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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Sports Medicine: Does the Family Physician Need to Acquire New Knowledge and Skills?  

PubMed Central

The knowledge and skills required to be competent in practising sports medicine can be defined and are discussed. Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common type of sports-related trauma, and their management requires diagnosis, acute treatment, and rehabilitation. Many other areas of management are involved, particularly exercise, with all its ramifications in children, adults, and the chronically sick. Use and abuse of drugs must be discussed with the athlete so that errors of legitimate use will not be made, and harmful effects can be explained. Family physicians in Canada receive variable training at both undergraduate and residency levels, but it probably forms a good foundation for amplification.

Haigh, Geoffrey

1988-01-01

2

Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?  

PubMed

Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. PMID:22961931

Marcus, Gary F

2012-09-07

3

What matters to managerial knowledge acquisition in international joint ventures? High knowledge acquirers versus low knowledge acquirers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a general agreement amongst scholars that international joint venture (IJV) is a vehicle to acquire technology\\u000a and knowledge from foreign parents, key factors differentiating high knowledge acquirers from low knowledge acquirers are\\u000a not yet conclusive. For the purpose of this study, the samples are divided into two groups based on the extent of knowledge\\u000a acquisition using cluster

Byung Il Park

2010-01-01

4

Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts.  

PubMed

Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W

2013-08-29

5

Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts  

PubMed Central

Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.

Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

2013-01-01

6

A Comparison of Student Skill Knowledge Estimates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental goal of educational research is identifying students' current stage of skill mastery (complete/partial/none). In recent years a number of cognitive diagnosis models have become a popular means of estimating student skill knowledge. However, these models become difficult to estimate as the number of students, items, and skills grows.…

Ayers, Elizabeth; Nugent, Rebecca; Dean, Nema

2009-01-01

7

Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

Jones, Anne

2011-01-01

8

Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

2012-01-01

9

Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

2012-01-01

10

Acquiring functional object knowledge through motor imagery?  

PubMed

A widely investigated question in the research on the acquisition of novel functional object representations is the role of the action system. Whereas most studies so far have investigated the role of active action training on the acquisition of object representation, we investigated whether people are able to acquire object representations by just imagining the use of novel objects, given that previous findings suggested that executed and imagined actions share a common representational format. To this end, participants trained the use of novel objects in a motor imagery condition. Training comprised the particular grip applied to the objects and the objects' typical end location. Subsequently, participants' object representations were assessed by means of an object detection task. The results show that participants responded slower when the novel objects were presented at functionally incorrect end locations, indicating that the participants had acquired functional knowledge about object use. Yet, there was no effect of correct versus incorrect grip. Altogether, the findings suggest that motor imagery can facilitate the acquisition of novel object representations, but point also to differences between first-hand action training and training by imagery. PMID:22430184

Paulus, Markus; van Elk, Michiel; Bekkering, Harold

2012-03-20

11

The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

2012-01-01

12

Investing in Knowledge: On the Trade-Off between R&D, ICT, Skills and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the complementarity between skills and knowledge by investigating particularly tacit knowledge flows between countries and regions. The main findings are threefold. First, there seems to exist a trade-off between acquiring knowledge through performing and putting effort in R&D and through investing into access to the public knowledge basin. Secondly, migration of high-skilled labour from South to

Bas ter Weel

1999-01-01

13

Approach to Acquiring and Applying Knowledge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem addressed in this paper is how to enable a computer system to acquire facts about new domains from tutors who are experts in their respective fields, but who have little or no training in computer science. The information to be acquired is tha...

G. G. Hendrix N. Haas

1980-01-01

14

Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

2006-01-01

15

Educational Assessment Knowledge and Skills for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1990 Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (AFT, NCME, & NEA, 1990) made a documentable contribution to the field. However, the Standards have become a bit dated, most notably in two ways: (1) the Standards do not consider current conceptions of formative assessment knowledge and skills, and (2) the Standards…

Brookhart, Susan M.

2011-01-01

16

Essential Knowledges and Skills for Beginning Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this literature review is to produce a list of essential knowledge and skills for beginning principals. Research on the principalship falls into two distinct categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive research emphasizes the perceived or idealized role of the principal as "bold innovator" or "creative manipulator."…

Kelly, Noeline

17

Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

2006-01-01

18

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquarists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided these Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquarists. The guidelines include and overview of the field as well as the personal characteristics, tools and equipment used, job titles, educational prerequisites, future trends, and salaries for aquarists.

2011-09-20

19

Limits on the Predictive Power of Domain-Specific Experience and Knowledge in Skilled Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear from decades of research that, to a very large degree, success in music, games, sports, science, and other complex domains reflects knowledge and skills acquired through experience. However, it is equally clear that basic abilities, which are known to be substantially heritable, also contribute to performance differences in many domains, even among highly skilled performers. As we

David Z. Hambrick; Elizabeth J. Meinz

2011-01-01

20

Preschoolers acquire general knowledge by sharing in pretense.  

PubMed

Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar kind of animal). For instance, in one scenario, the nerp ate and disliked a carrot. When subsequently asked generic questions about real nerps, children's responses suggested that they had learned general facts (e.g., nerps dislike carrots). In Experiment 2, thirty-two 4- to 5-year-olds learned from scenarios lacking pretend speech or sound effects. The findings reveal a long overlooked means by which children can acquire generic knowledge. PMID:22416755

Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori

2012-03-14

21

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for ROV Technicians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of the tasks of remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) technicians to serve as guidelines to current and future ROV technicians. This document covers all aspects of a successful ROV technician including common personality traits, a list of courses/subjects in which an ROV technician should have experience, as well as tools and equipment that an ROV technician uses. In addition to these basic generalities, the document breaks down ROV technician responsibilities into âÂÂsix general job functions.â Within these categories âÂÂTechnical Knowledge and Skillâ and âÂÂPerformance Indicatorsâ are identified. Having these identified help technicians gauge what knowledge they will need prior to beginning a task and when a task has been successfully completed. This document is a great resource for current or future ROV technicians in order to understand what is expected of them on the job.

2009-09-24

22

Executive functioning and adaptive living skills after acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

Executive dysfunction is common following brain injury, with impairments involving attention, social pragmatics, higher-order thinking, judgment, and reasoning. Executive function impairments may have a direct impact on an individual's ability to return to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including employment, money management, driving, and maintaining a residence. Research has shown that neuropsychological executive function measures may be able to predict daily-living skills. There is limited research evaluating the relationship between executive functions and IADLs in adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI), with none investigating levels of proficiency as related to specific test scores. We hypothesize that neuropsychological executive function measures will have significant and moderate-to-strong correlations with participant-rated proficiency on functional tasks as measured by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory. Results support that IQ and some of the executive function measures (Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Trail-Making Test-Part B) correlated significantly and strongly and explained unique variance in all IADLs in this study. Data suggest that individuals with ABI who performed in the higher end of the low-average range or higher on measures of executive functioning tend to require little or no assistance to be independent with transportation, money management, living without support, and employment. Results also suggest that individuals with less executive dysfunction are likely to have greater overall community participation. PMID:23373638

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Talka, Kristin

2012-07-31

23

From implicit skills to explicit knowledge: a bottom-up model of skill learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a skill learning model CLARION. Different from existing models of mostly high-level skill learning that use a top-down approach (that is, turning declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge through practice), we adopt a bottom-up approach toward low-level skill learning, where procedural knowledge develops first and declarative knowledge develops later. Our model is formed by integrating connectionist, reinforcement, and

Ron Sun; Edward Merrill; Todd Peterson

2001-01-01

24

Young Children's Recognition of How and When Knowledge Was Acquired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, 30 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers’ contents. They more accurately reported how, than when, the

Connie M. Tang; Karen Bartsch

2012-01-01

25

Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

2012-01-01

26

Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Oceanographic Instrumentation Technicians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for Oceanographic Instrumentation Technicians. The document details the knowledge and skills needed, personal characteristics, occupational titles, common platforms, salary range, educational background, typical tasks, tools and equipment used, conferences, trends, professional societies, important publications, and demographics of Oceanographic Instrumentation Technicians.

2011-09-20

27

Developing Knowledge and Skills in Engineers: A Learning Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the knowledge and skill requirements for manufacturing system design and describes an innovative "learning laboratory" approach to educating graduate level manufacturing engineers. The laboratory provides a mechanism that gives engineers a wide range of knowledge and skills in design and implementation, much of which cannot…

Platts, K.W.

2004-01-01

28

Science in Early Childhood: Developing and Acquiring Fundamental Concepts and Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Efforts to introduce children to essential experiences of science inquiry must begin at an early age. This paper describes the development of fundamental concepts and skills used from infancy through the primary years and presents strategies for helping students to acquire those fundamental concepts and skills needed for inquiry learning. The…

Lind, Karen K.

29

Acquiring Skills for Tomorrow Today: "Cyberspace Learning for Kids."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A European online electronic learning network, Cyberspace Learning for Kids, was evaluated through surveys of 596 teachers, 661 parents, and participating children. Teachers identified lack of training and funds to purchase equipment. All groups felt the project taught useful skills in an enjoyable way. A decline in parent-child and teacher-parent…

Hough, Jean; Ellis, Dave

1997-01-01

30

Acquiring Skills: Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'…

Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.

31

Transcultural knowledge and skills transfer: issues arising from evaluation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in St Petersburg, Russia that ran between 1995 and 2004.

Anita J. Green; David G. Holloway

2007-01-01

32

Dissociating the memory systems mediating complex tool knowledge and skills.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that different components of complex tool knowledge (e.g., attributes of a tool, how it is grasped, how it is used) may be mediated by different memory systems. For instance, while tool attributes may be represented in the declarative memory system, motor skill acquisition has been shown to be represented in the procedural memory system. Still other aspects of tool knowledge such as grasping for use and skilled tool use may rely on an integration of both declarative and procedural memory processes. However, the specific memory representations of different aspects of complex tool knowledge are still unclear. In the current study, D.A., an individual with amnesia, and a sample of matched controls were trained to use a set of novel complex tools. Subsequently, memory for different aspects of tool knowledge including motor skill acquisition, tool attributes, tool grasping, and skilled tool use was tested. Results showed that, in comparison to controls, D.A. was unimpaired in motor skill acquisition. In contrast, D.A. was severely impaired in recall of tool attributes, tool grasping, and skilled tool use, suggesting that these components of tool knowledge, at least in part, rely on declarative memory. Results also showed that providing contextual cues during tests of skilled tool use led to remarkable improvement in D.A.'s demonstration of tool use as well as his subsequent recall of tool functional knowledge. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed. PMID:20600195

Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W

2010-06-17

33

Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

2010-01-01

34

Identification of Knowledge and Skills and Investigation of Thought Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the U. S. Army Infantry School (USAIS), Work Unit CAMBCOM conducted research that identified the knowledge, skills, and investigated the thought processing of battalion commanders in six types of maneuver battalion. USAIS will use this w...

A. J. DeLuca T. R. Powers

1971-01-01

35

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a) No certificate...operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, required by this...

2010-01-01

36

14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121...operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a) No certificate...operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, required by this...

2009-01-01

37

The Socially Skilled Teacher and the Development of Tacit Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Skilled interpersonal relations are crucial for effective teaching and learning but much professional knowledge here is tacit and thus not easily communicated. This article presents the results of a study that examined the tacit knowledge of trainee and experienced teachers in relation to various problematic interpersonal aspects of school life.…

Elliott, Julian G.; Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Hoffman, Newman

2011-01-01

38

The socially skilled teacher and the development of tacit knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skilled interpersonal relations are crucial for effective teaching and learning but much professional knowledge here is tacit and thus not easily communicated. This article presents the results of a study that examined the tacit knowledge of trainee and experienced teachers in relation to various problematic interpersonal aspects of school life. Trainee (n = 501) and experienced (n = 163) teachers

Julian G. Elliott; Steven E. Stemler; Robert J. Sternberg; Elena L. Grigorenko; Newman Hoffman

2011-01-01

39

Information Feedback for Skill Acquisition: Instantaneous Knowledge of Results Degrades Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of acquired error-detection capabilities in skill learning was investigated by manipulating the delay of knowledge of results (KR). Compared with delayed feedback, instantaneous KR should be detrimental to the learning of error-detection capabilities because it should tend to block spontaneous subjective evaluation of response-produced feedback. Weaker error-detection capabilities should then be evident on delayed no-KR retention tests. During

Stephan P. Swinnen; Richard A. Schmidt; Diane E. Nicholson; Diane C. Shapiro

1990-01-01

40

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

2010-01-01

41

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness Among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that

Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani

2010-01-01

42

Do Learning Skills Acquired in the University Access Programme Enhance Participation in Academic Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article I critically evaluate whether or not learning skills acquired in the university access programme enhance participation in academic practice. University access programmes have been developed with a view to preparing and empowering under-prepared students who did not meet the university criteria. The article claims that even though…

Hlalele, D. J.

2010-01-01

43

Retention of Irish skills: A longitudinal study of a school-acquired second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of retention of school-acquired Irish among school leavers. The initial group selected represented final year secondary school students from three different instructional categories: ordinary level Irish, advanced level Irish and immersion school students. Participants were interviewed and their language skills assessed as they completed their study of Irish and again 18 months after they had

Lelia Murtagh; Frans van der Slik

2004-01-01

44

Acquiring surgical skills: the role of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.  

PubMed

Contemporary surgeons are expected to develop and maintain competence across a range of skills far broader than that demanded of last century's surgeons. This is increasingly difficult to achieve in a competitive clinical environment in which the effectiveness of the traditional apprenticeship model can be compromised. New training paradigms must be found to ensure that the quality of surgical training is maintained and enhanced. Acquiring technical skills in the operating theatre is expensive, but training using simulations in the skills laboratory is gaining credibility and validity as a means to augment the clinical experience and accelerate training. The emerging role of surgical skills courses extends to training in behaviour and attitude. At the same time, there is a rapidly growing demand for training courses in technical surgical skills, particularly from prevocational trainees aspiring to enter surgical training. This group has been neglected by the new Surgical Education and Training programme, and re-engagement with them is now a priority. Most skills courses rely on surgeons willing to teach pro bono, and paying tutors would impose a significant additional cost on surgical training. However, recruiting enough fellows to meet the demand for tutors remains a challenge. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is actively engaged in supporting and developing skills training courses and programmes to address the range of skills required for surgical competence. PMID:23656315

Perry, Richard E; Oldfield, Zaita

2013-05-08

45

Linking Informal Knowledge and Formal Skills: The Case of Percents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined adult students' informal knowledge of percent and its relationship to their computational skills. Sixty adults studying in urban and suburban adult education programs were interviewed to ascertain: (1) their ideas of the meanings of benchmark percents, 100%, 50%, and 25%, as they appear in advertising and media contexts; (2)…

Ginsburg, Lynda; Gal, Iddo

46

Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

Haddow, Gaby

2012-01-01

47

Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

Phillips, Amy

2009-01-01

48

Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

Haddow, Gaby

2012-01-01

49

Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

Phillips, Amy

2009-01-01

50

Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

2010-01-01

51

Visual Skills and Cross-Modal Plasticity in Deaf Readers Possible Implications for Acquiring Meaning from Print  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on reading skill acquisition in deaf individuals has been conducted from the perspective of a hearing child learning to read. This approach may limit our under- standing of how a deaf child approaches the task of learning to read and successfully acquires reading skills. An alternative approach is to consider how the cognitive skills that a deaf child

Matthew W. G. Dye; Peter C. Hauser; Daphne Baveliera

2008-01-01

52

Acquiring Knowledge From the Media in the Internet Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Democratic foundations rest on public support and a reasonably broad distribution of knowledge. The media have traditionally been assigned responsibility for providing much of that knowledge, but they do not inform all citizens equally; and communication scholars have, thus, studied the threat represented by the knowledge gap phenomenon. This study examines several factors on which the knowledge gap perspective is

Leo W. Jeffres; Kimberly Neuendorf; David J. Atkin

2012-01-01

53

Skilled Migration, Knowledge Transfer and Development: The Case of the Highly Skilled Filipino Migrants in New Zealand and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence that highly skilled migrants continue to remain connected with and deeply committed to their home country. These connections challenge the notion of knowledge and skills loss from high-skilled migration. Highly skilled migrants are also involved in remittance giving, which, although of the noneconomic type, offers new possibilities for building wealth. These are the so-called ‘knowledge transfers’

Sheila V. Siar

2011-01-01

54

Collaborative business relationships : Helping firms to acquire skills and economies to prosper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe in depth case studies demonstrating that many small companies that participate in collaborative relationships are not realising the knowledge and skill acquisition benefits that policy makers envision when they formulate public policy that promotes creation of collaborative business relationships. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Hamel's theory of inter-partner learning is built upon to explain the possible

Nitha Palakshappa; Mary Ellen Gordon

2007-01-01

55

Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5) Offspring can learn foraging skills from their mothers (matrilineal social learning). (6) Food abundance is limited, such that average individual energy reserves are low Additionally, the following factors increase the likelihood of alternative specializations co-occurring in a predator population: (1) The predator exerts effective top-down control of prey abundance, resulting in frequency-dependent dynamics. (2) There is stochastic Variation in prey population dynamics, but this Variation is neither too extreme in magnitude nor too 'slow' with respect to the time required for an individual forager to learn new foraging skills. For a given predator population, we deduce that the degree of specialization will be highest for those prey types requiring complex capture or handling skills, while prey species that are both profitable and easy to capture and handle will be included in the diet of all individuals. Frequency-dependent benefits of selecting alternative prey types, combined with the ability of foragers to improve their foraging skills by learning, and transmit learned skills to offspring, can result in behaviourally mediated foraging specialization, and also lead to the co-existence of alternative specializations. The extent of such specialization is predicted to be a variable trait, increasing in locations or years when intra-specific competition is high relative to inter-specific competition. ?? 2009 M. Tim Tinker.

Tinker, M. T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J. A.

2009-01-01

56

Preschoolers Use Questions as a Tool to Acquire Knowledge from Different Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do children use questions as tools to acquire new knowledge? The current experiment examined preschool children's ability to direct questions to appropriate sources to acquire knowledge. Fifty preschoolers engaged in a task that entailed asking questions to discover which special key would open a box that contained a prize. Children solved…

Mills, Candice M.; Legare, Cristine H.; Bills, Megan; Mejias, Caroline

2010-01-01

57

Automatic Knowledge Acquire System Oriented to Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disordered way of the Web information organization has seriously hindered the knowledge sharing and interoperability, this paper presents a knowledge-oriented Web page automatic acquisition system (AKAS2WP). This system includes four core modules, and they are accessing of web pages, text extraction, the management and organizations of the concept and the attribute extraction of the concept. Accessing of Internet web

Zhu Junwu; Jiang Yi; Xu Yingying

2009-01-01

58

A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.  

PubMed

The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples. PMID:23121446

van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

59

COGNITIVE SKILL ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive skill acquisition is acquiring the ability to solve problems in intellec- tual tasks, where success is determined more by subjects' knowledge than by their physical prowess. This review considers research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection

Kurt VanLehn

1996-01-01

60

Arithmetic skills and their cognitive correlates in children with acquired and congenital brain disorder.  

PubMed

Arithmetic skills and their cognitive correlates were studied in 24 children with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MM), 27 children with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and 26 children with orthopedic injuries (OI). Their average age was 11.56 years (SD = 2.36). They completed the WRAT-3 Arithmetic subtest and a subtraction task consisting of 20 problems of varying difficulty, as well as measures of working memory, declarative memory, processing speed, planning skills, and visuospatial abilities. The MM group performed more poorly on the WRAT-3 Arithmetic subtest and the subtraction task than the other two groups, which did not differ from each other on either measure. The groups did not differ in the number of math fact errors or visual-spatial errors on the subtraction task, but the MM group made more procedural errors than the OI group. The five cognitive abilities explained substantial variance in performance on both arithmetic tests; processing speed, working memory, declarative memory, and planning accounted for unique variance. Exploratory analyses showed that the cognitive correlates of arithmetic skills varied across groups and ages. Congenital and acquired brain disorders are associated with distinct patterns of arithmetic skills, which are related to specific cognitive abilities. PMID:15892901

Ayr, Lauren K; Yeates, Keith Owen; Enrile, Benedicta G

2005-05-01

61

Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and control of mycotoxins in feed and food are items of great interest to researchers, producers, manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In order to implement knowledge of control measures for mycotoxins in the entire food production chain, coordinated inspection programmes aimed to check the presence and concentration of mycotoxins in feedingstuffs are recommended by the Commission of the European

Federica Cheli; Anna Campagnoli; Luciano Pinotti; Eleonora Fusi; Vittorio Dell'Orto

2010-01-01

62

Detecting mismatches among experts' ontologies acquired through knowledge elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a set of ontologies modelled on conceptual structures elicited from several domain experts. Protocols were collected from various experts who advise on the selection\\/ specification and purchase of PCs. These protocols were analysed from the perspective of both the processes and the domain knowledge to reflect each expert's inherent conceptualisation of the domain. We are particularly interested

Adil Hameed; Derek H. Sleeman; Alun D. Preece

2002-01-01

63

ISS Update: Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM)  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan talks to Brion Au, Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) Payload Developer, about the EarthKAM investigation being performed aboard the International Space Station this week.

Russell Todd D

2012-11-13

64

Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate. PMID:22169537

Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

2011-12-08

65

In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

Miles, Erin

66

Using Advice to Transfer Knowledge Acquired in One Reinforcement Learning Task to Another  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for transferring knowledge learned in one task to a related task. Our problem solvers employ reinforcement learning to acquire a model for one task. We then transform that learned model into advice for a new task. A human teacher provides a mapping from the old task to the new task to guide this knowledge transfer. Ad-

Lisa Torrey; Trevor Walker; Jude W. Shavlik; Richard Maclin

2005-01-01

67

Rough set based knowledge acquiring method in intelligent detecting system for lack of weld  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge acquisition has been a major concern in intelligent systems, which determines the efficiency of intelligent systems. In 1982, Pawlak put forward rough set theory which is a mathematical tool to deal with vagueness and uncertainty and can be used to find hidden relations in data. So the rough set method has been applied widely when acquiring knowledge. We introduce

Bing Wang; Shanben Chen; Tao Lin

2002-01-01

68

Surveying knowledge and skills in the health sciences: results and implications.  

PubMed

The MLA Knowledge and Skills Task Force was appointed in May 1989. The task force decided to survey a sample of the membership to define the knowledge and skills required for competent professional performance and to enable MLA to establish educational policies which would ensure acquisition and maintenance of the necessary knowledge and skills throughout a professional career. This report presents the initial findings of the survey, upon which MLA's educational policy statement, Platform for Change, is based. PMID:8251975

Roper, F W; Mayfield, M K

1993-10-01

69

Surveying knowledge and skills in the health sciences: results and implications.  

