Sample records for acquire knowledge skills

  1. Knowledge & Skills Foundations

    E-print Network

    Hood, Craig

    methods and contextual understanding, critical thinking and hands-on skills. Basic Knowledge In the fields Charitable Trusts the sciences employ critical thinking skills as they learn scientific concepts. Beyond mere with scientific experiments but does not replace the thinking processes required to estimate, question and solve

  2. Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Roma Robertson

    2003-01-01

    Natural language generation (nlg) systems are computer software systems that pro- duce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. nlg systems, like most ai systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two nlg projects suggests that it is dicult to acquire correct knowledge for nlg systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (ka) technique

  3. Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

  4. Knowledge and Skill Guidelines for Aquaculture Technicians

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Advanced Technology Education Center (MATE) has provided this overview of knowledge and skill guidelines for aquaculture technicians. The report begins with detailing the background of the creation of these guidelines, which occurred at the third annual Rhode Island Aquaculture Conference in Warwick, Rhode Island. Competency areas for aquaculture technicians outlined in the report are laboratory skills, math skills, knowledge of basic chemistry, field experience, knowledge of basic biology, mechanical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, internship experience, time management skills, computer skills, basic business skills and staying up-to-date.

  5. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  6. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  7. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  8. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  9. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  10. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills, Technical Skills): CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Graduates will be knowledgeable

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    organization; 6) the ability to present the appropriate material; 7) professional behavior. Students will demonstrate verbal competence by explaining, during their juried performance, an aspect of the repertoire) and CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS (Practical Skills): Graduates with B. Mus. (Music Education) will demonstrate

  11. Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

  12. Essential Knowledges and Skills for Beginning Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Noeline

    The purpose of this literature review is to produce a list of essential knowledge and skills for beginning principals. Research on the principalship falls into two distinct categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive research emphasizes the perceived or idealized role of the principal as "bold innovator" or "creative manipulator."…

  13. Careers Service Skills acquired by Mathematics and Statistics Graduates

    E-print Network

    A positive `can do' attitude Basic oral communication skills Punctuality Reliability Ability to meet important Quite important Basic literacy skills 96% 4% Basic oral communication skills 91% 9% Numeracy% 34% Problem solving skills 59% 37% Advanced oral communication skills (eg presentations) 42% 46

  14. Integrating Knowledge Management and Human Resources via Skill Management

    E-print Network

    Appelrath, Hans-JĂĽrgen

    there is often a problem con- cerning the return on investment. The money saved by the skill management systemIntegrating Knowledge Management and Human Resources via Skill Management Norbert Gronau of knowledge within companies are supported by skill management systems. Although not all aspects

  15. Measuring Up Internationally: Developing Skills and Knowledge for the Global Knowledge Economy. National Center Report #06-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Higher education globalizes: its potential contributions are now seen as a crucial component of cross-border economic competitiveness. Accumulating evidence suggests that a highly qualified workforce contributes substantially to a nation's economic competitiveness, particularly when a large share of the workforce has acquired skills and knowledge

  16. Acquiring Skills: Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alison L., Ed.; Snower, Dennis J., Ed.

    This book provides a systematic account of the causes, consequences, and policy implications of failure in training provision and skills acquisition in the industrial world. "Introduction" (Alison L. Booth, Dennis J. Snower) summarizes the contents. "Transferable Training and Poaching Externalities" (Margaret Stevens) shows how firms'…

  17. Autonomous Robot Controllers Capable of Acquiring Repertoires of Complex Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Beetz; Freek Stulp; Alexandra Kirsch; Armin Müller; Sebastian Buck

    2003-01-01

    Due to the complexity and sophistication of the skills needed in real world tasks, the development of autonomous robot controllers requires an ever increasing application of learning techniques. To date, however, learning steps are mainly executed in isolation and only the learned code pieces become part of the controller. This approach has several drawbacks: the learning steps themselves are undocumented

