from 1 (no knowledge) to 4 (able to perform independently). The same clinical check list was utilized by an expert registered nurse when the skill was demonstrated. This study compared the difference between the subject's self-rating of skills and the clinical demonstration of the skills. We used t tests in the analysis to demonstrate the differences between the participant's self-rating of skills and the expert evaluation of the clinical demonstration of the skills. The data were inserted into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 19 software program to assist in the analysis process. The study demonstrated 17 significant differences in the skills ratings between the participant and competency demonstration of new BSN graduates. These significant results (2 tailed) ranged from .000 to .048.The 17 out of 46 specific skills where differences were noted included the following: staple removal, nasal pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter specimen collection, site care dressing change, urinary catheter irrigation, Juzo application and measurement, 5-lead telemetry, oral airway insertion, hemovac/Jackson Pratt, oral pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter insertion, dry suction chest drainage, bed to cart/slider board, urinary catheter removal, antiembolism stockings, measurement and application, removal of iv and sit-and-stand alarm. Overall, the participants rated their skill levels lower in 15 out of 17 significant skills when compared with their competency assessment (t test: -3.284, df = 31, P = .003). In two skill ratings (urinary catheter specimen collection and oral pharyngeal suction), the participants rated themselves higher than the competency demonstration. Two skills that had a mean participant and expert score between 1 (no knowledge) and 2 (able to perform with 1-to-1 coaching) were oral airway insertion and dry suction chest drainage. Some possible reasons why the participants rated themselves lower could be the use of different or unfamiliar terms or uncertainty of the procedure at a different health institution. Some newly graduated BSN nurses may have not performed the skills on a regular basis or only in simulation. PMID:24720948

Adair, Jean; Hughes, Lin; Davis, Sue; Wolcott-Breci, Mary

2014-01-01

439

Inferential knowledge acquisition.  

PubMed

This paper describes the approach we are pursuing for modeling inferential processes in knowledge-based systems. It is aimed at overcoming the lack of generality affecting many of the systems described in the literature. This mainly happens since the problem-solving method adopted by those systems is too closely tied to the particular domain problem over which the method itself has been modeled. We also describe a system called M-KAT (Medical Knowledge Acquisition Tool) which is useful in simplifying the process of acquiring inferential knowledge. M-KAT relies on an epistemological model of medical reasoning which represents a generalization of most of the problem-solving methods adopted in medical knowledge-based systems. The metarules formalism has been adopted as a mean for representing inferential knowledge and making its acquisition easier, thus allowing the computational implementation of the epistemological model of medical reasoning. PMID:8358499

Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

1993-06-01

440

Clinical note: acquired pragmatic impairments and aphasia.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the field of communication sciences have led to the description of acquired communication disorders affecting pragmatic skills in patients with brain damage. The present article discusses the impact of such findings on the clinical concept of aphasia. Through reference to a number of articles contained in this Special Issue, it must be reiterated that pragmatic and other linguistic components of communication abilites are two sides of a same coin-that of language-and intimately interrelated. It is also argued that the difference between traditional (e.g., syntax) and pragmatic components of language cannot be explained in simple terms such as the former being subserved only by linguistic processes and the latter by other cognitive processes. Pragmatic components are thus to be considered as part of language. The evolution of the concept of language has a direct impact on the clinical concept of aphasia. Indeed, if aphasia corresponds to an acquired impairment of language, then pragmatic impairments must be considered part of aphasia. The inclusion of pragmatic impairments in the concept of aphasia does not hold only when they occur within the frame of classic types of aphasia, but also when they occur in isolation. Consequently, a new type of aphasia-pragmatic aphasia-should be considered and defined in order to describe the clinical condition of those individuals suffering from acquired pragmatic disorders as those reported among right-hemisphere-damaged right-handers. It is concluded that the recent evolution around the concept of language should be followed by an evolution of the concept of aphasia per se. PMID:10441192

Joanette, Y; Ansaldo, A I

1999-07-01

441

Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children's letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children's emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kim, Young-Suk

2011-09-01

442

Early Reading Skills  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Skills HealthDay March 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Infant and Newborn Development Transcript Armed with an arsenal ... Educational Psychology tracked reading skills among 117 healthy infants between 10 and 18 months old. For 7 ...