PubMed Central

The MLA Knowledge and Skills Task Force was appointed in May 1989. The task force decided to survey a sample of the membership to define the knowledge and skills required for competent professional performance and to enable MLA to establish educational policies which would ensure acquisition and maintenance of the necessary knowledge and skills throughout a professional career. This report presents the initial findings of the survey, upon which MLA's educational policy statement, Platform for Change, is based.

Roper, F W; Mayfield, M K

1993-01-01

70

KNACK for Knowledge Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KNACK is a knowledge acquisition tool that generates expert systems for evaluating designs of electromechanical systems. An important feature of KNACK is that it acquires knowledge from domain experts without presupposing knowledge engineering skills on t...

C. Boyd G. Klinker S. Genetet

1987-01-01

71

Teachers' professional knowledge: Are we measuring acquired skills or common knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen dramatic alterations in the requirements for teacher licensure. Among the many changes, perhaps the most widely implemented has been the mandate of paper-and-pencil tests as a certification hurdle. Today, no fewer than 35 states require or are giving consideration to the mandate that prospective teachers pass a test in order to be certified. Teacher testing

M. David Miller; John P. Poggio; Douglas R. Glasnapp

1987-01-01

72

An Activity-Based Study on Providing Basic Knowledge and Skills of Measurement in Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though one of the prerequisites of inquiry-based science classes is acquiring measuring skills, there is not enough emphasis in the schools today on developing these skills. The current study, which has been designed with the thought that this situation may be caused by the fact that teachers do not have a sufficient level of measurement…

Maral, Sahide; Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

2012-01-01

73

The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

2012-01-01

74

The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

2012-01-01

75

The Effects of Peer Coaching on the Evaluation Knowledge, Skills, and Concerns of Gifted Program Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…

Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann

2012-01-01

76

The Effects of Peer Coaching on the Evaluation Knowledge, Skills, and Concerns of Gifted Program Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…

Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann

2012-01-01

77

Effects of a Personal Safety Program on Preschoolers' Knowledge, Skills, and Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined preschoolers' knowledge, skills, and perceptions of child sexual abuse. Seventy-five preschoolers were pretested, randomly assigned to participate in either a personal safety program or a general safety control program, and then posttested. The personal safety program produced significant gains in knowledge and skills thought to be useful in helping children avoid sexual victimization. Program participants improved significantly

Julie A. Sarno; Sandra K. Wurtele

1997-01-01

78

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

2011-01-01

79

Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined,…

Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

2011-01-01

80

ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

2011-01-01

81

Technology management education in MBA programs: a comparative study of knowledge and skill requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to explore the content and process of technology management education in the context of masters of business administration (MBA) programs in the US. Based on two mail surveys, the research identifies the knowledge and skills that are necessary for effective management of technology. Except for a few specific knowledge and skill areas, general agreement was found to

Debasish N Mallick; Abhijit Chaudhury

2000-01-01

82

Metalinguistic skills and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese (L1) and English (L2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are metalinguistic skills associated with vocabulary knowledge in languages with contrasting phonological and morphological properties? To address this question, tasks of phonological awareness and morphological awareness, other reasoning and literacy-related skills, and measures of vocabulary knowledge in Chinese and English, were administered to 217 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children learning English as a second language. Syllable-level awareness but not

C. McBride-Chang; H. Cheung; B. W.-Y. Chow; C. S.-L. Chow; L. Choi

2006-01-01

83

Connectionist models of artificial grammar learning: what type of knowledge is acquired?  

PubMed

Two experiments are presented that test the predictions of two associative learning models of Artificial Grammar Learning. The two models are the simple recurrent network (SRN) and the competitive chunking (CC) model. The two experiments investigate acquisition of different types of knowledge in this task: knowledge of frequency and novelty of stimulus fragments (Experiment 1) and knowledge of letter positions, of small fragments, and of large fragments up to entire strings (Experiment 2). The results show that participants acquired all types of knowledge. Simulation studies demonstrate that the CC model explains the acquisition of all types of fragment knowledge but fails to account for the acquisition of positional knowledge. The SRN model, by contrast, accounts for the entire pattern of results found in the two experiments. PMID:18998163

Kinder, Annette; Lotz, Anja

2008-11-08

84

The Relationship between Linguistic Skills and Arithmetic Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although language is implicated in children's mathematical development, few studies have focused specifically on how different linguistic skills relate to children's mathematical performance. Building on the model proposed by LeFevre et al. (2010), this study examined how general verbal ability and phonological skills were differentially related…

Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

85

Number Skills and Knowledge in Children With Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number skills of groups of 7- to 9-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) attending mainstream or special schools were compared with an age and nonverbal reasoning matched group (age control [AC]) and with a younger group matched on oral language comprehension. The SLI groups performed below the AC group on every skill.…

Crown, Richard; Donlan, Chris; Newton, Elizabeth J.; Llyod, Delyth

2005-01-01

86

Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

87

Naming Speed, Letter-Sound Automaticity, and Acquiring Blending Skills among Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MoID) typically are not taught decoding skills because they have difficulty mastering critical blending skills. In response to this skill deficit among students with MoID, an "Initial Phonics" instructional sequence was created that included student development of rapid and automatic retrieval of…

Davis, Dawn H.

2011-01-01

88

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader. Self-Aid, First Aid and Evacuation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performances, knowledges, and skills required of the Infantry rifle squad leader to treat himself or his men and to supervise treatment and evacuation are covered in this paper. Skills and knowledges include the lifesaver steps; treating wounds requir...

E. Y. Felton T. O. Jacobs K. Perkinson

1969-01-01

89

Should surgical novices trade their retractors for joysticks? Videogame experience decreases the time needed to acquire surgical skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Video game experience (VGE) has been identified as a possible predictive factor for surgical skill. We hypothesized that surgical\\u000a novices with previous VGE would acquire new surgical skills faster than those without.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fourth-year medical students (M4) and first-year surgical residents (PG-1) completed a survey asking about standard demographic\\u000a data and previous VGE. Gamers had high VGE, defined as more than

Matthew D. Shane; Barbara J. Pettitt; Craig B. Morgenthal; C. Daniel Smith

2008-01-01

90

Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

91

Continuous Knowledge of Results and Psychomotor Skill Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A traditional instructional format that provided instructor-generated terminal knowledge of results was compared with one that also trained students to generate continual knowledge of results using two sections of an operative laboratory. (Author/MLW)|

Feil, Philip H.; And Others

1986-01-01

92

Reducing hospital-acquired infections through knowledge-sharing in work teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of a team-based organizational structure for the purpose of improving the quality of the services provided by the health care system. More specifically, the research aims to investigate the efficiency of a cross-functional team-based structure in regard to improving knowledge-sharing and hereby reducing hospital-acquired infections (i.e. health-care associated

Jeanette Lemmergaard

2009-01-01

93

High-skilled Return Migration and Knowledge-based Development in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is by now well known that return migration of the highly skilled can have a significant impact on knowledge-based development in the regions to which they return. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on developing and newly industrializing countries, this paper looks at high-skilled return migration in an East European transformation economy, namely Poland. In our paper, we propose

Britta Klagge; Katrin Klein-Hitpaß

2010-01-01

94

Television formats, mastery of mental skills, and the acquisition of knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a study to demonstrate that when TV formats are varied, with content held constant, they differentially affect the use of mental skills and the acquisition of knowledge. Four groups of 44 5th graders were pretested on a battery of mental skill tests; then each group was shown 1 of 4 TV film versions of a story and posttested on

Gavriel Solomon; Akiba A. Cohen

1977-01-01

95

10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge. 1046.15 Section 1046.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel §...

2013-01-01

96

Developmental dynamics of metacognitive knowledge and text comprehension skill in the first primary school years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was, firstly, to explore the development of primary school children’s metacognitive knowledge from preschool\\u000a to the 2nd grade and the development of their text comprehension skill from the 1st grade to the 3rd grade. Secondly, the\\u000a developmental dynamics between metacognitive knowledge (MCK) and text comprehension skill (CS) across the first three school\\u000a years were investigated.

Tiina Annevirta; Eero Laakkonen; Riitta Kinnunen; Marja Vauras

2007-01-01

97

Cognitive Skill Acquisition Through a Meta-Knowledge Processing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging trend for taking a more collaborative approach to life-long learning is picking up pace. So, too, is the rate at which online learning systems are implemented by novice courseware designers. Nevertheless, if we want to sustain the momentum, we must understand more about how to manage the computer-human interaction (CHI) and, henceforth, the cognitive skills acquisition process involved

Elspeth McKay

2002-01-01

98

Realtime Knowledge Space Skill Assessment for Personalized Digital Educational Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Educational Games offer immersive environments through which learners can enjoy motivational and compelling educational experiences. Applying personalization techniques within these games can further enhance the educational potential, but the often realtime and narrative-driven focus of games presents many challenges to traditional adaptation approaches. This paper describes an approach to the realtime assessment of learner skills for personalization that was

Owen Conlan; Cormac Hampson; Neil Peirce; Michael D. Kickmeier-rust

2009-01-01

99

Acquiring Information Technology Skills by Freshmen Students at Kuwait University: The Language Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of academic courses for freshmen students aiming at improving their information technology skills is crucial due to the large number of students admitted every year. Kuwait University introduced a service course in information technology skills to freshman students in the College of Science to be taught in English, and a similar course to freshmen students in the College

Samir N. Hamade

2007-01-01

100

Assessing knowledge skills in the NHS: a training needs analysis approach.  

PubMed

This feature discusses the use of a training needs analysis exercise carried out by library staff at the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (NHSGGC) Library Network to support the development of a fit for purpose programme of information skills training. A survey was designed based on a well-known information skills competency framework and used to gain an understanding of the knowledge skills needed by staff and how library training could best support these. The survey received a good response rate and led to the successful writing of a training plan for the Library Network for the delivery of information skills training. H.S. PMID:23692458

Hamilton, Seona

2013-06-01

101

Writing a bachelor thesis generates transferable knowledge and skills useable in nursing practice.  

PubMed

Generic skills or transferable skills have been discussed in terms of whether or not skills learned in one context can be transferred into another context. The current study was aimed to explore nurses' self-perceptions of the knowledge and skills they had obtained while writing a Bachelor's thesis in nursing education, their experience of the extent of transfer and utilization in their current work. Responding nurses (N=42) had all worked from 1 to 1.5years after their final examination and had completed a questionnaire that was structured with open-ended questions. Only five nurses reported that they were unable to use any of the knowledge and skills they had obtained from writing a thesis. A majority of the nurses (37/42) could give many examples of the practical application of the skills and knowledge they had obtained. Our findings indicate that writing a thesis as part of an undergraduate degree program plays a major role in the acquisition and development of knowledge and skills which can subsequently be transferred into and utilized in nursing practice. PMID:23141688

Lundgren, Solveig M; Robertsson, Barbro

2012-11-08

102

Accounting knowledge and skills and the challenges of a global business environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread and acceptance of globalization and the enormous developments in information technology, has led to dramatic changes in the business environment. These changes have brought new challenges not only to business but also to business education. Business schools that prepare future managers in different disciplines are responsible for closing the gap between the skills acquired by its graduates

Ehab K. A. Mohamed; Sherif H. Lashine

2003-01-01

103

Turkish?speaking First Graders in Norway Acquiring Second Language Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension and Literacy Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored relationships between characteristics of classroom talk exposure and immigrant first graders' acquisition of second language oral skills (vocabulary and listening comprehension) and literacy skills. Twenty?six children (mean age = 6.10 years) with Turkish as their first language and Norwegian as their second, attending various multilingual and ethnically diverse classrooms in Norway, were videotaped during classroom conversations. Classroom talk was

Vibeke Grøver Aukrust

2008-01-01

104

The Purpose of the PhD: Theorising the Skills Acquired by Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside the PhD…

Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine

2010-01-01

105

Biological and physiological knowledge and skills of graduating Finnish nursing students to practice in intensive care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the basic biological and physiological knowledge and skills of graduating nurse students in Finland against the requirement of their being able to practice safely and effectively in intensive care. The study describes also their interest and willingness to work in intensive care. Measurements were based on the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool (BKAT-5) developed by Toth in the

Riitta-Liisa Ääri; Marita Ritmala-Castrén; Helena Leino-Kilpi; Tarja Suominen

2004-01-01

106

Internet Knowledge and Access Skills among Primary School Administrators in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to inform about the Internet knowledge and Internet access skills among the primary school administrators who had enrolled in the Bachelor of Education Management programme, which is a twinning programme organized by University Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB), Malaysia. Knowledge about the Internet and the ability to look for Internet materials would help

M. N. M. Zabit; T. Z. Zachariah

2006-01-01

107

Effects of training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of farmer field school (FFS) and the conventional (classroom lectures) training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers were studied in Yunnan province, China from 2003 to 2007. There were significant gains of knowledge about vegetable pests, natural enemies, insect and disease ecology and pest management among the FFS farmers, but were no significant

Puyun Yang; Wenxin Liu; Xunan Shan; Ping Li; Jinyu Zhou; Jianping Lu; Yahong Li

2008-01-01

108

Adolescent Mothers' Self-Esteem and Role Identity and Their Relationship to Parenting Skills Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…

Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice

1997-01-01

109

Medical Providers' Self Perceived Knowledge and Skills for Working With Eating Disorders: A National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that individuals suffering from an eating disorder (ED) consult their general practitioners more frequently than those without an eating disorder (Mond, Myers, Crosby, Hay, & Mitchell, 2010). However, little is known about medical providers' existing knowledge of and training in ED detection, intervention, and treatment. This study aimed to examine national medical providers' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and needs

Deanna Linville; Tiffany Brown; Maya ONeil

2012-01-01

110

STUDENT DEBATES IN POLICY COURSES: PROMOTING POLICY PRACTICE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE THROUGH ACTIVE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the use of student debates to promote substantive knowledge and policy practice skills. The authors present a pedagogical rationale for student debates, describe the incorporation of debates into a child welfare policy course, and report the results of an evaluation. Students demonstrated significantly greater increases in self-reported knowledge of course topics when they participated in debates than

Thomas E. Keller; James K. Whittaker; Tracey K. Burke

2001-01-01

111

Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

112

Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

2009-01-01

113

Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

2009-01-01

114

Reduced Frequency of Knowledge of Results Enhances Motor Skill Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative frequency of knowledge of results (KR) is the proportion of KR presentations to the total number of practice trials. Contrary to predictions from most traditional motor learning perspectives (e.g., Adams, 1971; Schmidt, 1975; Thorndike, 1927), recent evidence suggests that, compared with practice in 100% relative frequency conditions, practice with lower relative frequencies may be beneficial to longer-term retention and

Carolee J. Winstein; Richard A. Schmidt

1990-01-01

115

Learning to be different: acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM

M. Tim Tinker; Marc Mangel; James A. Estes

116

Using students' part-time work as a context for identifying the application of academically acquired knowledge in the workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, Griffith University undertook a strategic improvement initiative entitled the Workplace Learning Project to investigate ways of helping Arts students make explicit their full range of generic and transferable skills developed during their undergraduate degrees. Students used their existing part-time work as a context for reflecting on the value and transferability of the capacities acquired by them in Arts

Irena Yashin-Shaw; Patrick Buckridge; Kay Ferres

117

Online learning of B-spline fuzzy controller to acquire sensor-based assembly skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an online learning approach for developing sensor-based controllers and show how it can make the programming of assembly tasks easier. We suggest combining the qualitative modelling of human expert skills and the self-tuning of control parameters so that a controller for a complex assembly task can be efficiently developed. It is then discussed how to construct a fuzzy

Jianwei Zhang; Yorck Von Collani; Alois Knoll

1997-01-01

118

Learning To Talk: A Program for Helping Language-Delayed Children Acquire Early Communication Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for assessing the current language skills of a language-delayed child and increasing the child's level of communicative competence are provided, based on experience at the Environmental Language Intervention Project at Macquarie University's Special Education Centre in Australia. The program is organized around five sequentially ordered…

Bochner, Sandra; And Others

119

A Comparison of Three Methods of Instruction for Acquiring Information Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Canadian fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (n=300) were given either resource-based instruction (RBI), nonintegrated library instruction, or no library skills instruction. Sixth graders in RBI outperformed sixth graders given no instruction. There were no significant differences between nonintegrated and no instruction. Maximum learning growth…

Hara, Katsuko

1997-01-01

120

Can individuals with Down syndrome acquire alphabetic literacy skills in the absence of phoneme awareness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigating the relationship betweenphoneme awareness and word reading ability in Downsyndrome (DS) are reported. The first study included33 Brazilian individuals with DS (mean age = 23years). They all had begun to read and all showedclear signs of phonological recoding skills. Thirty-three normal children (mean age = 7 years),matched with the individuals with DS for readingability, participated as controls.

Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Uta Frith

2001-01-01

121

The Use of Drama to Help Visually Impaired Adolescents Acquire Social Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 4-day developmental drama workshop was held for 12 visually impaired adolescents at a rehabilitation center for blind persons. Pretest-posttest measures of social skills revealed increased levels of individual concentration, increased interaction within the group and with friends and acquaintances outside the group, and higher levels of…

Bieber-Schut, R.

1991-01-01

122

Education through Fiction: Acquiring Opinion-Forming Skills in the Context of Genomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…

Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja

2009-01-01

123

Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: A pilot study in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention. PMID:23768932

Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

2013-06-12

124

A quantitative survey of intern's knowledge of communication skills: an Iranian exploration  

PubMed Central

Background It is a high priority that health care providers have effective communication skills. It has been well documented that the doctor-patient relationship is central to the delivery of high quality medical care, and it has been shown to affect patient satisfaction, to decrease the use of pain killers, to shorten hospital stays, to improve recovery from surgery and a variety of other biological, psychological and social outcomes. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge of interns in Iran about communication skills. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-report questionnaire was conducted among interns. Data analysis was based on 223 questionnaires. The internal consistency of the items was 0.8979. Results Overall, knowledge levels were unsatisfactory. Results indicated that interns had a limited knowledge of communication skills, including identification of communication skills. In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of interns on breaking bad news and sex education. The confidence of males about their communication skills was significantly higher than for females. Analysis of the total scores by age and sex showed that there was a statistically significant main effect for sex and the interaction with age was statistically significant. Free response comments of the interns are also discussed. Conclusions It is argued that there is a real need for integrating a communication skills course, which is linked to the various different ethnic and religious backgrounds of interns, into Iranian medical curricula. Some recommendations are made and the limitations of the study are discussed.

Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Lyne, Owen D; Zeinaloo, Ali A

2005-01-01

125

Nurses' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills regarding evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational programme on attitudes and perceptions of knowledge and skills, of registered nurses, towards EBP. The study was conducted using a quasiexperimental interrupted time series design. Participants were clinical nurses in educational and leadership roles within a Health Service District in south-east Queensland. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three points. Nurses' belief in the value of EBP for practice was high prior to the programme and did not change subsequently. There was an improvement following the intervention in nurses' attitudes to organizational support for EBP and their perceptions of their knowledge and skills in locating and evaluating research reports. Providing educational courses in a clinical setting is useful in improving clinicians' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills related to EBP. PMID:18021165

Sherriff, Karen L; Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

2007-12-01

126

Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) an...

S. F. Ali D. Guckenberger P. Crane M. Rossi M. Williams J. Williams M. Archer

2000-01-01

127

Defining a structured training program for acquiring basic and advanced laparoscopic psychomotor skills in a simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different structured training programs on basic laparoscopic psychomotor skills (LPS), as assessed by hand–eye\\u000a coordination (HEC), and on advanced LPS, as assessed by laparoscopic intracorporeal knot tying (LICK), was evaluated. Sixty\\u000a gynecologists without laparoscopic experience were randomly allocated to three groups for different HEC training and similar\\u000a LICK training. During HEC training, group 1 (G1) trained the

Carlos Roger Molinas; Rudi Campo

2010-01-01

128

Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual  

PubMed Central

How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking.

Schultz, Jon-Hakon; Lien, Inger-Lise

2013-01-01

129

Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.  

PubMed

How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

2013-04-15

130

Knowledge and skills of professional carers working with older people with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The current study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, skills and self-efficacy of care providers from the perspective of professionals working in the aged-care industry.Method: Participants were 21 professional carers, 10 General Practitioners and 7 aged-care managers. Focus groups, which involved the completion of a semi-structured interview related to knowledge, recognition, confidence, referral procedures and use of screening tools

Marita P. McCabe; Tanya Davison; David Mellor; Kuruvilla George

2008-01-01

131

The CEC Common Core of Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common core knowledge and skills essential for all beginning special education teachers, developed by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), are reprinted, along with the CEC Code of Ethics. The article also provides a rationale for the standards and background information on their development and adoption. (JDD)

Swan, William W.; Sirvis, Barbara

1992-01-01

132

A Survey of General Education Majors: Assistive Technology Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted in order to assess the level of assistive technology knowledge and skills among general education majors in a southwestern university. Eighty-five pre-service teachers were recruited for the study. These consisted of student teachers, practicum students, and individuals working toward licensure. A questionnaire was…

Alsalem, Gheed Mufied

2010-01-01

133

Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new…

Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.

2006-01-01

134

Do One-to-One Initiatives Bridge the Way to 21st Century Knowledge and Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from an investigation of the overall effectiveness of Michigan's Freedom to Learn (FTL) One-to-One initiative. The major goal of the FTL initiative was to help students to gain 21st century knowledge and skills while increasing their learning and achievement through the integration of over 20,000 laptop computers…

Lowther, Deborah L.; Inan, Fethi A.; Ross, Steven M.; Strahl, J. Daniel

2012-01-01

135

Postgraduate science research skills: the role of creativity, tacit knowledge, thought styles and language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses three crucial research skills: problem identification, data collection and hypothesis formation. It concludes that science research students should be taught about the creative process as they are under pressures that can inhibit creative thought. They should also be taught the importance of tacit knowledge for learning how to do research, as this will aid the process. Styles

Jenny Marie

2008-01-01

136

Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

2007-01-01

137

Postgraduate Science Research Skills: The Role of Creativity, Tacit Knowledge, Thought Styles and Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses three crucial research skills: problem identification, data collection and hypothesis formation. It concludes that science research students should be taught about the creative process as they are under pressures that can inhibit creative thought. They should also be taught the importance of tacit knowledge for learning how to…

Marie, Jenny

2008-01-01

138

Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in

Anat Zohar; Flora Nemet

2002-01-01

139

Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

Chang, Chun-Yen

2010-01-01

140

Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…

Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

2010-01-01

141

Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

2007-01-01

142

Are Self-Efficacy Instruments Comparable to Knowledge and Skills Tests in Training Evaluation Settings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have linked self-efficacy to performance, but they have not investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and knowledge and skills tests within a training evaluation setting, which is the main purpose of this study. Additionally, researchers have acknowledged self-efficacy scores may be distorted as a result of assessors…

Lanigan, Mary L.