  18. Developing Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Teach Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Although many teacher educators have suggested multiple ways to prepare teacher candidates to teach for diversity, the knowledge, skills and dispositions are not easy to acquire. The purpose of this research is to investigate how an M.Ed licensure program prepared teacher candidates to teach with concern for equity and diversity. The…

  19. Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

  20. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  1. Technology Knowledge, Skills, and Activities in MSE Secondary Education

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Technology Knowledge, Skills, and Activities in MSE Secondary Education All classes make use. EDSC 504 Advanced Instructional Proficiency in Educational Technology Explorations of assistive in specialized software, content-specific technologies, assistive technologies, and specialized Web

  2. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  3. Development of Information Search Expertise: Postgraduates' Knowledge of Searching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Law, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the development of information searching expertise by 12 postgraduate research students. Six of the students were studying education, and six were studying engineering. The paper focuses on the students' perception of the importance of searching skills and the growth of their knowledge with these skills as they…

  4. Action Observation and Acquired Motor Skills: An fMRI Study with Expert Dancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Calvo-Merino; D. E. Glaser; J. Grezes; R. E. Passingham

    2005-01-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and

  5. Can Student Teachers Acquire Core Skills for Teaching from Part-Time Employment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…

  6. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

  7. Autonomously acquiring declarative and procedural knowledge for ICAT systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems is critically dependent on the ability to define and encode knowledge. This knowledge engineering effort can be broadly divided into two categories: domain knowledge and expert or task knowledge. Domain knowledge refers to the physical environment or system with which the expert interacts. Expert knowledge consists of the set of procedures and heuristics employed by the expert in performing their task. Both these areas are a significant bottleneck in the acquisition of knowledge for ICAT systems. This paper presents a research project in the area of autonomous knowledge acquisition using a passive observation concept. The system observes an expert and then generalizes the observations into production rules representing the domain expert's knowledge.

  8. Interactive learning: a multiexpert paradigm for acquiring new knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. LeClair; Wright-Patterson AFB

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a paradigm for knowledge acquisition is presented. The paradigm, referred to as Multiexpert Knowledge System (MKS), is based on the philosophy that many decision problems which are candidate expert system applications do not rely on just a single expert for advice but utilize the expertise of many, sometimes conflicting, knowledge sources. Because of the potential for conflict

  9. Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

  10. Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness Among Early Childhood Education Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that

  11. Machine Methods for Acquiring, Learning, and Applying Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    A research plan for identifying and acting upon constraints that impede the development of knowledge-based intelligent systems is described. The two primary problems identified are knowledge programming, the task of which is to create an intelligent system that does what an expert says it should, and learning, the problem requiring the criticizing…

  12. Effects of Negative Information on Acquiring Procedural Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Kurosu; Yousuke Ookawa

    2002-01-01

    Usually, the material for learning is given in a positive form, i.e. xxx is yyy. This type of information will help organize the core of the target knowledge. Instead of this type of information, negative information, i.e. xxx is not zzz, will help sharpen the edge or extent of the target knowledge. Hence, it is expected that the negative information

  13. Acquiring Compressor Design Case Knowledge Using Rough Set Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning-rong Tao; Zu-hua Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Product design case databases contain a lot potential knowledge, which can tell us the relations among parameters and some interesting experience patterns. While designing product, it is supposed to support the designers to make decisions better. Therefore many researchers are trying to find an effective approach to discover the unknown knowledge. In this paper, we presented several algorithms which combining

  14. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5) Offspring can learn foraging skills from their mothers (matrilineal social learning). (6) Food abundance is limited, such that average individual energy reserves are low Additionally, the following factors increase the likelihood of alternative specializations co-occurring in a predator population: (1) The predator exerts effective top-down control of prey abundance, resulting in frequency-dependent dynamics. (2) There is stochastic Variation in prey population dynamics, but this Variation is neither too extreme in magnitude nor too 'slow' with respect to the time required for an individual forager to learn new foraging skills. For a given predator population, we deduce that the degree of specialization will be highest for those prey types requiring complex capture or handling skills, while prey species that are both profitable and easy to capture and handle will be included in the diet of all individuals. Frequency-dependent benefits of selecting alternative prey types, combined with the ability of foragers to improve their foraging skills by learning, and transmit learned skills to offspring, can result in behaviourally mediated foraging specialization, and also lead to the co-existence of alternative specializations. The extent of such specialization is predicted to be a variable trait, increasing in locations or years when intra-specific competition is high relative to inter-specific competition. ?? 2009 M. Tim Tinker.

