As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-based instruction in Basic Combat Training, a study was conducted to provide the Army with data on the retention of skill and knowledge in basic training at Fort Ord, California during March-June, 1974. Selected tests from the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) battery were administered to 200…
#12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when the basic facts, students entering social science courses need certain skills. Just as in the natural they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning
the origins of scientific knowledge is important, as well. As they study, successful students address curiosity, they inquire about their place in the universe and question their own scientific knowledge#12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations Science presents both technical and psychological challenges
BIRKMAIER, EMMA; JACK, WILLIAM
ONE-DAY WORKSHOPS WERE SET UP IN NINE DIFFERENT REGIONAL CENTERS IN MINNESOTA TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM OF TEACHING READING SKILLS IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. EACH CENTER WAS ASSIGNED SPECIFIC AND RELATED TOPICS TO WORK ON, FOREIGN LANGUAGE SPECIALISTS TO SERVE AS GROUP INSTRUCTORS, AND GUEST SPEAKERS. THE FIRST FOUR WORKSHOPS WERE CONCERNED WITH…
UBC Science Co-op enables employers to hire motivated and energetic students, who have acquired the academic knowledge and professional skill sets to be effective in real-life work-experience opportunities.
UBC Science Co-op enables employers to hire motivated and energetic students, who have acquired the academic knowledge and professional skill sets to be effective in real-life work-experience opportunities and Performance Blending academia with the working world Food Science · Studies include: Chemistry; Microbiology
Acquiring Innovation Knowledge Peter Busch, Debbie Richards Computing Department, Division,email@example.com Abstract: There are few possibilities for acquiring knowledge related to innovation. Firstly, acquiring impractical when it comes to innovation knowledge. While innovation is recognized as a vital part
Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand).
This proceedings documents an international workshop that focused on the research linking indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning with rural intervention programs. Research into indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning could lead to an improvement in rural intervention programs by building upon the knowledge and skills indigenous to rural…
Ohio Business Roundtable, Columbus.
The Ohio Skill Gap Initiative was conducted to determine the following: (1) what foundational skills--and skill levels--do entry-level employees need to succeed in today's workplace and (2) whether the students graduating from Ohio's public schools possess the foundational skills that will permit them to acquire the knowledge and "know-how" needed…
Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len
This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…
This book presents a theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.
and to be self motivated to undertake work independently Analytical and logical problem solving skills Abstract% Creative and innovative thinking skills 40% 51% Decision making skills 38% 51% Advanced writtenCareers Service Skills acquired by Mathematics and Statistics Graduates We might assume
Bloom's Taxonomy of Thinking Skills Category Knowledge Information Gathering Comprehension Confirming Application Making Use of Knowledge Analysis (Higher Order) Taking Apart Synthesis (Higher Order) Putting Together Evaluation (Higher Order) Judging the Outcome Description The skills demonstrated
Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori
Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…
ince 1974 students have come to the doctoral program atThe University ofTexas atAustin School of Nursing from all over the nation and the world to acquire the knowledge and skills to advance nursing practice,education
of Nursing from all over the nation and the world to acquire the knowledge and skills to advance nursing practice,education and research.The School's long history as a top PhD program is reflected in its strongThe University ofTexas atAustin School of Nursing include active faculty,researchers,Deans and organizational
Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.
Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571
Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…
The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…
Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.
Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…
Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana
This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work. PMID:24310702
Waller, Dave; Holland, Tom
Purpose: This paper aims to explore a structured approach to measuring skills and knowledge, and to outline how such an approach can be beneficial for improving performance and supporting strategy. It also seeks to examine how online tools can help with this process and to look at implications for the wider UK and European skills development…
Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori
Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar kind of animal). For instance, in one scenario, the nerp ate and disliked a carrot. When subsequently asked generic questions about real nerps, children's responses suggested that they had learned general facts (e.g., nerps dislike carrots). In Experiment 2, thirty-two 4- to 5-year-olds learned from scenarios lacking pretend speech or sound effects. The findings reveal a long overlooked means by which children can acquire generic knowledge. PMID:22416755
...Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft...section. (b) The test of knowledge (which may be oral or written...Demonstration of directional control while hovering. (3) Acceleration...external-load operations, that his knowledge and skill are...
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen
Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…
Goh, David S.
This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…
Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Agnoletti, Marie-France
This paper deals with developing and assessing the training of physicians to deliver a difficult diagnosis to patients. The training is provided by a web-based self-training package. This online training emphasizes the structural, functional and relational dimensions of interviews delivering a serious diagnosis, and a logical set of recommendations for behavior towards the patient. The content is illustrated by numerous delivery interview sequences that are described and for which commentary is provided. This online package was expected to enable physicians to acquire new skills and change their mental picture of diagnosis delivery. Here we discuss the assessment of training in managing the delivery of a serious diagnosis. The approach taken and the methods used to measure knowledge and skills are presented. PMID:25959340
Goodman, Kenneth S.
Ability to read depends less upon learning isolated, sequential skills than upon the natural desire to communicate beyond the oral level and the opportunities offered by society and environment to develop this ability. (JD)
Mitchell, John D; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Mahmood, Feroze; Owais, Khurram; Wong, Vanessa; Ferla, Brian; Chowdhury, Seema; Nachshon, Akiva; Doshi, Rajiv; Matyal, Robina
The ability to apply perioperative ultrasound techniques is a desirable skill for clinicians. We implemented a multimodal 13-day basic ultrasound course for 6 anesthesia interns. Their scores on a knowledge test increased after the course and were sustained and similar to those of 6 senior residents 90 days later. The interns acquired images of the heart in volunteers with little assistance after the course. They maintained their ability to acquire echocardiographic images on a simulator 90 days later with kinematic measures superior to the same seniors. Through this course, interns gained knowledge and skills equal to or greater than seniors. PMID:26402024
Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.
This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'…
Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József; Nemeth, Dezso
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs. low-probability events--measured by raw reaction time (RT)--exhibited a rapid decrement around age of 12. Accuracy and z-transformed data showed partially different developmental curves, suggesting a re-evaluation of analysis methods in developmental research. The decrement in raw RT differences supports an extension of the traditional two-stage lifespan skill acquisition model: in addition to a decline above the age 60 reported in earlier studies, sensitivity to raw probabilities and, therefore, acquiring new skills is significantly more effective until early adolescence than later in life. These results suggest that due to developmental changes in early adolescence, implicit skill learning processes undergo a marked shift in weighting raw probabilities vs. more complex interpretations of events, which, with appropriate timing, prove to be an optimal strategy for human skill learning. PMID:22709399
Janacsek, K.; Fiser, J.; Nemeth, D.
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans’ implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the life span, between 4–85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high vs. low probability events - measured by raw reaction time (RT) - exhibited a rapid decrement around age of 12. Accuracy and z-transformed data showed partially different developmental curves suggesting a re-evaluation of analysis methods in developmental research. The decrement in raw RT differences supports an extension of the traditional 2-stage lifespan skill acquisition model: in addition to a decline above the age 60 reported in earlier studies, sensitivity to raw probabilities and, therefore, acquiring new skills is significantly more effective until early adolescence than later in life. These results suggest that due to developmental changes in early adolescence, implicit skill learning processes undergo a marked shift in weighting raw probabilities vs. more complex interpretations of events, which, with appropriate timing, prove to be an optimal strategy for human skill learning. PMID:22709399
The purpose of this study was to describe salient aspects of pedagogical content knowledge that preservice physical education teachers acquired and found problematic while learning a specific skill theme approach (Graham, Holt/Hale, & Parker, 1993) to teaching elementary physical education during their field-based methods course. The participants…
B. H. Doeleman; M. E. Kunkel; K. L. Cason
One of the principal goals of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is to help low income families acquire the knowledge, skills, and behavior changes necessary to improve their diets. Participants in this study were 2332 families who were enrolled in the EFNEP program in SC. Of this group, 723 graduated from the program, 402 terminated the program,
Eiseman, Jeffrey W.; Militello, Matthew
Most leadership programs emphasize knowledge over skills, being skillful over how to be skillful, knowledge about skills over skill application, and ad hoc and hard-to-assess field activities over focused and observable skill practice. "Knowledge and skill application laboratories" provide opportunities to experiment with--and receive…
Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian
Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F
Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists, general practitioners (GPs), and trainees were compared, using a written assessment; 294 participants were included. Overall scores (mean?±?SD) ranged from 69.3%?±?6.5% to 76.5%?±?9.5% for basic knowledge, 70.3%?±?10.8% to 79.7%?±?8.4% for applied knowledge, and 66.3%?±?21.1% to 84.7%?±?20.7% for pharmacotherapy skills (analysis of variance all P?.05). The pharmacists had the highest scores for all domains (P?< .05), with the exception of pharmacist trainees, who had comparable scores for basic knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills (both P?>?.05). The GPs scored the lowest for pharmacotherapy skills (P?.05). More work experience was associated with better knowledge of applied pharmacology among pharmacists (by 2% per 10 work-years), but with poorer pharmacotherapy skills among pharmacists and GPs (by 3% and 4% per 10 work-years, respectively). In conclusion, pharmacists and GPs differ in their knowledge and skills, and these differences become more pronounced with more work experience. In general, pharmacists outperform pharmacist trainees, whereas GP trainees outperform GPs. These differences could be important for interdisciplinary collaboration and education. PMID:25810359
Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.
This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.
Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.
The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…
...Training Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills Appendix...Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills...Uncoupling 2.2 Basic Control and Handling 2.3...learned in the Basic Control and Handling; Basic...fundamental skills and knowledge taught in...
...Required Knowledge and Skills—Sample Guidelines The...include in the knowledge and skills tests that it administers...general areas of knowledge and skill specified in §§ 383.111...Seeing to the rear. (6) Communication. The principles and...
Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) is a widely-used technique for acquiring searchcontrolknowledge. Recently, Prieditis, van Harmelen, and Bundy pointed to the similaritybetween Partial Evaluation (PE) and EBL. However, EBL utilizes training examples whereasPE does not. It is natural to inquire, therefore, whether PE can be used to acquire searchcontrolknowledge, and if so at what cost? This paper answers these questions by means
Wakefield, Gay; Cottone, Laura Perkins
Investigates knowledge and skill areas important to agency/firm and organizational public relations employers. Offers recommendations for the development of public relations education programs and accreditation standards meeting the needs of today's marketplace. (NKA)
Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Law, Nancy
This paper reports on a study of the development of information searching expertise by 12 postgraduate research students. Six of the students were studying education, and six were studying engineering. The paper focuses on the students' perception of the importance of searching skills and the growth of their knowledge with these skills as they…
Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew
Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…
Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Cristine H.; Bills, Megan; Mejias, Caroline
How do children use questions as tools to acquire new knowledge? The current experiment examined preschool children's ability to direct questions to appropriate sources to acquire knowledge. Fifty preschoolers engaged in a task that entailed asking questions to discover which special key would open a box that contained a prize. Children solved…
Hartman, David R.
This study offers an analysis of the learning of practicing teachers as they acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics. While some professional developers have shifted part of their focus to helping practicing teachers acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics (e.g., Stein & Silver, 1996), the results from studies often describe what translates…
Elliott, Julian G.; Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Hoffman, Newman
Skilled interpersonal relations are crucial for effective teaching and learning but much professional knowledge here is tacit and thus not easily communicated. This article presents the results of a study that examined the tacit knowledge of trainee and experienced teachers in relation to various problematic interpersonal aspects of school life.…
Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Afzal, Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung
Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) assist clinicians in making clinical decisions by using experts' knowledge stored in the knowledge base. However, sharing and reusing the knowledge is a challenging task. Many systems are developed to facilitate sharing of medical knowledge and allow its reusability. These systems are compliant to standard approaches such as HL7 Arden Syntax and HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) to incorporate medical logic in standard format. The main drawback with these systems is the complicated procedure in the development of clinical knowledge by ordinary clinicians. The proposed research work is focusing on developing authoring tool that creates sharable clinical knowledge base using standards such as HL7 Arden Syntax, HL7 vMR and HL7 CDA. Moreover, the authoring tool provides user friendly GUI to facilitate clinicians in creating standard based executable clinical knowledge base. We are closely working with oncologists and clinicians of a prominent cancer hospital to deploy the tool for Head and Neck Cancer diagnosis and treatment recommendations. PMID:24109928
The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...
Chklovski, Timothy A. (Timothy Anatolievich), 1977-
The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...
Ferguson, S; Howell, T; Batalden, P
The need for collaboration and cooperation in health care delivery is not news. But one of the first requests often made by leaders and others promoting collaborative work in organizations is for a "facilitator course." As the authors developed more knowledge about the real need, they understood that many of the barriers to collaborative work and learning in organizations can be reduced only by the top leaders, not by expert facilitators. The central knowledge that leaders need to support collaborative work is appreciation of work as a system. PMID:10130705
Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.
Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5) Offspring can learn foraging skills from their mothers (matrilineal social learning). (6) Food abundance is limited, such that average individual energy reserves are low Additionally, the following factors increase the likelihood of alternative specializations co-occurring in a predator population: (1) The predator exerts effective top-down control of prey abundance, resulting in frequency-dependent dynamics. (2) There is stochastic Variation in prey population dynamics, but this Variation is neither too extreme in magnitude nor too 'slow' with respect to the time required for an individual forager to learn new foraging skills. For a given predator population, we deduce that the degree of specialization will be highest for those prey types requiring complex capture or handling skills, while prey species that are both profitable and easy to capture and handle will be included in the diet of all individuals. Frequency-dependent benefits of selecting alternative prey types, combined with the ability of foragers to improve their foraging skills by learning, and transmit learned skills to offspring, can result in behaviourally mediated foraging specialization, and also lead to the co-existence of alternative specializations. The extent of such specialization is predicted to be a variable trait, increasing in locations or years when intra-specific competition is high relative to inter-specific competition. ?? 2009 M. Tim Tinker.
the control purpose, engineering assumption, quality, involved state machines, and so on. We then represented. It aims at making knowledge in control engineering reusable so that it can be shipped together limited to the mathematics used during engineering of the con- trol; a running control system does
...the minimum level of skills and knowledge needed...force weapons; 7. Communications; 8. Vehicle operations...individual and team skills necessary to enable...familiarity, knowledge, skills, and abilities of the...3. Operation of all communication equipment as...
David Z. Hambrick; Jeffrey E. Pink; Elizabeth J. Meinz; Jonathan C. Pettibone; Frederick L. Oswald
The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants completed tests to assess new knowledge of current events, acquired since the
Gentile, S; Tardieu, S; Vignally, P; Mendizabal, H; Raufaste, C; Jouve, E; Sambuc, R
Sensitization and educational training programmes are important pre-requisites in order to ensure the understanding of the issues at stake in the accreditation process. According to the preparatory research involved for this work, there has been no study published nor is there any documentation available on such a topic, specifically on carrying out the sensitization process to successful completion. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the sensitization phase and to refine general recommendations to serve as a guide for health institutions and their communications policies. A transversal randomised study was conducted through the distribution of a questionnaire to 107 health professionals from 23 clinical services in the public hospital system in Marseille. The results demonstrate that the knowledge about accreditation seems to be well integrated, with only 7 of the professionals being unaware of the accreditation programme, and 58% of them associating the accreditation process with an administrative procedure. Grouping the staff's responses according to professional category has shown to have almost no influence on the results. The level of overall knowledge is greater in more highly trained personnel (p < 0.05), but there was a poor level of knowledge regarding the internal organisational structures that existed. 75% of the health professionals thought that communication about accreditation was insufficient. The study authenticated the positive benefits of communication and identified a certain number of stumbling blocks to avoid. Several recommendations are proposed. PMID:12564049
ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan talks to Brion Au, Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) Payload Developer, about the EarthKAM investigation being performed aboard the Inter...
Greene, Jeffrey Alan; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Robertson, Jane
In this study, we examined how high-school students utilized a hypermedia learning environment (HLE) to acquire declarative knowledge of a historical topic, as well as historical thinking skills. In particular, we were interested in whether self-regulated learning (SRL; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000) processing was related to the…
Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann
Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.
Texas Education Agency, Austin.
The Texas State Board of Education adopted the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum to ensure that all students meet the challenges of life in the new century. The information in this guide summarizes the TEKS expectations at each grade level in the foundation areas of English Language Arts and Reading, Mathematics, Science, and…
A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…
Ruhland, Sheila K.
A study explored the additional knowledge and skills an international salesforce needs based upon 95 respondents from Wisconsin manufacturing companies. Six areas were evaluated by sales representatives involved with international sales and marketing to identify the education and training needed within the next 3 years by the work force. Four…
Prince, Melvin; Burns, David; Lu, Xinyi; Winsor, Robert
Purpose: This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in…
Horng, Ruey-Yun; Lu, Po-Hui; Chen, Pei-Hua; Hou, Shih-Huan
This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down…
A VIRTUAL REALITY BASED EDUCATIONAL MODULE FOR KNOWLEDGE LEARNING & SKILLS TRAINING Dr. Kasim M. Al training. Today, multimedia education has been popular, it can provide an environment where virtual reality technology in the design of a virtual reality based educational module. Such a module can deal
The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…
This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…
Bradbury-Golas, K; Carson, L
The body of nursing knowledge continues to expand and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) mandates managers and educators to maintain competence in their nursing staff members. Stricter reimbursement criteria for hospital care, however, severely restrict education budgets. Educational programs can be offered at a reasonable cost without putting the adult learner to sleep! The development and implementation of a successful nursing skills fair is discussed. PMID:8138600
Automatically Acquiring Domain Knowledge For Adaptive Game AI Using Evolutionary Learning Marc J; POB 616; NL-6200 MD; The Netherlands; firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Navy Center for Applied Research in AI; Naval Research Laboratory (Code 5515); Washington, DC; USA; email@example.com Abstract Game AI
Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267
Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grčzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P
When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation. PMID:15616133
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision.