2008-01-01

143

Online educational tools developed by Heart improve the knowledge and skills of hospital doctors in cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted this study to find out if online learning packages in cardiology enabled users to increase their knowledge and skills. We also looked at how acceptable users found these packages. The journal Heart in association with BMJ Learning produced a series of modules on common cardiology problems. The modules involved a pre-test, a number of interactive cases and a

Kieran Walsh; Isma Rafiq; Roger Hall

2007-01-01

144

A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2012-01-01

145

Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 × 3 (group × time)

Tony Pritchard; Andrew Hawkins; Robert Wiegand; Jonathan N. Metzler

2008-01-01

146

Rethinking assessment of marketing research skills and knowledge: a new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by a job market by systematically analyzing classified advertisements of position openings. It suggests appropriate methodological techniques to conduct such a study and compares these to traditional methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – While this paper discusses several methods used to assess the

Madhav N. Segal; Edmund K. Hershberger; Talaibek Osmonbekov

2009-01-01

147

Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

Williams, Laurel Lyn

2009-01-01

148

Youth Knowledge, Interpersonal Skills, and Media Attitudes After Anti-Tobacco Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To see if youth tobacco use prevention training improves knowledge, interaction skills, and awareness of media influences, junior high and high school students (161 at pre-test, 176 at post-test) from southeastern U.S. public schools completed questionnaires before and after anti-tobacco lessons. After training, high school (but not junior high)…

Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M.

2004-01-01

149

Training mental health professionals in cultural capability: sustainability of knowledge and skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation has resulted in an increase in the ethnic and cultural diversity of mental health service users. In recent years mental health policy, research and services have placed great emphasis on cultural competency training as a means of reducing disparities in mental health care. Evidence from studies measuring the effect of cultural competency training on knowledge and skills show significant

Joanna Bennett

2012-01-01

150

Measuring knowledge and clinical reasoning skills in a problem-based curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the Progress Test that was specially designed for measuring the growth of knowledge and clinical reasoning skills in a problem-based medical curriculum. Scores and subscores of students from the different categories of the Progress Test were compared with their scores on a Clinical Reasoning Tests. Both the Progress Test

Henry P A Boshuizen; Vleuten van der C; Henk G Schmidt; Maureen Machiels-Bongaerts

1997-01-01

151

Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

Howard, Katherine

2010-01-01

152

Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

153

Facilitating the Development of Disciplinary Knowledge and Communication Skills: Integrating Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While proficiency in academic writing and communication skills, such as teamwork, are seen as desirable graduate outcomes in higher education, they have taken a secondary place to the teaching of specific disciplinary knowledge within curricula. Traditionally, writing, such as writing a researched report, has been a source of anxiety for students…

Najar, Robyn L.

154

Facilitating the Development of Disciplinary Knowledge and Communication Skills: Integrating Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While proficiency in academic writing and communication skills, such as teamwork, are seen as desirable graduate outcomes in higher education, they have taken a secondary place to the teaching of specific disciplinary knowledge within curricula. Traditionally, writing, such as writing a researched report, has been a source of anxiety for students…

Najar, Robyn L.

155

Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

156

University and Elementary School Perspectives of Ideal Elementary Science Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the teaching of science is valued; the best approach to science teaching; and planning for science instruction. When asked of their teaching effectiveness while teaching science, principals referred to enjoying science teaching and improving their practice, while teachers and science teacher educators discussed content knowledge. Administrators valued conducting experiments and hands-on science while teaching science, while their educational counterparts valued creating student connections and providing real-life applications to science for students. In their professional opinions, administrators preferred a hands-on approach to science teaching. Teachers and science teacher educators stated that they view scientific inquiry, exploration, and discovery as effective approaches to teaching within their classrooms. Administrators predicted that teachers would state that lack of resources affects their lesson planning in science. However, teachers and science teacher educators asserted that taking time to plan for science instruction was most important.

Sewart, Bethany Bianca

157

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

158

The Effect of a Training Program in Communication Skills on Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication has been identified as one of the core clinical skills for all health care providers, but it is especially important for primary health care disciplines. Findings suggest the need for more attention to communication skills in continued physician education. This work aims at evaluating the effect of a communication skills training program on physicians' knowledge, attitude and self efficacy

Mona E. Shama; Fatma A. Meky; Nagwa Y. Abou; El Enein; Mohamed Y. Mahdy

159

Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

2013-01-01

160

Are Librarians the Ultimate Knowledge Managers? A Study of Knowledge, Skills, Practice and Mindset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…

Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne

2008-01-01

161

Are Librarians the Ultimate Knowledge Managers? A Study of Knowledge, Skills, Practice and Mindset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…

Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne

2008-01-01

162

[Investigation of nurses' pain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nurses' ain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills. Three instruments were used in the study: (1) Nurses' Introduction Form, (2) The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire and (3) Clinical Decision Making Survey Questionnaire developed by McCaffery and Ferrell was translated into Turkish and used with permission. The results showed that many nurses have inadequate knowledge about pain assessment and management, nurses' (% 47.4) did not observe patient's behaviors to determine/assess the patient's intensity of pain and % 74.5 of nurses' did not use pain assessment scales to measure the patient's pain. PMID:17457712

Ozer, Serap; Akyürek, Banu; Ba?bakkal, Zümrüt

2006-10-01

163

An investigation into teaching games for understanding: effects on skill, knowledge, and game play.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the games for understanding model by comparing it to a technique approach to instruction and a control group. The technique method focused primarily on skill instruction where the skill taught initially was incorporated into a game at the end of each lesson. The games for understanding approach emphasized developing tactical awareness and decision making in small game situations. Two physical education specialists taught field hockey using these approaches for 15 lessons (45 min each). The control group did not receive any field hockey instruction. Data were collected from 71 middle school children. Pretests and posttests were administered for hockey knowledge, skill, and game performance. Separate analyses of variance or analyses of covariance were conducted to examine group differences for cognitive and skill outcomes. The games for understanding group scored significantly higher on passing decision making than the technique and control groups during posttest game play and significantly higher than the control group for declarative and procedural knowledge. The games for understanding group scored significantly higher on control and passing execution than the other groups during posttest game play. For hockey skill, there were no significant differences among the treatment groups for accuracy, but the technique group recorded faster times than the control group on the posttest. PMID:10522286

Turner, A P; Martinek, T J

1999-09-01

164

Parental Involvement and the Developmental Stages of Writing: Knowledge and Skills to Assist Children and Parent Perceptions on Their Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A kindergarten parent workshop series on the developmental stages of writing was created and assessed. The intended outcome was to empower parents with writing knowledge and writing skills so that they could apply this knowledge and skills at home with their child. The researcher developed the workshops from parent involvement research,…

Fernandez-Kaltenbach, Elena

2009-01-01

165

Multicultural Art Education in an Era of Standardized Testing: Changes in Knowledge and Skill for Art Teacher Certification in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores changes in multicultural knowledge and skill to which beginning art teachers are held accountable through standardized teacher testing in Texas. Standardized testing of preservice art teachers' knowledge and skill has been the basis of the state's certification of beginning art teachers and accreditation of art teacher…

Kraehe, Amelia

2010-01-01

166

Knowledge, skills, and productivity in primary eye care among health workers in Tanzania: need for reassessment of expectations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the primary eye care knowledge, skills, and productivity of primary health workers at dispensaries in a district in Tanzania. Factors likely to contribute to knowledge, skills, and productivity were also assessed. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. All health workers employed at government dispensaries in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania were

Emmanuel Byamukama; Paul Courtright

2010-01-01

167

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Technique of Fire of The Rifle Squad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performances, knowledges, skills, habits and attitudes covered in the paper are those the Infantry rifle squad leader must possess to train and lead in combat a rifle squad of the rifle platoon. Where the knowledge or skill in question is one which mu...

H. E. Kelly

1969-01-01

168

A Pilot Study Assessing Knowledge of Clinical Signs and Physical Examination Skills in Incoming Medicine Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Physical exam skills of medical trainees are declining, but most residencies do not offer systematic clinical skills teaching or assessment. Objective To assess knowledge of clinical signs and physical exam performance among incoming internal medicine residents. Method For this study, 45 incoming residents completed a multiple choice question test to assess knowledge of clinical signs. A random selection of 20 underwent a faculty-observed objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) using patients with abnormal physical findings. Mean percentage scores were computed for the multiple choice question test, overall OSCE, and the 5 individual OSCE systems. Results The mean scores were 58.4% (14.6 of 25; SD 11. 5) for the multiple choice question test and 54.7% (31.7 of 58; SD 11.0) for the overall OSCE. Mean OSCE scores by system were cardiovascular 30.0%, pulmonary 69.2%, abdominal 61.6%, neurologic 67.0%, and musculoskeletal 41.7%. Analysis of variance showed a difference in OSCE system scores (P < .001) with cardiovascular and musculoskeletal scores significantly lower than other systems. Conclusion Overall, physical exam knowledge and performance of new residents were unsatisfactory. There appears to be a pressing need for additional clinical skills training during medical school and residency training and we are planning a new clinical skills curriculum to address this deficiency.

Ramani, Subha; Ring, Brandi N.; Lowe, Robert; Hunter, David

2010-01-01

169

Diagnostic Reasoning by Hospital Pharmacists: Assessment of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills  

PubMed Central

Background: Hospital pharmacists participate in activities that may be considered diagnostic. Two reasoning approaches to diagnosis have been described: non-analytic and analytic. Of the 6 analytic traditions, the probabilistic tradition has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary testing. To the authors’ knowledge, pharmacists’ attitudes toward having a diagnostic role and their diagnostic knowledge and skills have never been studied. Objectives: To describe pharmacists’ attitudes toward the role of diagnosis in pharmacotherapeutic problem-solving and to characterize the extent of pharmacists’ knowledge and skills related to diagnostic literacy. Methods: Pharmacists working within Lower Mainland Pharmacy Services (British Columbia) who spent at least 33% of their time in direct patient care were invited to participate in a prospective observational survey. The survey sought information about demographic characteristics and attitudes toward diagnosis. Diagnostic knowledge and skills were tested by means of 3 case scenarios. The analysis included simple descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to evaluate relationships between responses and experience and training. Results: Of 266 pharmacists invited to participate, 94 responded. The attitudes section of the survey was completed by 90 pharmacists; of these, 80 (89%) agreed with the definition of “diagnosis” proposed in the survey, and 83 (92%) agreed that it is important for pharmacists to have diagnosis-related skills. Respondents preferred an analytic to a non-analytic approach to diagnostic decision-making. The probabilistic tradition was not the preferred method in any of the 3 cases. In evaluating 5 clinical scenarios that might require diagnostic skills, on average 84% of respondents agreed that they should be involved in assessing such problems. Respondents’ knowledge of and ability to apply probabilistic diagnostic tools were highest for test sensitivity (average of 61% of respondents with the correct answers) and lower for test specificity (average of 48% with correct answers) and likelihood ratios (average of 39% with correct answers). Conclusions: Respondents to this survey strongly believed that diagnostic skills were important for solving drug-related problems, but they demonstrated low levels of knowledge and ability to apply concepts of probabilistic diagnostic reasoning. Opportunities to expand pharmacists’ knowledge of diagnostic reasoning exist, and the findings reported here indicate that pharmacists would consider such professional development valuable.

Chernushkin, Kseniya; Loewen, Peter; de Lemos, Jane; Aulakh, Amneet; Jung, Joanne; Dahri, Karen

2012-01-01

170

Acquiring skill at medical image inspection: learning localized in early visual processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquisition of the skill of medical image inspection could be due to changes in visual search processes, 'low-level' sensory learning, and higher level 'conceptual learning.' Here, we report two studies that investigate the extent to which learning in medical image inspection involves low- level learning. Early in the visual processing pathway cells are selective for direction of luminance contrast. We exploit this in the present studies by using transfer across direction of contrast as a 'marker' to indicate the level of processing at which learning occurs. In both studies twelve observers trained for four days at detecting features in x- ray images (experiment one equals discs in the Nijmegen phantom, experiment two equals micro-calcification clusters in digitized mammograms). Half the observers examined negative luminance contrast versions of the images and the remainder examined positive contrast versions. On the fifth day, observers swapped to inspect their respective opposite contrast images. In both experiments leaning occurred across sessions. In experiment one, learning did not transfer across direction of luminance contrast, while in experiment two there was only partial transfer. These findings are consistent with the contention that some of the leaning was localized early in the visual processing pathway. The implications of these results for current medical image inspection training schedules are discussed.

Sowden, Paul T.; Davies, Ian R.; Roling, Penny; Watt, Simon J.

1997-04-01

171

Ertapenem versus cefepime for initial empirical treatment of pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospitals outside the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here compared the efficacy and safety of ertapenem and cefepime as initial treatment for adults with pneumonia acquired in skilled-care facilities or in hospital environments outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-ventilated patients developing pneumonia in hospital environments outside the ICU, in nursing homes, or in other skilled-care facilities were enrolled in this double-blind non-inferiority study, stratified

S. V. Yakovlev; L. S. Stratchounski; G. L. Woods; B. Adeyi; K. A. McCarroll; J. A. Ginanni; I. R. Friedland; C. A. Wood; M. J. DiNubile

2006-01-01

172

Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new chemistry curriculum for Israeli high school students. As part of this endeavor, we developed the Taste of Chemistry module, which focuses on context-based chemistry, chemical understanding, and higher order thinking skills. Our research objectives were (a) to identify the challenges and difficulties chemistry teachers faced, as well as the advantages they found, while teaching and assessing the Taste of Chemistry module; and (b) to investigate how they coped with teaching and assessing thinking skills that include analyzing data from graphs and tables, transferring between multiple representations and, transferring between chemistry understanding levels. Research participants included eight teachers who taught the module. Research tools included interviews, classroom observations, teachers-designed students' assignments, and developers-designed students' assignments. We documented different challenges teachers had faced while teaching the module and found that the teachers developed different ways of coping with these challenges. Developing teachers' assessment knowledge (AK) was found to be the highest stage in teachers' professional growth, building on teachers' content knowledge (CK), pedagogy knowledge (PK), and pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). We propose the use of assignments designed by teachers as an instrument for determining their professional growth.

Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

2011-05-01

173

Failure to Acquire New Semantic Knowledge in Patients With Large Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions  

PubMed Central

We examined new semantic learning in two profoundly amnesic patients (E.P. and G.P.) whose lesions involve virtually the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL) bilaterally. The patients were given five tests of semantic knowledge for information that could only have been acquired after the onset of their amnesia in 1992 and 1987, respectively. Age-matched and education-matched controls (n = 8) were also tested. On tests of recall, E.P. and G.P. each scored 10% correct on a test of 20 easy factual questions (controls = 90%), 2% and 4% correct on 55 questions about news events (controls = 85%), and 0% and 4% correct on a test of 24 famous faces. On three tests of recognition memory for this same material, the patients scored at chance levels. Similarly, the patients were unable to judge whether persons who had been famous for many decades were still living or had died during the past 10 years (E.P. = 53%; G.P. = 50%; controls = 73%; chance = 50%). Lastly, neither patient E.P. nor patient G.P. could draw an accurate floor plan of his current residence, despite having lived there for 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The results demonstrate that the capacity for new semantic learning can be absent, or nearly absent, when there is virtually complete damage to the MTL bilaterally. Accordingly, the results raise the possibility that the acquisition of conscious (declarative) knowledge about the world cannot be supported by structures outside the MTL, even with extended exposure.

Bayley, Peter J.; Squire, Larry R.

2009-01-01

174

Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

Colley, Kabba E.

2006-01-01

175

TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description  

SciTech Connect

A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

1986-01-01

176

Skills and knowledge needed by television production specialists in distance education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine what distance education-related skills and knowledge television production specialists had to learn in order to perform their jobs. The purposive sample for this study consisted of 12 full-time television production specialists who develop live, interactive, video-based educational programs at American universities. However, prior to employment at their respective universities, these television production

Ricky Telg

1996-01-01

177

Comprehension skill, inference-making ability, and their relation to knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the relation between young children’s comprehension skill and inferencemaking ability using\\u000a a procedure that controlled individual differences in general knowledge (Barnes & Dennis, 1998; Barnes, Dennis, & Haefele-Kalvaitis,\\u000a 1996). A multiepisode story was read to the children, and their ability to make two types of inference was assessed: coherence\\u000a inferences, which were essential for adequate

Kate Cain; Jane V. Oakhill; Marcia A. Barnes; Peter E. Bryant

2001-01-01

178

Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents' civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers' qualifications and students' classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4 cognitive attributes (dimensions) underlying the test items of the International Association

Ting Zhang; Judith Torney-Purta; Carolyn Barber

2012-01-01

179

A longitudinal evaluation of medical student knowledge, skills and attitudes to alcohol and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students to alcohol and drugs as training progresses. Design A longitudinal, prospective, cohort-based design. Setting The four schools of medicine in New Zealand. Participants All second-year medical students (first year of pre-clinical medical health sciences) in New Zealand were administered a questionnaire which was repeated in the fourth (first year

Gavin Cape; Annette Hannah; Doug Sellman

2006-01-01

180

The relationship between medical students’ knowledge, confidence, experience, and skills related to colorectal cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Medical student colorectal cancer prevention education is crucial to improving cancer screening rates. Methods. We surveyed 146 medical students about their knowledge, confidence, and experience with colorectal cancer screening. We\\u000a then used a multivariate general linear model to assess the relationships between these variables and colorectal cancer screening\\u000a skills as measured in a standardized patient evaluation. Results. Type and

Karen E. Hauer; Luann Wilkerson; Arianne Teherani

2008-01-01

181

When You've Only Got One Class, One Chance: Acquiring Sociocultural Knowledge Using Eclectic Case Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we describe the creation of an eclectic case pedagogy based on case-based methods, sociocultural learning theory and visual studies successfully used in a university teacher education course designed to help students acquire sociocultural knowledge about schooling and teaching. Using qualitative data collected across three semesters…

Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Kraehe, Amelia

2010-01-01

182

ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: Left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality  

PubMed Central

This study examines the sensitivity of early event-related potentials (ERPs) to degrees of word semantic knowledge. Participants with strong, average, or weak vocabulary skills made speeded lexical decisions to letter strings. To represent the full spectrum of word knowledge among adult native-English speakers, we used rare words that were orthographically matched with more familiar words and with pseudowords. Since the lexical decision could not reliably be made on the basis of word form, subjects were obliged to use semantic knowledge to perform the task. A d? analysis suggested that high-skilled subjects adopted a more conservative strategy in response to rare versus more familiar words. Moreover, the high-skilled participants showed a trend towards an enhanced “N2c” to rare words, and a similar posterior temporal effect reached significance ~650 ms. Generators for these effects were localized to left temporal cortex. We discuss implications of these results for word learning and for theories of lexical semantic access.

Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Westbury, Chris

2012-01-01

183

Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

Assiter, Alison

184

Knowledge, Embodiment, Skill and Risk: Anthropological Perspectives on Women’s Everyday Technologies in Rural Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge organisation, embodiment of knowledge and knowledge representation are important issues for an anthropology of technology, which seeks to explore the ways in which people find and shape everyday solutions to social and technical challenges. This article discusses the impact of skill and of risk prevention on women's decision-making, as well as on the domestication and appropriation of new technologies.

Mareile Flitsch

2008-01-01

185

Forging the Future: Establishing Core Competencies and the Skills, Knowledge and Abilities of Navy Junior Medical Service Corps Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to achieve consensus among Navy Junior Medical Service Corps officers about the competencies and important skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) required for success over the first five to ten years of their careers using...

K. A. Shaw

2008-01-01

186

The Impact of Science Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Reading Strategy Knowledge on More Traditional "High-Stakes" Measures of High School Students' Science Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how well cognitive abilities predict high school students' science achievement as measured by traditional content-based tests. Students (n = 1,651) from four high schools in three states were assessed on their science knowledge, reading skill, and reading strategy knowledge. The dependent variable, content-based science…

O'Reilly, Tenaha; McNamara, Danielle S.

2007-01-01

187

The role of simulated models in pediatric surgery to acquire diagnostic skills of inguino-scrotal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose:Acquisition of clinical skills in medical education requires repeated practice. Current medical education mandates simulator-based clinical skills training programs. The details of our simulator-based clinical skills training on inguino-scrotal disorders (ISD) of the childhood, and the feedbacks obtained from the trainees are reported

O?uz Ate?; Tanju Aktu?; Gülce Hakgüder; Mustafa Olguner; Feza M Akgür

2003-01-01

188

Knowledge-based control of grasping in robot hands using heuristics from human motor skills  

SciTech Connect

The development of a grasp planner for multifingered robot hands is described. The planner is knowledge-based, selecting grasp postures by reasoning from symbolic information on target object geometry and the nature of the task. The ability of the planner to utilize task information is based on an attempt to mimic human grasping behavior. Several task attributes and a set of heuristics derived from observation of human motor skills are included in the system. The paper gives several examples of the reasoning of the system in selecting the appropriate grasp mode for spherical and cylindrical objects for different tasks.

Bekey, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.); Liu, H. (Telecom Research Labs., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Artificial Intelligence Systems Section); Tomovic, R. (Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Karplus, W.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.)

1993-12-01

189

Impact of a Diabetes Certificate Program on PharmD Students' Knowledge and Skills  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the impact of a pregraduation diabetes certificate program on PharmD students' knowledge and skills. Methods A comprehensive elective in diabetes was created and implemented in the third-professional year of the PharmD curriculum. A nonrandomized, single-blinded, controlled, 2-year study was conducted to determine the impact of the elective. Written and oral examinations were administered to the participants and students in a control group. Results The certificate students' (N = 25) and control students' (N = 12) average oral examination grades were 88.5% ± 13.4% and 89.5% ± 15.8%, respectively (p = 0.58). The certificate students' average grade on the counseling section of the oral examination was 9% higher than that of the students in the control group (p = 0.01). The certificate students' and control students' grades on the written examination were 80.9 ± 11.1% and 61.1 ± 17.4% (p = 0.0062), respectively. Conclusions A diabetes certificate program improved students' knowledge of diabetes disease state management and patient education skills compared to students who did not take the elective.