443

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

444

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

2009-08-03

445

A Context-Aware Mobile Learning System for Supporting Cognitive Apprenticeships in Nursing Skills Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of nursing education is to foster in students the competence of applying integrated knowledge with clinical skills to the application domains. In the traditional approach, in-class knowledge learning and clinical skills training are usually conducted separately, such that the students might not be able to integrate the knowledge and the…

Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, Liang-Hao; Huang, Yueh-Min

2012-01-01

446

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

447

Winning the Skills Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on how key stakeholders in work force preparedness nationwide are responding to pressures of the skills race. Part 1 presents an overview of the skills challenge and the economic and social consequences of failing to meet the challenge. Part 2 examines the impact of the skills shortage on major stakeholders and explains how…

Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

448

Global Skill Shortages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

449

[Critical thinking skills in the nursing diagnosis process].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the critical thinking skills utilized in the nursing diagnosis process. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted with seven nursing students on the application of a clinical case to identify critical thinking skills, as well as their justifications in the nursing diagnosis process. Content analysis was performed to evaluate descriptive data. Six participants reported that analysis, scientific and technical knowledge and logical reasoning skills are important in identifying priority nursing diagnoses; clinical experience was cited by five participants, knowledge about the patient and application of standards were mentioned by three participants; Furthermore, discernment and contextual perspective were skills noted by two participants. Based on these results, the use of critical thinking skills related to the steps of the nursing diagnosis process was observed. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. PMID:23743899

Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira

2013-04-01

450

Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Use Counting-on Strategies to Enhance Independent Purchasing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demands of basic math skills often limit the ability of students with autism spectrum disorders to master purchasing skills. This study examined the use of counting-on math skills in conjunction with the next-dollar strategy to enhance independent purchasing skills. Four students with autism and intellectual disabilities successfully acquired

Cihak, David F.; Grim, Joan

2008-01-01

451

Including Our Students Acquiring English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "synthesis display," a literature-related activity that helps students who are acquiring English join in the reading class while simultaneously serving the needs of proficient speakers. (MM)

Nelson, V. R.

1989-01-01

452

Treatment of Acquired Reading Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment of acquired reading disorders are discussed in terms of reading processes, assessment, and external/internal factors affecting comprehension. Treatment methods are distinguished for severely impaired, moderately impaired, and mildly impaired patients. (DB)

Webb, Wanda G.

1987-01-01

453

Analogical Learning for Knowledge Transfer in Sport Coaching Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge management is a significant issue for successful coaching knowledge transfer. Methods and tools for knowledge management are becoming sufficiently mature that they can be exploited to improve the process of knowledge transfer. Analogy is a kind of methods that has proven especially useful for tacit knowledge transfer in motor skills learning context. In this paper, we give overviews of

Xia Xu

2010-01-01

454

Towards Motor Skill Learning for Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Learning robots that can acquire new motor skills and refine existing one has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial\\u000a intelligence, and the cognitive sciences. Early steps towards this goal in the 1980s made clear that reasoning and human insights\\u000a will not suffice. Instead, new hope has been offered by the rise of modern machine learning approaches. However, to

Jan Peters; Katharina Mülling; Jens Kober; Duy Nguyen-Tuong; Oliver Krömer

455

[Feedback in relation to training of practical clinical skills].  