Davis, Dawn H.
Students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MoID) typically are not taught decoding skills because they have difficulty mastering critical blending skills. In response to this skill deficit among students with MoID, an "Initial Phonics" instructional sequence was created that included student development of rapid and automatic retrieval of…
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca
Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences AddictionsCounselling(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 2001/2002 School: Health Sciences Program Planning Guide The University of Lethbridge
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences AddictionsCounselling(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 2002/2003 School: Health Sciences Program Planning Guide This Program Planning Guide
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences Addictions(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 1999/2000 School: Health Sciences Program Planning GuideThe University of Lethbridge
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences AddictionsCounselling(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 2004-2005 School: Health Sciences This Program Planning Guide is designed to help you plan
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences AddictionsCounselling(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 2000/2001 School: Health Sciences Program Planning GuideThe University of Lethbridge
Seldin, Jonathan P.
The Post-Diploma Bachelor of Health Sciences program provides students with the practical skills acquire breadth of knowledge encompassing a wide range of disciplines. BachelorofHealthSciences AddictionsCounselling(Post-Diploma) Calendar Year: 2003-2004 School: Health Sciences The University of Lethbridge Current and past Program
Goossenaerts, Jan B. M.; Arai, Eiji; Shirase, Keiichi; Mills, John J.; Kimura, Fumihiko
This introductory paper to the volume explains the DIISM problem statement and applies principles of architecture descriptions for evolutionary systems (IEEE 1471-2000) to the information infrastructure for engineering and manufacturing. In our vision, knowledge and skill chains depend on infrastructure systems fulfilling missions in three kinds of environments: the socio-industrial domain of society and its production systems as a whole, the knowledge domain for a scientific discipline, and the sectorial domain, which includes the operational entities (companies, organisational units, engineers, workers) in engineering and manufacturing. The relationships between these different domains are captured in a domain paradigm. For companies, the original scope for infrastructure systems was the factory floor and the engineering office. Recently the scopes of external collaboration and of mansystem collaboration have gained importance. Within each of the four identified scopes a system can offer services to different operational levels: operations, development or engineering, and research. The dimensions of scope and service level are briefly explained in relation to the architecting of an infrastructure. Papers are grouped according to their contribution to an infrastructure scenario or to an infrastructure component.
Chan, Liz M. Y.; Jones, Ann C.; Scanlon, Eileen; Joiner, Richard
This paper concerns the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in music classrooms, with the focus on the secondary school music curriculum in the United Kingdom. In particular, it reports on a study of learners in a UK school using software designed to support practical music skills. The paper begins by briefly raising and…
Samir N. Hamade
The provision of academic courses for freshmen students aiming at improving their information technology skills is crucial due to the large number of students admitted every year. Kuwait University introduced a service course in information technology skills to freshman students in the College of Science to be taught in English, and a similar course to freshmen students in the College
Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah; Hamzah, Ramlah
This study was performed to identify the employability skills of technical students from the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Indigenous People's Trust Council (MARA) Skills Training Institutes (IKM) in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 850 final year trainees of IKM and ITI. The sample was chosen by a random sampling procedure from…
Stewart, Alice C.; Williams, Jacqueline; Smith-Gratto, Karen; Black, Sylvia Sloan; Kane, Betty Turner
In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based…
Maral, Sahide; Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal
Even though one of the prerequisites of inquiry-based science classes is acquiring measuring skills, there is not enough emphasis in the schools today on developing these skills. The current study, which has been designed with the thought that this situation may be caused by the fact that teachers do not have a sufficient level of measurement…
Carter, Meredith L.
A study was conducted to determine employers' perceptions of the technical and personal skills and knowledge needed by business and industry in the Indianapolis area. A survey instrument, requesting employers to rate the importance of 17 technical skills and 13 personal skills and to describe the nature of the work at their firms, was distributed…
Collet, Chris; Hine, Damian; du Plessis, Karen
Purpose: While the global education debate remains focused on graduate skills and employability, the absence of a shared language between student, academic and industry stakeholder groups means that defining industry skills requirements is both essential and difficult. The purpose of this paper is to assess graduate skills requirements in a…
Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt
Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.
Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine
In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside the PhD…
Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.
We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…
Miller, Geri; Gatscher, Eva
This study examined domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions about their knowledge, skills, and training interests regarding the addictive process. More experienced workers perceived themselves as having less knowledge and fewer skills than did less experienced workers. Shelter workers expressed overall interest in training, and authors…
van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.
The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…
Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.
Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…
Perkins, Rotha M.
Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
Cates, Jennifer T.; Schaefle, Scott E.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; LeBeauf, Ireon
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a counselor education program in teaching multicultural counseling knowledge and skills. Standardized examination scores and rater evaluations compare multicultural with general counseling knowledge and skill competency for students who completed a counseling master's program. The relationship between…
Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly
Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…
Rogers, Todd; Swanson, Mark
The purpose of "Effective Student Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom: Knowledge + Skills + Attributes" is to more clearly articulate the student assessment knowledge, skills and attributes expected under the Teaching Quality Standard Ministerial Order of applicants for Alberta interim professional teacher certification. The document aims…
of critical methods together with mastery of pertinent declarative knowledge in formal essays as they analyze, and mechanical correctness. CRITICAL THINKING (Analytical Skills; Creative Skills): Students will have and develop in a formal essay a significant topic in depth and in an independent and even original way
Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko
We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.
Teishima, Jun; Hattori, Minoru; Inoue, Shogo; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Hieda, Keisuke; Ohara, Shinya; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Matsubara, Akio
Introduction: We assess the retention of robot-assisted surgical skills among urologic surgeons. Methods: The robot-assisted surgery skills of 20 urologic surgeons were assessed using a Mimic dV-Trainer program (Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) consisting of 6 tasks. These 20 surgeons had no previous experience either using the Mimic dV-Trainer or acting as the main surgeon in robot-assisted surgery. The surgeons completed the program 4 times in a row; after 1 year, they completed it again for a fifth time. Performance scores were recorded using the Mimic dV-Trainer’s built-in algorithm. Results: For all 6 tasks, there were significant improvements to the scores in the fourth trials compared with those in the first trials. The scores in the fifth trials did not significantly decline compared with those in the fourth trials. There was no significant difference between the fifth trial scores of surgeons with laparoscopic surgery skills/experience and those without. Conclusion: Our results indicate that fundamental robot-assisted surgical skills can be retained in the long-term after they are acquired. PMID:25132896
Schultz, Jon-Hĺkon; Lien, Inger-Lise
How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562
Grizzle, Gloria A.
The author found that most Masters of Public Administration programs require that students complete a single course in the budgeting and financial management area. She states that this course typically gives significant coverage to about a third of the financial management skills that practitioners surveyed deemed essential. (Author/CT)
Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja
The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…
Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori
Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios…
Crown, Richard; Donlan, Chris; Newton, Elizabeth J.; Llyod, Delyth
The number skills of groups of 7- to 9-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) attending mainstream or special schools were compared with an age and nonverbal reasoning matched group (age control [AC]) and with a younger group matched on oral language comprehension. The SLI groups performed below the AC group on every skill. They…
Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Although language is implicated in children's mathematical development, few studies have focused specifically on how different linguistic skills relate to children's mathematical performance. Building on the model proposed by LeFevre et al. (2010), this study examined how general verbal ability and phonological skills were differentially related…
Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert
This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…
Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Zheleva, Angelina; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Cabello, Juan
Nowadays, in the Internet databases era, certain knowledge is being progressively lost. This knowledge, which we feel is essential and should be acquired through education, is the understanding of how the pioneer researchers faced major questions in their field and made their discoveries. PMID:25545039
Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…
Finley Jr., Russell L.
of the principles and concepts underlying normal behavior and mental illness. K11 Knowledge of the aging process function of the human body (cell tissues and organs). K3 Knowledge of the nature of agents and mechanisms that produce alterations in structure and function of the body. K4 Knowledge of the nature and course
(a) DOE contractors shall only employ as protective force personnel individuals who successfully meet the requirements of a formal training program established in accordance with appendix B, “Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this...
Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara
The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…
Witmer, Sara E.; Duke, Nell K.; Billman, Alison K.; Betts, Joseph
Although assessment of student progress in word reading skills is common, students' knowledge and skills for comprehending informational text are rarely assessed. Despite research indicating the need for instruction in this area and a growing national understanding of its importance that is reflected in the Common Core State Standards, few…
Thomas, Jennifer D. E.
This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…
Multimedia authoring packages and low cost delivery systems make it possible to produce and deliver inexpensive skill training modules. This article examines computer-based training (CBT) in the workplace; features of skill training modules; steps in their development; and delivery alternatives (CD-ROM, batch download, CD-ROM jukebox or tower,…
Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar
Background The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001). Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%), had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2%) and did not use condom during last sex (6.4%) were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3%) than men (2.2%). Significantly (P<0.01) less percentage (81.3%) of women as compared to men (83.8%) perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public health The present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women’s legal protection, and rising women’s access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS.
Tiina Annevirta; Eero Laakkonen; Riitta Kinnunen; Marja Vauras
The aim of this study was, firstly, to explore the development of primary school children’s metacognitive knowledge from preschool\\u000a to the 2nd grade and the development of their text comprehension skill from the 1st grade to the 3rd grade. Secondly, the\\u000a developmental dynamics between metacognitive knowledge (MCK) and text comprehension skill (CS) across the first three school\\u000a years were investigated.
Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.
The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.
de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas
Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198
Bayley, Peter J.; Squire, Larry R.
We examined new semantic learning in two profoundly amnesic patients (E.P. and G.P.) whose lesions involve virtually the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL) bilaterally. The patients were given five tests of semantic knowledge for information that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia in 1992 and 1987, respectively. Age-matched and education-matched controls (n = 8) were also tested. On tests of recall, E.P. and G.P. each scored 10% correct on a test of 20 easy factual questions (controls = 90%), 2% and 4% correct on 55 questions about news events (controls = 85%), and 0% and 4% correct on a test of 24 famous faces. On three tests of recognition memory for this same material, the patients scored at chance levels. Similarly, the patients were unable to judge whether persons who had been famous for many decades were still living or had died during the past 10 years (E.P. = 53%; G.P. = 50%; controls = 73%; chance = 50%). Lastly, neither patient E.P. nor patient G.P. could draw an accurate floor plan of his current residence, despite having lived there for 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The results demonstrate that the capacity for new semantic learning can be absent, or nearly absent, when there is virtually complete damage to the MTL bilaterally. Accordingly, the results raise the possibility that the acquisition of conscious (declarative) knowledge about the world cannot be supported by structures outside the MTL, even with extended exposure. PMID:15523609
McKenna, Sioux; Sutherland, Lee
This article considers the prevalence of what have been termed "training discourses" as dominant practices within a particular University of Technology, and discusses the implications of such discourses for teaching and learning. The rapid emergence of this training or skills discourse in Universities of Technology in South Africa, in preference…
Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005
In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…
...connection is issued a CDL, a tractor-trailer restriction must be...applicant wants to remove the tractor-trailer restriction in paragraph...skills tests in a representative tractor-trailer. (c) State recordkeeping...be made part of the driver history record or be linked to...
...connection is issued a CDL, a tractor-trailer restriction must be...applicant wants to remove the tractor-trailer restriction in paragraph...skills tests in a representative tractor-trailer. (c) State recordkeeping...be made part of the driver history record or be linked to...
...connection is issued a CDL, a tractor-trailer restriction must be...applicant wants to remove the tractor-trailer restriction in paragraph...skills tests in a representative tractor-trailer. (c) State recordkeeping...be made part of the driver history record or be linked to...
Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill
This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1 year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1 year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967
Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail
The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…
Rawson, Katherine A.; Van Overschelde, James P.
The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but…
Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice
Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…
Five years ago, as a way to ensure that students not only learn to decode but also understand what they decode, the Core Knowledge Foundation, the nonprofit that publishes the Core Knowledge curriculum, created a language arts program for kindergarten through second grade. The program includes two 60-minute strands: (1) a "Skills Strand," in which…
Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…
Examines the effect of knowledge about language on the learning of foreign language skills and grammar. Students (n=252) completed a questionnaire, metalinguistic awareness test, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, a linguistic creativity test, and English tests. Hypothesized that students' knowledge about language would have a significant effect…
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…
Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami
The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…
do our best to understand and convey what we observe. There are no compounds worth preparing, yields are coauthors. Individuals who make smaller helpful contributions are acknowledged. The work of prior labmatesResponsible Conduct of Research Research is an enterprise to acquire knowledge. Because
how to identify and measure tacit knowledge, less research addresses how to transfer tacit knowledge expert retires or leaves. This addresses two knowledge management challenges: utilisation). It is interesting to observe that the term knowledge transfer is currently popular in the knowledge management (KM
The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry. PMID:16008137
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F
Aim Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. Methods In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Results Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P < 0.001, ? = 0.88), whereas medical students had better skills than pharmacy students in writing prescriptions (68.6% vs. 50.7%; P < 0.001, ? = 0.57). The two groups of students had similar knowledge of applied pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, ? = 0.15). Conclusions Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. PMID:24698099
Wang, Hong; Thorns, David
Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…
Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and rebuttal evidence and justification scores developed during the course. It was also found that improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal evidence scores was content independent whereas improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal justification scores was content dependent. The results showed that prospective science teacher conceptual physics knowledge was improved from the beginning to the end of the instruction. More specifically, their declarative and situational knowledge scores increased from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that prospective science teacher argumentation scores can be related to physics conceptual knowledge pretest and posttest scores. In addition, it was found that argumentation gain scores were not related to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level. According to these findings, implications regarding prospective science teacher education and explicit teaching about argumentation were discussed.
Colley, Kabba E.
This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…
Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew
Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…
Slavkin, Harold C; Lawrence, Lisa
Leadership has been studied for the past four decades with an emphasis upon leadership and the transformation of various cultures, especially within the private sector. It is also becoming evident that leaders and leadership skills are often derived from core personal values and perceptions of what is and what could be. This summary describes an eleven-week selective course termed "Dean's Leadership Course" at the School of Dentistry at the University of Southern California. This selective course (a non-credit elective learning opportunity outside the formal curriculum) recruits a modest team of learners consisting of faculty, staff, and students and approaches leadership within the context of a "learning organization" coupled with case-based and problem-based learning. At the conclusion of this eleven-week course, participants are granted continuing education credit. This summary encourages others in dental education to consider the compelling opportunity to nurture and cultivate leadership within the university dental school environs. PMID:17554089
Simansalam, Saraswathi; Brewster, Joan M; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki
Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Design. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students' preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Assessment. Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. Conclusion. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling. PMID:26246620
Brewster, Joan M.; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki
Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Design. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students’ preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Assessment. Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. Conclusion. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling. PMID:26246620
Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028
Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit
Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.
Alzheimer Disease Nikoletta Bo´di, MD,* E´va Csibri, MD,* Catherine E. Myers, PhD,w Mark A. Gluck, Ph in early AD, which may indicate the pathology of the hippocampal complex. Key Words: Alzheimer disease, habit learning, acquired equiva- lence, hippocampus (Cog Behav Neurol 2009;22:8994) Alzheimer disease
This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…
Alsalem, Gheed Mufied
This study was conducted in order to assess the level of assistive technology knowledge and skills among general education majors in a southwestern university. Eighty-five pre-service teachers were recruited for the study. These consisted of student teachers, practicum students, and individuals working toward licensure. A questionnaire was…
Chambers, Ellen; Fischer, Jerome M.
Licensed professional counselors (n=207) completed the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey, revealing insufficient competence in defining culture, understanding pluralism, analyzing culture, and assessing diverse clients. Comparison of those trained before and after 1990 showed the earlier group had additional insufficiencies.…
This paper analyses three crucial research skills: problem identification, data collection and hypothesis formation. It concludes that science research students should be taught about the creative process as they are under pressures that can inhibit creative thought. They should also be taught the importance of tacit knowledge for learning how to…
Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.
"Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new way…
Sendag, Serkan; Odabasi, H. Ferhan
This study investigated how the online problem based learning (PBL) approach employed in an online learning environment influenced undergraduate students' critical thinking skills (CTS) and content knowledge acquisition. The pretest-posttest control group design was used in the study. The subjects included the students who were enrolled at the…
Fox, Wayne L.; And Others
To assess the effects of wide aptitude differences on the acquisition of military knowledges and skills, a sample of 183 Army recruits was divided into three maximally distant aptitude groups on the basis of Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT) scores: high aptitude (AFQT 90-99); middle aptitude (AFQT 45-55); low aptitude (AFQT 10-21). Recruits…
Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M.
To see if youth tobacco use prevention training improves knowledge, interaction skills, and awareness of media influences, junior high and high school students (161 at pre-test, 176 at post-test) from southeastern U.S. public schools completed questionnaires before and after anti-tobacco lessons. After training, high school (but not junior high)…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
This curriculum guide for high school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information…
This curriculum guide for middle school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information…
Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed
There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations…
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.