Foster, Karla T.; Unterwagner, Whitney; Jia, Haomiao

2007-01-01

190

Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as…

Yang, Eunyoung

2010-01-01

191

Acquiring overseas market knowledge: a comparison of strategies of expatriate and immigrant employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This conceptual paper starts from the recognition that internationalisation of business is an information-intensive process and aims to investigate two key modes for the acquisition of knowledge: expatriates and immigrant employees. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper sets out a conceptual framework which examines nine popular modes of knowledge acquisition essential to the internationalisation process and their comparative strengths and

Peter Enderwick

2011-01-01

192

Skills for the Knowledge and Service Society: Trends Determining Future Pre-Service and In-Service VET Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The change-over to a knowledge and service society means greater opportunities for the highly skilled. Participation in tertiary education is increasing in all countries, and it can be seen that graduates are being absorbed into knowledge intensive services in the labour market. The international trend towards making vocational education and…

Schneeberger, Arthur

2006-01-01

193

Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed.

Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

2002-01-01

194

Just pretending can be really learning: Children use pretend play as a source for acquiring generic knowledge.  

PubMed

Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios about an animal and were then asked questions about real animals. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds treated the pretend scenarios as informative about the kind of animal represented in the pretense but as uninformative about another kind of animal. In Experiments 2 and 3, 4- and 5-year-olds resisted learning from scenarios that contradicted their existing knowledge and expectations. Together, these findings show that children's learning from pretense shows specificity for the kinds represented in pretense and that children's learning from pretense is selective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23148938

Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori

2012-11-12

195

A Survey of mental skills training knowledge, opinions, and practices of junior tennis coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Junior tennis coaches (N = 153) were surveyed to determine their opinions about the importance of mental skills training, the specific mental skills they teach, strategies they use to teach mental skills, and recommendations for making mental skills training more effective. Mental skills thought to be most difficult to teach included reframing pressure, crisis management, self-confidence, and emotional control. Roadblocks

Daniel Gould; Russell Medbery; Nicole Damarjian; Larry Lauer

1999-01-01

196

An inquiry into the integration of indigenous knowledges and skills in the Kenyan secondary science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem-solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context-boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly Eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, I investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, tberefore, are more likely than men to generate a wide variety of data. Their role as caretakers also bestows on them the great responsibility of communicating everyday knowledge to current and future generations. 1The term 'schooled' refers to knowledge and skills that are designated for instruction in schools.

Kithinji, Wanja

197

Impact of health education on knowledge regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among college girl students, to expose the college girl students to targeted HIV/AIDS education and to assess the impact of HIV/ AIDS health education on college girl students. A cross-sectional study was designed over the period September 2009 to February 2010. Study participants included 139 students of BLDEA's Arts and Commerce College for Women, Bijapur, Karnataka. Results indicated knowledge regarding HIV/ AIDS improved substantially, especially, with relation to various modes of transmission viz unsterilised syringes (41% to 72%), pregnant mother to child (23% to 66%) blood transfusion (20% to71%) and regarding preventive measures namely adherence to single partner (68% to 95%), use of condom (18% to 68%/), use of tested blood for transfusion (21% to 55%). The study showed significant difference between pre and post-test knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS PMID:24000505

Angadi, M M; Sorganvi, V S; Algur, V S

2013-01-01

198

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

199

Strategy knowledge and strategy change in skilled performance: a study of the game Othello.  

PubMed

Skill and skill development in playing the game Othello were investigated. In particular, we studied the role of strategies and strategy change, rather than focusing on knowledge of particular board patterns. The history of the development of the game suggests a shift from positional to mobility strategies, a change which also is reproduced in the development of individual players. The first two studies used historical analysis of tournament transcripts to study strategy change. The third study investigated one possible basis for the greater accessibility or ease of positional versus mobility strategy, namely differential encoding and memorability of typical board patterns. Study 3 demonstrated that completely naive as well as positional players remember positional games and moves more easily than mobility games and moves. The easier mastery of positional strategy may be caused in part by the greater ease of encoding typical positional patterns. We suggest that strategic change and conceptual reorganization may be particularly important for domains where the naive encoding of events is not the most apt. We also suggest that similarities exist between strategy change in Othello and other domains. PMID:2349975

Billman, D; Shaman, D

1990-01-01

200

Management Knowledge and Skills Required in the Health Care System of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading.

Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

2012-01-01

201

Using bandwidth knowledge of results to alter relative frequencies during motor skill acquisition.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the predictions of the guidance and specificity hypotheses by manipulating different distributions of relative frequency of knowledge of results (KR) using bandwidth (BW) conditions. Subjects (N = 120) were randomly assigned to either a BW0%, BW10%, Shrinking-BW, or Expanding-BW condition. After 100 acquisition trials were completed, a double transfer design was employed in which the subjects were divided in half and randomly assigned to a no-KR or KR retention condition. Retention tests of 10 min and 48 hr were completed under a no-KR or KR retention condition. Results of the 48-hr retention test under the no-KR retention condition suggested that receiving high relative frequencies of KR at the end of the acquisition phase was as detrimental to motor skill learning as receiving high relative frequencies of KR throughout acquisition. The results are discussed with respect to the guidance and specificity hypotheses. PMID:7644839

Goodwin, J E; Meeuwsen, H J

1995-06-01

202

The Impact of Science Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Reading Strategy Knowledge on More Traditional “High-Stakes” Measures of High School Students’ Science Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how well cognitive abilities predict high school students’ science achievement as measured by traditional content-based tests. Students (n = 1,651) from four high schools in three states were assessed on their science knowledge, reading skill, and reading strategy knowledge. The dependent variable, content-based science achievement, was measured in terms of students’ comprehension of a science passage, science

Tenaha O’Reilly; Danielle S. McNamara

2007-01-01

203

Problem-based learning and the workplace: do dental hygienists in Hong Kong continue to use the skills acquired in their studies?  

PubMed

Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in the dental hygiene program at the University of Hong Kong since 2001, but research is lacking to address the level of retention in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore whether dental hygienists continue to use their PBL skills and how well those skills are being applied in the workplace. A total of eighteen dental hygienists from the 2006 program were invited to participate in this study. A survey was conducted and follow-up group interviews carried out in 2008. The results revealed that dental hygienists continue to use the PBL skills of communication with the patient, patient education, and independent learning, but seldom use dental knowledge, teamwork, and communication with colleagues. Critical thinking, self-evaluation, and lifelong learning skills showed contradictory results. Besides, stressors under individual work environments, including certain Chinese cultural values, affect the way in which dental hygienists utilize PBL skills. This study concludes that the PBL approach is a worthwhile learning process for dental hygiene. However, many different variables affect the effectiveness of applying PBL skills after academic training, especially under the influence of Chinese culture in Hong Kong. PMID:19648570

Cheng, Brenda Siu Shan

2009-08-01

204

Failure to acquire new semantic knowledge in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined new semantic learning in two profoundly amnesic patients (E.P. and G.P.) whose lesions involve virtually the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL) bilaterally. The patients were given five tests of semantic knowledge for information that could only have been ac- quired after the onset of their amnesia in 1992 and 1987, respectively. Age-matched and education-matched controls (n 8) were

Peter J. Bayley; Larry R. Squire

2005-01-01

205

The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas

Alison Adair Jones

2009-01-01

206

Nature of Science Knowledge and Scientific Argumentation Skills in Taiwanese College Biology Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many believe that students with mature understanding of NOS engage in argumentation more, mixed results were found in empirical studies. In argumentation studies, consensus assessment was lacking and most researchers only evaluated the structural aspects of argumentation. However in the science classroom, an assessment that examines the "content correctness" in addition to the "structural complexity" is necessary because scientific argumentation that is structurally complicated but full of misconceptions cannot be considered strong. Therefore, the goal of this study was first to develop a method to evaluate the quality of students' scientific argumentation in both the content and structure aspects. The second goal was to examine to what extent NOS knowledge and argumentation skills correlate. Furthermore, through semi-structured interview, this study documented students' NOS understandings in the target aspects of NOS. Significant correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in the first year of the study. Although no correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in follow-up study, the score distribution implied that students with mixed views of NOS engaged more in scientific argumentation in which specific scientific data were required to support their claims. The qualitative analysis of students' NOS interview revealed that students with strong argumentation skills view science as an open entity that may be challenged and discussed. Further, all of the interview participants placed high values on empirical support. The majority of the participants held the misconception about theories and laws, and expressed that the theory of evolution is less persuasive than other theories because some parts of the supporting evidence lack empirical support.

Lai, Mei-Chun

207

TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills.  

PubMed

Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives. PMID:19972662

Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

2009-03-01

208

Knowledge and Perceptions About Community-acquired Staphylococcal Infections Among Health Care Workers in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai'i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work locations (hospital, community, and non-clinical community). Overall, health care and related workers in community settings demonstrated disparities in knowledge regarding S. aureus and MRSA infections. They were also more likely to misperceive this growing threat. These findings provide support for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this evolving epidemic. PMID:24069572

Dunn, Brandyn S; Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R

2013-09-01

209

Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Community-Acquired Staphylococcal Infections Among Health Care Workers in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically. Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai‘i's strikingly high incidence and prevalence of MRSA infections, a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully controlling this evolving epidemic. Methods Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes, obesity, pets, and seawater exposure as well as understanding the seriousness of antibiotic resistance. Perceptions were estimated by demonstrated awareness of the severity and elevated incidence and prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA infections. Results This study identified that occupation (advance clinical practitioner, nurse, public health professional, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work location (community vs hospital) influence knowledge and perceptions regarding the epidemiology, severity, and risk factors of S. aureus and MRSA infections. Additionally, despite a well-documented global crisis with antibiotic resistance, Hawai‘i's community health care workers were less inclined to correctly identify the threat of antibiotic resistance as compared to their hospital-based colleagues. Conclusion Trends were observed in knowledge and perceptions with level of medical education. Differences were also noted according to work location. Overall, health care and related workers in the community were less likely to understand basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as misperceive this imminent threat. These findings provide compelling evidence for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this emerging epidemic.

Katz, Alan; Hurwitz, Eric; Tice, Alan

2013-01-01

210

Knowledge and Perceptions About Community-acquired Staphylococcal Infections Among Health Care Workers in Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai‘i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work locations (hospital, community, and non-clinical community). Overall, health care and related workers in community settings demonstrated disparities in knowledge regarding S. aureus and MRSA infections. They were also more likely to misperceive this growing threat. These findings provide support for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this evolving epidemic.

Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R

2013-01-01

211

The Development of Knowledge and Skill Statements for Teachers of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes DCCD's involvement in a project to develop a list of knowledge and skills for all beginning teachers of students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D\\/HH). The list is designed to function as a resource to CEC's Professional Standards and Practices Committee (PSPC), the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED) and other national organizations concerned

Susan Easterbrooks

1995-01-01

212

Investigating Changes in Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills from Pre-Service to the Initial Year of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the levels of pedagogical knowledge and skills as perceived by student teachers who were enrolled in the Post Graduate Diploma in Education program at the National Institute of Education, Singapore, from the beginning of their initial teacher preparation program to the end of their first year of teaching. Their perceptions were…

Wong, Angela F. L.; Chong, Sylvia; Choy, Doris; Lim, Kam Ming

2012-01-01

213

Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

2007-01-01

214

Investigating Changes in Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills from Pre-Service to the Initial Year of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the levels of pedagogical knowledge and skills as perceived by student teachers who were enrolled in the Post Graduate Diploma in Education program at the National Institute of Education, Singapore, from the beginning of their initial teacher preparation program to the end of their first year of teaching. Their perceptions…

Wong, Angela F. L.; Chong, Sylvia; Choy, Doris; Lim, Kam Ming

2012-01-01

215

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions Before and After China's WTO Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after China's WTO entry). The identified set of eight managerial

Bonnie P. Stivers; Raj Veliyath; Teresa Joyce; Janet S. Adams

2010-01-01

216

How the Skills, Competencies, and Knowledge Areas Necessary for Success as Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners Are Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although there is an extensive review of the literature about the skills/competencies and knowledge areas needed for success as an entry-level student affairs professional (Hyman, 1988; Kinser, 1993; Lovell & Kosten, 2000; Ostroth, 1981; Waple, 2006), no such study or studies have been conducted regarding how graduates of College Student…

Lambert, Jason Ignazio

2008-01-01

217

The Critical Reading of the Images Associated with Science?Related News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills, and attitudes framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the majority of adults, the media constitute their main source of information about science and science?related matters impacting on society. To help prepare young people to engage with science in the media, teachers are being exhorted to equip their students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to respond critically to science?related news reports. Typically, such reports comprise not only

Ruth Jarman; Billy McClune; Eric Pyle; Gangolf Braband

2011-01-01

218

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

2010-01-01

219

Item-Level Comparative Analysis of Online and Paper Administrations of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a comparative study conducted at the item level for paper and online administrations of a statewide high stakes assessment. The goal was to identify characteristics of items that may have contributed to mode effects. Item-level analyses compared two modes of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for up to four subjects at two grade levels.

Leslie Keng; Katie Larsen McClarty; Laurie Laughlin Davis

2008-01-01

220

Item-Level Comparative Analysis of Online and Paper Administrations of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a comparative study conducted at the item level for paper and online administrations of a statewide high stakes assessment. The goal was to identify characteristics of items that may have contributed to mode effects. Item-level analyses compared two modes of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for up to four…

Keng, Leslie; McClarty, Katie Larsen; Davis, Laurie Laughlin

2008-01-01

221

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

2010-01-01

222

Skills and Knowledge Needs Assessment To Support Multi-Craft Maintenance and Training Design. Report Number Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The needs assessment reported in this document was undertaken to identify the skills and knowledge needed in the maintenance department of Standard Steel of Burnham, Pennsylvania, so that curriculum could be developed to: (1) train most department employees for most tasks across crafts; and thereby (2) increase productivity by decreasing the time…

Geroy, Gary D.; And Others

223

Promoting Clinical Knowledge, Skills, and Empathy via a Creative Self-Suicide Assignment: Rationale, Purpose, and Student Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is a leading cause of American deaths. Given suicide's overall frequency and negative effects, specialized suicide training is warranted. This article describes a creative self-suicide assignment designed to enhance doctoral students' suicide assessment and intervention knowledge and clinical skills, and promote greater counselor empathy…

Cook, Katrina; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Peters, Scott W.; Marbach, Christina R.; Day, Sally; Choucroun, Pierre; Baker, Ria E.

2007-01-01

224

Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Initial Set Revalidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Council for Exceptional Children and the Council on the Education of the Deaf have worked together for over a decade to maintain mutually agreed on standards for teachers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This article presents the updated and revalidated standards of knowledge and skills for teachers in their initial preparation…

Easterbrooks, Susan R.

2008-01-01

225

Recognizing the Importance of Aging Skills and Knowledge in Generalist Social Work Practice: Effective Strategies for MSW Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure to gerontology in and out of the classroom appears necessary to sustain students' interest

Robin P. Bonifas; Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen; Kathleen A. Bailey

2009-01-01

226

Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

227

Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting:…

Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

2011-01-01

228

Emotion Knowledge Skills in Low-Income Elementary School Children: Associations with Social Status and Peer Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This short-term longitudinal study examined relations between emotion knowledge and social functioning in a sample of low-income kindergarten and 1st graders. Individual differences in spontaneous emotion naming and emotion recognition skills were used to predict children's social functioning at school, including peer-nominated sociometric…

Miller, Alison L.; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Seifer, Ronald; Zakriski, Audrey; Eguia, Maria; Vergnani, Michael

2005-01-01

229

Effectiveness of current teaching methods in Cardiology: the SKILLS (medical Students Knowledge Integration of Lower Level clinical Skills) study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess reported changes in medical students’ capacity to attain five basic cardiological clinical skills, following a one-month intensive cardiology course provisioned in the core curriculum. Materials and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire comprising self reported performance in the five skills, namely 1) arterial blood pressure measurement, 2) cardiac auscultation, 3) electrocardiogram (ECG) carry out, 4) ECG interpretation and 5) defibrillation, was distributed to 177 fifth year students of the Athens Medical School upon initiating the cardiology course (pre-training group) and to 59 students matched for sex, age, year of study and training centre, following completion of the course (post training group). Comparison of pre- and post- training performance was evaluated using the ?2 test. Results: No change was noted with regards to blood pressure measurement, cardiac auscultation or defibrillation. By contrast, a statistically significant improvement was reported for ECG execution (54.3 versus 81.4%; p<0.001) and interpretation (from 33.1 to 89.8%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in the execution and interpretation of ECGs seems to be among the strengths of the cardiology training program. Further studies including larger samples from multiple medical schools and objective assessment of skill execution might facilitate accurate training evaluation and define opportunities for improvement.

Lavranos, G; Koliaki, C; Briasoulis, A; Nikolaou, A; Stefanadis, C

2013-01-01

230

The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

Dalyan, Figen

2004-01-01

231

Tarih Ö?retmeninin Meslekî Bilgi ve Becerilerini ?ekillendiren Unsurlar The Principles That Shape The Proffessional Knowledge and Skills of The History Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article emphasizes the professional knowledge and skills which the history teachers are supposed to possess. The subject will be dealt in two categories as knowledge based principles and personal principles .

G. Ü. Gazi; Ana Bilim Dali

232

Health Services Mobility Study Method of Task Analysis and Curriculum Design, Research Report No. 11 Volume I -- Basic Tools -- Concepts, Task Identification, Skill Scales and Knowledge System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains an introduction to the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS) methodology and the basic task analysis instruments. The HSMS definitions of task, skills and knowledge scales, knowledge classification scheme, and system overview are incl...

E. Gilpatrick

1977-01-01

233

The clinical skills unit.  

PubMed Central

Clinical skills units offer exciting and innovative ways of learning about clinical skills. Links between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice are appropriate for both undergraduate and postgraduate training. Students and doctors can practice and acquire technical and examination skills in a standardised and protected environment without being concerned about the distress such learning may cause real patients. Models and simulators used in skills units are being developed to keep pace with demand, with a corresponding increase in standards of quality and durability. As undergraduate medical courses respond to the demands of modern clinical practice the use of such facilities will increase. This paper describes the functions of skills units and provides practical examples of educational strategies in use. Images p731-a p731-b p731-c p731-d

Bligh, J.

1995-01-01

234

Evaluation of a Knowledge- and Cognitive-Behavioral Skills-Building Intervention to Prevent STDs and HIV Infection in High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the efficacy of a school-based knowledge- and cognitive-behavioral skills-building prevention intervention. Results indicate that the intervention increased students' (N=513) knowledge of sexually transmitted disease and bolstered the skills related to prevention of risky sexual and drug-use behavior. Significant changes in risk…

Boyer, Cherrie B.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Tschann, Jeanne

1997-01-01

235

Development and Evaluation of a Method for Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge and Skill in Performing Physical Examinations of the Ankle and Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pediatric residents need the knowledge and physical examination skills to evaluate common musculoskeletal injuries. The ankle and the knee are the 2 most common sites of musculoskeletal injury in young athletes. Methods for evaluating pediat- ric residents' knowledge and skills in examining the ankle and knee are needed. Objectives. 1) To describe the development of a method for evaluating

Albert C. Hergenroeder; Larry Laufman; Joseph N. Chorley; Amy C. Fetterhoff

2001-01-01

236

Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

Mihm-Herold, Wendy

2010-01-01

237

Considering human capital theory in assessment and training:mapping the gap betweem current skills and the needs of a knowledge-based economy in northeast Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aIn light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowan's are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as identifying skills deficits

Wendy Ann Mihm-herold

2010-01-01

238

THE INTERACTION OF READING SKILLS AND SCIENCE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE WHEN TEACHING STRUGGLING SECONDARY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science content area texts are difficult for most middle school students, particularly whose reading skills are below grade level. This article describes an innovative approach to integrating the teaching of middle school science content and reading skills to increase levels of student success with content area textbooks.For reading instruction, this approach features carefully selected vocabulary, word reading instruction, oral (including

Linda Carnine; Douglas Carnine

2004-01-01

239

The Interaction of Reading Skills and Science Content Knowledge when Teaching Struggling Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science content area texts are difficult for most middle school students, particularly whose reading skills are below grade level. This article describes an innovative approach to integrating the teaching of middle school science content and reading skills to increase levels of student success with content area textbooks. For reading instruction,…

Carnine, Linda; Carnine, Douglas

2004-01-01

240

Kindergartners' Preacademic Skills and Mainstreamed Teachers' Knowledge: Implications for Special Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the need to identify the academic skills displayed by normally developing children in order to successfully prepare and place handicapped preschoolers into mainstreamed kindergartens. In order to determine kindergartners' entry level skills, a sample of 25 children designated by their teacher as \\

Sarah Rule; Mark S. Innocenti; Karen J. Coor; Marilyn K. Bonem; Joseph J. Stowitschek

1989-01-01

241

Anatomy of a physics test: Validation of the physics items on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an analysis of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) designed to determine whether the TAKS is a valid indicator of whether students know and can do physics at the level necessary for success in future coursework, STEM careers, and life in a technological society. We categorized science items from the 2003 and 2004 10th and 11th grade TAKS by content area(s) covered, knowledge and skills required to select the correct answer, and overall quality. We also analyzed a 5000 student sample of item-level results from the 2004 11th grade exam, performing full-information factor analysis, calculating classical test indices, and determining each item's response curve using item response theory. Triangulation of our results revealed strengths and weaknesses of the different methods of analysis. The TAKS was found to be only weakly indicative of physics preparation and we make recommendations for increasing the validity of standardized physics testing.

Marshall, Jill A.; Hagedorn, Eric A.; O'Connor, Jerry

2009-06-01

242

The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or science TAKS expository text questions were reading skills and strategies, as well as word concepts.

Jones, Alison Adair

243

Foreign-trained dentists' perceived knowledge and skills after graduation from a structured two-year program.  

PubMed

In this survey study, graduates of the University of Western Ontario program for foreign-trained dentists from 1999 to 2009 were asked for their perceptions of their knowledge and skill in fourteen clinical topic areas before they were admitted to the program and after graduation. Their ratings were made on a ten-point visual analog scale divided into three aptitude domains: competent, proficient, and master/expert. Definitions of each domain were provided. The majority of the respondents felt that their knowledge level improved at least one aptitude level in only four of the fourteen (29 percent) topic areas but that their skill level had increased at least one aptitude level in nine (64 percent) topic areas. Of note, clinical topics with content reflective of North American dental practice such as oral medicine and treatment planning, ethics, regulated dentistry, record keeping, and informed consent were the topic areas in which most respondents reported an improvement in both their knowledge and skill. It is suggested that programs evaluating or providing gap training for internationally trained dentists consider mandatory inclusion of these topics. PMID:21828304

Kogon, Stanley; Banting, David W; Sandhu, Harinder

2011-08-01

244

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information.