PubMed

Feedback has been identified as an essential component of motor learning. However, feedback principles derived from motor learning theories cannot uncritically be applied to clinical skills training because this knowledge is based primarily on the study of very simple motor skills. Research into feedback in relation to clinical skills training is currently limited. Theories on motor learning can serve as the basis for designing research in this domain, especially the importance of including retention tests when measuring permanent learning outcomes. PMID:18976616

Hansen, Christian Steen; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

2008-10-27

456

Phases of Learning: ninth graders' skill acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explored in detail students' cognitive behaviours observed in the process of learning, as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill ('choosing wisely'). The participants comprised 10 ninth graders. They were engaged in a year long, independent, open-ended inquiry project in science, performed in a group setting and guided by a curriculum for the instruction of cognitive skills, designed in accordance with the literature recommendations. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill, identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata along three parallel lines: utterance clarification, elaboration and generalisation of core concepts, and schema integration, automation, and manipulation. These lines of development correspond to the phases/levels of learning suggested in the literature.

Eilam, Billie

2002-01-01

457

Savant skills in autism: psychometric approaches and parental reports  

PubMed Central

Most investigations of savant skills in autism are based on individual case reports. The present study investigated rates and types of savant skills in 137 individuals with autism (mean age 24 years). Intellectual ability ranged from severe intellectual impairment to superior functioning. Savant skills were judged from parental reports and specified as ‘an outstanding skill/knowledge clearly above participant's general level of ability and above the population norm’. A comparable definition of exceptional cognitive skills was applied to Wechsler test scores—requiring a subtest score at least 1 standard deviation above general population norms and 2 standard deviations above the participant's own mean subtest score. Thirty-nine participants (28.5%) met criteria for either a savant skill or an exceptional cognitive skill: 15 for an outstanding cognitive skill (most commonly block design); 16 for a savant skill based on parental report (mostly mathematical/calculating abilities); 8 met criteria for both a cognitive and parental rated savant skill. One-third of males showed some form of outstanding ability compared with 19 per cent of females. No individual with a non-verbal IQ below 50 met criteria for a savant skill and, contrary to some earlier hypotheses, there was no indication that individuals with higher rates of stereotyped behaviours/interests were more likely to demonstrate savant skills.

Howlin, Patricia; Goode, Susan; Hutton, Jane; Rutter, Michael

2009-01-01

458

Immigrants Matter: Canada's Social Agenda on Skill and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence shows that there is an increasing number of knowledge and management occupations in a broad range of sectors, requiring greater numbers of well-educated and skilled workers. Despite this compelling need for skilled workers, the reports note that immigrants often do not fare well in the Canadian economy. One of the main barriers faced by…

Mirchandani, Kiran

2004-01-01

459

Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

Sawchuk, Stephen

2009-01-01

460

A Change in Seasons : Increasing Student Observation Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to accurately observe and notice small details is a skill important to scientists. To help students develop this skill, have them record and share observations, successively focusing in on smaller, more precise details. When students observe changes in the seasons, they can extend their science knowledge by carefully noting changes in color, shape, and patterns in vegetation, asking questions, and making predictions.

Sterling, Donna R.

2006-01-01

461

The Integration of Professional Communication Skills into Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Engineering curriculum is strongly focused on the development in students of technical knowledge and skills. However, in recent years, employers have increasingly acknowledged that this traditional preparation of Engineering students‘ is inadequate, as graduates lack the wide range of written and spoken communication skills required to engage with members of other professional groups and with the broader community. Recognition

Dorthy Missingham

2006-01-01

462

Learning, Education and Skills: Young People's Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A British survey of 10,000 12- to 25-year olds identified their views on skills and knowledge, the educational system, teachers, further/higher education, and learning methods. Those surveyed were informed about and interested in learning issues; they wanted flexible and relevant curricula, accessible guidance, and assurance of future work and…

Gardiner, Jo

1998-01-01

463

Story Map: How to Improve Writing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of written expression studies is to have students explain their knowledge, feelings, ideas and imaginations in a correct and effective manner. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of story map on story writing skills of first grade teacher candidates who study at the Department of Elementary Education. The…

Sidekli, Sabri

2013-01-01

464

Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

465

Are Cognitive Skills Context-Bound?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether problem solving, decision making, and other thinking skills depend more on deep expertise in a specialty or on reflective awareness and general strategies. General and specialized knowledge function in close partnership. The partnership's nature and implications for educational practice are explored. (Author/BJV)