  15. Skill-biased technological knowledge without scale effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Afonso

    2006-01-01

    In the skill-biased technological change literature, the technological-knowledge bias, which drives wage inequality, is determined by the market-size channel. Motivated by the literature on scale effects since Jones (1995a, b), the standard R&D technology is modified so that wage inequality results similarly from the technological-knowledge bias, which is instead induced by the price channel. Thus, by solving the transitional dynamics

  16. Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

  17. Using Analogy to Acquire Commonsense Knowledge from Human Contributors

    E-print Network

    Chklovski, Timothy

    2003-02-12

    The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...

  18. Using analogy to acquire commonsense knowledge from human Contributors

    E-print Network

    Chklovski, Timothy A. (Timothy Anatolievich), 1977-

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...

  19. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  20. Assessing Job Knowledge and Generally Useful Skills of Young Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmann, J. Stanley

    1977-01-01

    Discusses data collection and presents data analysis of NAEP's (National Assessment of Educational Progress) career and occupational development (COD) assessment, designed to determine how knowledgeable young Americans are about the work of the world and how well developed their basic skills (needed to obtain almost any job) are. (SH) Aspect of…

  1. Intercultural Knowledge and Skills in Social Service Work with Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This grounded theory study examined how social service providers and refugee service recipients in a city in the upper Midwestern United States described the intercultural knowledge and skills necessary for effective work with refugees. Ten refugee service recipients, 28 county service providers, and 9 "stakeholders," or noncounty service…

  2. The Effects of Argument Stance on Scientific Knowledge Inquiry Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruey-Yun Horng; Po-Hui Lu; Pei-Hua Chen; Shih-Huan Hou

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down their own opinions regarding the claim. Their responses were analysed according to argument

  3. The Developing English Skills and Knowledge (DESK) Program Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohloff, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the DESK (Developing English Skills and Knowledge) Program at Louisiana State University (LSU) is to help deaf and hard of hearing students make a smooth transition from high school to postsecondary institutions and, in doing so, to ensure their academic and professional success. This handbook documents, in a "how-to" format, Dr.…

  4. Children's Dietary Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes: Measurement Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contento, Isobel R.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews instruments used in conjunction with comprehensive programs to study children's dietary knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The instruments take about 20-45 minutes to complete and are easy for teachers or staff to administer and score, so respondent and staff burden are low compared to use of dietary methodologies. (SM)

  5. Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

  6. Developing Curriculum: Knowledge and Skills Essential for an International Salesforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    A study explored the additional knowledge and skills an international salesforce needs based upon 95 respondents from Wisconsin manufacturing companies. Six areas were evaluated by sales representatives involved with international sales and marketing to identify the education and training needed within the next 3 years by the work force. Four…

  7. A knowledge creation info-structure to acquire and crystallize the tacit knowledge of health-care experts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Sibte Raza Abidi; Yu-n Cheah; Janet Curran-smith

    2005-01-01

    Tacit knowledge of health-care experts is an important source of experiential know-how, yet due to various operational and technical reasons, such health-care knowledge is not entirely harnessed and put into professional practice. Emerging knowledge-management (KM) solutions suggest strategies to acquire the seemingly intractable and nonarticulated tacit knowledge of health-care experts. This paper presents a KM methodology, together with its computational