Ayl?kc?, Bahad?r Ugur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Colak, Hakan

2013-01-01

245

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

246

49 CFR Appendix to Part 380 - LCV Driver Training Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Skills The following table lists topics of instruction required for drivers...Each course must include the minimum topics of instruction, including behind-the-wheel...components. Table to the AppendixâCourse Topics for LCV Drivers Section 1:...

2012-10-01

247

Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is\\u000a often regarded as ‘just looking’ rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods\\u000a in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is\\u000a necessary. Because observation skills form the basis

Lucia Kohlhauf; Ulrike Rutke; Birgit Neuhaus

2011-01-01

248

The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21866716

Silverman, Michael J

2011-01-01

249

Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

2010-01-01

250

Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a…

Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

2012-01-01

251

An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

252

Fostering Students' Knowledge and Argumentation Skills through Dilemmas in Human Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Focuses on the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/YDS)

Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

2002-01-01

253

A quantitative survey of intern's knowledge of communication skills: an Iranian exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is a high priority that health care providers have effective communication skills. It has been well documented that the doctor-patient relationship is central to the delivery of high quality medical care, and it has been shown to affect patient satisfaction, to decrease the use of pain killers, to shorten hospital stays, to improve recovery from surgery and a

Mohsen Tavakol; Sima Torabi; Owen D Lyne; Ali A Zeinaloo

2005-01-01

254

DEVELOPING STUDENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR HOME-BASED SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguish- ing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the interven- tion process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safe- ty, boundary, confidentiality, and ethical challenges. This article offers practical

Susan F. Allen; Elizabeth M. Tracy

2008-01-01

255

Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

2009-01-01

256

Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

2009-01-01

257

Designing Online Strategy Instruction for Integrated Vocabulary Depth of Knowledge and Web-Based Dictionary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…

Ranalli, Jim

2013-01-01

258

Developing Student Knowledge and Skills for Home-Based Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguishing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the intervention process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safety, boundary, confidentiality, and…

Allen, Susan F.; Tracy, Elizabeth M.

2008-01-01

259

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

260

Perceived Needs of Recent Graduates for Marketing-Related Knowledge and Skills: Implications for Pharmacy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 215 recent graduates of Purdue University School of Pharmacy investigated unmet needs for 9 marketing skill areas: measuring and forecasting demand; personal selling; public relations; purchasing and inventory control; strategic planning; managed care organizations; physician dispensing; physician prescribing and health care…

Rupp, Michael T.; Szkudlarek, Beth A.

1991-01-01

261

Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

Rice, Erik

2011-01-01

262

Perceived Needs of Recent Graduates for Marketing-Related Knowledge and Skills: Implications for Pharmacy Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 215 recent graduates of Purdue University School of Pharmacy investigated unmet needs for 9 marketing skill areas: measuring and forecasting demand; personal selling; public relations; purchasing and inventory control; strategic planning; managed care organizations; physician dispensing; physician prescribing and health care financers;…

Rupp, Michael T.; Szkudlarek, Beth A.

1991-01-01

263

Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

2010-01-01

264

Knowledge, attitude and skills before and after a module on pharmaceutical promotion in a Nepalese medical school  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceutical promotion is widespread and can impact prescribing by health professionals. Little research has been conducted on interactions between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. Teaching about pharmaceutical promotion is inadequate. A survey showed that many schools spend only about two hours teaching this important topic while others spend around six hours. Recently a manual on understanding and responding to promotion has been published by Health Action International (HAI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). From April to August 2011 the department of Clinical Pharmacology at KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducted a module on pharmaceutical promotion for second year students based on the manual. The module used active learning strategies such as brainstorming sessions, role plays and group activities. The study worked on the hypothesis that a module on pharmaceutical promotion will be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude and skills of medical students regarding pharmaceutical promotion. The impact of the module on knowledge, attitude and skills was tested using a retrospective-pre questionnaire. The scores according to gender and method of financing of medical education before and after the module were compared using appropriate non-parametric tests. Results Eighty-seven of the 100 second year students (87%) participated in the study. 47 were females (54%) and 39 (44.83%) were males and one did not state the gender. Seventy-seven students (88.5%) were self-financing while 9 were scholarship students. The median knowledge, attitude and skills score before the module were 9, 13 and 6 respectively while the overall score was 28. The scores increased significantly to 16, 15 and 14 respectively after the module while the overall score increased to 45. The median attitude scores and total scores were significantly higher among females both before and after the module. The scores did not vary with method of financing of medical education. All scores increased significantly at the end of the module. Conclusions The nine hour module held over a period of four months was effective in improving respondents' knowledge, attitudes and skills about pharmaceutical promotion. The module was not resource intensive and used resources already available in the institution. Similar modules can be considered in other medical and health profession schools in Nepal, South Asia and other developing countries.

2012-01-01

265

Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M. Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

2013-01-01

266

Attitude, Skill, and Knowledge: (ASK) a New Model for Design Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design education is a multi domain disciplines incorporate different aspects that as a whole aims to create a designer. Designer creation is not a simple task, and require, beside other aspects they have to obtain and acquire during their school years, students to have some aspects impeded in their personality,. Educator's role is to identify these aspects and direct their

Ahmed A. Bakarman

267

Using standardized patients to evaluate screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) knowledge and skill acquisition for internal medicine residents.  

PubMed

Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors present a pre-post clinical skill evaluation of a 10-hour screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for hazardous drinking and SUDs for primary care internal medicine residents using standardized patient examinations to better determine the impact of SBIRT training on clinical practice. Residents had large improvements in history taking, substance use screening skills, SUD assessment and diagnostic skills, and in SBIRT knowledge, including documentation, systems, and diversity issues. Residents made moderate improvements in brief intervention skills. Future SBIRT curricular evaluations would ideally include a controlled comparison with larger samples from multiple institutions. PMID:22738010

Satterfield, Jason M; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D; Tsoh, Janice Y; Batki, Steven L; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Wamsley, Maria

2012-01-01

268

Cooperative education of professional knowledge and computer skills for college students in mining engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carrying out computer innovation education, the phenomenon that the college students can't explain the engineering maps plotted by computer better is found, which shows that they have not mastered the professional knowledge in mining engineering sturdily. Through analyzing the existing problems in pure computer innovation and introducing the coordination theory, the cooperative education idea of professional knowledge and computer

Zhongxiong Wu; Qingfa Chen

2009-01-01

269

Knowledge and Skills Needed by MEMS Technologists as Ascertained by Industry Survey and Job Profiling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by L.A. West and Matthais W. Pleil for the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), describes the skills of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technologists. The authors provide this information through a survey taken of the industry and also job profiles from different companies. The presentation describes not only the positions available, but also the skills needed to attain these careers. The information mostly focuses on jobs in the United States, but also has a slight international focus. Students interested in this field will find this resource engaging on many different levels. It not only provides a nice synopsis of this career, but more importantly, it could shape the educational focus of interested students.

West, L. A.; Pleil, Matthias

2010-05-14

270

14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2013-01-01

271

14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2013-01-01

272

14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2010-01-01

273

14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2009-01-01

274

14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge...CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience,...

2009-01-01

275

The Effect of Concept Mapping with Different Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Knowledge Acquisition and Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…

Lim, Kyu Yon

2008-01-01

276

Learning about evolution and rejecting a belief in special creation: Effects of reflective reasoning skill, prior knowledge, prior belief and religious commitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in three sections of a high school biology course were taught a unit on evolution and natural selection. Prior to instruction, students were pretested to determine their (a) reflective reasoning skill, (b) strength of religious commitment, (c) prior declarative knowledge of evolution and natural selection, and (d) beliefs in evolution or special creation and related religiously oriented beliefs. Following instruction the measures of declarative knowledge and beliefs were readministered. The study was designed to test (a) the hypothesis that the acquisition of domain-specific concepts and the modification of nonscientific beliefs largely depends upon reflective reasoning skill, not prior declarative knowledge; and (b) the hypothesis that strength of religious commitment and a belief in special creation hinder the acquisition of scientific beliefs. Although instruction produced no overall shift toward a belief in evolution, as predicted, reflective reasoning skill was significantly related to initial scientific beliefs, and reflective reasoning skill, but not prior declarative knowledge, was significantly related to gains in declarative knowledge. Reflective reasoning skill, however, was not significantly related to changes in beliefs. Also as predicted, strength of religious commitment was negatively correlated with initial belief in evolution and with a change in belief toward evolution. Interrelationships among the study's major variables, as well as educational implications, are discussed.

Lawson, Anton E.; Worsnop, William A.

277

Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

2012-01-01

278

Cultivating Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills for Leading Change in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge

Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne

2010-01-01

279

What Teachers Need To Know: The Knowledge, Skills, and Values Essential to Good Teaching. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers presented as chapters in this book outline the background and professional preparation teachers need in subject area knowledge, understanding of intellectual and emotional growth, learning theory, and moral principles. The volume is organized into four parts. Each part is introduced with a brief essay that relates the accompanying…

Dill, David D., Ed.; And Others

280

How Word Reading Skill Impacts Text Memory: The Centrality Deficit and How Domain Knowledge Can Compensate  

PubMed Central

We examined text memory in children with word reading deficits to determine how these difficulties impact representations of text meaning. We show that even though children with poor word decoding recall more central than peripheral information, they show a significantly bigger deficit relative to controls on central than on peripheral information. We call this the centrality deficit and argue that it is the consequence of insufficient cognitive resources for connecting ideas together due to these children's resources being diverted from comprehension to word decoding. We investigated a possible compensatory mechanism for making these connections. Because a text representation is a synthesis of text information and a reader's prior knowledge, we hypothesized that having knowledge of the passage topic might reduce or eliminate the centrality deficit. Our results support this knowledge compensation hypothesis: the centrality deficit was evident when poor readers did not have prior knowledge, but was eliminated when they did. This presents an exciting avenue to pursue for possible remediation of reading comprehension in children with word identification difficulties.

Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.

2010-01-01

281

Cognition, Quantum Skills, and Knowledge Management in the Criminal Investigation Process: A Conceptual Model Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criminal investigation process is a critical function of policing. The main actor in crime related policing is the investigator who is involved in every step of the criminal investigation. Throughout the criminal investigation, the investigator uses his\\/her cognitive abilities and personal knowledge strategies to understand and solve the crime. In this theoretical paper, we develop a conceptual model of

Nordin Mohamed; David J. Pauleen

2005-01-01

282

Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: Selected Results from the Second Assessment of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of reports summarizing the results of the second mathematics assessment conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Nine, 13- and 17-year-olds were assessed during the 1977-78 school year. The assessment measured achievement in various content areas at four levels of cognitive processes (knowledge,…

Kahl, Stuart

283

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

284

Incorporating Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) knowledge and skills into the daily work of police officers: a focus group study.  

PubMed

This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226

Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T

2008-05-09

285

The use of knowledge of results based on the stability of performance during acquisition of timing skill: a validity study.  

PubMed

The goal was to examine the effect of changing knowledge-of-results bandwidth based on a participant's stable performance during acquisition of a timing skill. 36 university students experienced one of three conditions: (1) 100% KR condition during which information on errors was provided after each trial during practice, (2) fluctuation-of-range condition, wherein KR bandwidth was based on standard deviation of five trials, and (3) 10% KR bandwidth condition (10%), wherein the KR bandwidth was 810-990 msec. Variable error in the fluctuation-of-range condition at posttest and retention was significantly smaller than that with the 100% KR. Conditions in which range of KR was allowed to fluctuate were more effective for stabilizing performance. PMID:21466085

Ishikura, Tadao

2011-02-01

286

Effect of an oral health assessment education program on nurses' knowledge and patient care practices in skilled nursing facilities.  

PubMed

This pilot intervention study measured the impact of an oral health education intervention on nurses' knowledge and patient care practices in regard to oral assessments of institutionalized elders. Two 1-hour education sessions were completed over a 3-week period; a pretest and a posttest were administered immediately preceding the first session and immediately following the second session. Medical records were reviewed prior to and after the intervention to assess practices including completeness of oral health assessment and congruency with the Minimum Data Set 2.0 (MDS). Nine nurses attended the education intervention. Retrospectively, 176 records were reviewed preintervention and 80 postintervention. There was no significant change in knowledge from the pre- to posttest (p= .262). Completeness of all oral health assessment variables increased significantly (p= .001) as did the congruency of data between the nursing assessment (NA) and MDS assessments (p= .002). Providing nurses with education on oral health assessments in skilled nursing facilities has a positive impact on completeness of data and congruency between the NA and the MDS. PMID:19573046

Munoz, Nancy; Touger-Decker, Riva; Byham-Gray, Laura; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan

287

Transferring ANDRILL Research on Antarctic Cenozoic Climate Change into the Classroom: Teaching Exercises that build Student Skills and Content Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This set of undergraduate student-active learning exercises focuses on the status and role of Antarctica in Cenozoic climate change, and builds skills and knowledge required to evaluate sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the ANDRILL Project. Students discover new advances in understanding late Neogene Antarctic glacial history based on recent ANDRILL results. These exercises are part of the larger suite of activities in the project “Building Core Knowledge and Reconstructing Earth History”, which use authentic data to teach foundational concepts of climate change through sediment core archives (NSF Grant # 0737335). The Antarctic exercises involve a review of the composite benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope curve, and of global climate interpretations based in part on this record. Basic geographic and geologic knowledge of Antarctica and cryospheric processes are constructed in order to build the rationale for selecting drillsites in McMurdo Sound. Student attention is then focused on the use of sedimentary facies and depositional environments in core interpretation, with particular attention to the facies associations that are diagnostic of ice-proximal and ice-distal settings in high latitudes. This is constructed through diagrams, geological reasoning, use of core images and core logs, and culminates in the construction of models for ice-retreat and ice-advance sequences. The general climate record of the entire ANDRILL 1-B core log (1285 m) is then interpreted, by characterizing each of the key lithostratigraphic sub-units in terms of the dominant depositional environments represented. Students write a brief history of the late Miocene-Pliocene climatic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea region. Students conclude by evaluating facies patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Pliocene sequence completing calculations that lead to interpretations of orbitally paced Pliocene ice sheet oscillations.

Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; St. John, K.

2009-12-01

288

[Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].  

PubMed

The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan. PMID:22661028

Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

2012-06-01

289

Condom-use Skills Checklist: A Proxy for Assessing Condom-use Knowledge and Skills When Direct Observation Is Not Possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the continued importance of correct condom-use in controlling the HIV epidemic and the limited availability of tools for assessing correct condom-use, methods for assessing condom-application skills, especially when direct observation is not feasible, are needed. Accordingly, in the context of a high- risk population (The Bahamas) for HIV, a 17-item scale—the Condom-use Skills Checklist (CUSC)—was developed for use

B. Stanton; L. Deveaux; S. Lunn; S. Yu; N. Brathwaite; X Li; L. Cottrell; C. Harris; R. Clemens; S. Marshall

2009-01-01

290

CEC-CED Joint Knowledge and Skills Statement for All Becoming Teachers of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This joint statement of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED) presents standards for preparation of teachers of the deaf. The standards address eight categories of knowledge and skills, such as learner characteristics; assessment, diagnosis, and evaluation; and instructional content and practice.…

American Annals of the Deaf, 1996

1996-01-01

291

Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Their Levels of Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Did They Change since Their Graduation from Initial Teacher Preparation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated changes in beginning teachers' self-perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills after their first year of teaching. Surveys were administered to 322 graduating student teachers at the end of the initial teacher preparation programme and at the end of their first year of teaching to compare if there were any…

Choy, Doris; Chong, Sylvia; Wong, Angela F. L.; Wong, Isabella Y.-F.

2011-01-01

292

The Effect of a Structured Education Program on Knowledge and Psychomotor Skills of Patients Using Beclomethasone Dipropionate Aerosol for Steroid Dependent Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a structured education program on knowledge and psychomotor skills of subjects using inhaled beclometh asone dipropionate. The sample was comprised of 26 male outpatients with a mean age of sixty years (range 49 - 69 yrs) and mean educational level of 11 years (range 7 - 18 yrs). Subjects

Pat Heringa; Lauren Lawson; Domenic Reda

1987-01-01

293

Assessing Information Sharing and Changes in Knowledge, Attitude, and Skill among Farmer Field School Participants from the Commonwealth of Dominica and Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed information sharing and changes in knowledge, attitude, practice and skill among participants of the first set of farmer field schools conducted in the Commonwealth of Dominica and Trinidad and Tobago. Participants were small food crop producers who work with government extension agents. Non-participants were slightly younger than participants. Most non participants did not attend because the FFS

David Dolly

294

A Framework of Teacher Knowledge and Skills Necessary in a Standards-Based System: Lessons from High School and University Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Standards-based Education Project (STEP) was conducted as part of the Eisenhower Initial Teacher Professional Development Program in Oregon, under the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). STEP focused on the development of a framework of teacher knowledge, skills, and materials for pre-service and practicing teachers. High…

Tell, Christine A.; Bodone, Francoise M.; Addie, Karen L.

295

Development of Initial and Advanced Standards of Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1989, the delegate assembly of the Council for Exceptional Children began the process of developing standards of knowledge and skills for all beginning teachers of special education, including teachers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Now in its third major revision, these standards provide guidance to states' departments of…

Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Putney, LaTisha L.

2008-01-01

296

School principal effectiveness: Contrasting Mexicano and Non-Mexicano parent perception utilizing knowledge and skill base identified by National Policy Board for Educational Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of the study was to identify the knowledge and skills that comprise the components of the Functional, Programmatic, Interpersonal, and Contextual Performance Domains (NPBEA, 1993) in the “ideal” elementary principal, as perceived by Mexicano and Non-Mexicano parents of elementary aged students. The survey instrument was administered to 50 participants (25 per parent type). There was no difference

Linda L Thompson

2004-01-01

297

Learning Paramedic Science Skills from a First Person Point of View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paramedic students need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform basic as well as complex clinical skills, to ensure patient safety, and to manage sophisticated equipment. Time and resource pressures on students, teaching staff and institutions have led health professional educators to develop and embrace alternative opportunities such…

Lynch, Kathy; Barr, Nigel; Oprescu, Florin

2012-01-01

298

Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?  

PubMed

The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater. PMID:22487631

Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

2012-04-01

299

Road to awareness: an individualized training package for increasing knowledge and comprehension of personal deficits in persons with acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

Research suggests that awareness of one's deficits may be a significant factor in the recovery process after acquired brain injuries (ABI). Various methods have been employed to teach awareness of the potential sequelae of ABI. The present study extended the use of a board game format to teach awareness to adults with ABI who exhibited serious unwanted behaviours. It used an individualized training package in conjunction with a game format in order to more specifically target individual client awareness of personal deficits in two areas: cognition and behaviour. Training focused on the first three levels within Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Components of both the multiple-baseline and multiple-probe design were used to demonstrate experimental control. All three participants responded favourably to training, as evidenced by increases in percentage of questions answered correctly during the game sessions and in pre/post-generalization probes in both cognitive and behavioural categories. PMID:8879667

Chittum, W R; Johnson, K; Chittum, J M; Guercio, J M; McMorrow, M J

1996-10-01

300

Validation of SINERGIA as training tool: a randomized study to test the transfer of acquired basic psychomotor skills to LapMentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Laparoscopic surgery is commonly used in many surgical procedures but requires a learning process to develop the necessary\\u000a skills. Virtual reality simulators play an essential role within the training curricula. This paper aims to determine whether\\u000a training in SINERGIA VR simulator allows novice surgeons to improve their basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-two people participated in this study, including 28 unexperience

J. L. Moyano-Cuevas; F. M. Sánchez-Margallo; L. F. Sánchez-Peralta; J. B. Pagador; S. Enciso; P. Sánchez-González; E. J. Gómez-Aguilera; J. Usón-Gargallo

301

Condom-use skills checklist: a proxy for assessing condom-use knowledge and skills when direct observation is not possible.  

PubMed

Because of the continued importance of correct condom-use in controlling the HIV epidemic and the limited availability of tools for assessing correct condom-use, methods for assessing condom-application skills, especially when direct observation is not feasible, are needed. Accordingly, in the context of a high-risk population (The Bahamas) for HIV, a 17-item scale--the Condom-use Skills Checklist (CUSC)--was developed for use among young adolescents and adults. The rationale and approach to developing the scale and some measures of internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion-related validity have been described. It is concluded that the scale offers a reasonable alternative to direct observation among older subjects and that further development may make it more useful among pre-adolescents. PMID:19507756

Stanton, B; Deveaux, L; Lunn, S; Yu, S; Brathwaite, N; Li, X; Cottrell, L; Harris, C; Clemens, R; Marshall, S

2009-06-01

302

Condom-use Skills Checklist: A Proxy for Assessing Condom-use Knowledge and Skills When Direct Observation Is Not Possible  

PubMed Central

Because of the continued importance of correct condom-use in controlling the HIV epidemic and the limited availability of tools for assessing correct condom-use, methods for assessing condom-application skills, especially when direct observation is not feasible, are needed. Accordingly, in the context of a high-risk population (The Bahamas) for HIV, a 17-item scale—the Condom-use Skills Checklist (CUSC)—was developed for use among young adolescents and adults. The rationale and approach to developing the scale and some measures of internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion-related validity have been described. It is concluded that the scale offers a reasonable alternative to direct observation among older subjects and that further development may make it more useful among pre-adolescents.

Deveaux, L.; Lunn, S.; Yu, S.; Brathwaite, N.; Li, X; Cottrell, L.; Harris, C.; Clemens, R.; Marshall, S.