This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…
Najar, Robyn L.
While proficiency in academic writing and communication skills, such as teamwork, are seen as desirable graduate outcomes in higher education, they have taken a secondary place to the teaching of specific disciplinary knowledge within curricula. Traditionally, writing, such as writing a researched report, has been a source of anxiety for students…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.
This document lists the industry-identified core academic knowledge and skills that should be possessed by all Georgia students who are enrolled in occupational cluster programs and are preparing to enter the work force or continue their occupational specialization at the postsecondary level. First, 63 related communications competencies are…
This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…
American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.
This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…
Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and…
Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Lepkowski, William J.; Packman, Jill
The authors investigated whether undergraduates' scores on the Verbal and Quantitative tests of the Graduate Record Examinations and their undergraduate grade point average can be used to predict knowledge, personal development, and skills of graduates of counseling programs. Multiple regression analysis produced significant models predicting…
The study explored how the use of digital news stories promoted the development of content knowledge and oral language skills. The study involved 15 advanced Spanish students who used VoiceThread, an interactive multimedia tool, to create and exchange digital news regarding current events over the course of one semester. Both quantitative and…
This paper reports research that responded to my experience of teacher trainees' perception of a polarity between knowledge and skill in English post-compulsory education and training (PCET). I developed a model of knowing designed to promote an alternative to this binary conceptualisation. The research set out to operationalise "Dimensions…
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Montana State University Food & Nutrition Program Exit Survey Knowledge and Skills For all? Human anatomy and physiology 5 4 3 2 1 Biochemistry 5 4 3 2 1 Microbiology 5 4 3 2 1 Nutrient metabolism presentation on nutrition topic 5 4 3 2 1 Written presentation on nutrition topic 5 4 3 2 1 Use of current
Bailey, Caprice L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.; Dewey, Dan P.
In a competitive marketplace, job candidates need to know what TESOL employers are seeking in new hires. A 12-month study of TESOL job announcements examined the types of work offered and the candidate knowledge, experience, skills, and personal characteristics TESOL employers were seeking in full-time hires. An analysis of 169 job advertisements…
Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…
Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Soukup, Jane H.; Garner, Nancy W.; Lawrence, Margaret
Promoting active student involvement in transition planning has become best practice in promoting self-determination. This study examined the contribution of self-determination to transition planning knowledge and skills for 180 students with disabilities. Utilizing multiple regression analyses, the study found that global self-determination was a…
Williams, Laurel Lyn
Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…
Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun
This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…
Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.
Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…
Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.
In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…
Harlin, Julie F.; Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Murphrey, Theresa P.
The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies (knowledge, skills, and abilities) required of effective Agricultural Science teachers both inside and outside the classroom as perceived by preservice and inservice teachers and to suggest ways that preservice teachers can gain those competencies prior to entering the teaching…
This instrumental case study explored the knowledge and skill set levels of adult learners over the age of 35 with an emphasis in emerging educational technologies. The case study focused on EdD students in four cohorts at the Drexel University Center for Graduate Studies in Sacramento, CA. This research sought to answer the following research…
Lowther, Deborah L.; Inan, Fethi A.; Ross, Steven M.; Strahl, J. Daniel
This article presents findings from an investigation of the overall effectiveness of Michigan's Freedom to Learn (FTL) One-to-One initiative. The major goal of the FTL initiative was to help students to gain 21st century knowledge and skills while increasing their learning and achievement through the integration of over 20,000 laptop computers…
Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina
Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…
Recent reforms of initial teacher education (ITE) in the learning and skills sector (LSS) in England are standards based and emphasise subject specialism. The reforms are underpinned by objectivist epistemological assumptions which are incompatible with socio-cultural theories of professional knowledge, and ignore the diverse teaching roles and…
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie
Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…
Bakah, Marie A. B.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.
While teachers and administrators in polytechnics in Ghana have categorically expressed the growing need for the former's knowledge and skills to be updated in the era of polytechnic transformation, little attention has been paid to the subject. This study reports a professional development intervention organised for 16 engineering teachers…
Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…
Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine
Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…
Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J
Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD. PMID:25448858
Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori
Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios about an animal and were then asked questions about real animals. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds treated the pretend scenarios as informative about the kind of animal represented in the pretense but as uninformative about another kind of animal. In Experiments 2 and 3, 4- and 5-year-olds resisted learning from scenarios that contradicted their existing knowledge and expectations. Together, these findings show that children's learning from pretense shows specificity for the kinds represented in pretense and that children's learning from pretense is selective. PMID:23148938
the engineering skills gained through coursework in engineering mathematics, ocean engineering laboratory mathematics, science and engineering principles. Ability to design and conduct experiments, analyze of mathematics, science and engineering. Students will demonstrate the ability to design an engineering system
Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne
This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…
Davis, Jason L.; Davis, Harley
A sample of 58 students in career and technology teacher education and training and development was surveyed to determine self-perception as to their competency in five constructs containing 43 elements related to personal computer knowledge and skills. In an analysis of all computer knowledge and skill elements combined, there was no…
Schnabel, Rebecca B.
The preparation of secondary teacher candidates through traditional (n = 13) or alternative (n = 15) options did not statistically significantly impact knowledge, skills or dispositions. Results for content knowledge, as measured at entrance to the program based on the Pre-Professional Skills Test, indicate that candidates who entered the…
This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…
Ruehter, Valerie; Lindsey, Cameron; Garavalia, Linda
Objectives. To implement and assess the effectiveness of online instructional modules to increase the consistency of learning outcomes related to students’ patient-care practice knowledge and their skills application and confidence across introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) sites. Design. Twenty online modules were created to provide uniform delivery of instructional content that complemented classroom instruction and to introduce students to common pharmacy-practice skills in the patient-care arena. Assessment. Quantitative data were collected by means of a survey and pre- and post-module quizzes, which were completed by students to assess knowledge. More than 85% of students applied the IPPE skills. During the course, students’ confidence increased significantly in all areas. For all but 1 of the 13 competencies, more than 70% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the competencies were met. Conclusions. Online instructional modules in patient care can effectively increase students’ knowledge, skills application, and confidence, and improve the consistency of achieving outcomes for instructional content and activities across diverse practice settings. PMID:22611278
Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean
This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development. PMID:24974553
Worm, Bjarne Skjřdt
Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method. PMID:24039917
Zee, M; de Boer, M; Jaarsma, A D C
Medical schools have recently witnessed a call for authentic research activities that equip students with the skills required for evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research. Because it is not always possible to make such activities available as a part of the curriculum, evaluating the effectiveness of the various choices of traditional and authentic EBM and research skills courses is essential. This study's purpose was to evaluate students' perceived EBM and research skill acquisition in three different courses in a Dutch medical school. Self-reported surveys were conducted among 163 Dutch medical undergraduates who participated in an undergraduate research project, a basic EBM skills elective, or a traditional lecture-based skills course. MANCOVA was employed to test for group differences in perceived skill acquisition. Students who finished their research project perceived themselves as more experienced in writing and information retrieval skills than students who participated in the lecture-based course or basic skills elective. Students in the lecture-based course identified themselves as being the most experienced in critical judgment. No group differences were found for overall gains. Authentic research activities may have benefits over traditional lecture-based courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum, especially in terms of equipping students with writing and information retrieval skills. PMID:25395228
Gibson, John; Jack, Karen; Rennie, James S
The study objective was to gain a better understanding of the level of literacy in information technology across the dental team within Scotland, thus allowing appropriate planning of education and training for effective use of information technology. In May 2004 a postal questionnaire survey was undertaken of all dentists (2679) and professionals complementary to dentistry (2861) within primary care in Scotland, in both general dental practice and the salaried dental service. Online reply was also an option. Results showed that 43 per cent of respondents considered their IT skills as 'moderate' with a further one-third reporting 'nil' or 'low' skill level. Only one quarter of respondents had accessed a learning programme by PC. The majority of IT competence was self-acquired. Hence 'upskilling' the dental team in IT may be required in order to take advantage of e-learning opportunities available now and in the future. PMID:18029404
Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muńoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383
Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.
A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.
Cosgrove, Sara E; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Rybak, Michael J; File, Thomas M; Parker, Sarah K; Barlam, Tamar F
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly recognized as critical in optimizing the use of antimicrobials. Consequently, more physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare providers are developing and implementing such programs in a variety of healthcare settings. The purpose of this guidance document is to outline the knowledge and skills that are needed to lead an antimicrobial stewardship program. It was developed by antimicrobial stewardship experts from organizations that are engaged in advancing the field of antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:25419765
Manganaris, Stefanos; Fisher, Doug; Kulkarni, Deepak
In this paper we address the problem of detecting and diagnosing faults in physical systems, for which neither prior expertise for the task nor suitable system models are available. We propose an architecture that integrates the on-line acquisition and exploitation of monitoring and diagnostic knowledge. The focus of the paper is on the component of the architecture that discovers classes of behaviors with similar characteristics by observing a system in operation. We investigate a characterization of behaviors based on best fitting approximation models. An experimental prototype has been implemented to test it. We present preliminary results in diagnosing faults of the Reaction Control System of the Space Shuttle. The merits and limitations of the approach are identified and directions for future work are set.
Salvucci, Dario D
Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. PMID:23551386
Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B; Singh, Kundan K.
Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries. PMID:22232708
Jamalpour, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Hossein Kimiaei; Zarei, Khosrow
Background: When cardiopulmonary arrest occurs, the dentist's ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most important factor to minimize morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of general dental practitioners in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants in the study were 80 Iranian general dental practitioners who were chosen randomly. Their CPR knowledge was evaluated by verbal questions and their CPR skills were determined by CPR execution on a special manikin. Nearly 39% (n = 31) of dentists answered none of the questions and only 2.50% (n = 2) answered all of the questions correctly. Thirty six dentists had been participated CPR course after graduation. Result: There was a significant difference between dentists who participated in CPR training course and those that did not participate (P value = 0.000). Only 3.75% (n = 3) were able to perform CPR properly. Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of CPR knowledge and skills were low in participated Iranian general dental practitioners. However, CPR training courses after graduation increased the amount of knowledge significantly, thus, retraining CPR courses is necessary for dentists. PMID:25838633
Schultz, Jon-Hĺkon; Lien, Inger-Lise
How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562
Triceps injuries are relatively uncommon in most traumatic events, and the distal triceps tendon ruptures are rare. Recently, the knowledge of this tendon lesion has increased, and it seems to be related to more precise diagnostic and clinical assessments. The most common mechanism of injury remains a forceful eccentric contraction of the muscle, while several other risk factors have been studied as chronic renal failure, endocrine disorders, metabolic bone diseases as well as steroid use. Olecranon bursitis and local corticosteroid injections may also play a role. The commonest site of rupture is at the tendon's insertion into the olecranon and rarely at the myotendinous junction or intramuscularly. The surgical intervention is recommended in acute complete ruptures, and non-operative treatment is reserved for patients with major comorbidities, as well as for partial ruptures with little functional disability and in low demanding patients. Various techniques and approaches as the direct repair to bone, the tendon augmentation, the anconeus rotation flap and the Achilles tendon allograft have been proposed for the management of these challenging injuries. The goal of surgical management should be an anatomical repair of the injured tendon by selection of a procedure with a low complication rate and one that allows early mobilization. This manuscript focuses the triceps tendon ruptures starting from the anatomy to the diagnosis and entity of the triceps tendon injuries, as well as the indications and guidelines for the management. PMID:25957546
Carolina Core Requirements The Carolina Core curriculum provides the common core of knowledge, skill, and academic experience for all Carolina undergraduates. The Core begins with foundational selected Core learning outcomes are integrated into disciplinespecific study. For more information go
Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.
The goal of this series of guides is to show Texas educators what components of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum are eligible for testing on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and end-of-course tests. This booklet contains information for tests administered beginning in the 10th grade as graduation…
Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine
Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit. PMID:25054474
Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V
OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442
Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela
Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878
Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…
Alrqiq, Hosam M; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana K
In response to current and projected demographic changes in the United States, many dental schools have taken steps to increase the cultural competence of their students through various educational methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural competency curriculum at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM). The curriculum was evaluated using a pre and post design, utilizing an instrument developed for pharmacy students and modified for dental students. The questionnaire was comprised of 11 items designed to assess changes in students' awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing culturally competent care. Data were collected for two classes of second-year DMD students and first-year Advanced Standing students. The total number of returned surveys was 485, for a response rate of 79.5%. The students' post-curriculum mean scores were all higher than their pre-curriculum scores for overall cultural competence (pre 26.5±6.3 to post 29.8±7.2) and for individual subscores on awareness (pre 5.3±1.4 to post 5.5±1.5), knowledge (pre 7.2±1.9 to post 8.1±2.1), and skills (pre 14.1±4.4 to post 16.2±4.4). The improvements on all scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001), with the exception of the awareness component. This evaluation suggests that the cultural competency curriculum at GSDM has been effective in producing improvements in these students' cultural competence in the domains of knowledge and skills. PMID:26329024
Ritchie, David J; Yen, Margaret L
This study reports on an analysis of 17 postgraduate programs in health services management. Public information was collected from websites in February 2010. Data analysed included core subject abstracts, admission requirements and length and aims of each course. Findings indicate that only three out of 16 subjects identified as core are common to more than 50% of the programs, with the eight most common individual subjects appearing in only a third of programs. This suggests diversity in what is deemed core foundational knowledge in managing health services and the approach taken to management development. We believe there should be greater consensus on core subjects in a specialist health services management qualification. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? With changes in the organisational structure of health organisations in Australia over the past two decades, managerial positions and roles have also changed. The educational preparation for those managerial roles would also be expected to have changed but core foundational knowledge should remain similar between the various academic institutions.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper indicates greater diversity in core knowledge areas in health services management education than expected despite a similar target audience.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? There are differences in what are deemed to be core foundational areas of knowledge required in specialist management development between academic programs. Management development requires a balance between knowledge, skills and experience and intending st PMID:23498856
Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words. PMID:16901954
Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients. PMID:17908064
Alam, Nazmul; Mridha, Malay K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Vermund, Sten H.
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) management is considered rudimentary among rural medical practitioners (RMPs) in Bangladesh. We sought to understand the level of knowledge and skills in STI management and to assess the impact of a two-day training orientation among RMPs in Tangail district. Data were collected through a baseline survey of 225 practicing RMPs in the study area and a three-month follow-up survey of 99 RMPs who participated in a two-day STI/HIV orientation training. The level of formal training among RMPs ranged from none (22.7%), to paramedical training (14.7%) and local medical assistant training (62.6%). The baseline survey revealed a low level of STI/HIV knowledge and misconceptions about the transmission of STI/HIV among RMPs. RMPs mostly prescribed first line antibiotics for treatment of common reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including STIs, but they rarely prescribed the correct dosages according to the national RTI/STI management guidelines. Only 3% of RMPs were able to correctly answer all four HIV transmission (unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, needle sharing and mother to child transmission) questions at baseline, while 94.9% of RMPs answered all four correctly at three months following the training (p=0.001). Only 10% of RMPs reported suggesting the recommended drug (azithromycin) and only 2% mentioned about the recommended dosage (2gm single dose) for the treatment of urethritis/cervicitis; compared to 49.5% suggested azithromycin at follow-up with 39.4% mentioned the recommended 2gm single dose (p=0.001). Our study found low level of knowledge and poor practices related RTI/STI management among RMPs. Short orientation training and education intervention shown promise to increase knowledge and management skills for RTIs/STIs. PMID:25954593
Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam
Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which can be reenforced in succeeding years. Forty-two first-year medical students participated in this study. The entire procedure consisted of faculty training, assessment of knowledge of students by a pretest questionnaire, a lecture, a demonstration, and hands-on training using a mannequin (with special emphasis on the site, depth, rate, and sustainment of uninterrupted chest compressions). Posttest 1 was conducted to assess the knowledge gained. The retention of knowledge and skills in the second year was evaluated by posttest 2 and directly observed procedural skills, respectively. Student feedback was collected on five-point Likert scale. Analysis using a Freidman test indicated the mean rank for posttest 1 (2.81) to be significantly higher than the pretest (1.26), indicating a gain in knowledge. The mean rank for posttest 2 (1.93) was lower than for posttest 1 (2.81) but was significantly higher compared with the pretest (1.26), indicating a significant retention of knowledge during the second year. Directly observed procedural skill evaluation showed that 7% students could perform all the seven steps correctly and that 74% students could perform three or more steps correctly, signifying a good retention of skill. Two students taught BLS skills to their family members as well. The results of this study suggest that the program provides students with sound basic knowledge and adequate practical skills in BLS. PMID:24585468
The change-over to a knowledge and service society means greater opportunities for the highly skilled. Participation in tertiary education is increasing in all countries, and it can be seen that graduates are being absorbed into knowledge intensive services in the labour market. The international trend towards making vocational education and…
Beebe, Rosella I.
This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…
Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators
In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…
You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian
The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917
This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.