  8. Letter knowledge, phonological processing, and print knowledge: skill development in nonreading preschool children.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Modglin, Arlene A; Beswick, Jennifer L; Neamon, Jessica D; Berg, Shelby A; Berg, C Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool (Get Ready to Read). It was anticipated that participants might show slow skill development. However, the identification of a large group of children (n = 30) who made little or no gains in letter identification compared to their classmates (n = 27), whose gains averaged 7 letters, was not anticipated. Fall to spring gains in letter identification correlated with phonological processing, rhyme detection, environmental print, and Get Ready to Read! scores. Age and general cognitive skills influenced performance on some tasks. More knowledge of the characteristics of children who show the most variations in skill development may lead to insights on using classroom curriculum to focus on skill development. PMID:16895155

  9. An empirical comparison of knowledge and skill in the context of traditional ecological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We test whether traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about how to make an item predicts a person’s skill at making it among the Tsimane’ (Bolivia). The rationale for this research is that the failure to distinguish between knowledge and skill might account for some of the conflicting results about the relationships between TEK, human health, and economic development. Methods We test the association between a commonly-used measure of individual knowledge (cultural consensus analysis) about how to make an arrow or a bag and a measure of individual skill at making these items, using ordinary least-squares regression. The study consists of 43 participants from 3 villages. Results We find no association between our measures of knowledge and skill (core model, p?>?0.5,?R 2 ?=?.132). Conclusions While we cannot rule out the possibility of a real association between these phenomena, we interpret our findings as support for the claim that researchers should distinguish between methods to measure knowledge and skill when studying trends in TEK. PMID:24131733

  10. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.119 Section 65.119 Aeronautics and...Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. An applicant for a master parachute...

  11. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.115 Section 65.115 Aeronautics and...Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an...

  12. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  13. 49 CFR Appendix to Subpart G of... - Required Knowledge and Skills-Sample Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...tests for the general areas of knowledge and skill specified in...113. Examples of specific knowledge elements (a) Safe operations...vehicle drivers shall have knowledge on the correct procedures...communications. (7) Speed management. The importance of...

  14. Automatically Acquiring Domain Knowledge For Adaptive Game AI Using Evolutionary Learning

    E-print Network

    Spronck, Pieter

    Automatically Acquiring Domain Knowledge For Adaptive Game AI Using Evolutionary Learning Marc J is the decision-making process of computer-controlled opponents in computer games. Adaptive game AI can improve approach for adaptive game AI that learns which tactics (i.e., action sequences) an opponent should select

  15. Transfer of Knowledge and Skills: Some Implications for Nursing and Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, William; Reynolds, William; Angus, Neil

    1999-01-01

    In nursing, transfer of knowledge and skills from classroom to clinical practice, among clinical areas, and from community to clinical practice is important. Teaching for transfer requires a context, subject knowledge, and metacognitive strategies. (SK)

  16. The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

  17. Life-Skills Knowledge: A Survey of Foster Adolescents in Three Placement Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed life-skills knowledge levels among older foster adolescents in foster family homes, group homes/institutions, and apartments. Results suggest a need to improve life-skills preparation in group home/institutional settings, to target minority males for life-skills enhancement in all placement settings, and to utilize apartment placements to…

  18. The Effects of Peer Coaching on the Evaluation Knowledge, Skills, and Concerns of Gifted Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…

  19. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  20. Enhancing Teacher Quality through Knowledge- and Skills-Based Pay. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan; Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert; Milanowski, Anthony

    This report describes knowledge- and skills-based pay systems. It recommends ways that state and district policymakers can strengthen a district's capacity for knowledge- and skills-based pay and describes how these types of pay systems differ from existing compensation schemes that try to address the problem of teaching's flat career structure.…

  1. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  2. A Values, Skills and Knowledge Framework for Initial Teacher Preparation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Sylvia; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrated values, skills and knowledge (VSK) framework for initial teacher preparation programmes. The VSK framework articulated, in broad terms, the desired skills and knowledge components for beginning teachers, with the underlying core values permeating the programmes. The paper has two parts, the…

  3. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  4. Enhancing Graduate Nurses' Health Assessment Knowledge and Skills Using Low-fidelity Adult Human Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwyn A. Shepherd; Cherene M. Kelly; Fiona M. Skene; Karin T. White

    Purpose: Although simulation technology in nursing education is becoming increasingly commonplace, a review of the literature reveals a paucity of rigorous, high-level research comparing the effectiveness of simulation with other traditional education methods in the acquisition of clinical knowledge and skills. This research aimed to investigate the impact of three learning interventions on graduate nurse health assessment knowledge and skills.