2009-01-01

303

Communication skills training for physicians performing work disability assessments increases knowledge and self-efficacy: results of a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: It was assessed whether a post-graduate communication skills training course would increase physicians' competence and knowledge with regard to communication during work disability assessment interviews, and would change the determinants of their communication behaviour. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was performed. At baseline and at follow-up, 42 physicians completed questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were competence and knowledge about communication. The secondary outcome measures were 21 self-reported determinants of communication behaviour. One-way analyses of variance and covariance were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in overall competence, but there was for the introduction phase (intervention: mean?=?7.0, SD 2.7; control: mean?=?4.8, SD 2.7; p?=?0.014). Knowledge about communication was significantly higher (p?=?0.001) in the intervention group (mean?=?79.6, SD 9.2) than in the control group (mean?=?70.9, SD 6.7), especially concerning the information-gathering phase of the interview (intervention: mean?=?80.0, SD 10.2; control: mean?=?69.4, SD 8.9; p?=?0.001). The intervention group scored significantly better on 7 of the 21 self-reported determinants (secondary outcomes), including self-efficacy, intentions, skills and knowledge. Conclusions: The communication skills training course may improve some aspects of physician communication, but not all. Because physicians were unanimously positive about the course, further development is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though optimal communication is essential in face-to-face assessment interviews for determining entitlement to work disability benefits, and there is a lot at stake for the claimants, this issue has scarcely been addressed in scientific research. A tailor-made two-day communication skills training course, based on scientific research, increases physicians' knowledge about communication (both objectively measured and self-reported), their self-efficacy and their intention to pay explicit attention to their communication during assessment interviews. The participants evaluated the communication skills training course as very positive, which indicates a successful application of scientific research in practice. It is essential to offer physicians assessing entitlement to work disability benefits the opportunity to attend post-graduate communication skills training courses, which are tailored to their needs and are continuously evaluated and improved. PMID:23384288

van Rijssen, Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

2013-02-01

304

Print exposure and performance on the exit level science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: A correlational study of secondary students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pleasure reading habits and the science achievement of secondary students. The goal of this quantitative and non-experimental study was to examine the relationship between students' pleasure reading habits and their 11th-grade science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores. Pleasure reading habits were measured via relative levels of exposure to print, using the Title Recognition Test and Author Recognition Test, considered valid and reliable measurements of relative exposure to print. Science achievement was measured through the spring 2007 science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. The sample population included 454 students enrolled in one large suburban high school in north Texas. Data analysis results revealed statistically significant correlations between exposure to print and science achievement.

Radloff, Michael Everett

305

Knowledge, beliefs, risk behaviors, and social skills for HIV\\/STD prevention in junior college students (grades 11--12) in Bombay, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

1230 year 11 and 12 college students, modal age 16 and 17, in three colleges in Bombay, India, were studied on sexual behaviors or risk of sexual behaviors, beliefs about sex, HIV\\/STD knowledge, perceived norms regarding sexual behaviors, and the relationships between social skills\\/anxieties in HIV\\/STD prevention and actual and anticipated sexual behaviors. A quantitative questionnaire examining HIV\\/STD risk behaviors,

Rabia Mathai

1996-01-01

306

The effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on teachers' self-efficacy, attitudes, skills, and knowledge using a thematic learning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model,

Richard Kinna Tinnin

2000-01-01

307

The effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on teachers' self-efficacy, attitudes, skills, and knowledge using a thematic learning approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model, a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, and guided, inquiry-based learning experiences. These elements mirror the principles identified as being essential components of effective professional development for mathematics, and science education (Fullan, 1985; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1990; Loucks-Horsley, 1997). The research team was actively involved with the participants for a total of 30 days at their school over the 24 months of the study. During each training, the research team modeled the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional strategy, and the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, set up a wide variety of activity centers, and provided the teachers with opportunities to improve their attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the science content, and teaching strategies. The 15 participants completed pre-, post-, and post-post-Leadership Team Surreys. Quantitative data analyses of gain scores measuring level of confidence to teach Marine and Earth Science, content knowledge, and teaching strategies were significant, p < .001. The participants' efficacy-beliefs and outcome expectancy were assessed with a pre- and posttest Science Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Instrument that measures both elements. Self-efficacy beliefs were significant at p < .001. Outcome expectancies were not significant, p > .05. Qualitative analysis of reflective journal comments, classroom observations, and the participants understanding, and use of science process skills across the curriculum supported the quantitative data results. The data demonstrate significant improvement in the self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, skills, and knowledge toward teaching science of the Pre-Kindergarten--2nd -grade teachers who participated in this long-term professional development study.

Tinnin, Richard Kinna

308

THE EFFICACY OF KNOWLEDGE MAP IN OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE TRAINING: ADO.NET COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study examined effects of knowledge map-based learning, a form of computer assisted instruction (CAI), on assisting novice users in acquiring software knowledge and skills. Fifty five subjects participated in this experimental study. Two classes of students in a webpage development course were randomly chosen to receive different treatments. Twenty four students received the knowledge map-based training, while thirty

Charlie C. CHEN; Ruey-Shiang SHAW; Michael B. KNIGHT

2010-01-01

309

Acquiring Knowledge and Using It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding why students are not naturally and easily able to generalize or apply what they have learned in other situations involves understanding what teachers want their students to learn; what learning is; what teaching is; and what is involved in generalizing or applying what has been learned. Research in educational psychology identifies…

Smilkstein, Rita

1993-01-01

310

Knowledge development at the time of use: a problem?based approach to lesson planning in primary teacher training in a low knowledge, low skill context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary school teachers generally have to teach several subjects. Their training, however, is often fairly short and it is tempting to force?feed them with everything they need to know to teach these subjects. It is more realistic to accept that a short course cannot do everything. Instead, it would be better to equip these students with skills that help them

Douglas P. Newton; Lynn D. Newton

2009-01-01

311

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL LEVELS AT RISK? The Role of Risk-Management in Solving the Flexibility-Training Paradox Paper prepared for the 13th Annual Meeting on SocioEconomics Amsterdam, the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firm's desire to be flexible and its subsequent demand for skilled workers have constituted a chal- lenging paradox. A firm needs to invest in the human capital of flexible workers in order to avoid in- adequate worker skill levels and thus insufficient knowledge within the firm. Simultaneously, the firm runs the risk of losing both the training investment and

Sebastian Aschenbrenner; Martijn van Velzen

312

Behavior, nutrition and lifestyle in a comprehensive health and disease paradigm: skills and knowledge for a predictive, preventive and personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Health and disease of individuals and of populations are the result of three groups of risk factors: genetics, environment and behavior. Assessment, interventions and tailored changes are possible with integrated approaches more effective if respectful of individuals and different cultures. Assessment tools and integrated interventional strategies are available, but widespread knowledge, skills and competence of well trained individual Medical Doctors still lack. Mediterranean diet is an appropriate reference paradigm because encompasses consistent research background, affordable sustainability, widespread comprehensibility and attractiveness inside a cultural framework of competences and skills in which the Medical Doctors can personally manage the need of prediction (early diagnosis), prevention (intervention on healthy persons) and tailored therapy and follow-up for patients. This profile is flexible and adjustable according to specific needs and preferences due to different economic and ethno-cultural milieus. It can enhanced through on-site/e-learning Continuous Medical Education (CME), by training and using friendly and affordable equipments.

2012-01-01

313

TV as Storyteller: How Exposure to Television Narratives Impacts At-Risk Preschoolers' Story Knowledge and Narrative Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy…

Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

2009-01-01

314

Infusing Technology Skills into a Teacher Education Program: Change in Students' Knowledge About and Use of Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers agree a key objective of instructional technology research efforts must be to help ensure the 2.2 million new teachers needed in the next decade have the skills to select and use instructional technology effectively. This research study supports the work of teacher educators who took a critical and systematic look at how their early childhood\\/elementary program prepares its teachers

Sunya Collier; Molly H. Weinburgh; Mark Rivera

2004-01-01

315

Evaluation of Short-Term Impact of a High School Summer Science Program on Students' Perceived Knowledge and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer science programs held in university research facilities provide ideal opportunities for pre-college students to master new skills and renew, refresh, and enrich their interest in science. These types of programs have a positive impact on a student's understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry and can open a youngster's eyes to the many possible career opportunities in

Kerry L. Knox; Jan A. Moynihan; Dina G. Markowitz

2003-01-01

316

Developing observational skills and knowledge of anatomical relationships in an art and anatomy workshop using plastinated specimens.  

PubMed

One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art observation training in conjunction with nearby art museums to enhance the visual diagnostic skills of their medical students. We report here on an art and anatomy workshop that paired medical and art students who did drawing exercises from plastinated anatomical specimens and the animated face to hone observational skills. Each member of the pair brought a different perspective and expertise to the work that allowed each to be a mentor to the other. The workshop had three sessions: the first involved drawings of plastinated specimens that allowed an intimate experience with authentic human material; the second involved drawings of the human face; and the third included examination of anatomical texts of important anatomist-artists, a lecture on contemporary artists whose work involves anatomy, and a film demonstrating the facial muscles. We propose workshops such as these will help students increase their ability to detect details. This will assist the medical student in developing diagnostic skills for identifying disease and the art student in using the human body as subject. We further propose that these programs will help students develop humanistic sensitivities and provide an outlet for expression of the emotional aspects of dealing with disease and mortality. PMID:21786428

Moore, Charleen M; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope

2011-07-22

317

Developing Observational Skills and Knowledge of Anatomical Relationships in an Art and Anatomy Workshop Using Plastinated Specimens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art…

Moore, Charleen M.; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope

2011-01-01

318

TV as Storyteller: How Exposure to Television Narratives Impacts At-Risk Preschoolers' Story Knowledge and Narrative Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy…

Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

2009-01-01

319

Developing Observational Skills and Knowledge of Anatomical Relationships in an Art and Anatomy Workshop Using Plastinated Specimens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art…

Moore, Charleen M.; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope

2011-01-01

320

Knowledge and Skills for the New Economy: The Role of Educational Policy. Training Matters: Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditionally characterized by a mixed human capital and human skills and resources model, the German education and training system has come under pressure from structural changes in economy and society. The emerging "new economy" is more than the sector of information technology industries. Beyond global action and rapid exchange of information,…

Heidemann, Winfried

321

A Prospective Controlled Trial of the Influence of a Geriatrics Home Visit Program on Medical Student Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes Towards Care of the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  To determine the impact of a geriatrics home visit program for third-year medical students on attitudes, skills, and knowledge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  Using a mixed methods, prospective, controlled trial, volunteer control group students (n?=?17) at two sites and intervention\\u000a group students (n?=?16) at two different sites within the same internal medicine clerkship were given Internet and CDROM-based\\u000a geriatric self-study materials. Intervention group students

Gerald D. Denton; Rechell Rodriguez; Paul A. Hemmer; Justin Harder; Patricia Short; Janice L. Hanson

2009-01-01

322

A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon

2010-01-01

323

Name Writing and Letter Knowledge in Preschoolers: Incongruities in Skills and the Usefulness of Name Writing as a Developmental Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, 114 preschoolers (M age = 53 months) completed a battery of literacy assessments to explore the interplay between name writing and letter knowledge in early literacy learners. Name writing was significantly related to children's letter knowledge, and the relationships were moderate to high. However, many children exhibited an…

Drouin, Michelle; Harmon, Jenna

2009-01-01

324

A workshop to teach medical students communication skills and clinical knowledge about end-of-life care  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a half-day workshop to teach third-year medical students three focused end-of-life care skills: breaking bad news,\\u000a discussing advance directives, and assessing and managing pain. Our workshop included a readers’ theater exercise and three\\u000a role-play exercises. In two of the workshops, faculty members played the role of patients. We used readers’ theater to engage\\u000a the students on an emotional

Alexia M. Torke; Tammie E. Quest; Kathy Kinlaw; J. William Eley; William T. Branch

2004-01-01

325

Nurse Managers' Perceptions Related to Their Leadership Styles, Knowledge, and Skills in These Areas--A Viewpoint: Case of Health Centre Wards in Finland  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic—to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing.

Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

2013-01-01

326

Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

2013-04-03

327

Assessing Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

Mueller, Jon

2008-01-01

328

Acquisition of Cognitive Skill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed in which there are two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill--a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is em...

J. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

329

Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

2007-01-01

330

Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: Relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (?=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (?=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (?=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (?=-.41) and variability of character size (?=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. PMID:23911643

Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W

2013-08-02

331

Acquired neuropathies.  

PubMed

Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41 % of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies. PMID:23771508

Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

2013-06-16

332

Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.

Gupta, Gian

2005-01-01

333

Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

2012-02-16

334

Acquired Methemoglobinaemia  

PubMed Central

Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’). The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

Al-Lawati, Adil; Murch, Nick

2012-01-01

335

Childhood Learning, Life Skills and Well-Being in Adult Life: A Senegalese Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education is not easily converted into human capital and well-being in low-income countries, because these countries do not have a high degree of economic and labour market differentiation that makes it possible to convert acquired knowledge and skills. Consequently, to have completed primary or even secondary education does not necessarily lead…

Daun, Holger

2010-01-01

336

Basic Laboratory Skills for Water and Wastewater Analysis. Report No. 125.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for individuals wanting to acquire an introductory knowledge of basic skills necessary to function in a water or wastewater laboratory, this handbook emphasizes current use of routine equipment and proper procedures. Explanations and illustrations focus on underlying techniques and principles rather than processes for conducting specific…

Clark, Douglas W.

337

A Computer-Based Epidemiological Skills Module for Medical Undergraduates in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To ascertain whether undergraduate medical students could acquire the basic competence needed to design, analyze and use a computer-compatible database in an epidemiologically meaningful way. Setting: Since 1998 the Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS) of Kathmandu University (KU), Nepal has included in its undergraduate medical curriculum a training module that incorporates knowledge and skills in doing computer-assisted data

A. S. BOSE; P. T. JAYAWICKRAMARAJAH

2000-01-01

338

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

339

Why skill matters.  

PubMed

Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

2013-08-01

340

Evaluation of home-based programs for teaching personal safety skills to children  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available program, the Red Flag, Green Flag Prevention Book, used by parents to teach their children personal safety skills. Children's knowledge and skills regarding the prevention of sexual abuse and abduction were assessed prior to, during, and after training. In one group, training consisted of parents using the prevention book to train their children. Parents of children in the second group used the prevention book with added instructions. Children who did not achieve criterion performance after training with the prevention book received behavioral skills training provided by the experimenter. All children acquired safety skills following behavioral skills training. Follow-up probes 2 months later showed skill maintenance among the older children. Parents reported satisfaction with the procedures and no signs of behavioral or emotional problems following the follow-up probe.

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Thiesse-Duffy, Ellyn

1988-01-01

341

Strategizing computer-supported collaborative learning towards knowledge building  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were selected from student teachers in Rwanda after a training programme on searching, retrieving and

Evode MUKAMA

2010-01-01

342

Exploring Knowledge through Peer Tutoring in a Transitional Learning Community: An Alternative Way of Teaching Counseling Skills to Students in Social Work Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning to be a professional child welfare worker involves learning counseling skills. In Norway, these skills have long been taught by teachers, but recent reforms in higher education initiated by the Bologna Process encourage giving more responsibility to students for their own learning. This paper describes one of these new initiatives—a peer tutoring program of counseling skills for students training

Amelie Fougner

2011-01-01

343

Measuring Internet Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed, applied in two large-scale performance tests, and tested for reliability and validity. The framework consists of four Internet

Alexander van Deursen; J. A. G. M. van Dijk

2010-01-01

344

Acquired Methemoglobinemia  

PubMed Central

Cases of acquired methemoglobinemia have been identified with increasing frequency in Los Angeles during the last several years. Among 18 patients, both infants and adults, the most commonly incriminated agent was silver nitrate used for topical antibacterial prophylaxis of burn wounds. One burned child died from overwhelming septicemia complicated by hypoxia with a methemoglobin level of 5.4 grams per dl. Other causative factors included nitrate-rich vegetables used in early infancy, additives in ethnic foods, and prescribed and overdosed drugs. Discontinuation of the precipitating agent and methylene blue therapy were usually followed by prompt improvement. In burned patients treated with silver nitrate, careful regular monitoring of serum methemoglobin levels and early initiation of specific therapy are mandatory.

Geffner, Mitchell E.; Powars, Darleen R.; Choctaw, William T.

1981-01-01

345

A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

2000-11-01

346

Explaining Social Class Differences in Growth of Reading Skills from Beginning Kindergarten through Fourth-Grade: The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rate of Access, and Print Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a longitudinal study that aims to further understanding of reasons for social class differences in growth of decoding and reading comprehension skills from beginning kindergarten through children's fourth grade year. Finds that the reasons for social class differences in growth of reading skills depended on the time interval that was…

Hecht, Steven A.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2000-01-01

347

Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

Murrah, William M., III

348

The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web-based learning is becoming prevalent in science learning. Some use specially designed programs, while others use materials available on the Internet. This qualitative case study examined the process of acquisition of integrated science process skills, particularly the skill of controlling variables, in a web-based learning environment among grade 5 children. Data were gathered primarily from children's conversations and teacher-student conversations. Analysis of the data revealed that the children acquired the skill in three phases: from the phase of recognition to the phase of familiarization and finally to the phase of automation. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the skill only involved the acquisition of certain subskills of the skill of controlling variables. This progression could be influenced by the web-based instructional material that provided declarative knowledge, concrete visualization and opportunities for practise.

Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

2004-01-01

349

Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on skilled memory has focused on organizational processes to the exclusion of item-specific processes, although theories of skilled memory do ac- knowledge the importance of both kinds of processes. Using the isolation methodology, we presented lists of American football team names to participants who had either a high or a low level of knowledge about American football. An isolation

James P. Van Overschelde; Katherine A. Rawson; John Dunlosky; R. Reed Hunt

2005-01-01

350

Effects of Conceptual Knowledge and Availability of Information Sources on Law Students' Legal Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to the complexity of the legal domain, reasoning about law cases is a very complex skill. For novices in law school, legal reasoning is even more complex because they have not yet acquired the conceptual knowledge needed for distilling the relevant information from cases, determining applicable rules, and searching for rules and exceptions in…

Nievelstein, Fleurie; van Gog, Tamara; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Prins, Frans J.

2010-01-01

351

Effects of Conceptual Knowledge and Availability of Information Sources on Law Students' Legal Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the complexity of the legal domain, reasoning about law cases is a very complex skill. For novices in law school, legal reasoning is even more complex because they have not yet acquired the conceptual knowledge needed for distilling the relevant information from cases, determining applicable rules, and searching for rules and exceptions in…

Nievelstein, Fleurie; van Gog, Tamara; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Prins, Frans J.

2010-01-01

352

Comparison of Classroom Instruction versus Use of Homework Assignments on Cognitive Knowledge Acquisition in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fitness for Life classes, in which a primary goal is for students to acquire health-related fitness knowledge, consist of a lecture session and an activity session. Unfortunately, devoting class time to a lecture reduces the time students are engaged in physical activity (PA). A potential solution to helping students develop cognitive skills

Williams, Skip M.; McGladrey, Brian W.; Silva, Andrea; Hannon, James C.

2013-01-01

353

Self-efficacy, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in English language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) are dramatically behind in the number of English vocabulary words they have acquired when they enter kindergarten. Research that has been conducted on early reading skills and vocabulary knowledge in ELLs focuses almost exclusively on instruction despite the fact that student characteristics such as self-efficacy play a significant role in academic outcomes. The aim of this

Tricia Florence Mase

2011-01-01

354

Levels of Understanding--A Guide to the Teaching and Assessment of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional education, employing lectures or telecommunicative instruction methods, has been very effective in providing topical facts. However, the development of student skills and thinking ability require higher levels of instruction and more opportunity to practice and apply acquired knowledge. As students progress through a particular…

White, Charles S.

2007-01-01

355

Knowledge or Skills – The Way to a Meaningful Degree? An Investigation Into The Importance of Key Skills Within an Undergraduate Degree and The Effect This Has On Student Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grades attained by students studying biological science at level 1, at Liverpool John Moores University, UK, were examined between the academic years 2003\\/04 - 2005\\/06. The marks attained in the study skills module, and the mean level 1 mark (number of modules, n = 10) were also analysed. The data were divided into two groups: those relating to students

Stuart Carroll; Mark Feltham

2007-01-01

356

Elementary school quality, the mathematics curriculum and the role of local knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.

Balfanz, Robert

1990-03-01

357

Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

Heimler, Ronald

2010-01-01

358

Skilling Up the Workforce for New Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the workforce training process for increasing employee skills and knowledge in building technologies. Each phase in the development and verification of skills and capabilities required to execute work within an individual's area of performance is examined. (GR)

King, Mark A.

2001-01-01

359

Explaining social class differences in growth of reading skills from beginning kindergarten through fourth-grade: The role of phonological awareness, rate of access, and print knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this longitudinal study was to further ourunderstanding of the reasons for social classdifferences in growth of decoding and readingcomprehension skills from beginning kindergarten throughchildren's fourth grade year. Participants wereenrolled in five public schools in a moderately sizedsouthern American city (n = 197). We examined ifbeginning kindergarten levels of three kinds ofreading related abilities explained social classdifferences in

Steven A. Hecht; Stephen R. Burgess; Joseph K. Torgesen; Richard K. Wagner; Carol A. Rashotte

2000-01-01

360

Beginning Reading by Teaching in Rime Analogy: Effects on Phonological Skills, Letter-Sound Knowledge, Working Memory, and Word-Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds teaching prereading kindergartners in the rime analogy strategy and prereading skills resulted in more reading than teaching either alone. Notes many children developed the untaught abilities of medial and final phoneme identity and the letter recoding reading strategy; and children were able to generalize the rime analogy strategy to read…

Walton, Patrick D.; Walton, Lona M.

2002-01-01

361

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

362

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

363

An Expedient Study on Back-Propagation (BPN) Neural Networks for Modeling Automated Evaluation of the Answers and Progress of Deaf Students' That Possess Basic Knowledge of the English Language and Computer Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article studies the expediency of using neural networks technology and the development of back-propagation networks (BPN) models for modeling automated evaluation of the answers and progress of deaf students' that possess basic knowledge of the English language and computer skills, within a virtual e-learning environment. The performance of the developed neural models is evaluated with the correlation factor between the neural networks' response values and the real value data as well as the percentage measurement of the error between the neural networks' estimate values and the real value data during its training process and afterwards with unknown data that weren't used in the training process.

Vrettaros, John; Vouros, George; Drigas, Athanasios S.

364

Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three children with autism were taught abduction-prevention skills using behavioral skills training with in situ feedback. All children acquired the skills, which were maintained at a 1-month follow-up assessment. In addition, 1 of the children demonstrated the skills during a stimulus generalization probe in a community setting. (Contains 1…

Gunby, Kristin V.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

2010-01-01

365

Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training to Prevent Gun Play in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

2004-01-01

366

Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

2008-01-01

367

Coaching Skills for Supervisors: Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THE MANAGERIAL ENVIRONMENT is a course in a series of five parts including exercises, handouts, and teaching components of the National Security Agency MD-300 training program for middle managers. Designed to build knowledge and skills in the competency a...