Haden, N Karl; Chaddock, Michael; Hoffsis, Glen F; Lloyd, James W; Reed, William M; Ranney, Richard R; Weinstein, George J
The purposes of this Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) study was to develop a profile of deans to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that current deans of schools and colleges of veterinary medicine consider important to job success and to inform the association's leadership development initiatives. Forty-two deans responded to an online leadership program needs survey, which found that knowledge, skills, and abilities related to communication, finance and budget management, negotiation, conflict management, public relations, and fundraising were recommended as the most important areas for fulfilling a deanship. Most respondents speculated that the greatest challenges for their institutions will be in the areas of faculty recruitment and retention and financing veterinary education. Reflecting on their experiences, respondents offered an abundance of advice to future deans, often citing the importance of preparation, communication, and leadership qualities as necessary for a successful and satisfying deanship. More than three-quarters of the respondents indicated moderate to high interest in an AAVMC multi-phase leadership training program to develop administrative leaders. A nearly equal number also indicated support for formal leadership training for current veterinary medical college and school deans. The study suggests leadership development topics that AAVMC could provide at existing meetings or through new programming. The study also suggests directions for individual institutions as they seek to implement leadership development activities at the local level. PMID:20847329
Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora
This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed.
Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian
An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival. PMID:25327571
A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem-solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context-boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly Eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, I investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, tberefore, are more likely than men to generate a wide variety of data. Their role as caretakers also bestows on them the great responsibility of communicating everyday knowledge to current and future generations. 1The term 'schooled' refers to knowledge and skills that are designated for instruction in schools.
...driver-student's skills have been measured...their basic operating skills in a way that ensures...principles of visual search, communication, and sharing the...inspection, vision, communications, speed management...their vehicle handling skills learned in...
Culyba, Rebecca J; McGee, Blake Tyler; Weyer, Dianne
In the Southeast United States, HIV care is provided in a context of disproportionate HIV prevalence and barriers to care, including rural locales, higher proportions of African American and uninsured patients, and inadequate health care workforce and infrastructure. The authors describe a regional on-site longitudinal training program developed to target multidisciplinary teams providing HIV primary care at clinical sites in the region. The effect of this training program was evaluated using pre- and 3-month post-program knowledge and skills tests, a post-training evaluation questionnaire, and a post-program focus group. The authors found desired effects, with increases in knowledge and skills and improved capacity of providers to meet patient care needs across all clinical sites despite variations in terms of HIV-infected patient loads. However, the lack of enabling factors present in clinic environments may attenuate the application of new knowledge and skills, underscoring the relevance of teamwork training in HIV care settings. PMID:20817494
Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey
Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…
Byamukama, Emmanuel; Courtright, Paul
The aim of this study was to assess the primary eye care knowledge, skills, and productivity of primary health workers at dispensaries in a district in Tanzania. Factors likely to contribute to knowledge, skills, and productivity were also assessed. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. All health workers employed at government dispensaries in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania were included. A skills score of respondents, comprising knowledge and ability to test visual acuity and diagnosis and management of common eye conditions, was measured through interview and direct observation. Factors associated with the skills score were assessed. Forty nine health workers were assessed. There was poor understanding of basic ocular conditions and how to assess visual acuity; the mean skills score of all respondents was 6.2 out of 12. There was little association between having received training and the skills score. The mean number of eye patients managed per health worker was three per month. Findings suggest that a reassessment of the roles and responsibilities in primary eye care of dispensary health workers, review of training curriculum and teaching, and supervisory procedures may be necessary. PMID:24037865
Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet
Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading. PMID:23922519
Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet
Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading. PMID:23922519
Tenaha O’Reilly; Danielle S. McNamara
This study examined how well cognitive abilities predict high school students’ science achievement as measured by traditional content-based tests. Students (n = 1,651) from four high schools in three states were assessed on their science knowledge, reading skill, and reading strategy knowledge. The dependent variable, content-based science achievement, was measured in terms of students’ comprehension of a science passage, science
Chan, Moon Fai
The purpose of the present study was to develop a tool for evaluating knowledge, skills, and attitudes levels of nursing staff members toward the clinical management system and to determine factors affecting their knowledge, attitudes, and skill levels. A survey was conducted from December 2004 to May 2005, with 282 nurses in four local hospitals in Hong Kong completing a self-report questionnaire. Multiple regression showed that older age (beta = 0.13, P = .01), higher educational levels (beta = 0.37, P < .001), and attitude scores (beta = 0.14, P < .001) are factors that significantly improve nurses' knowledge. Factors that may improve nurses' attitudes were shown to be more on work experiences (beta = 0.52, P = .01), experience in medical or specialist units and senior ranking (beta = 2.51, P < .001), and higher knowledge (beta = 1.24, P < .001). Older age (beta = 0.73, P < .001), higher educational level (beta = 1.78, P < .001), and senior ranking (beta = 4.06, P < .001) are factors that improve nurses' skills. The managerial implications for these findings are important because the variables identified in this study are directly related to enhancement of the quality and efficiency of the clinical management system. These findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems and increase the depth and breadth of their computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills. PMID:19060623
Pordié, Laurent; Blaikie, Calum
This article examines the transmission of Tibetan medical knowledge in the Himalayan region of Ladakh (India), taking three educational settings as ethnographic ports of entry. Each of these corresponds to a different operating mode in the standardisation of medical knowledge and learning processes, holding profound implications for the way this therapeutic tradition is known, valued, applied and passed on to the next generation. Being at the same time a cause and a consequence of intra-regional variability in Tibetan medicine, the three institutional forms coexist in constant interaction with one another. The authors render this visible by examining the 'taskscapes' that characterize each learning context, that is to say, the specific and interlocking sets of practices and tasks in which a practitioner must be skilled in order to be considered competent. The authors build upon this notion by studying two fields of transmission and practice, relating to medicine production and medical ethics. These domains of enquiry provide a rich grounding from which to examine the transition from enskilment to education, as well as the overlaps between them, and to map out the connections linking different educational forms to social and medical legitimacy in contemporary India. PMID:25074035
Elion, Orit; Sela, Itamar; Bahat, Yotam; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Karni, Avi
Does the learning of a balance and stability skill exhibit time-course phases and transfer limitations characteristic of the acquisition and consolidation of voluntary movement sequences? Here we followed the performance of young adults trained in maintaining balance while standing on a moving platform synchronized with a virtual reality road travel scene. The training protocol included eight 3 min long iterations of the road scene. Center of Pressure (CoP) displacements were analyzed for each task iteration within the training session, as well as during tests at 24h, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post-training to test for consolidation phase ("offline") gains and assess retention. In addition, CoP displacements in reaction to external perturbations were assessed before and after the training session and in the 3 subsequent post-training assessments (stability tests). There were significant reductions in CoP displacements as experience accumulated within session, with performance stabilizing by the end of the session. However, CoP displacements were further reduced at 24h post-training (delayed "offline" gains) and these gains were robustly retained. There was no transfer of the practice-related gains to performance in the stability tests. The time-course of learning the balance maintenance task, as well as the limitation on generalizing the gains to untrained conditions, are in line with the results of studies of manual movement skill learning. The current results support the conjecture that a similar repertoire of basic neuronal mechanisms of plasticity may underlay skill (procedural, "how to" knowledge) acquisition and skill memory consolidation in voluntary and balance maintenance tasks. PMID:25797802
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…
Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.
This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…
This commentary on the Council for Exceptional Children-Council on Education of the Deaf's (CEC-CED's) Joint Knowledge and Skills Statement, which sets forth qualifications needed by those who teach deaf and hard of hearing students, discusses key issues impacting the education of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing: cultural flexibility,…
Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.
This professional development guide focuses on the Viewing and Representing strands of the TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills) and includes the areas of interpretation analysis and production, which help students in grades four through twelve become critical consumers, and capable producers, of media. The guide includes mini-lessons,…
Wong, Angela F. L.; Chong, Sylvia; Choy, Doris; Lim, Kam Ming
This study examined the levels of pedagogical knowledge and skills as perceived by student teachers who were enrolled in the Post Graduate Diploma in Education program at the National Institute of Education, Singapore, from the beginning of their initial teacher preparation program to the end of their first year of teaching. Their perceptions were…
Dogra, Sandeep; Mahajan, Ruchita; Jad, Beena; Mahajan, Bella
Context: We believe that there is significant educational deficit amongst interns regarding up-to-date formal knowledge and skills on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) which might compromise patient safety. This urgently requires curriculum innovations to ensure their formal training on HAIs prevention and control. Aim: Education of interns to improve their knowledge and skills toward HAIs prevention and control. Subjects and Methods: This pilot study was conducted in interns using a multimodal approach consisting of a combination of videos, PowerPoint presentation, and hands-on demonstration to provide applied and practical teaching on prevention and control of HAIs. Pre- and post-test assessment of knowledge, attitude, and skills was carried out by multiple choice questions, 5-point Likert scale, and Objective Structured Practical Examination respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test Results: A statistically significant improvement in the overall score rates between pre- and post-test of intern's was seen, suggesting that educational programs have a positive effect. Intern's felt benefitted from interventions focused on HAIs prevention and control and hoped that such sessions are integrated in the regular undergraduate curriculum. A majority of the students felt that their learning style assessment matched well with their own perception of learning preference. Conclusions: Assessment drives learning; hence strengthening the contribution of health-care workers to HAIs prevention programs should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve skills and develop appropriate attitudes, resulting in safety and quality of patient care. PMID:26380213
Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz
One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…
Lambert, Jason Ignazio
Although there is an extensive review of the literature about the skills/competencies and knowledge areas needed for success as an entry-level student affairs professional (Hyman, 1988; Kinser, 1993; Lovell & Kosten, 2000; Ostroth, 1981; Waple, 2006), no such study or studies have been conducted regarding how graduates of College Student Personnel…
Jonassen, Julie A.; Pugnaire, Michele P.; Mazor, Kathleen; Regan, Mary Beth; Jacobson, Eric W.; Gammon, Wendy; Doepel, David G.; Cohen, Andrew J.
A study investigated the effectiveness of two- and 3.5-day domestic-violence interclerkships in improving the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of two successive cohorts of University of Massachusetts third-year medical students. Participating students immediately and significantly improved in each of these areas and fully or partially sustained…
Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel
"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about knowledge and skills of young children. A smaller percentage of children born in 2001 who were in poverty demonstrated proficiency in…
van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko; Chrysler, Earl
In this article, the authors provide insight into alumni perceptions of Master of Business Administration (MBA) program return on investment (ROI). They sought to assess the relative value of skills, knowledge, and teaching methods in explaining ROI. By developing insight into the drivers of ROI, the real utility of MBA program ingredients can be…
Pham, Vinh Huy
Stakeholders of the educational system assume that standardized tests are transparently about the subject content being tested and therefore can be used as a metric to measure achievement in outcome-based educational reform. Both analysis of longitudinal data for the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) exam and agent based computer…
Forbes, Megan Julie
The purpose of this study was to establish an accepted skill set, knowledge base, and overview of personal qualities necessary to be a director of a university or college based, non-proprietary intensive English program (UIEP). This research serves as a means of moving towards meeting three critical needs in the field. This research should inform…
Bonifas, Robin P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bailey, Kathleen A.
This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure…
Simmons, Ellen Stephanie
Investigates effects of method of presentation and structure on secondary student's acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills in teaching use of the compound microscope. Psychomotor skills and knowledge acquisitions were both found to be directly related to high structure and separated presentations. (SL)
In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…
Ruettgers, Mary Margaret
Are graduates of teacher preparation programs adequately prepared with the skills and knowledge to teach in the 21st century classroom? This study consisted of a quantitative content analysis to investigate the presence of 21st century knowledge and skills within a stratified random sample of teacher preparation programs in the United States as…
Transfer of knowledge is a complex process. While codified knowledge is easy to transfer, tacit knowledge is not. "Tacit knowledge is difficult to exchange over long distance because it is heavily imbued with meaning arising ...
What skills do people need to survive in the 21st century? It's a great question and one that is examined in painstaking detail by the authors of this 242-page report published by the National Academies Press. Released in 2012, the report responds to a charge from the National Research Council to define the set of key skills that are referenced by the labels "deeper learning, "21st century skills," and so on. The chapters here include "A Preliminary Classification of Skills and Abilities" and "Importance of Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills." This is a great read for those with an interest in education, public policy, and the like.
Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan
This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern. PMID:24119517
Pound, K. S.
A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and samples for the class to examine. This exercise could be adapted for any collection and any level of learning, as well as for any particular collection or suite of samples. Soils and local rock sequences could also be incorporated.
Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peńa-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.
We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.
Williamson, Kathleen M; Almaskari, Mohammed; Lester, Zanet; Maguire, Deborah
This collaborative study explored nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. It also explored the nurses' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that they face related to fully using EBP in the workplace. Findings will afford the healthcare system the information to develop, plan, and restructure the educational services to meet the demand of enhancing EBP strategies and utilization. PMID:25790357
Marinelli, Diane, Ed.
These eighteen Survival Skills units are intended to provide the adult basic education student with life skills information, new vocabulary, and reading practice at a readability level of 3.0 to 6.0. It is suggested that they be used only under an instructor's direction and that specialized vocabulary may need to be pre-taught. Each unit is…
This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Nurses with such skills can share knowledge and expertise, and communicate clearly, in a range of workplace scenarios. PMID:25746884
The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
Jones, Alison Adair
The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or science TAKS expository text questions were reading skills and strategies, as well as word concepts.
Background While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond “having” knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. Methods This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Results Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. Conclusions There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the professional training of healthcare professionals perceive teaching as more than the transmission of knowledge and technical skills. Process-oriented teaching practices that integrate technology as part of a carefully designed curriculum may have the potential to facilitate the development of capable healthcare graduates who are able to navigate the complexity of health systems and patient management in ways that go beyond the application of knowledge and skills. PMID:23574731
Although students need to be competent in a wide range of work knowledge, skills, and abilities, they also need to be "capable" human beings to take their place as contributors to the Australian community. Capability has been described as having confidence in one's ability to acquire and apply knowledge, new skills, and understanding, with…
Silverman, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21866716
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983
Lucia Kohlhauf; Ulrike Rutke; Birgit Neuhaus
Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is\\u000a often regarded as ‘just looking’ rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods\\u000a in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is\\u000a necessary. Because observation skills form the basis
Fortus, David Leon
Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks. The correlations with the posttests increased from one enactment to the next, demonstrating that the students' transfer performance improved as they gained more experience in DBS classrooms. Potential threats to the study's internal validity that were identified and discussed were improved teacher proficiency, the nature of the transfer tasks, the difficulty of the science content covered by the units, the similarity between the units and the transfer tasks, and the similarity between the transfer tasks. This dissertation demonstrates that: (a) appropriate learning environments can foster transfer, (b) transfer performance can improve over time, and (c) that it may be necessary to rethink and redefine the procedures for identifying and assessing real-world transfer.
Borsoi, Livia; Rieder, Anita; Stein, Katharina Viktoria; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dorner, Thomas Ernst
Prevention and health promotion are gaining importance in modern medical curricula. Aim of this study was to evaluate the self-assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students towards health promotion and prevention. In 2012, at the Medical University of Vienna, 27% of the 633 fourth-year medical students (50.3% male and 49.7% female; mean age: 24 years) completed a questionnaire. Results show a high assessment of prevention in most respondents. Knowledge gaps were detected on occupational health and mother-child pass examinations. However, almost all students reported sufficient knowledge on screening and risk assessment of developing cardiovascular diseases. Almost all respondents estimated to be able to identify risky behaviours. Overall, estimation towards prevention of tomorrow's physicians is very positive. However, only 40% believed to have been adequately trained on preventive medicine so far. Relevant preventive aspects were added to the medical curriculum in 2012-2013 with the new block 'Public Health'. PMID:24468828
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.
The goal of this series of guides is to show Texas educators what components of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum are eligible for testing on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and end-of-course tests. This elementary level guide contains information for subjects tested in grades 3 through 6. The sections are:…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.
The goal of this series of guides is to show Texas educators what components of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum are eligible for testing on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and end-of-course tests. This middle school guide contains information for subjects tested in grades 6 through 8. The sections are: (1)…
Cheng, Grace Y T
A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted on a group of Hong Kong hospital clinicians. The objective was to test if a three-hour educational workshop (with supervised hands-on practice) is more effective (than no training) to improve clinical question formulation, information-seeking skills, knowledge, attitudes, and search outcomes. The design was a post-test-only control group; recruitment by stratified randomization (by profession), blocked at 800. End-user training was more effective than no training in improving clinical question formulation, in raising awareness, knowledge, confidence and use of databases, but had made no impact on preference for secondary databases. It changed the attitude of clinicians to become more positive towards the use of electronic information services (EIS). Participants had higher search performance and outcomes (satisfaction with information obtained (NNT = 3), EIS satisfaction (NNT = 3) and success in problem solving (NNT = 4)). The workshop improved knowledge and skills in evidence-based searching, but this effect gradually eroded with time. Search logs confirmed that follow-up is required if effects are to be sustained. Longer effects on search behaviours appear to be positive. A randomised controlled trial is valuable in identifying cause-and-effect relations and to quantify the magnitude of the effects for management decision-making. PMID:12757433
Schuelke, Matthew J; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Kowollik, Vanessa; Boatman, Paul R
The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958) whose participants underwent training on a complex computer simulation indicated that coherence and the accuracy-based indices yielded comparable zero-order predictive validities. Support for the incremental validity of using a combination of indices was mixed; the most, albeit small, gain came in pairing coherence and closeness when predicting transfer. After controlling for baseline skill, general mental ability, and declarative knowledge, only coherence explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in transfer. Overall, the results suggested that the different indices largely overlap in their representation of knowledge organization, but that coherence better reflects adaptable aspects of knowledge organization important to skill transfer. PMID:19594246
Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki
The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.