Perkins, David N.; Salomon, Gavriel

1989-01-01

466

Survival Counseling Skills for New Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a three-part project designed collaboratively by a university professor and a public school teacher to increase teaching interns' knowledge, awareness, and skill in conceptualizing and intervening with challenging students and better prepare them for persisting in the classroom. Participants were 64 undergraduate students. The…

Pirtle, Trace N.; Perez, Patricia

467

Questioning Skills Facilitate Online Synchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of this study show that effective questioning skills increase student intellectual moves that, in turn, facilitate the process of knowledge construction in online synchronous discussion (OSD). The open-ended questions elicited multiple perspectives by promoting student participation, while OSD enabled them to share and debate multiple…

Wang, C.-H.

2005-01-01

468

Interdisciplinary Robotic Activity Hones Important Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators, the authors believe in guiding students towards the life skills, knowledge, and expertise they need to succeed in life and in the workforce of the 21st century. With that in mind, they have created a project in which students drive their own learning through creativity and collaborative work to develop an efficient product. Through…

Black, Dan; Zeigler, Jodi

2011-01-01

469

Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning  

PubMed Central

The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation.

Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

2013-01-01

470

Peer Tutoring to Prevent Firearm Play: Acquisition, Generalization, and Long-term Maintenance of Safety Skills  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children.

Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

2008-01-01

471

Sources of Group and Individual Differences in Emerging Fraction Skills  

PubMed Central

Results from a two year longitudinal study of 181 children from fourth through fifth grade are reported. Levels of growth in children’s computation, word problem, and estimation skills using common fractions were predicted by working memory, attentive classroom behavior, conceptual knowledge about fractions, and simple arithmetic fluency. Comparisons of 55 participants identified as having mathematical difficulties to those without mathematical difficulties revealed that group differences in emerging fraction skills were consistently mediated by attentive classroom behavior and conceptual knowledge about fractions. Neither working memory nor arithmetic fluency mediated group differences in growth in fraction skills. It was also found that the development of basic fraction skills and conceptual knowledge are bidirectional in that conceptual knowledge exerted strong influences on all three types of basic fraction skills, and basic fraction skills exerted a more modest influence on subsequent conceptual knowledge. Results are discussed with reference to how the identification of potentially malleable student characteristics that contribute to the difficulties that some students have with fractions informs interventions and also will contribute to a future theoretical account concerning how domain general and domain specific factors influence the development of basic fraction skills.

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

472

Oxford-style debates in a microbiology course for majors: a method for delivering content and engaging critical thinking skills.  

PubMed

Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as content mastery. Effective use of constructivism can facilitate these outcomes. However this is often difficult to accomplish when delivery of content is paramount. Utilizing many of the tenets of constructivist pedagogy, we have designed an Oxford-style debate assignment to be used in an introductory microbiology course. Two teams of students were assigned a debatable topic within microbiology. Over a five-week period students completed an informative web page consisting of three parts: background on the topic, data-based positions for each side of the argument, and a data-based persuasive argument to support their assigned position. This was followed by an in-class presentation and debate. Analysis of student performance on knowledge-based questions shows that students retain debate-derived content acquired primarily outside of lectures significantly better than content delivered during a normal lecture. Importantly, students who performed poorly on the lecture-derived questions did as well on debate-derived questions as other students. Students also performed well on questions requiring higher-order cognitive skills and in synthesizing data-driven arguments in support of a position during the debate. Student perceptions of their knowledge-base in areas covered by the debate and their skills in using scientific databases and analyzing primary literature showed a significant increase in pre- and postassignment comparisons. Our data demonstrate that an Oxford-style debate can be used effectively to deliver relevant content, increase higher-order cognitive skills, and increase self-efficacy in science-specific skills, all contributing to developing expertise in the field. PMID:23858349

Boucaud, Dwayne W; Nabel, Michael; Eggers, Christian H

2013-01-01

473

Oxford-Style Debates in a Microbiology Course for Majors: A Method for Delivering Content and Engaging Critical Thinking Skills  

PubMed Central

Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as conte