1989-01-01

368

Instructional design principles for 21st century learning skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21st century, people have to have high level thinking skills called 21 century learning skills in order to solve new problems of the new world. They should know how to use their knowledge and skills. These learning skills can be summarized under the three main subtitles; information and communication skills, thinking and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and self-directional skills.

Mehmet Can Sahin

2009-01-01

369

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technician Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skill standards are quality standards applied to people. They are specific statements of desired skill and knowledge presented in observable and measurable form. The statement contains a condition that defines under what circumstances it will be observed and measured. The desired behavior is defined and the standard criteria are stated in terms of "how good is good enough?" Skill standards specify the expected behavior, the condition and the standard for performance for technicians working in highly automated environments such as 300mm semiconductor fabs.The manufacturing environment has evolved from one that was populated with self-contained tools utilizing robotics technology to one that is composed of large numbers of these tools interconnected by automated material handling systems (AMHS) and driven by a centralized manufacturing execution system (MES) in such a way as to maximize factory throughput and output.The skills required to work in such an environment consist of most of the skills required by the previous environment (i.e., 200mm fabs) plus some emerging skills. These emerging skills are primarily skills and knowledge related to the new, enterprise automation systems, their maintenance, and the ability to utilize the vast amount of information they provide.Importantly, these skills are transferable to a great extent to a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing and automotive manufacturing. In the course of this project, research into transportation industries (railroads) and chemical processing (refineries) showed a high degree of commonality of the skills required.

2011-01-13

370

Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

371

Strategic enhancement of nursing students information literacy skills: interdisciplinary perspectives.  

PubMed

Nursing students are required to keep abreast of evolving new health care information. It is important for nursing students to develop the skills and knowledge to access nursing and medical databases for their professional growth and development to perform evidence-based practice. A collaborative approach between faculty and librarians is one way to ensure the success of students in acquiring the skills on how to access and use new health care information. The collaborators of this paper discuss strategies of how to conduct database searches for research articles. This paper is written in collaboration with faculty, librarians, and a doctoral student who have experience teaching nursing students at a historically black college and/or university, or at minority serving institutions. PMID:17608285

Morgan, Phyllis D; Fogel, Joshua; Hicks, Pauline; Wright, Laura; Tyler, Indira

2007-01-01

372

Assessing Skills and Thinking in Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive process approach is applied to this discussion of the nature and relationship of skills, thinking, and social studies knowledge. To make understanding explicit, the paper addresses: (1) the meaning of cognitive skills and their role in thinking; (2) generic versus specific skills; and (3) implications for the National Assessment of…

Cornbleth, Catherine

373

The 21st Century Skills Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

Johnson, Paige

2009-01-01

374

Child Characteristics by Science Instruction Interactions in Second and Third Grade and Their Relation to Students' Content-Area Knowledge, Vocabulary, and Reading Skill Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.

2012-01-01

375

Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

McLeod, Naomi

2011-01-01

376

The Effect of an Integrated Course Cluster Learning Community on the Oral and Written Communication Skills and Technical Content Knowledge of Upper-Level College of Agriculture Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, and agronomic/economic technical content knowledge. The population (N = 182)…

Barnett, Cynthia; Miller, Greg; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance

2009-01-01

377

Psychiatric Residents' Self-Assessment of Teaching Knowledge and Skills following a Brief "Psychiatric Residents-as-Teachers" Course: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents' self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum…

Grady-Weliky, Tana A.; Chaudron, Linda H.; DiGiovanni, Sue K.

2010-01-01

378

A Skills Perspective for Liberal Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the importance of acquiring skills in college to prepare students for the work force. The author describes how college students lack the skills and character needed to succeed. They might take statistics in college and score A's on tests of abstract problem-solving, but they cannot set up a bar graph to display real-world…

Coplin, Bill

2004-01-01

379

GENERAL IMMUNOLOGY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review, for the 2005 American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) annual meeting, summarizes the swine acquired immune response. The swine immune system is comprised of both innate and acquired components. Whereas the innate immune system confers initial protection, the acquired, or adapt...

380

Generalisation of New Sequence Knowledge Depends on Response Modality  

PubMed Central

New visuomotor skills can guide behaviour in novel situations. Prior studies indicate that learning a visuospatial sequence via responses based on manual key presses leads to effector- and response-independent knowledge. Little is known, however, about the extent to which new sequence knowledge can generalise, and, thereby guide behaviour, outside of the manual response modality. Here, we examined whether learning a visuospatial sequence either via manual (key presses, without eye movements), oculomotor (obligatory eye movements), or perceptual (covert reorienting of visuospatial attention) responses supported generalisation to direct and indirect tests administered either in the same (baseline conditions) or a novel response modality (transfer conditions) with respect to initial study. Direct tests measured the use of conscious knowledge about the studied sequence, whereas the indirect tests did not ostensibly draw on the study phase and measured response priming. Oculomotor learning supported the use of conscious knowledge on the manual direct tests, whereas manual learning supported generalisation to the oculomotor direct tests but did not support the conscious use of knowledge. Sequence knowledge acquired via perceptual responses did not generalise onto any of the manual tests. Manual, oculomotor, and perceptual sequence learning all supported generalisation in the baseline conditions. Notably, the manual baseline condition and the manual to oculomotor transfer condition differed in the magnitude of general skill acquired during the study phase; however, general skill did not predict performance on the post-study tests. The results demonstrated that generalisation was only affected by the responses used to initially code the visuospatial sequence when new knowledge was applied to a novel response modality. We interpret these results in terms of response-effect distinctiveness, the availability of integrated effector- and motor-plan based information, and discuss their implications for neurocognitive accounts of sequence learning.

Rosenthal, Clive R.; Ng, Tammy W. C.; Kennard, Christopher

2013-01-01

381

A comparison of a fifth-grade elementary school science research-based curriculum and an activity-centered traditional curriculum: Effects on conceptual knowledge, process skills and attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the student outcomes of process skills, conceptual knowledge and attitudes of a research-based, model curriculum (SLL) as defined by the National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE) and two similar programs that were activity centered, but traditionally taught science curricula (ACTS). Fifth-grade elementary students in a southeastern county participated in the study. The public school system has urban, suburban and rural schools within the county. Five public schools and one private school were included in the study contributing a total of 443 students in 18 classes taught by nine teachers. Students in both groups had participated in their science program for a minimum of one academic year. A state fifth grade science End of Grade (EOG) test form M, the Test of Basic Process Skills (BAPS) (Padilla, Cronin, & Twiest, 1985), and an attitude instrument (AI) (Simpson & Oliver, 1985; Simpson & Oliver, 1990; Simpson & Troost, 1982) were used to measure the student outcomes. Mean scores were analyzed by a t test and a two-way analysis of variance. At the end of a complete academic year of participating in the SLL or ACTS programs, the results indicated that the students taught with the SLL curriculum scored significantly higher on the fifth grade science EOG, the BAPS and the AI than those taught with the ACTS program. The outcomes provided evidence that the research-based curriculum promoted a higher level of conceptual development and process skills attainment and developed more positive attitudes than the students in the activity-centered traditional science program.

Maidon, Carolyn Howser

2001-07-01

382

Skills, professional education and the disabling university  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education and training of professionals concentrates on developing the theoretical and knowledge base of that profession and to a lesser extent on the skills with which the profession performs its tasks. Within higher education most attention is paid to theoretical knowledge; the development of skills is usually expected to occur within the practice element of professional training, e.g. articles,

Brian Cohen

1985-01-01

383

Administrative Support Occupations Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document establishes a set of performance expectations based on current practices in administrative support occupations. It is designed to assist individuals, training providers, employers, management personnel, and professional organizations in matching knowledge, abilities, and interests to knowledge and skills required for success in…

Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

384

Thinking skills: the question of generality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether there are useful general thinking skills. It oÄ ers a working de® nition ofthinking skill' and identi® es ways in which this concept has been over-applied. Thinking skills, used across domains, are not inevitably weak as a result of the generality± power tradeoÄ . Admitting that thinking skills require domain-speci® c knowledge for

Gerald F. Smith

2002-01-01

385

Pathways to Knowledge Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how the occupational structure of the Australian labor market evolved and how individuals fared in the process. It identified issues in defining skill and knowledge and followed Elias and McKnight (2001) in stating that sufficient evidence showed a very high correlation between job-required cognitive ability and ordinal skill

Cully, Mark

386

Knowledge-directed learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system embodying a knowledge-directed approach to unsupervised learning is examined in this paper. This approach is based on the premise that knowledge of new situations is acquired and interpreted in terms of the previous knowledge brought to the learning situation. In particular, our system is provided with a general characterization of action-oriented competitive games. This frame of reference is

Elliot M. Soloway; Edward M. Riseman

1977-01-01

387

LACAN ON PARANOIAC KNOWLEDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Lacan, all knowledge is imbued with paranoia. Although this claim was largely unarticulated by Lacan himself, I attempt to give conceptual clarity to the epistemological process of paranoiac knowledge situated in Lacan's three contexts of being. Developmentally, knowledge is paranoiac because it is acquired through our imaginary relation to the other as a primordial misidentification or illusory self-recognition of

Jon Mills

2003-01-01

388

Medical knowledge representation system.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present a design of a Medical Knowledge Representation System (MEKRES). The system automatically offers relevant formalized knowledge by extended GLIF (Guidelines Interchange Format) models to participants (patient, physician, operator, ..) on the basis of acquired data. This selection algorithm is based on key attributes and cooperation with knowledge ontologies. PMID:18487760

Buchtela, David; Peleska, Jan; Zvolsky, Miroslav; Zvarova, Jana

2008-01-01

389

National Photonics Skill Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

2008-11-17

390

Developmental and acquired dyslexias.  

PubMed

Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias. Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and phonological difficulties evident in explicit oral phonological tasks continues to be a focus for debate. Clear cases of developmental deep dyslexia have now been described and the syndrome has also been described as characterising early reading development in Williams syndrome (WS), where there are also semantic errors in other domains, including naming and receptive vocabulary and there may be a generalised difficulty with the activation of fine grain semantic specifications. In the domain of number, highly selective reading disorders characterised by high rates of semantic errors have been documented, indicating that semantic reading errors can be domain-specific. They can occur to number words despite intact ability to read Arabic numbers and they can occur to Arabic numbers and number words despite intact ability to read words in other domains. Current models of reading written words do not allow for such material-specific dissociation. Developmental surface dyslexia has also been described in a range of countries, languages and orthographies. Descriptions of cases for whom there is no phonological impairment in reading have generated contrary evidence for theories suggesting that phonological impairment underlies all developmental dyslexia. As reading develops in Williams Syndrome, phonological reading skills may improve with over-reliance on these leading to surface dyslexia. Surface dyslexia has also been reported in cases of developmental amnesia in which there are semantic memory impairments. Hyperlexia can take several forms including broad hyperdevelopment with elevated phonological reading abilities, lexico-semantic reading abilities and reading comprehension as in Turner's syndrome (TS). This advantage has early onset in school-starters. These specific modular effects do not have pervasive impact across systems but demonstrate the limitations of functional plasticity in developmental and genetic disorders. The framework Marshall (1984) outlined has provided a foundation for the development of systematic investigation of developmental disorders. PMID:17131596

Temple, Christine M

2006-08-01

391

Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory as a Framework for Intelligent Metacognitive Scaffolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To help learners in acquiring metacognitive skills that are necessary for successfully planning, monitoring, and regulating\\u000a their learning, metacognitive support and scaffolding mechanisms are needed. Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory constitutes\\u000a a theoretical framework mainly used for personalising learning to individual learners’ domain-specific competence. The paper\\u000a outlines how this theoretical framework can be utilized for adaptive metacognitive scaffolding tailored to individual

Christina M. Steiner; Dietrich Albert

392

Research: an essential skill of a graduate nurse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a research project undertaken by undergraduate nursing students, which includes data collection and provides transferable skills as well as a secure grounding for future research work. There is an expectation that nurse graduates should have research skills, but disagreement about how these skills should be acquired. This paper puts forward the case that undergraduate nurses should have

Christine Blenkinsop

2003-01-01

393

Transferable Skills Training for Researchers: Supporting Career Development and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers are embarking on increasingly diverse careers where collaboration, networking and interdisciplinarity are becoming more important. Transferable skills (e.g. communication skills and problem-solving abilities) can help researchers operate more effectively in different work environments. While researchers acquire some of these skills in…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

2012-01-01

394

High Skills: The Concept and Its Application to South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues the case for re-visiting the concepts of high and low skills as used in academic and political debates in the older industrial countries. There the concept of low skills has, for a number of reasons, acquired negative connotations in that low skilled jobs are seen to "drag down" the economy and therefore something which policy…

Ashton, David N.

2005-01-01

395

How can surgical training benefit from theories of skilled motor development, musical skill acquisition and performance psychology?  

PubMed

Trainee surgeons must acquire expert status in the context of reduced hours, reduced operating room time and the need to learn complex skills involving screen-mediated techniques, computers and robotics. Ever more sophisticated surgical simulation strategies have been helpful in providing surgeons with the opportunity to practise, but not all of these strategies are widely available. Similarities in the motor skills required in skilled musical performance and surgery suggest that models of music learning, and particularly skilled motor development, may be applicable in training surgeons. More attention should be paid to factors associated with optimal arousal and optimal performance in surgical training - lessons learned from helping anxious musicians optimise performance and manage anxiety may also be transferable to trainee surgeons. The ways in which the trainee surgeon moves from novice to expert need to be better understood so that this process can be expedited using current knowledge in other disciplines requiring the performance of complex fine motor tasks with high cognitive load under pressure. PMID:21534904

McCaskie, Andrew W; Kenny, Dianna T; Deshmukh, Sandeep

2011-05-01

396

Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

Lejeune, Michel

2011-01-01

397

Skills, Socrates and the Sophists: Learning from History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sophists, and the Socratic response they provoked, are considered in order to elucidate issues raised by present-day skill-talk. These issues include: whether skills avoid questions of ends and truth; the existence of general skills, such as critical thinking; the importance of knowledge; skills and the personality; and some implications for teaching and philosophy.

Steve Johnson

1998-01-01

398

Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: A Policy Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A policy review examined the extent to which changes to the post-16 learning and skills policy environment, particularly in relation to further education (FE) colleges, were likely to support neighborhood renewal-related knowledge and skills development. It focused particularly on the development of skills and knowledge needed by regeneration…

Macleod, Dierdre; Taylor, Sue, Ed.

399

Teaching Laundry Skills to High School Students with Disabilities: Generalization of Targeted Skills and Nontargeted Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An instructional procedure to teach laundry skills to four high school students with moderate mental disabilities utilized least prompts with multiple exemplars of materials to facilitate generalization of skills across community settings and multiple exemplars of nontargeted information presented as instructive feedback. Students acquired and…

Taylor, Paula; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

2002-01-01

400

Implications of Domain-General "Psychological Support Skills" for Transfer of Skill and Acquisition of Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article proposes that individuals who acquire certain psychological support skills may experience accelerated learning and enhanced performance in many domains. In support of this proposal, we present evidence that these skills enhance learning and performance, that they are domain-general in that they can be applied in a variety of domains,…

Eccles, David W.; Feltovich, Paul J.

2008-01-01

401

The Clinical Skills Inventory: Competence-Based Assessment of Clinical Psychology Student Skill Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Clinical Skills Inventory (CSI), an instrument designed to evaluate clinical skills acquired by students over the course of training in a doctoral clinical psychology program, is described. Uses of the CSI are: (1) an advising tool by faculty and students to determine individualized learning objectives and to plan training activities and (2)…

Giannetti, Ronald A.; Radecki-Bush, Catherine; Hansen, Nancy D.; Bush, Joseph, P.

402

Primer: cognitive motor learning for teaching surgical skill—how are surgical skills taught and assessed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the practice of surgery evolves, the modalities by which future surgeons are trained must also develop. Traditionally, surgical trainees have learned through a mentorship model, with the majority of cognitive motor learning for surgical skill being initiated and practiced within the operating room. This, however, is no longer the ideal environment in which to acquire surgical skills and, subsequently,

Jaime A Wong; Edward D Matsumoto

2008-01-01

403

49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111 Transportation...STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All commercial motor vehicle...

2009-10-01

404

49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111 Transportation...STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All commercial motor vehicle...

2010-10-01

405

Laboratory-Acquired Mycoses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most widely quoted of studies that summarize cases of laboratory-acquired infections are by Sulkin and Pike, who included laboratory-acquired infections in the U.S. from 1930 to 1950 and worldwide infections from 1950 to 1963. Because these studies do...

E. Hanel R. H. Kruse

1967-01-01

406

Laboratory?Acquired Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-acquired infections due to a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been described. Although the precise risk of infection after an exposure remains poorly defined, surveys of laboratory-acquired infections suggest that Brucella species, Shigella species, Salmonella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causes. Infections due to the bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis

Kamaljit Singh

2009-01-01

407

Knowledge of accurate blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students  

PubMed Central

Objective Blood pressure measurement is a basic clinical procedure. However, studies have shown that many errors are made when health care providers acquire blood pressure readings. Our study assessed knowledge of blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students. Methods This was an observational, descriptive study. A questionnaire based on one created by the American Heart Association was given to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and final year students (n = 186). A one way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results Of the students 80% were confident that their knowledge of this clinical skill was adequate or better. However, the overall score on the knowledge test of blood pressure–taking skills was 52% (range, 24%–88%). The only significant difference in the mean scores was between the 1st and 2nd year students compared to the 3rd and 4th year students (p < .005). Of the 16 questions given, the following mean scores were: 1st year 10.45, 2nd year 9.75, 3rd year 7.93, and 4th year 8.33. Of the 16 areas tested, 10 were of major concern (test item score <70%), showing the need for frequent retraining of chiropractic students. Conclusion Consistent with studies in other health care disciplines, our research found the knowledge of blood pressure skills to be deficient in our sample. There is a need for subsequent training in our teaching program.

Crosley, Angela M.; Rose, James R. La

2013-01-01

408

Knowledge as Embodied Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents an analysis of knowledge as a process of tacit knowing embodied in dialogue rather than as a process\\u000a of information transfer embodied in signal processing (Shannon and Weaver 1949). Within dialogue we acquire knowledge (experiential\\u000a knowledge, tacit knowing, practical knowledge) through our embodied performance of ’how ’ and ’what’ we know about the communication\\u000a situation we are

Satinder P. Gill

409

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

410

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)|

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

411

Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

Canter, Patricia; And Others

412

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school program is described that uses an informal survey to help teachers identify potential academic, social, and career oriented problems facing mainstreamed handicapped students. These problems and suggested intervention procedures are listed for study/coping skills of time management, memory systems, listening ability, compensatory…

D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth; And Others

413

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

414

Needs Assessment for the Job Skills Education Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Job Skills Education Program (JSEP) is designed to provide soldiers with the prerequisite knowledge and skills required for successfully learning their Military Occupational specialties (MOS). When the JSEP is put into effect, it will replace the Army...

S. C. Stoddart C. P. Hahn

1985-01-01

415

Teaching cognitive skills improves learning in surgical skills courses: a blinded, prospective, randomized study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the teaching of cognitive skills within a technical skills course, we carried out a blinded, randomized prospective study. Methods Twenty-one junior residents (postgraduate years 1– 3) from a single program at a surgical-skills training centre were randomized to 2 surgical skills courses teaching total knee arthroplasty. One course taught only technical skill and had more repetitions of the task (5 or 6). The other focused more on developing cognitive skills and had fewer task repetitions (3 or 4). All were tested with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) both before and after the course, as well as a pre- and postcourse error-detection exam and a postcourse exam with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to test their cognitive skills. Results Both groups' technical skills as assessed by OSATS were equivalent, both pre- and postcourse. Taking their courses improved the technical skills of both groups (OSATS, p < 0.01) over their pre-course scores. Both groups demonstrated equivalent levels of knowledge on the MCQ exam, but the cognitive group scored better on the error-detection test (p = 0.02). Conclusions Cognitive skills training enhances the ability to correctly execute a surgical skill. Furthermore, specific training and practice are required to develop procedural knowledge into appropriate cognitive skills. Surgeons need to be trained to judge the correctness of their actions.

Kohls-Gatzoulis, Julie A.; Regehr, Glenn; Hutchison, Carol

2004-01-01

416

[Laboratory-acquired brucellosis].  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:18565306

Fabiansen, Christian; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

2008-06-01

417

Exploration decision: How much skill. How much luck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration decision (with elements of both luck and skill) requires a mixture of several talents if it is to bring forth the highest satisfaction, however measured: organizational abilities, factual knowledge, odds (chance) knowledge, calculation\\/assimilation knowledge, information integration skills, and perhaps even some mysticism. The authors examines the exploration decision process in a way that will allow one to get

Capen

1984-01-01

418

On Supporting Physical Skill Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main difficulties in motor skill acquisition is attributed to body control based on wrong mental models. This is true to various domains such as playing sports and playing musical instruments. In order to acquire adequate motor skill by modifying false belief, we need to help people find appropriate key points in achieving a body control and integrate them. In this paper, we investigate three approaches to realize such support. The first one is to encourage exploration of the relations among key points constituting a motor skill, using a technique of meta-cognitive verbalization. The second one is to represent a motor skill by appropriate mechanical models. The third one is to integrate rules for component tasks in achieving a compound task. These three approaches, we argue, help people build an integrated mental model consisting of multiple relations among various key points, one that seems to be indispensable for acquisition of motor skills. These ideas suggest the possibility to create new skill rules to perform difficult tasks automatically.

Furukawa, Koichi; Suwa, Masaki; Kato, Takaaki

419

The Impact of Skill Learnability on the Effectiveness of Managerial Training and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skill learnability, the degree to which a particular managerial skill can be acquired or modified by training and development, is de scribed and discussed. It is argued that those managerial skills com prised of large sociallinteractive components and affected by under lying noncognitive attributes are more difficult to learn than skills which can be articulated through a common body of

Donald H. Brush; Betty Jo Licata

1983-01-01

420

Skill puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are short exercises that allow students practice with concepts in Structural Geology, Tectonics, or Geophysics. (Many of them were designed with Eric Horsman.) The basic idea is to give students opportunities for frequent practice with difficult concepts, many of which require spatial visualization skills. These activities nearly always fit on a half-sheet of paper, and include a visual and verbal component. Instructors may use them for formative assessment or as group activities in class.

Titus, Sarah

421

Retention of Military Skills Acquired in Basic Combat Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance data were collected in the three general basic combat training (BCT) proficiency areas (rifle marksmanship, physical combat fitness, end of cycle tests) from independent groups of soldiers (60 per group) during BCT, during Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and combat support training (CST), and for permanent party personnel in the…

McDonald, Robert D.