Describes work with "topic sheets," acquiring an understanding of them, their use in teaching and the concrete help of topic sheets in the pupil's personal activity, taking as an example the theme unit "Ma famille et moi." (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Magnusson, Maria; Pramling, Niklas
In this empirical study, the appropriation of a symbolic skill by a five-year old child is analysed. His evolving production and understanding are investigated through his sign-making and his explanations of these when speaking with a researcher. The child is studied in his home. A contrasting case of another child of the same age also making…
Colunga, Eliana; Smith, Linda B.
Young children's skilled generalization of newly learned nouns to new instances has become the battleground for two very different approaches to cognition. This debate is a proxy for a larger dispute in cognitive science and cognitive development: cognition as rule-like amodal propositions, on the one hand, or as embodied, modal, and dynamic…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.
An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…
for people with particular skills or expertise using some form interface to database entries. Notwithstanding are found in the database, the maintenance of the database remains difficult. People work in new projects (project) positions, to retrieve "good" matches from a database of people's profiles. The profiles were
Allen, Susan F.; Tracy, Elizabeth M.
Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguishing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the intervention process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safety, boundary, confidentiality, and…
This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…
Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark
Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…
, but operational, "intelligent" foreign language teacher acting on a small subset of English, Dutch and Ita- lian~ describes an "intelligent" tutor of foreign language concepts and skills based upon state teaching dialo- gues on PLATO I and in a program (called ELISA~ for teaching foreign language conjunctions
Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert
Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…
In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…
Hodges, John R.; Spatt, Josef; Patterson, Karalyn
Patients with profound semantic deterioration resulting from temporal lobe atrophy have been reported to use many real objects appropriately. Does this preserved ability reflect (i) a separate component of the conceptual knowledge system (“action semantics”) or (ii) the operation of a system that is independent of conceptual knowledge of specific objects, and rather is responsible for general mechanical problem-solving skills, triggered by object affordances? We contrast the performance of three patients—two with semantic dementia and focal temporal lobe atrophy and the third with corticobasal degeneration and biparietal atrophy—on tests of real object identification and usage, picture-based tests of functional semantic knowledge, and a task requiring selection and use of novel tools. The patient with corticobasal degeneration showed poor novel tool selection and impaired use of real objects, despite near normal semantic knowledge of the same objects’ functions. The patients with semantic dementia had the expected deficit in object identification and functional semantics, but achieved flawless and effortless performance on the novel tool task. Their attempts to use this same mechanical problem-solving ability to deduce (sometimes successfully but often incorrectly) the use of the real objects provide no support for the hypothesis of a separate action-semantic system. Although the temporal lobe system clearly is necessary to identify “what” an object is, we suggest that sensory inputs to a parietal “how” system can trigger the use of objects without reference to object-specific conceptual knowledge. PMID:10430962
von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers
Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…
Discusses the concept of knowledge management and the initiatives and processes to consider for the implementation of a knowledge management program. Highlights include issues for library schools; the roles of information professionals, domain experts, and information technology experts; and the need for an integrated approach to meet…
Chitakunye, Pepukayi; Takhar-Lail, Amandeep
This study contributes to existing methodological knowledge by showing how a transformed research methods curriculum, which is beyond the milieu of schooling, can engage postgraduate students in a critical dialogue on how knowledge is produced in industry and higher education. Initial insights are drawn from two interpretive studies that employed…
Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom
Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9?months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine?months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9?months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893
This resource, created by L.A. West and Matthais W. Pleil for the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), describes the skills of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technologists. The authors provide this information through a survey taken of the industry and also job profiles from different companies. The presentation describes not only the positions available, but also the skills needed to attain these careers. The information mostly focuses on jobs in the United States, but also has a slight international focus. Students interested in this field will find this resource engaging on many different levels. It not only provides a nice synopsis of this career, but more importantly, it could shape the educational focus of interested students.
Gligorov, Nada; Sommer, Terry M; Ballato, Ellen C Tobin; Frank, Lily E; Rhodes, Rosamond
Upon entering the examination room, Caitlyn encounters a woman sitting alone and in distress. Caitlyn introduces herself as the hospital ethicist and tells the woman, Mrs. Dennis, that her aim is to help her reach a decision about whether to perform an autopsy on her recently deceased husband. Mrs. Dennis begins the encounter by telling the ethicist that she has to decide quickly, but that she is very torn about what to do. Mrs. Dennis adds, "My sons disagree about the autopsy." As a standardized patient (SP), a specialized actor, the woman playing Mrs. Dennis has already delivered the same opening lines several times to different learners practicing their clinical ethics consultation skills. An SP encounter is a simulated patient encounter used for educational purposes that requires the standardization of verbal and behavioral responses. In the encounter, the simulator, or "patient," uses a scripted medical history to enable the learner to employ a certain skill, say, the ability to perform a neurological exam. The use of standardized patients in the evaluation of clinical skills has become a staple in medical education. To tackle the challenge of teaching clinical ethics consultation skills, we have incorporated SP encounters into the curriculum of the Bioethics Program of The Union Graduate College and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. SP encounters are incorporated into one of our onsite classes, the Onsite Clinical Ethics Practicum, and they are part of the capstone examination, which all of our graduates must complete successfully. The inclusion of simulated encounters into the curriculum is one way in which we equip our students with the core competencies specified by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities Task Force for clinical ethicists. PMID:26413763
Lim, Kyu Yon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…
...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...
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...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...
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...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...
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Considine, Shannon L.
This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.
Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921
Haney, Marisa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Van Dillen, Christine; Ralls, George; Cohen, Ethan; Papa, Linda
We conducted a randomized controlled study to compare conventional lectures with tele-education for delivering wound care education. Education was delivered by the two methods simultaneously to two classes. Forty-eight paramedics received a live didactic presentation and 41 paramedics received the same lecture via videoconferencing. The participants were evaluated by a multiple-choice examination and a practical test of their wound closure skills. There were no significant differences in any category of the practical skills test, and no difference in the results of the written examination: the mean total score was was 109.0 (95% CI 105.7-112.4) in the conventional lecture group and 110.3 (95% CI 106.2-114.3) in the video group (P = 0.63). In a survey at the end of the study the live lecture group rated the overall effectiveness of teaching significantly higher than the video-based group: the median scores for effectiveness of teaching were 6.0 (IQR 5.5-6.0) in the live lecture group and 4.0 (IQR 3.0-5.0) in the video group (P < 0.001). Videoconferencing was at least as effective as live didactic presentation. PMID:22198960
Johnson, Scott D.
A two-part study examined the relationship between technical troubleshooting behavior and the level of expertise of service technicians who diagnose faulty equipment. The first investigation addressed the differences in the knowledge base that troubleshooters bring to a problem. A group of five novice troubleshooters and five experts was given…
Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Thyagaraj, Sujan; Teufel, James; Phillips, Cheryl
One in five students report experimenting with tobacco before the age of 13 and most prevention efforts take place in the school setting. This study measures the effect of a single-lesson tobacco prevention curriculum, conducted by a health education center, focusing on knowledge of tobacco, ability to identify refusal techniques, and intent not…
Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara
One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…
Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen
There is a growing awareness in the UK and mainland Europe of the importance of higher education to the development of a knowledge-based economy. European universities are increasingly required to produce highly mobile graduates able to respond to the ever-changing needs of the contemporary workplace. Following the Bologna Declaration (1999),…
Snyder, Kristy M; Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ulrich, Jana E; Logan, Gordon D
We conducted four experiments to investigate skilled typists' explicit knowledge of the locations of keys on the QWERTY keyboard, with three procedures: free recall (Exp.?1), cued recall (Exp.?2), and recognition (Exp.?3). We found that skilled typists' explicit knowledge of key locations is incomplete and inaccurate. The findings are consistent with theories of skilled performance and automaticity that associate implicit knowledge with skilled performance and explicit knowledge with novice performance. In Experiment?4, we investigated whether novice typists acquire more complete explicit knowledge of key locations when learning to touch-type. We had skilled QWERTY typists complete a Dvorak touch-typing tutorial. We then tested their explicit knowledge of the Dvorak and QWERTY key locations with the free recall task. We found no difference in explicit knowledge of the two keyboards, suggesting that typists know little about key locations on the keyboard, whether they are exposed to the keyboard for 2 h or 12 years. PMID:24101344
Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy
Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…
Butler, Lakesha M.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Poirier, Therese I.
Objective To implement active-learning exercises in a required pharmacy course and assess their impact on students' knowledge and confidence in identifying and communicating with patients with low health literacy, as part of a required course in cultural competency, health literacy, and health beliefs. Design Active-learning activities including administering health literacy assessments, identifying informal signs of low health literacy, conducting mock patient counseling sessions, rating the readability of drug information, analyzing information in drug advertisements, and writing patient education materials were incorporated into the 6-sesssion health literacy portion of the course. Assessment A pretest and posttest showed that students' knowledge of health literacy increased, and a retrospective pretest found improvement in students' confidence in their ability to care for patients with low health literacy. In-class discussions provided informal evidence that students gained new knowledge from the active-learning activities. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was effective in teaching health literacy concepts to pharmacy students. PMID:21179248
Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N
The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test. PMID:23265002
Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas
Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.
Among the acoustic correlates of phonetic identity considered to be universal is the length of vocalic segments preceding syllable-final stops, which is a correlate to the voicing of those stops. However, findings reported earlier [S. Nittrouer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2312(A) (2001)] showed that the commonly described length effect (i.e., shorter segments before voiceless than before voiced stops) is attenuated in adults' samples from continuous discourse, and that listeners of all ages fail to make much use of this effect in perceptual decisions, preferring instead to base voicing judgments on dynamic spectral information. Subsequent to that study, acoustic measures (duration of the preceding vocalic segment and frequency of the first formant at voicing offset) of children's (5 and 7 years of age) productions of words differing in the voicing of syllable-final stops showed that by 5 years of age children's productions generally had the same acoustic structure as those of adults, but within-speaker variability on both measures was roughly twice as great in children's as in adults' productions. Thus, children were trying to coordinate the vocal-tract closing and glottal abduction gestures as adults do, but were not skilled enough to do so reliably. [Work supported by NIDCD.
Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corręa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely
The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ? 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134
American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007
Keeping periodic track of the progress English language learners (ELLs) are making in their second language acquisition skills is essential. Learning a second language is a complex process. It's important for educators to gauge each student's abilities and skills regularly; each English language learner will acquire second language knowledge and…
Ming, Kavin; Powell, Tenisha
Emergent literacy skills are important for children's academic achievement. Many preschool children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds have limited access to experiences that allow them to acquire emergent literacy skills such as letter knowledge, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. This article describes purposeful and age-appropriate…
Lynch, Kathy; Barr, Nigel; Oprescu, Florin
Paramedic students need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform basic as well as complex clinical skills, to ensure patient safety, and to manage sophisticated equipment. Time and resource pressures on students, teaching staff and institutions have led health professional educators to develop and embrace alternative opportunities such…
Schuman, W B; Armstrong, F D; Pegelow, C H; Routh, D K
Compared 25 preschool children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to demographically matched healthy comparison children on maternal reports of child-rearing beliefs and practices and maternal and child behaviors related to social adjustment. Mothers of children with SCD possessed significantly more knowledge of appropriate discipline techniques. The groups did not differ on maternal reports of socially relevant child behavior. However, when mother-child interactions were observed in free play and structured play settings, mothers of children with SCD treated their children as competent significantly more, and treated their children as incompetent significantly less, than comparison mothers. Mothers of children with SCD also used significantly more reinforcement during the final toy pick-up condition. There were no observed differences between groups in the children's behavior. PMID:8295081
Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; St. John, K.
This set of undergraduate student-active learning exercises focuses on the status and role of Antarctica in Cenozoic climate change, and builds skills and knowledge required to evaluate sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the ANDRILL Project. Students discover new advances in understanding late Neogene Antarctic glacial history based on recent ANDRILL results. These exercises are part of the larger suite of activities in the project “Building Core Knowledge and Reconstructing Earth History”, which use authentic data to teach foundational concepts of climate change through sediment core archives (NSF Grant # 0737335). The Antarctic exercises involve a review of the composite benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope curve, and of global climate interpretations based in part on this record. Basic geographic and geologic knowledge of Antarctica and cryospheric processes are constructed in order to build the rationale for selecting drillsites in McMurdo Sound. Student attention is then focused on the use of sedimentary facies and depositional environments in core interpretation, with particular attention to the facies associations that are diagnostic of ice-proximal and ice-distal settings in high latitudes. This is constructed through diagrams, geological reasoning, use of core images and core logs, and culminates in the construction of models for ice-retreat and ice-advance sequences. The general climate record of the entire ANDRILL 1-B core log (1285 m) is then interpreted, by characterizing each of the key lithostratigraphic sub-units in terms of the dominant depositional environments represented. Students write a brief history of the late Miocene-Pliocene climatic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea region. Students conclude by evaluating facies patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Pliocene sequence completing calculations that lead to interpretations of orbitally paced Pliocene ice sheet oscillations.
Egger, A. E.; Awad, A. A.; Baldwin, K. A.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bruckner, M. Z.; DeBari, S. M.; Dechaine, J.; Ebert, J. R.; Gray, K. R.; Hauge, R.; Linneman, S. R.; Monet, J.; Thomas, J.; Varrella, G.
As part of InTeGrate, teams of 3 instructors at 3 different institutions developed modules that help prepare pre-service teachers to teach Earth science aligned with the NGSS. Modules were evaluated against a rubric, which addresses InTeGrate's five guiding principles, learning objectives and outcomes, assessment and measurement, resources and materials, instructional strategies and alignment. As all modules must address one or more Earth-related grand challenge facing society, develop student ability to address interdisciplinary problems, improve student understanding of the methods of geoscience, use authentic geoscience data, and incorporate systems thinking, they align well with the NGSS. Once modules passed the rubric, they were tested by the authors in their classrooms. Testing included pre- and post-assessment of geoscience literacy and assessment of student learning towards the module goal; materials were revised based on the results of testing. In "Exploring Geoscience Methods with Secondary Education Students," pre-service science teachers compare geoscientific thinking with the classic (experimental) scientific method, investigate global climate change and its impacts on human systems, and prepare an interdisciplinary lesson plan that addresses geoscience methods in context of a socioscientific issue. In "Soils and Society," pre-service elementary teachers explore societal issues where soil is important, develop skills to describe and test soil properties, and create a standards-based Soils and Society Kit that consists of lessons and supporting materials to teach K-8 students about a soil-and-society issue. In "Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface, and Human Activity," students explore the effects of running water on shaping Earth's surface both over geologic time and through short-term flooding events, and produce a brochure to inform citizens of the impact of living near a river. The modules are freely available at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/modules_courses.html and include Instructor Stories, where each author describes how they adapted the module to their teaching environment. The goal of showing different implementations of the materialst is to facilitate adoption and adaption beyond the team of authors.
Lea Averbuch-Heller; R. John Leigh
Opinion statement Patients with acquired forms of nystagmus may suffer from oscillopsia and blurred vision; abolishing or reducing nystagmus\\u000a ameliorates these symptoms. Ideally, treatment of nystagmus should be directed against the pathophysiologic mechanism responsible.\\u000a Identification of nystagmus pattern is important in directing therapy and occasionally requires electronic eye movement recording\\u000a for precise characterization. Patients with acquired pendular nystagmus, particularly those with
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.
Presentations are integral to my role as a learning and development practitioner. The CPD article enabled me to develop my presentation skills and those of my colleagues. Many healthcare staff have up-to-date knowledge, experience and understanding of the requirements of the organisation, yet lack confidence in their presentation skills. PMID:26153972
SEYMOUR, W. DOUGLAS
THIS BOOK, A SEQUEL TO THE AUTHOR'S "INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR MANUAL OPERATIONS," COMPRISES THREE PARTS. IN PART ONE, THE NATURE OF SKILLS IN INDUSTRY IS DESCRIBED, AND THEIR RELATION TO HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY. IN PART TWO, AN OUTLINE OF RECENT RESEARCH AND A RESUME OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE ACQUISITION OF SKILLS IS GIVEN. IN…
Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques
Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool
The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…
Phelan, Jack Gordon
This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…
This investigation examined the influence of EFL student teacher self-regulation of learning (SRL) on their curricular content-knowledge and course-design skills. Positivism guided this study at the levels of: ontology (one form of reality); epistemology (detachment from the subjects); and methodology, using nomothetic research strategy (causal…
Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.
The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.
This supplement is designed to be used in conjunction with the elementary level educator's guide to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum. The "Educator's Guide" shows the components of the TEKS that are eligible for testing, and this supplement provides information about the types of passages, test items, and writing prompts…
Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…
Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria
Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors…
Pereira, Jennifer K.
The results of this experimental study have demonstrated that following participation in a 12-hour training in Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT), school counselor trainees significantly increased their CCPT knowledge and skills in employing CCPT, as compared to a control group. Participants reported that they had learned enough of the philosophy…
Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Belknap, Bridget; Green, Colin; Shotel, Jay
To be prepared to teach in an urban setting, preservice teachers must exit their teacher preparation program with a professional disposition toward equity and social justice as well as the knowledge and skills required to meet the needs of all students in their classroom. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)…
Abel, Brian B.
This study was designed to investigate the differences between two groups of fifth grade students' performance on the 2010 fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) math test. The sample consisted of a group of fifth grade students receiving the traditional instruction from their classroom teacher and a group of fifth grade…
Carlone, Heidi B.; Haun-Frank, Julie; Webb, Angela
When evaluating equity, researchers often look at the "achievement gap." Privileging knowledge and skills as primary outcomes of science education misses other, more subtle, but critical, outcomes indexing inequitable science education. In this comparative ethnography, we examined what it meant to "be scientific" in two fourth-grade classes taught…
Hoch, Christopher David
The purpose of this study was to obtain the perceptions of cooperating teachers in beginning and middle school instrumental music regarding their student teachers' skills and knowledge both at the beginning and at the end of the student teaching experience. The related research has focused primarily on two areas of music teacher education.…
Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.
This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…
Kerr, Jo-Anne; Dils, Keith
Standard 4-Diversity of the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requires that preservice teachers, or candidates, demonstrate and apply proficiencies related to diversity. To that end, preservice teachers need to develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to enable them to successfully work with diverse…
The New York State Physical Education Learning Standards for K-12 students were transformed into a survey administered to a sample of teachers of physical education (N = 261), ascertaining their ratings of their knowledge, ability/skill, education/training, and attitudes on the importance of future professionals receiving training to teach…
Berkeley-Jones, Catherine Spotswood
The purpose of this study was to examine teacher Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) self-ratings and student Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores. The study assessed the relationship between LoTi ratings and TAKS scores...
Tucker, Tommy Howard
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) size and success on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics exam with fifth-grade students in Texas compared to the effect of alternative improvement approaches used by a control group. Research explored the use of…
This address begins with a study of self-help by a Mozambican in the 1590s and then imagines a period between the years 2050 to 2150, during which women caring for people with disabilities abolish the need for specialist educational, medical and social services, by multiplying and democratizing the necessary knowledge, skills and design to make…
Tell, Christine A.; Bodone, Francoise M.; Addie, Karen L.
The Standards-based Education Project (STEP) was conducted as part of the Eisenhower Initial Teacher Professional Development Program in Oregon, under the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). STEP focused on the development of a framework of teacher knowledge, skills, and materials for pre-service and practicing teachers. High…
The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the…
Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David
Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353
Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David
Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353
Bunney, Diane; Sharplin, Elaine; Howitt, Christine
The case for integrating generic skills in university accounting programmes is well documented in the literature, but the implementation of strategies designed to teach generic skills in the context of accounting courses has posed ongoing challenges for academics and course administrators. The imperative for generic skills in accounting programmes…
The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…
The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.
Bazargan, M.; Kelly, E. M.; Stein, J. A.; Husaini, B. A.; Bazargan, S. H.
This study identifies theoretically based predictors of condom use in a sample of 253 sexually active African-American college students recruited from two historically African-American colleges. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model of AIDS-preventive behavior was employed to delineate the roles of HIV/AIDS knowledge, experiences with and attitudes toward condom use, peer influences, perceived vulnerability, monogamy, and behavioral skills. A predictive structural equation model revealed significant predictors of more condom use including: male gender, more sexual HIV knowledge, positive experiences and attitudes about condom use, nonmonogamy, and greater behavioral skills. Results imply that attention to behavioral skills for negotiating safer sex and training in the proper use of condoms are key elements in reducing high risk behaviors. Increasing the specific knowledge level of college students regarding the subtleties of sexual transmission of HIV is important and should be addressed. Heightening students' awareness of the limited protection of serial monogamy, and the need to address gender-specific training regarding required behavior change to reduce transmission of HIV should be an additional goal of college health professionals. PMID:10992684
von Gunten, Charles F; Twaddle, Martha; Preodor, Michael; Neely, Kathy Johnson; Martinez, Jeanne; Lyons, John
There is compelling evidence that residents training in primary care need education in palliative care. Evidence for effective curricula is needed. The objective of this study was to test whether a clinical elective improves measures of knowledge and skill. Residents from three categorical training programs in internal medicine were recruited to an elective including clinical experiences in an acute hospital palliative care consultation service, on an acute hospice and palliative care unit, and in-home hospice care. A 25-question pre- and post-test and a videotaped interview with a standardized patient were used to assess communication skills and measure outcomes. Residents demonstrated a 10 percent improvement in knowledge after the four-week elective (p < 0.05). All residents demonstrated basic competency in communication skills at the end of the rotation. These results indicate that clinical rotation shows promise as an educational intervention to improve palliative care knowledge and skills in primary care residents. An important limitation of the study is that it is an elective; further studies with a required rotation and/or a control group are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:15909782
Giunipero, L C
In an effort to be cost effective and meet changing customer needs, organizations are evolving in their structure. In this environment, leading edge organizations change their culture and create knowledge to continuously improve. Hospital materiel managers need to understand and support their organization's culture changes and respond by adapting or acquiring new skill sets. PMID:10165237
Brine, Alan; Feather, John
Preparation for entry into the information professions has always been through a combination of academic study and practical training. Broadly speaking there is probably general agreement about the knowledge and understanding which the new entrant to the profession needs to acquire. There is less clarity regarding the skills which are required if…
Ang, Lawrence; D'Alessandro, Steven; Winzar, Hume
With increasing complexity in the world, universities continue to face pressure to demonstrate that their graduates have acquired skills beyond discipline-based knowledge. These are generic skills like critical thinking, intellectual curiosity, problem-solving and so forth. In order to demonstrate this, universities have to show how their teaching…
Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.
Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…
Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K
This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed. PMID:7816221
Doris Choy; Sylvia Chong; Angela F. L. Wong; Isabella Y.-F. Wong
This study investigated changes in beginning teachers’ self-perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills after their\\u000a first year of teaching. Surveys were administered to 322 graduating student teachers at the end of the initial teacher preparation\\u000a programme and at the end of their first year of teaching to compare if there were any differences in their self-perceptions.\\u000a The results of
Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam
Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…
Conceiçăo, Simone C. O.
The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…
Fain, Olivier; Gobert, Delphine; Khau, Cam Anh; Mekinian, Arsčne; Javaud, Nicolas
Acquired angioedema are rare. They are associated with monoclonal gammapathies of uncertain significance (MGUS) or lymphomas. They give the same symptoms as the hereditary form and the same laryngeal risk. They are characterized by a low level of C4, C1Inh and C1q. They are linked to the consumption of C1Inh by the lymphoid cells or to the presence of anti-C1Inh autoantibodies. They must be treated by symptomatic treatment when attack occur (C1Inh concentrate and icatibant). The use of rituximab needs to prove its efficiency. PMID:25535166
Acquired angioedema (AAE) is characterized by acquired deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), hyperactivation of the classical pathway of human complement and angioedema symptoms mediated by bradykinin released by inappropriate activation of the contact-kinin system. Angioedema recurs at unpredictable intervals, lasts from two to five days and presents with edema of the skin (face, limbs, genitals), severe abdominal pain with edema of the gastrointestinal mucosa, life-threateing edema of the upper respiratory tract and edema of the oral mucosa and of the tongue. AAE recurs in association with various conditions and particularly with different forms of lymphoproliferative disorders. Neutralizing autoantibodies to C1-INH are present in the majority of patients. The therapeutic approach to a patient with AAE should first be aimed to avoid fatalities due to angioedema and then to avoid the disability caused be angioedema recurrences. Acute attacks can be treated with plasma-derived C1-INH, but some patients become non-responsive and in these patients the kallikrein inhibitor ecallantide and the bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant can be effective. Angioedema prophylaxis is performed using antifibrinolytic agents and attenuated androgens with antifibrinolytic agents providing somewhat better results. Treatment of the associated disease can resolve AAE in some patients. PMID:20667117
This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)
Tinnin, Richard Kinna
The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model, a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, and guided, inquiry-based learning experiences. These elements mirror the principles identified as being essential components of effective professional development for mathematics, and science education (Fullan, 1985; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1990; Loucks-Horsley, 1997). The research team was actively involved with the participants for a total of 30 days at their school over the 24 months of the study. During each training, the research team modeled the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional strategy, and the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, set up a wide variety of activity centers, and provided the teachers with opportunities to improve their attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the science content, and teaching strategies. The 15 participants completed pre-, post-, and post-post-Leadership Team Surreys. Quantitative data analyses of gain scores measuring level of confidence to teach Marine and Earth Science, content knowledge, and teaching strategies were significant, p < .001. The participants' efficacy-beliefs and outcome expectancy were assessed with a pre- and posttest Science Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Instrument that measures both elements. Self-efficacy beliefs were significant at p < .001. Outcome expectancies were not significant, p > .05. Qualitative analysis of reflective journal comments, classroom observations, and the participants understanding, and use of science process skills across the curriculum supported the quantitative data results. The data demonstrate significant improvement in the self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, skills, and knowledge toward teaching science of the Pre-Kindergarten--2nd -grade teachers who participated in this long-term professional development study.
Niederman, Michael S
This issue provides a clinical overview of community-acquired pneumonia, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:26436631
Warin, Bruno; Kolski, Christophe; Sagar, Mouldi
The changing profile of students, the expectations of business and the capabilities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) makes it necessary to change teaching practices, particularly in higher education. This paper proposes a methodological framework destined to force disciplinary course modules to evolve in order to…
Love, R R; Newcomb, P A; Schiller, J H; Wilding, G; Stone, H L
While both oral and written communication skills are important in the daily work of physicians, medical school evaluation methods focus on content of written essays or often answers to multiple choice questions. To determine the feasibility and value of oral examinations for preclinical medical students, we gave a written short essay examination and an oral examination on the same question to 106 second-year medical students in a required neoplastic diseases course. Examination performance by each method was evaluated according to the same specific content and, separately, based on four communication skills criteria. We found high levels of inter-rater reliability with two oral examiners for both content and skills. Content and skills performance on both written and oral evaluations could be separately determined. Content performance was greater on the written evaluation. PMID:8363938
The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science
Shoulders, Catherine Woglom
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after the treatment. These findings indicate that socioscientific issues-based instruction can provide benefits for students in agricultural education. Teacher educators should work with teachers to maximize the learning that can occur through the various aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction. Curriculum focusing on socioscientific issues-based instruction should be developed for specific courses in agricultural education. Finally, further investigation should be conducted to better understand how the aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction can be altered to further enhance student learning.
Newton, Douglas P.; Newton, Lynn D.
Primary school teachers generally have to teach several subjects. Their training, however, is often fairly short and it is tempting to force-feed them with everything they need to know to teach these subjects. It is more realistic to accept that a short course cannot do everything. Instead, it would be better to equip these students with skills…
Rasmussen, Kristine; Belisario, José Marcano; Wark, Petra A; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Loong, Stewart Lee; Cotic, Ziva; Papachristou, Nikos; Riboli–Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Kunz, Holger; Zhang, Yanfeng; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Svab, Igor; Atun, Rifat; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
Background The world is short of 7.2 million health–care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource–limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline eLearning, we need to establish its effectiveness in terms of gaining knowledge and skills, students’ satisfaction and attitudes towards eLearning. Methods We conducted a systematic review of offline eLearning for students enrolled in undergraduate, health–related university degrees. We included randomised controlled trials that compared offline eLearning to traditional learning or an alternative eLearning method. We searched the major bibliographic databases in August 2013 to identify articles that focused primarily on students’ knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning, and health economic information and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. We synthesized the findings using a thematic summary approach. Findings Forty–nine studies, including 4955 students enrolled in undergraduate medical, dentistry, nursing, psychology, or physical therapy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of the 33 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 21 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. One study did not test for differences. Eight studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the eLearning intervention groups, whilst the other 5 testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups. No study found offline eLearning as inferior. Generally no differences in attitudes or preference of eLearning over traditional learning were observed. No clear trends were found in the comparison of different modes of eLearning. Most of the studies were small and subject to several biases. Conclusions Our results suggest that offline eLearning is equivalent and possibly superior to traditional learning regarding knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction. Although a robust conclusion cannot be drawn due to variable quality of the evidence, these results justify further investment into offline eLearning to address the global health care workforce shortage. PMID:24976964
Today's accountants are important members of their organizations, using their business expertise, communication, and interpersonal skills, and accounting knowledge to improve organizational decision-making. Accountants play a key role in the
Financial Manager Forensics Accountant Government Accountant Information Technology Auditor Internal AuditorToday's accountants are important members of their organizations, using their business expertise, communication, and interpersonal skills, and accounting knowledge to improve organizational decision
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.
The goal of this series of guides is to show Texas educators what components of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum are eligible for testing on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and end-of-course tests. This guide contains information for the end-of-course tests administered for the following subjects: Algebra…
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
task. Button Handle Switch Door 245 cm 355cm Start Fig. 2. The first task in the Red Room Domain The uBot first learned to solve a mobile manipulation task. The robot began the task in a small room the handle was turned after the button had been pressed a door in the side of the room opened, allowing the u
Health and disease of individuals and of populations are the result of three groups of risk factors: genetics, environment and behavior. Assessment, interventions and tailored changes are possible with integrated approaches more effective if respectful of individuals and different cultures. Assessment tools and integrated interventional strategies are available, but widespread knowledge, skills and competence of well trained individual Medical Doctors still lack. Mediterranean diet is an appropriate reference paradigm because encompasses consistent research background, affordable sustainability, widespread comprehensibility and attractiveness inside a cultural framework of competences and skills in which the Medical Doctors can personally manage the need of prediction (early diagnosis), prevention (intervention on healthy persons) and tailored therapy and follow-up for patients. This profile is flexible and adjustable according to specific needs and preferences due to different economic and ethno-cultural milieus. It can enhanced through on-site/e-learning Continuous Medical Education (CME), by training and using friendly and affordable equipments. PMID:22738244
Hunker, Diane F; Gazza, Elizabeth A; Shellenbarger, Teresa
Because nursing care in health care settings becomes more complex, nurses are called upon to work effectively with other health care providers to deliver high-quality evidence-based care. To do so in a cost effective and efficient manner requires the development of effective oral and written communication skills in nurses. One form of written communication is scholarly writing. Scholarly writing is defined by the authors as writing that is specialized in nursing, communicates original thought, includes support from a body of literature, contains formal language consistent with the discipline of nursing, and is formatted in a manner consistent with peer-review publications. Faculty who facilitate the development of these skills face inconsistencies in students' writing ability and development across programs and levels of education. Nurse educators need to understand how to develop these communication skills for students enrolled at various educational levels and to teach students how to share information in a scholarly way. PMID:25150420
Kumar, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Arun K; Kumar, Rajesh
The conventional 8-day Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) training package poses several operational constraints, particularly due to its long duration. A 5-day training package was developed and administered in an interrupted mode of 3 days and 2 days duration with a break of 4 days in-between, in a district of Haryana state in northern India. Improvement in the knowledge and skills of 50 primary health care workers following the interrupted 5-day training was compared with that of 35 primary health care workers after the conventional 8-day IMNCI training package. The average score increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 46.3 to 74.6 in 8-day training and from 40.0 to 73.2 in 5-day training. Knowledge score improved for all health conditions, like anaemia, diarrhoea, immunization, malnutrition, malaria, meningitis and possible severe bacterial infection, and for breastfeeding in 8-day as well as in 5-day training. Average skills score for respiratory problems increased from 38 to 57 in 8-day training and from 41 to 91 in 5-day training. Corresponding increases in skill scores for diarrhoea assessment were from 28 to 67 and 48 to 75, and for breastfeeding assessment from 33 to 84 and 42 to 86 in 8-day and 5-day training, respectively. Average counselling skill score also rose from 42 to 89 in 8-day and from 37 to 70 in 5-day training. A direct cost saving of US$813 for a batch of 25 trainees and an indirect cost saving of 3 days per trainee and resource person makes the interrupted 5-day IMNCI training more cost-effective. PMID:19181673
Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Armstrong, Natalie E.; Culver, Brittany L.; White, Jamie M.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Dennis L.
The writing skills of 286 children (157 female and 129 male) were studied by comparing name writing and letter writing scores from preschool to kindergarten with letter and word reading scores over the same time period. Two rubrics for scoring writing were compared to determine if scores based on multiple components (i.e., letter formation,…
Marchel, Carol A.; Green, Susan K
Increased use of field-based teacher preparation offers important opportunities to develop skills with diverse learners. However, limited focus on theoretical content restricts understanding and generalization of well-proven theoretical approaches, resulting in fragmented field applications unlikely to result in broad application. Inspired by Kurt…
Traditionally characterized by a mixed human capital and human skills and resources model, the German education and training system has come under pressure from structural changes in economy and society. The emerging "new economy" is more than the sector of information technology industries. Beyond global action and rapid exchange of information,…
Haist, Steven A.; Lineberry, Michelle J.; Griffith, Charles H.; Hoellein, Andrew R.; Talente, Gregg M.; Wilson, John F.