422

Using the Arts To Acquire and Enhance Management Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Draws analogies between strategic management and experiences found in dramatic literature and symphony conducting. Provides examples of using the arts to support management learning. (Contains 50 references.) (SK)|

Mockler, Robert J.

2002-01-01

423

Using the Arts To Acquire and Enhance Management Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws analogies between strategic management and experiences found in dramatic literature and symphony conducting. Provides examples of using the arts to support management learning. (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

Mockler, Robert J.

2002-01-01

424

Executive Functioning and Adaptive Living Skills after Acquired Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive dysfunction is common following brain injury, with impairments involving attention, social pragmatics, higher-order thinking, judgment, and reasoning. Executive function impairments may have a direct impact on an individual's ability to return to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including employment, money management, driving, and maintaining a residence. Research has shown that neuropsychological executive function measures may be able to

Robert Perna; Ashlee R. Loughan; Kristin Talka

2012-01-01

425

Costs of Knowledge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from exp...

L. Prusak

2008-01-01

426

Reading Skills among Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning…

Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

427

Teaching critical appraisal skills for Nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEvidence-based practice is a major focus in nursing, yet the literature continues to document a research-practice gap. Reasons for this gap stem partly from a lack of skills to critique and synthesize the literature, a lack of search skills and difficulty in understanding research articles, and limited knowledge of research by nursing professionals.

Sandra C. Jones; Patrick A. Crookes; Keryn M. Johnson

2011-01-01

428

Developing a Political Economy of Skill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds little evidence of a paradigm shift in capitalism or a trend toward a high-skills knowledge economy. Points out problems in demand-side proposals. Concludes that it is necessary to recognize the centrality of conflict, power, and exploitation in capitalism and outlines a radical political economy of skill. (Contains 104 references.) (SK)|

Lloyd, Caroline; Payne, Jonathan

2002-01-01

429

Reading Skills among Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning…

Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

430

Personal skills development in the accounting curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's challenging economic situation means that it is no longer sufficient for a new graduate to have knowledge of an academic subject; increasingly it is necessary for students to gain those skills which will enhance their prospects of employment. For over a decade, a number of employers have been sounding warnings to the higher education sector that a 'skills gap'

Bob Gammie; Elizabeth Gammie; Erica Cargill

2002-01-01

431

Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

432

Skills for Innovation and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation holds the key to ongoing improvements in living standards, as well as to solving pressing social challenges. Skilled people play a crucial role in innovation through the new knowledge they generate, how they adopt and develop existing ideas, and through their ability to learn new competencies and adapt to a changing environment. This…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

2011-01-01

433

Acquired Immunity to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works. There is no general agreement about the rate of onset of acquired immunity or what constitutes the key determinants of protection; much less is there a consensus regarding the mechanism(s) of protection. This review summarizes what is understood about naturally acquired and experimentally induced immunity against malaria with the help of evolving insights provided by biotechnology and places these insights in the context of historical, clinical, and epidemiological observations. We advocate that naturally acquired immunity should be appreciated as being virtually 100% effective against severe disease and death among heavily exposed adults. Even the immunity that occurs in exposed infants may exceed 90% effectiveness. The induction of an adult-like immune status among high-risk infants in sub-Saharan Africa would greatly diminish disease and death caused by P. falciparum. The mechanism of naturally acquired immunity that occurs among adults living in areas of hyper- to holoendemicity should be understood with a view toward duplicating such protection in infants and young children in areas of endemicity.

Doolan, Denise L.; Dobano, Carlota; Baird, J. Kevin

2009-01-01

434

Executive Perceptions of the Top 10 Soft Skills Needed in Today's Workplace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hard skills are the technical expertise and knowledge needed for a job. Soft skills are interpersonal qualities, also known as people skills, and personal attributes that one possesses. Business executives consider soft skills a very important attribute in job applicants. Employers want new employees to have strong soft skills, as well as hard…

Robles, Marcel M.

2012-01-01

435

Standards for Education Reporters: Skills, Knowledge, Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experienced school reporters know plenty about standards. The struggle to set standards that define what students should know and be able to do at various stages of their education has been at the heart of school reform since the late 1980s. So if journalists are going to understand the value of standards, it will be those covering schools. It is…

Graves, Bill

2002-01-01

436

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

437

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

438

Learning procedural knowledge through observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented here describes a framework that provides the necessary infrastructure to learn procedural knowledge from observation traces annotated with goal transition information. One instance of a learning-by-observation system, called KnoMic (Knowledge Mimic), is developed within this framework and evaluated in a complex domain. This evaluation demonstrates that learning by observation can acquire procedural knowledge and can acquire that

Michael van Lent; John E. Laird

2001-01-01

439

Reducing the Knowledge Tracing Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Cognitive Tutors, student skill is represented by estimates of student knowledge on various knowledge components. The estimate for each knowledge component is based on a four-parameter model developed by Corbett and Anderson [Nb]. In this paper, we investigate the nature of the parameter space defined by these four parameters by modeling data…

Ritter, Steven; Harris, Thomas K.; Nixon, Tristan; Dickison, Daniel; Murray, R. Charles; Towle, Brendon

2009-01-01

440

Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

2010-01-04

441

Acquired brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired brain injury in childhood is not uncommon and arises from trauma, metabolic conditions, CNS tumours and infection, toxins or as a result of treatment. Injury to the brain can occur any time from just after conception onwards. Age of injury is a critical variable in determining outcome, as is the mechanism of injury. When the brain is in a

Judith A Middleton

2005-01-01

442

Laboratory-acquired brucellosis.  

PubMed

We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure. PMID:15504276

Noviello, Stephanie; Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

2004-10-01

443

Developmental and Acquired Dyslexias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias.Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and

Christine M. Temple

2006-01-01

444

Acquired Brain Injury Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

445

Laboratory-acquired infections.  

PubMed

Laboratory-acquired infections due to a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been described. Although the precise risk of infection after an exposure remains poorly defined, surveys of laboratory-acquired infections suggest that Brucella species, Shigella species, Salmonella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causes. Infections due to the bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus) remain the most common reported viral infections, whereas the dimorphic fungi are responsible for the greatest number of fungal infections. Because of the increasing attention on the role of the laboratory in bioterrorism preparation, I discuss the risk of laboratory-acquired infection with uncommon agents, such as Francisella tularensis and Bacillus anthracis. Physicians who care for a sick laboratory worker need to consider the likelihood of an occupationally acquired infection while advising exposed laboratory workers about postexposure prophylaxis. In addition, physicians should be aware of the importance of alerting the laboratory if infection with a high-risk agent is suspected. PMID:19480580

Singh, Kamaljit

2009-07-01

446

Community-acquired pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially the elderly, which is a patient population that continues to grow. Recently the spectrum and clinical picture of pneumonia has been changing as a reflection of this aging population; this requires a reassessment of and a new approach to the patient with pneumonia. Currently,

Michael S. Nieclerman

1998-01-01

447

Tacit Knowledge. Trends and Issues Alert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tacit knowledge, the knowledge that workers possess but do not articulate, is associated with terms such as "skill,""know-how,""working knowledge," and "expertise" that are used to describe knowledge about and ability to perform work. Learning that takes place through apprenticeships draws heavily on tacit knowledge, and it has been connected…

Imel, Susan

448

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation.

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

449

Identification of Inhibitor Epitopes in Acquired Hemophilia by Phage Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired hemophilia A is caused by inhibitory autoantibodies to factor VIII (FVIII). Inhibitors block interaction of FVIII and its interacting molecules including factor IX or von Willebrand factor. In acquired hemophilia the knowledge on inhibitor epitopes is limited. Epitopes that have been located so far cluster in the A2 or in the C2 domain of FVIII.In this study plasma samples

Ch. Königs; Ch. Kessel; S. Scholz; M. Krause; I. Scharrer; W. Kreuz

450

Poor people's knowledge : helping poor people to earn from their knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can we help poor people to earn more from their knowledge rather than from their sweat and muscle? This paper draws lessons from projects intended to promote and protect the innovation, knowledge, and creative skills of poor people in poor countries, particularly to improve the earnings of poor people from such knowledge and skills. The international community has paid

J. Michael Finger

2004-01-01

451

Updating geographical knowledge: Principles of coherence and inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

People acquire knowledge about the world across the lifespan. This simple fact implies that new knowledge is acquired in the context of prior knowledge and that the content, and perhaps the structure, of the knowledge base changes to reflect this learning. Obviously, the capacity to integrate new knowledge with old is an extremely important one, for without it, we could

Alinda Friedman; Norman R. Brown

2000-01-01

452

Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch. PMID:20174440

van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

2009-10-13

453

Information skills for an electronic world: training doctoral research students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic library\\/Internet intensifies the need for information skills in academic research, in three categories: judgement; knowledge and operation of resources; linguistic\\/logical skills. There is a corresponding quantum leap in the information skills training requirement. Strategies for training within the doctoral supervision process are outlined. Qualitative data, from the Information Access project, on current practice among supervisors suggest that to

Christine A. Barry

1997-01-01

454

The Measurement of Motor Skill Assemblages and Successful Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper defines the required abilities for a given job as a Task Skill Assemblage (TSA), and the stored skill and knowledge is possessed by a candidate for that job as the Personal Skill Assemblage (PSA). A method is suggested for measuring the degree of match between the TSA and PSA. (Author)|

Worrall, N. R.

1974-01-01

455

Levels of practical skills in basic electronic laboratory: Students' perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory courses are essential in engineering education in preparing students for engineering experience and practice. Through laboratory experiments, students could develop and enhance their knowledge and skills in the relevant engineering field. In the laboratory, students learn by doing, by practicing engineering skills that they might perform in the future. What are students' perceptions on the levels of practical skills

Kamilah Radin Salim; Marlia Puteh; Salwani Mohd Daud

2011-01-01

456

Patterns of Skill Premia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I develop a model to analyze how skill premia differ over time and across countries, and use this model to study the impact of international trade on wage inequality. Skill premia are determined by technology and the relative supply of skills. An increase in the relative supply of skills, holding technology constant, reduces the skill premium. Among

Daron Acemoglu

1999-01-01

457

Human Use of World Knowledge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments are presented to examine how humans use world knowledge in complex situations and to see if people can acquire new knowledge in a formal way (i.e., symbolic and linguistic rather than experience-based knowledge) without a strong semantic...

R. M. Balzer

1974-01-01

458

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

459

Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired resistance is an important component of the complex disease resistance mechanism in plants, which can result from either pathogen infection or treatment with\\\\synthetic, resistance-inducing compounds. In this study, Arabidopsis, a tractable genetic system, is shown to develop resistance to a bacterial and a fungal pathogen following 2,6- dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) treatment. Three proteins that accumulated to high levels in

Scott Uknes; Brigitte Mauch-Mani; Mary Moyer; Sharon Potter; Sandra Dincher; Danielle Chandler; Alan Slusarenko; Eric Ward; John Ryals

1992-01-01

460

Acquired myopathy/dystrophies.  

PubMed

Diseases of muscle may be congenital or acquired. They cause muscle weakness without sensory loss. The onset, distribution, and clinical course help to differentiate the type of muscle disorder. The diagnostic workup may include laboratory examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and muscle biopsy. A definitive diagnosis leads to better decision making with regard to treatment, genetic education, prognosis, functional expectations, and the impact of exercise on muscle function. PMID:23584160

Chiodo, Anthony

2013-04-11

461

Acquired Brain Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acute brain injury is rarely seen, but salient features include acute hemorrhage, thrombosis, and localized or general edema.\\u000a Findings are rarely specific with regard to etiology. In addition to maternal disease, risk factors for acquired brain lesions\\u000a include disorders of the placenta and\\/or umbilical cord, exposure to toxic agents, metabolic disease, iatrogenic hazards,\\u000a fetal cardiovascular disease, and space-occupying lesions. Most

Daniela Prayer; Ulrika Asenbaum; Peter C. Brugger; Gregor Kasprian

462

The Emergence of a Tool-Using Skill in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a spoon for eating is one of the first tool-using skills acquired by most infants. The article provides a description and analysis of how the skill is built during the second year of life. A number of behavior categories were identified and measures were developed from a pilot study on a group of infants aged 10–58 months.

Kevin Connolly; Mary Dalgleish

1989-01-01

463

Teaching Communication Skills in Science: Tracing Teacher Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a general model for skills instruction and its implementation through the program "Scientific Communication" for acquiring learning skills. The model is characterized by modularity, explicit instruction, spiral integration into contents, practice in various contexts, and implementation in performance tasks. It requires…

Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

2008-01-01

464

Teaching Communication Skills in Science: Tracing Teacher Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a general model for skills instruction and its implementation through the program "Scientific Communication" for acquiring learning skills. The model is characterized by modularity, explicit instruction, spiral integration into contents, practice in various contexts, and implementation in performance tasks. It requires…

Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

2008-01-01

465

Assessing Information Technology Skills for Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Medical informatics is an essential component in the current and future medical practice and education. Results concerning the assessment of medical students' capabilities to acquire and use medical informatics tools were reported. Purposes: This study aims to assess basic medical informatics skills of undergraduate medical students in King Saud University, and how taking courses in this field would be

I. Albarrak

466

Teaching Humans Game-Playing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents some arguments for new training approaches to teaching people how to play games based on the literature about how humans play games, how they acquire game-playing skills, and game-playing theory. An example of the role-reversal approach to training is presented with some experimental findings regarding its effectiveness. (MBR)|

Laughery, K. Ronald

1984-01-01

467

DSM skills are marketing skills  

SciTech Connect

Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.

Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))

1993-10-01

468

Relations of Emergent Literacy Skill Development with Conventional Literacy Skill Development in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated relative contributions of initial status and growth rates of emergent literacy skills (i.e., phonological awareness, letter-name knowledge, vocabulary, and rapid serial naming) to initial status and growth rates of conventional literacy skills (i.e., word reading, pseudoword reading, and spelling) for young Korean…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

2011-01-01

469

Word Reading in Spanish: A Comparison Between Skilled and Less Skilled Beginning Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated word reading abilities in Argentine Spanish-speaking children learning to read in Spanish. The study compared the performance of skilled and less skilled readers in phonological recoding, knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, and phonemic awareness. Findings indicate that the children rely on phonological recoding strategies.…

Signorini, Angela

1997-01-01

470

Social skills intervention with learning disabled children: Selecting skills and implementing training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the social difficulties faced by many learning disabled children, the present paper extends current knowledge and expertise in the area of social?skills intervention to learning disabled children. First, nine areas of social behavior which relate to a child's acceptance from peers are reviewed and detailed, and considerations regarding how to select appropriate target skills and treatment goals

Annette Marie La Greca; Gary B. Mesibov

1979-01-01

471

Teaching Linkage and Problem Translating Skills in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effects of teaching Linkage and Problem Translating Skills on students' problem-solving performance and their learning of the five cognitive variables namely, Concept Relatedness, Idea Association, Problem Translating Skill, Non-Specific but Relevant Knowledge and Specific Knowledge. Seventy three Grade 9 (Secondary 3)…

Lee, Kam Wah Lucille; Yap, Kueh Chin; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Tang, Woh Un

2004-01-01

472

Computer technology students - what skills do they really need?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a continuing desire to improve the employability of computer technology students, we are focussing on the knowledge and skills that graduates need in the workforce. In order to do this we solicited the opinion of working graduates with regard to the usefulness of technical and non-technical knowledge in the workplace and to the skills that they learnt

Elizabeth Haywood; Jane Madden

2000-01-01

473

Investigating Students' Self-Assessment Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student modeling approaches predominantly focus on modeling student knowledge. For effective learning, however, it is necessary to teach students how to learn, as well as to provide support for learning domain knowledge. Recently, a number of projects focused on students' learning strategies, and initiated work on modeling students' metacognitive skills, such as self-explanation and reflection. This paper focuses on self-assessment

Antonija Mitrovic

2001-01-01

474

Measuring International Skilled Migration: New Estimates Controlling for Age of Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data on international skilled migration define skilled migrants according to education level independently of whether education has been acquired in the home or in the host country. In this paper we use immigrants' age of entry as a proxy for where education has been acquired. Data on age of entry are available from a subset of receiving countries which

Michel Beine; Frederic Docquier; Hillel Rapoport

2006-01-01

475

Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with…

Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

2013-01-01

476

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

477

Are Minimally Invasive Procedures Harder to Acquire than Conventional Surgical Procedures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is frequently suggested that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is harder to acquire than conventional surgery. To test this hypothesis, residents’ learning curves of both surgical skills are compared. Methods: Residents had to be assessed using a general global rating scale of the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills) for every procedure they performed as primary surgeon during

Ellen Hiemstra; Wendela Kolkman; Saskia le Cessie; Frank Willem Jansen

2011-01-01

478

Acquiring Information from Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

People need a vast amount of knowledge in order to live in an advanced technological society. Most of this has to be obtained from others by believing what they say and what they have written. Androids and so- phisticated AI systems would also have to be able to learn in this way. This obvious fact tends to be overlooked by

Antoni Diller

2000-01-01

479

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

480

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

481

Supported Workplace Learning: A Knowledge Transfer Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of knowledge to the effective development of economic growth in the twenty-first century has led to a number of initiatives such as lifelong learning, skills development and knowledge transfer. Of these, knowledge transfer has predominantly been concerned with the commercial exploitation of research knowledge. This article suggests…

Burns, George R.; Paton, Robert R.

2005-01-01

482

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

483

An Approximation of an Instructional Model for Developing Home Living Skills in Severely Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses the need for severely handicapped students to acquire basic home living skills, reviews task analysis principles, and provides sample instructional programs. Listed are basic grooming, dressing, domestic maintenance, and cooking skills. A sample task analysis procedure is demonstrated for the skill of brushing teeth. Reported…

Hamre, S.

484

Transfer of Leadership Skills: The Influence of Motivation to Transfer and Organizational Support in Managerial Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful transfer of managerial skills acquired in training is important for organizational performance. As leadership skills are complex, it is highly demanding to learn these skills and to apply them in practice. Therefore, motivation to transfer and organizational support are important determinants of transfer particularly in managerial training. The present study examined the lagged effect of motivation to transfer

Franziska Franke; Jörg Felfe

2012-01-01

485

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

486

Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.  

PubMed

This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

1979-01-01

487

Knowledge tracing: Modeling the acquisition of procedural knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an effort to model students' changing knowledge state during skill acquisition. Students in this research are learning to write short programs with the ACT Programming Tutor (APT). APT is constructed around a production rule cognitive model of programming knowledge, called theideal student model. This model allows the tutor to solve exercises along with the student and provide

Albert T. Corbett; John R. Anderson

1994-01-01

488

Organisational Knowledge Base and Knowledge Transfer in the Shipping Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe shortages of skilled and qualified personnel in the shipping industry have been addressed in different ways. This paper looks into the issue from a new perspective where high mobility in the shipping industry is seen as a vehicle of knowledge flows that can be used for knowledge transfer. This paper argues that while organisations cannot stop personnel leaving, it

Jiangang Fei; Solomon Chen; Shu-Ling Chen

489

Acquisition of cognitive skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

John R. Anderson

1982-01-01

490

Knowledge Workers or ''Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of knowledge in policing and questions the application of the notion of network to describe police organizations in themselves or in relationship with each other. First, the concepts of knowledge and of network are critically assessed for their own. Second, their applicability to policing is examined in respect to criminal investigation, the handling of

Jean-Paul Brodeur

491

Indexing Transitional Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various indexes have been proposed to mark when a child is on the verge of acquiring new knowledge. This article described a new method for indexing this point of transition, which is based on the specificity of children's verbal explanations. The degree to which children were specific in their verbal explanations was related to whether they benefited from instruction. In

Theresa Graham; Michelle Perry

1993-01-01

492

[Treatment of community acquired pneumonia].  

PubMed

The S3 guidelines for diagnosis and therapy use German epidemiological data to set the standards for a risk and degree of severity based treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Over the last few years, a change in pathogen epidemiology has been recognized with the significance of staphylococci and enterobacteria increasing. CAP is becoming increasingly a disease of the elderly, for whom a more broadly effective initial therapy appears to be needed. Resistant pathogens play an important role in the course of the disease. For patients with a low risk of mortality, a reduction in the length of therapy seems possible. On the other hand, the early identification of critically ill patients who require treatment with high dose, broad spectrum antibiotics is necessary. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea, caused by Clostridium difficile, is a significant complication in antibiotic therapy. With the introduction of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae for children, a change in the course of the illness and an improvement in the resistance situation has been achieved. An update of the S3 guidelines is intended for 2008 in order to integrate new knowledge into the recommendations. PMID:17431572

Welte, T

2007-05-01

493

Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

2002

494

Traditional Ecological Knowledge: An Important Facet of Natural Resources Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collective storehouse of human knowledge about the natural world is commonly called 'traditional ecological knowledge' (TEK) and it can be defined as 'the knowledge base acquired by indigenous and local peoples over hundreds of years through direct ex...

2006-01-01

495

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

496

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

497

The acquisition of syntactic knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work in computational linguistics describes a break-through in the design of expert systems because it suggests how extensive knowledge might be acquired automatically, without outside intervention. Computationally, the author looks at the developmental problem of the interaction between innate genetic endowment and environmental input, using computational methods to uncover the constraints on the acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Learning and

R. C. Berwick

1985-01-01

498

How Do Homework Guides Help Students Acquire Procedural Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of using homework guides, and homework logs on students' abilities to solve word problems involving basic addition and subtraction facts were studied. Students received one of three versions of addition and subtraction timed tests once per week--every Thursday--that focused on measuring automaticity of basic addition and subtraction…

Hartlep, Nicholas D.

2008-01-01

499

The Defense Technical Information Center: Acquiring Information and Imparting Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) discusses how DTIC fits into the Department of Defense Scientific and Technical Information Program; its history, organization, users, and operations; types of information handled; subject classification; cataloging standards; Information Analysis Centers (IACs); and research and…

Molholm, Kurt N.; And Others

1988-01-01

500

Analyzing News Media Coverage to Acquire and Structure Tourism Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destination image significantly influences a tourist's decision-making\\u000a\\u0009process. The impact of news media coverage on destination image has attracted research \\u000a attention and became particularly evident after catastrophic events such\\u000a\\u0009as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake that triggered a series of lethal\\u000a\\u0009tsunamis. Building upon previous research, this\\u000a\\u0009paper analyzes the prevalence of tourism destinations among 162 international\\u000a\\u0009media sites. Term

Arno Scharl; Astrid Dickinger; Albert Weichselbraun

2008-01-01