Background: Sexual history and HIV counseling (SHHIVC) are essential clinical skills. Our project's purpose was to evaluate a standardized patient educational intervention teaching third-year medical students SHHIVC. Methods: A four-hour standardized patient workshop was delivered to one-half of the class each of three consecutive years at one…
Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor
Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy…
Moore, Charleen M.; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope
One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art…
Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill
In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…
The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate whether reciprocal teaching approach or direct instruction approach is more effective in the teaching of k-map generation skill. Secondary purpose of the study is to determine which of the k-map generation principles are more challenging for students to apply. The results of the study…
The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate whether reciprocal teaching approach or direct instruction approach is more effective in the teaching of k-map generation skill. Secondary purpose of the study is to determine which of the k-map generation principles are more challenging for students to apply. The results of the study…
Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483
Laura Dempere-Marco; Xiao-Peng Hu; Guang-Zhong Yang
In this article, a conceptual framework developed to acquire expert knowledge from eye-tracking data of skilled individuals\\u000a is presented. Domain-specific knowledge is acquired from the visual behaviour of subjects whose eye movements are recorded\\u000a while solving complex visual tasks. It is argued that relevant insights into the cognitive strategies followed by the observers\\u000a to solve the visual search tasks may
Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon
A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…
Mioduser, David; Betzer, Nadav
The main goals of this study were to look after the technological knowledge construction process by high-school high-achievers, and their ability to design and implement solutions for technological problems. More specifically, we examine the contribution of Project-based-learning (PBL), as pedagogical means for supporting the students' knowledge…
Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse
As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea. PMID:25995718
Rassin, Michal; Kurzweil, Yaffa; Maoz, Yael
The aim of this study was to identify the learning styles and methods used by nurses to promote their professional knowledge and skills. 928 nurses from 11 hospitals across Israel completed 2 questionnaires, (1) Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, Version 3.1. and (2) the On-The-Job Learning Styles Questionnaire for the Nursing Profession. The most common learning style was the convergent style. The other learning styles were rated in the following descending order: accommodation, assimilation, and divergence. The on-the-job learning style consistently ranked highest was experience of relevant situations. On the other hand, seeking knowledge from books, journals, television, or the Internet was ranked lowest on all the indicators examined. With respect to general and on-the-job learning styles, statistically significant differences were found between groups of nurses by: country of birth, gender, department, age, education, and role. Nurses required to take more personal responsibility for their own professional development by deepening their self-learning skills. PMID:25968439
Halova, E. Y.; Kobilarov, R. G.
The following report stresses on the advantages and disadvantages of the test method for checking and evaluating the knowledge and the skills of students. The tests are one of the newest and most suitable methods for checking and evaluating—they provide broader scope and higher objectivity; they allow the typical mistakes and difficulties of the students to be discovered; they present the opportunity for self-study and self-evaluation; they allow the student programs and methods of teaching to be improved and much more. On the other hand, the test method has disadvantages: they show the final answer, omitting the mind process of the students that led to this solution; the personal abilities and attitudes of every student cannot become evident from the test alone since the test stresses only on certain characteristics. From the short overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the popular test method in the recent years, we can conclude that this process is suitable for checking and evaluating of the knowledge and the skills of the students on every level of competency only if combined with other methods of evaluation.
Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena
The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic—to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356
Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena
The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356
Hanik, Bruce Walter
Health educators are expected to serve as resource of health knowledge and being e-health literate enable health educators to perform that function. However, the e-health literacy level of health education undergraduate students is rarely explored...
SOLICITOR BARRISTER CAREER ENHANCEMENT CONVERSION SKILLS TRAINING EMPLOYABILITY DEVOLUTION JUSTICE of training I Wish to enhance their employability by acquiring an extra skill set that can be applied Course, LPC) or barrister (Bar Professional Training Course); I Be qualified for a variety of non
Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat
In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…
Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali
Knowledge about aging of perceptual-motor skills is based almost exclusively on cross-sectional studies. We examined age-related changes in the retention of mirror-tracing skills in healthy adults who practiced for 3 separate days at baseline and retrained 5 years later at follow-up. Overall, the speed and accuracy of an acquired skill were partially retained after a 5-year interim, although the same asymptote was reached. Analyses with individual learning curves indicated that the effects of age on mirror-tracing speed were greater at longitudinal follow-up than at baseline, with older adults requiring more training to reach asymptote. Thus, although the long-term retention of acquired skills declines with age, older adults still retain the ability to learn the skill. Moreover, those who maintained a processing speed comparable with that of the younger participants evidenced no age-related performance decrements on the mirror-drawing task. PMID:15980284
Johnson, Claire; Lizama, Catalina; Harrison, Megan; Bayly, Emma; Bowyer, Joshua; Haddow, Livia
Inadequate knowledge about research processes within cancer health services has the potential to limit the development of evidence-based care. A survey was emailed to 201 health professionals working in cancer services in a major city to identify perceived levels of research knowledge and barriers to conducting research. Eighty-five people (42%) responded. Barriers to conducting research included time-constraints (84%), workload (72%), limited research funding (74%) and limited knowledge (34%). Gaps in research knowledge included performing quantitative analyses (79%), gaining funds (71%), using qualitative and quantitative research methods (62 and 67%) and formulating a research proposal (54%). More nurses reported having gaps in research knowledge than other professions. Two thirds (66%) of participants reported an interest in further education. There is a need for research training for practising health professionals and a focus on research as the basis for providing evidence-based care in undergraduate courses. Research, translation of research into practice and evidence-based care need to be incorporated into health professional roles throughout their careers. PMID:24510803
International Medical Graduates (IMGs) form a coherent part of the National Health Service (NHS). Nearly 25% of the doctors working in the NHS are IMGs who obtained their primary medical degree from outside the EU. Moving to a different country that holds a different set of values and belief systems can be very challenging for IMGs, which in turn could have a significant effect on the service provided to NHS patients. This article will address the issue of effective communication skills within the IMG population and will explore the underlying issues behind this problem. PMID:26234814
Santhanam, Indumathy; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kamath, S. R.; Ranjit, Suchitra; Ramesh, Jayanthi; Shankar, Janani
Objective: To determine whether physicians were aware of and had the skills to implement the American College of Critical Care Medicine/Pediatric Advanced Life Support Course septic shock protocol. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Setting: Four academic institutions in Chennai, Manipal, Mangalore, and Trivandrum - cities representing the three southern states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala, respectively, between February and April 2006. Interventions: Pre and post lecture questions. They were evaluated using 11 questions testing knowledge and 10 questions testing their comfort level in performing interventions related to the initial resuscitation in septic shock. Measurement and Main Result: The ACCM/PALS sepsis guidelines were taught during the PALS course conducted in the four academic institutions. A total of 118 delegates participated, of whom 114 (97%) were pediatricians and four (3%) were anaesthetists. The overall mean number of correct responses for the 11 questions testing knowledge before and after the lecture was 2.1 and 4.07, respectively P=0.001(paired t test). Although, 42% of the respondents (n=50) were aware of the ACCM guidelines, 88% (n=104) did not adhere to it in their practice. A total of 86% (n=101) and 66% (n=78) did not feel comfortable titrating inotropes or intubating in the ED; 78% (n=92) and 67% (n=78), respectively felt that central venous access (CVA) and arterial pressure (AP) monitoring were unimportant in the management of fluid refractory shock. Of the physicians, 20% (n=24) had never intubated a patient, 78% (n=92) had not introduced a central venous catheter, and 76% (n=90) had never introduced an intra-arterial catheter. Conclusions: In view of the lack of skills and suboptimal knowledge, the ACCM/PALS sepsis guidelines may be inappropriate in its current format in the Indian setting. More emphasis needs to be placed on educating community pediatricians with a simpler clinical protocol, which has the potential to save many more children. PMID:19881184
Clark, Douglas W.
Designed for individuals wanting to acquire an introductory knowledge of basic skills necessary to function in a water or wastewater laboratory, this handbook emphasizes current use of routine equipment and proper procedures. Explanations and illustrations focus on underlying techniques and principles rather than processes for conducting specific…
Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children1 learners to transfer acquired knowledge to appropriate future situations. For elementary school children to respond to those individual factors in teaching children about CVS. Our prior studies have revealed
McNeil, Barbara J; Elfrink, Victoria L; Bickford, Carol J; Pierce, Susan T; Beyea, Suzanne C; Averill, Carolyn; Klappenbach, Cari
Because health care delivery increasingly requires timely information for effective decision making, information technology must be integrated into nursing education curricula for all future nurse clinicians and educators. This article reports findings from an online survey of deans and directors of 266 baccalaureate and higher nursing programs in the United States. Approximately half of the programs reported requiring word processing and e-mail skill competency for students entering nursing undergraduate programs. Less than one third of the programs addressed the use of standardized languages or terminologies in nursing and telehealth applications of nursing. One third of the programs cited inclusion of evidence-based practice as part of graduate curricula. Program faculty, who were rated at the "novice" or "advanced beginner" level for teaching information technology content and using information technology tools, are teaching information literacy skills. The southeastern central and Pacific regions of the United States projected the greatest future need for information technology-prepared nurses. Implications for nurse educators and program directors are discussed. PMID:12938896
Tao, Yu-Hui; Yeh, C. Rosa; Hung, Kung Chin
Several theoretical models have been constructed to determine the effects of buisness simulation games (BSGs) on learning performance. Although these models agree on the concept of learning-cycle effect, no empirical evidence supports the claim that the use of learning cycle activities with BSGs produces an effect on incremental gains in knowledge…
An empirically-based theory is proposed that relates media's most essential modes of presentation--their symbol systems--to modes of cognitive representation and to the acquisition of knowledge. This book draws upon scholarship in such areas as the study of symbol systems, cognition, cognitive development, psycholinguistics, and mass…
Stegeman, Cynthia A.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a student-centered, interactive, case-based, multimedia learning environment to a traditional tutorial-based, multimedia learning environment on second-year dental hygiene students (n = 29). Surveys were administered at four points to measure attainment and retention of knowledge, attitude,…
Basbagi, R. Ragip
This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the study,…
Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.
Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic nature. Here we trained subjects on a visuomotor learning task, comparing reinforcement schedules with higher, lower, or no stochasticity. Training under higher levels of stochastic reinforcement benefited skill acquisition, enhancing both online gains and long-term retention. These findings indicate that the enhancing effects of reinforcement on skill acquisition depend on reinforcement schedules. PMID:24532838
Zender, Georgi Anne
The problem of this study was to determine in what ways science professional development would support kindergarten through sixth grade teachers in their implementation of a revised curriculum. The problem centered on evaluating the relationship between professional development involvement and teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills, organizational support and change, and student learning outcomes. Using data derived from survey responses and other sources (e.g., test scores, financial records, etc.), this study examined use of a science course of study, use of activities/experiments from workshops, use and adequacy of materials adoptions, administrative support, and achievement scores. This research was completed using an Ex Post Facto research design. Using the General Linear Model and causal-comparative analyses, thus study significantly concluded that teachers with a higher level of involvement in science professional development were more likely to use the revised course of study for lesson planning and to perceive materials adoptions as being adequate, and that districts that had participated in science professional development to revise curriculum showed more gains in student learning outcomes. Data on teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills implied that districts needed to continue to design teacher leadership situations that implement long-term professional development, build capacity for shared decision making, create a supportive environment for leaders, and incorporate assessments. Teacher leaders needed to actively engage in action research as a professional development strategy to promote reflection on their teaching and student learning. Data on organizational support and change implied that without logistical and financial support for teaching and learning in terms of hands-on materials, teachers would be unable to support future curriculum improvement efforts. Building principals needed to play a more active role in the implementation of curriculum. Data on student learning outcomes implied that both content knowledge and inquiry skills were critical bases for curriculum in terms of teacher efficacy and student achievement. Teachers needed to examine student work as a professional development strategy to also promote reflection on teaching and learning. Further research and professional development in the area of science assessment, in terms of scientific content and processes, was suggested.
Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (?=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (?=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (?=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (?=-.41) and variability of character size (?=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. PMID:23911643
Auerbach, Judith D; Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta
Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women "at substantial risk of HIV acquisition" in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954
... PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ... For More Information Acknowledgments What is acquired cystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney disease happens when a ...
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical–biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966
George, Pradeep Paul; Papachristou, Nikos; Belisario, José Marcano; Wang, Wei; Wark, Petra A; Cotic, Ziva; Rasmussen, Kristine; Sluiter, René; Riboli–Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Heng, Bee Hoon; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
Background Health systems worldwide are facing shortages in health professional workforce. Several studies have demonstrated the direct correlation between the availability of health workers, coverage of health services, and population health outcomes. To address this shortage, online eLearning is increasingly being adopted in health professionals’ education. To inform policy–making, in online eLearning, we need to determine its effectiveness. Methods We performed a systematic review of the effectiveness of online eLearning through a comprehensive search of the major databases for randomised controlled trials that compared online eLearning to traditional learning or alternative learning methods. The search period was from January 2000 to August 2013. We included articles which primarily focused on students' knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning and cost-effectiveness and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. Due to significant heterogeneity among the included studies, we presented our results as a narrative synthesis. Findings Fifty–nine studies, including 6750 students enrolled in medicine, dentistry, nursing, physical therapy and pharmacy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 50 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the online eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 27 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. Eleven studies did not test for differences. Six studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the online eLearning intervention groups, whilst 3 other studies testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups and 1 study showed mixed results. Twelve studies tested students' attitudes, of which 8 studies showed no differences in attitudes or preferences for online eLearning. Students' satisfaction was measured in 29 studies, 4 studies showed higher satisfaction for online eLearning and 20 studies showed no difference in satisfaction between online eLearning and traditional learning. Risk of bias was high for several of the included studies. Conclusion The current evidence base suggests that online eLearning is equivalent, possibly superior to traditional learning. These findings present a potential incentive for policy makers to cautiously encourage its adoption, while respecting the heterogeneity among the studies. PMID:24976965
Hemmer, Ingrid; Hemmer, Michael; Neidhardt, Eva; Obermaier, Gabriele; Uphues, Rainer; Wrenger, Katja
This study investigates the capacity of children to develop map-based skills in spatial orientation in an urban environment unknown to them. In this quantitative study, a total of 328 pupils of grades 3-5 had to achieve specific skills with regard to map-based skills in spatial orientation (such as turning-off skills, transformation from map to…
GAMMILL, HILARY S.; NELSON, J. LEE
Bi-directional transplacental trafficking occurs routinely during the course of normal pregnancy, from fetus to mother and from mother to fetus. In addition to a variety of cell-free substances, it is now well recognized that some cells are also exchanged. Microchimerism refers to a small number of cells (or DNA) harbored by one individual that originated in a genetically different individual. While microchimerism can be the result of iatrogenic interventions such as transplantation or transfusion, by far the most common source is naturally acquired microchimerism from maternal-fetal trafficking during pregnancy. Microchimerism is a subject of much current interest for a number of reasons. During pregnancy, fetal microchimerism can be sought from the mother’s blood for the purpose of prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, studies of fetal microchimerism during pregnancy may offer insight into complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, as well as insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis which usually ameliorates during pregnancy. Furthermore, it is now known that microchimerism persists decades later, both fetal microchimerism in women who have been pregnant and maternal microchimerism in her progeny. Investigation of the long-term consequences of fetal and maternal microchimerism is another exciting frontier of active study, with initial results pointing both to adverse and beneficial effects. This review will provide an overview of microchimerism during pregnancy and of current knowledge regarding long-term effects of naturally acquired fetal and maternal microchimerism. PMID:19924635
The original mission as electric power supplier is to stably supply high-quality and inexpensive electricity. In order to achieve this mission, for the employees that actually deal with the electric equipment, to engage themselves in precise job performance is crucial. In fostering human resources, we emphasize both on knowledge development that is required for employees and on skill building that is necessary for the precise job performance. Each engineering department is proactive in conducting the engineering training that is devised along with respective operation through OJT and Off-JT to acquire and transfer practical techniques and skills. Hereafter, we will furthermore work to enhance in-company training, visualizing the techniques and skills that engineers are required to acquire, and the achievement that each engineer has acquired.
...REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 ...identify air brake operating controls and monitoring devices; ...performance. (b) Basic vehicle control skills. All applicants...following basic motor vehicle control skills for the vehicle...
Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura; Bliss, Leonard
The extent to which teachers understand the concept of self-regulation skills and how best to implement practices that enhance self-regulation in children in the early childhood education classroom remains unexamined. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the self-reporting Early Childhood Educators Knowledge of…
The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science
Shoulders, Catherine Woglom
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to…
Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory
Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma
Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…
de Lijser, Peter
and assessment of balance and mobility · Core components of the FallProofTM program: · Center of Gravity ControlGet the specialized knowledge and skills needed to lead effective balance and mobility programs. The FallproofTM Balance and Mobility Specialist Instructor Certificate Program is designed to pro- vide physical
Stefl-Mabry, Joette; Dequoy, Elyse; Stevens, Sandra
This paper seeks to expand our understanding of how educators, and in particular school librarians, acquire and use professional-practice knowledge. This exploratory study, grounded in "lived practice" (Spillane, Hunt, and Healey, 2009) uses reflective analysis to amplify competencies and skill development in pre-service school library education.…
Interactive group activities help leaders make knowledge come to life for youth. Special tips for leaders to help youth acquire life skills. There is added attention to safety and subject matter throughout the series. This guide is designed for adults and older youth and includes individual meeting guides as well as a variety of information and…
Bishoff, Sandra Wells
The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.
Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector
The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…
Williams, Skip M.; McGladrey, Brian W.; Silva, Andrea; Hannon, James C.
Fitness for Life classes, in which a primary goal is for students to acquire health-related fitness knowledge, consist of a lecture session and an activity session. Unfortunately, devoting class time to a lecture reduces the time students are engaged in physical activity (PA). A potential solution to helping students develop cognitive skills…
Nievelstein, Fleurie; van Gog, Tamara; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Prins, Frans J.
Due to the complexity of the legal domain, reasoning about law cases is a very complex skill. For novices in law school, legal reasoning is even more complex because they have not yet acquired the conceptual knowledge needed for distilling the relevant information from cases, determining applicable rules, and searching for rules and exceptions in…
Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 72076 Tübingen, Germany Abstract. Learning robots that can acquire new motor skills and re- fine existing ones have been a long-standing vision of both robotics, and machine learning. However, off-the-shelf machine learning appears not to be adequate for robot skill
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
you DO NOT have but would like to acquire. Are there things on the skills list above which you would and could not spend it on things related to your graduate work, what would you spend it on? Is there a cause yourself in two years? ...in five years?...ten years? Include both your personal and professional life. Try
Sood, Akshay; Jeong, Wooju; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Campbell, Logan; Aggarwal, Shruti; Menon, Mani; Bhandari, Mahendra
Robotic surgery has been eagerly adopted by patients and surgeons alike in the field of urology, over the last decade. However, there is a lack of standardization in training curricula and accreditation guidelines to ensure surgeon competence and patient safety. Accordingly, in this review, we aim to highlight ‘who’ needs to learn ‘what’ and ‘how’, to become competent in robotic surgery. We demonstrate that both novice and experienced open surgeons require supervision and mentoring during the initial phases of robotic surgery skill acquisition. The experienced open surgeons possess domain knowledge, however, need to acquire technical knowledge under supervision (either in simulated or clinical environment) to successfully transition to robotic surgery, whereas, novice surgeons need to acquire both domain as well as technical knowledge to become competent in robotic surgery. With regard to training curricula, a variety of training programs such as academic fellowships, mini-fellowships, and mentored skill courses exist, and cater to the needs and expectations of postgraduate surgeons adequately. Fellowships provide the most comprehensive training, however, may not be suitable to all surgeon-learners secondary to the long-term time commitment. For these surgeon-learners short-term courses such as the mini-fellowships or mentored skill courses might be more apt. Lastly, with regards to credentialing uniformity in criteria regarding accreditation is lacking but earnest efforts are underway. Currently, accreditation for competence in robotic surgery is institutional specific. PMID:25598593
This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Rodgers, Pamela England
This qualitative, narrative study centered on the effects of the implementation of the science portion of the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) on the instruction of science at the elementary level, grades one through five. Fourteen teachers and five administrators were interviewed at two elementary schools (kindergarten through grade four) and one middle school (grades five and six). Classroom observations of each of the teachers were also conducted. The study focused on the effect of the implementation of the science TAKS on the amount of time spent on science as well as the instructional methods utilized in the elementary science classroom. Lower grade levels were found to have changed little in these areas unless strong administrative leadership---emphasizing curriculum alignment, providing adequate materials and facilities, and encouraging sustained, content-based professional development in science---was present in the school. At the fifth grade level, however, the amount of time spent on science had increased significantly, although the instructional methods utilized by the teachers were focused more often upon increasing ratings on the test rather than providing the research-based best practice methods of hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction. In addition, the study also explored the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of the state and local mandates concerning science instruction and preparation for the TAKS. Other topics that came to light during the course of the study included the teachers' views on accountability and the effects of the state assessments on children in their classrooms. It was found that most teachers readily accept accountability for themselves, but are opposed to one-shot high-stakes tests which they feel are damaging for their students emotionally and academically---adversely affecting their love of learning science.
Integrating chronic care with primary care activities: enriching healthcare staff knowledge and skills and improving glycemic control of a cohort of people with diabetes through the First Line Diabetes Care Project in the Philippines
Ku, Grace Marie V.; Kegels, Guy
Background This study investigated the effects of integrating primary chronic care with current healthcare activities in two local government health units (LGHU) of the Philippines on knowledge and skills of the LGHU staff and clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. Design Integration was accomplished through health service reorganization, (re)distribution of chronic care tasks, and training of LGHU staff. Levels of the staff's pre- and post-training diabetes knowledge and of their self-assessment of diabetes care-related skills were measured. Primary diabetes care with emphasis on self-care development was provided to a cohort of people with diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and obesity measures were collected prior to and one year after full project implementation. Results The training workshop improved diabetes knowledge (p<0.001) and self-assessed skills (p<0.001) of the LGHU staff. Significant reductions in HbA1c (p<0.001), waist–hip ratio (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.011) of the cohort were noted. Although the reduction in HbA1c was somewhat greater among those whose community-based care providers showed improvement in knowledge and self-assessed skills, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Primary care for chronic conditions such as diabetes may be integrated with other healthcare activities in health services of low-to-middle-income countries such as the Philippines, utilizing pre-existing human resources for health, and may improve clinical endpoints. PMID:25361726
The relationship of teacher perceptions of the impact of technology integration on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores of 9th-11th grade students at Alamo Heights Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas
Alfaro, Frank Eduardo
of Technology Implementation (LoTi) Score, of Students Who Took the Science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Test in the Spring 2007 Administration With a Score Code at Alamo Heights High School in Alamo Heights ISD in San Antonio, Texas ...... 59... 2007 Administration With a Score Code at Alamo Heights High School in Alamo Heights ISD in San Antonio, Texas ........................................ 59 4.11 Distribution in Groups, by Social Studies Teacher Level of Technology Implementation (LoTi...
Currently, there is a practical demand and necessity for research on how English-as-a-second language (ESL) learners acquire literacy skills, such as spelling. One important issue of this research agenda is how ESL learners apply first-language knowledge to learning to spell in English. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed that investigated the…
Maxwell, Nan L.; Rubin, Victor
The relative impact of career academies on postsecondary educational attainment and knowledge and skills acquired in urban public high schools was examined through an analysis of single-district and national databases. The national data were obtained from the first and third follow-up surveys of the National Education Longitudinal Study. Compared…
This study aimed to explore the effect of standardized teaching ward rounds in clinical nursing on preventing hospital-acquired infection. The experimental group comprised 120 nursing students from our hospital selected between June 2010 and June 2012. The control group consisted of 120 nursing students selected from May 2008 to May 2010. Traditional teaching ward rounds for nursing education were carried out with the control group, while a standardized teaching ward round was carried out with the experimental group. The comprehensive application of nursing abilities and skills, the mastering of situational infection knowledge, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups. The applied knowledge of nursing procedures and the pass rate on comprehensive skill tests were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The rate of mastery of sterilization and hygiene procedures was also higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The patient satisfaction rate with infection control procedures in the experimental group time period was 98.09%, which was significantly higher than patient satisfaction in the control group time period (93.05%, P < 0.05). Standardized teaching ward rounds for nursing education expanded the knowledge of the nursing staff in controlling hospital-acquired infection and enhanced the ability of comprehensive application and awareness of infection control procedures. PMID:25966144
Sreekumar, S. S.
Examines the extent of attainment of managerial skills through distance education, the impact of multimedia on career of learners and the influence of acquired managerial skills on the managerial performance. Findings revealed that the multimedia materials helped greatly in the development of managerial skills, which facilitates the performance of…
Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita
A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…
Pichert, James W.; And Others
In response to a perceived need on the part of health professionals for acquiring better teaching skills, a 30-hour course called "Effective Patient Teaching" (EPT) was developed. The course focuses on interpersonal skills that establish bedside manner, essential teaching functions, delivery skills, and adherence counseling techniques. This study…
Jubas, Kaela; Butterwick, Shauna
Purpose: This paper discusses insights from a study of women working, or seeking or preparing for work, in the information technology (IT) field. At issue is how and whether alternative career pathways and informally acquired skills and knowledge, as well as the operation of gender in learning and work, are acknowledged by employers, colleagues…
Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya
Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism. PMID:26288446
Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya
Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg. Office of Mental Retardation.
Developed by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, this skills inventory addresses skill development for service coordinators in two major areas: technical skills development related to the service coordination duties as defined by state and federal statues and policies, and personal skill development related to attitudes and knowledge…
Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.
Defines social skills and reviews recent advances in the assessment and classification of children's social skills. Notes that social skills have been shown to be critical prerequisites to academic and interpersonal success, making knowledge of advances in the evaluation of social skills essential to functioning of school counselors. (Author/NB)
which starts from lower-order cognitive skills, while working up to higher-order skills in later years's Taxonomy--has analysis and synthesis near the top, and straightforward knowledge and comprehension a curriculum which starts from lower-order cognitive skills, while working up to higher-order skills in later
Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as â??conceptâ?ť inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.
Leistikow, Bruce N.
. Applies core scientific knowledge* acquired and integrated at the molecular, cellular, organ simple clinical cases, integrating core scientific knowledge* (1,2) · Uses understanding of disease in medical decision- making (2) · Applies core scientific knowledge* to interpretation of core clinical
This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related to renewable energy technologies and students' problem solving skills. Two purposefully selected Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science teachers were included in the study. Each teacher taught one class about RET in a lecture-based environment (control) and another class in a DRL environment (treatment), for a total of four classes of students (n=128). This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, control-group design. The initial hypothesis that the treatment group would have a significant gain in knowledge of STEM concepts related to RET and be better able to solve problems when compared to the control group was not supported by the data. Although students in the DRL environment had a significant gain in knowledge after instruction, posttest score comparisons of the control and treatment groups revealed no significant differences between the groups. Further, no significant differences were noted in students' problem solving abilities as measured by scores on a problem-based activity and self-reported abilities on a reflective questionnaire. This suggests that the DRL environment is at least as effective as the lecture-based learning environment in teaching AP Environmental Science students about RET and fostering the development of problem solving skills. As this was a small scale study, further research is needed to provide information about effectiveness of DRL environments in promoting students' knowledge of STEM concepts and problem-solving skills.
Nosocomial pneumonia; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Health-care associated pneumonia; HCAP ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands ...
This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236
King, Mark A.
Discusses the workforce training process for increasing employee skills and knowledge in building technologies. Each phase in the development and verification of skills and capabilities required to execute work within an individual's area of performance is examined. (GR)
Sawyer, Taylor; White, Marjorie; Zaveri, Pavan; Chang, Todd; Ades, Anne; French, Heather; Anderson, JoDee; Auerbach, Marc; Johnston, Lindsay; Kessler, David
Acquisition of competency in procedural skills is a fundamental goal of medical training. In this Perspective, the authors propose an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training. The framework was developed based on a review of the literature using a critical synthesis approach and builds on earlier models of procedural skill training in medicine. The authors begin by describing the fundamentals of procedural skill development. Then, a six-step pedagogical framework for procedural skills training is presented: Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, and Maintain. In this framework, procedural skill training begins with the learner acquiring requisite cognitive knowledge through didactic education (Learn) and observation of the procedure (See). The learner then progresses to the stage of psychomotor skill acquisition and is allowed to deliberately practice the procedure on a simulator (Practice). Simulation-based mastery learning is employed to allow the trainee to prove competency prior to performing the procedure on a patient (Prove). Once competency is demonstrated on a simulator, the trainee is allowed to perform the procedure on patients with direct supervision, until he or she can be entrusted to perform the procedure independently (Do). Maintenance of the skill is ensured through continued clinical practice, supplemented by simulation-based training as needed (Maintain). Evidence in support of each component of the framework is presented. Implementation of the proposed framework presents a paradigm shift in procedural skill training. However, the authors believe that adoption of the framework will improve procedural skill training and patient safety. PMID:25881645
Gunby, Kristin V.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.
Three children with autism were taught abduction-prevention skills using behavioral skills training with in situ feedback. All children acquired the skills, which were maintained at a 1-month follow-up assessment. In addition, 1 of the children demonstrated the skills during a stimulus generalization probe in a community setting. (Contains 1…
Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training. PMID:15669410
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…
Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study
Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus
Background and Purpose Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. Methods We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p<0.001) and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2), p = 0.002), but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1), p = 0.574). Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only. Conclusions A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs’ abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students. PMID:25894559
Casner-Lotto, Jill; Barrington, Linda
In collaboration, The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Management conducted an in-depth study of the corporate perspective on the readiness of new entrants into the U.S. workforce by level of educational attainment. The study includes results…
One of the tasks facing Japanese colleges and universities is to implement a continuum of effective educational programs in order to properly respond to the impact of globalization. Effective university educational programs are needed to construct a new higher education system for nurturing transferable learning skills and cultivating hope for the…
Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor
The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…
Potential students hoping to gauge the quality of courses at Portland State University might be forgiven for feeling confused. On the one hand, the University Studies program, which uses interdisciplinary seminars during the first two years to develop students' core skills, has been widely praised and emulated. The Council for Higher Education…
The relationship between teacher Levels of Technology Integration (LoTi) on 3rd-5th Grade Students on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores at Alamo Heights Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas
Bashara, Dana Marie
OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION (LoTi) ON 3RD-5TH GRADE STUDENTS ON THE TEXAS ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TAKS) SCORES AT ALAMO HEIGHTS INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS A Record of Study by DANA M. BASHARA Submitted to the Office of Graduate... Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF EDUCATION August 2008 Major Subject: Educational Administration THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER LEVELS OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION (LoTi) ON 3RD-5TH GRADE...
Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst
Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…
With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…
Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.
This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…
... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...
Rajagopal, Anand, 1979-
In today's society, there is a need for organizations to have a robust knowledge infrastructure in place, so that they can create or acquire knowledge; store knowledge; disseminate knowledge, and protect and manage their ...
Principals often think of professional development in terms of activities--attending a workshop, networking with colleagues at a conference, reading a professional article or book, and so on. Although these are all good things in and of themselves, genuine professional growth does not occur until knowledge and skills are put into practice at the…
Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008
The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…
Topeka Public Schools, KS.
This unit on camping skills is designed for special education students at the high school level. The objective of the unit is to provide students with an adequate camping knowledge and skill development to allow them to participate in camping activities. There is an emphasis on maintaining environmental quality as a part of good camping practices.…
Rileigh, Kathryn K.
Describes a course on communication skills in psychology that includes learning library research skills, writing research reports and term papers, making behavioral observation notes, and giving oral presentations. Shows that student performance in tests on knowledge of American Psychological Association principles improved during the course.…
Jennifer Gunberg Ross
Decreased opportunities for skill practice and mounting concerns that graduate nurses are not competent in basic psychomotor skills requires nurse educators to reevaluate methods to teach these skills. Simulation offers a fresh approach to psychomotor skills education allowing the student to integrate knowledge from all three learning domains while practicing the skill. This article discusses the current state of the
Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat
Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students' systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students' systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students' knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students' ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems' components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students' systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948
Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Torres, Antoni
Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia. PMID:26277247
Rogers, Edward W.
NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.
Knowledge Portals Dr. Steffen Staab Senior Researcher and Lecturer Knowledge Management Group commercial knowledge portal for knowledge management tasks such as skill management and corporate history.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/ sst Knowledge portals provide views onto domainspecific information on the World Wide Web, thus
Miller, Mark L.
A focus on planning and debugging procedures underlies the enhanced proficiency of recent programs which solve problems and acquire new skills. By describing complex procedures as constituents of evolutionary sequences of ...
Moe, Vegard Fusche
A crucial task for sport research is to understand and explain the processes and conditions underlying skillful motor behavior. One way to account for these processes and conditions is to describe and analyze the distinct stages a learner goes through when acquiring a skill. This article starts by elaborating one of the most dominant…
Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter
This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…
Explores students' cognitive behaviors observed in the process of learning as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill such as choosing wisely. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata…
Christensen, Carol A.; Bain, John
Processes involved in the acquisition of cognitive skills were studied through an investigation of the efficacy of initially encoding knowledge of a cognitive skill in either declarative or procedural form. Subjects were 80 university students. The cognitive skill, learning the steps to program a simulated video cassette recorder (VCR), was taught…
Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…
NISH, DALE LEROY
THIRTY STUDENTS IN GRADES 6 THROUGH 12 CLASSIFIED INTO HIGH, AVERAGE, AND LOW ABILITY GROUPS, USED EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE PLASTICS AND EQUIPMENT TO CONSTRUCT A FOAMED RUBBER ICE BUCKET TO PROVIDE AN INDICATOR OF THE SUCCESS OF THE POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT. A PRETEST DETERMINED EXISTING KNOWLEDGES AND…
Davis, Elise; Corr, Lara; Ummer-Christian, Rahila; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Waters, Elizabeth; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Marshall, Bernie; Cook, Kay; Herman, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Harrsion, Linda; Sims, Margaret
This paper presents baseline data from Thrive, a capacity-building program for family day care educators. Educators completed a self-report survey assessing knowledge and confidence in promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. An in-home observation was used to assess care quality. Twenty-four educators responded to the survey (40…
Barnett, Cynthia; Miller, Greg; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, and agronomic/economic technical content knowledge. The population (N = 182)…
Stephanie Ludi; James Collofello
This paper describes how the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge, (SWEBOK) can be used as a guide to assess and improve software engineering courses. A case study is presented in which the guide is applied to a typical undergraduate software engineering course. The lessons learned are presented which the authors believe are generalizable to comparable courses taught at many academic
Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary
Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.
The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders (n…