  5. Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

  6. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  7. A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

    We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

  8. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students received 18 minutes of real time training and 18 minutes of above real time training as top-off training. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios. The use of ARTT as top-off training after RTT offered better training than RTT alone or ARTT alone. It is, however, suggested that a similar experiment be conducted on a relatively more complex task with a larger sample of participants. Within the proposed duration of the research effort, the setting up of experiments and trial runs on using ARTT for team training were also scheduled but they could not be accomplished due to extra ordinary challenges faced in developing the required software configuration. Team training is, however, scheduled in a future study sponsored by NASA at Tuskegee University.

  9. The Effects of Two Instructional Models--Tactical and Skill Teaching--On Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…

  10. Matching Up the Gap between Perceived Importance and Knowledge for IT Skills among Australian Accountants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranish Rai

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the gap between the perceptions of importance and knowledge in Information Technology (IT) skills among accountants in Australia. 165 accountants were surveyed in this study. The results indicate that accountants have a high IT knowledge in email and communication software, electronic spreadsheet and Internet search tools. As a whole, the perceived IT knowledge among Australian accountants is

  11. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

  12. Retention of robot-assisted surgical skills in urological surgeons acquired using Mimic dV-Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Teishima, Jun; Hattori, Minoru; Inoue, Shogo; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Hieda, Keisuke; Ohara, Shinya; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Matsubara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assess the retention of robot-assisted surgical skills among urologic surgeons. Methods: The robot-assisted surgery skills of 20 urologic surgeons were assessed using a Mimic dV-Trainer program (Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) consisting of 6 tasks. These 20 surgeons had no previous experience either using the Mimic dV-Trainer or acting as the main surgeon in robot-assisted surgery. The surgeons completed the program 4 times in a row; after 1 year, they completed it again for a fifth time. Performance scores were recorded using the Mimic dV-Trainer’s built-in algorithm. Results: For all 6 tasks, there were significant improvements to the scores in the fourth trials compared with those in the first trials. The scores in the fifth trials did not significantly decline compared with those in the fourth trials. There was no significant difference between the fifth trial scores of surgeons with laparoscopic surgery skills/experience and those without. Conclusion: Our results indicate that fundamental robot-assisted surgical skills can be retained in the long-term after they are acquired. PMID:25132896

  13. Education through Fiction: Acquiring Opinion-Forming Skills in the Context of Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…

  14. Assisting critical care nurses in acquiring leadership skills: development of a leadership and management competency checklist.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses need to be more effective leaders and managers in healthcare. Delivering quality and cost-effective patient outcomes have become goals of all nurses. To achieve these goals, nurses must practice and attain leadership ability. This article describes a program to help nurses gain quality leadership skills. PMID:17312408

  15. Can individuals with Down syndrome acquire alphabetic literacy skills in the absence of phoneme awareness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Uta Frith

    2001-01-01

    Two studies investigating the relationship betweenphoneme awareness and word reading ability in Downsyndrome (DS) are reported. The first study included33 Brazilian individuals with DS (mean age = 23years). They all had begun to read and all showedclear signs of phonological recoding skills. Thirty-three normal children (mean age = 7 years),matched with the individuals with DS for readingability, participated as controls.

  16. Learning to be different: acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tim Tinker; Marc Mangel; James A. Estes

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM

  17. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    (a) DOE contractors shall only employ as protective force personnel individuals who successfully meet the requirements of a formal training program established in accordance with appendix B, “Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this...

  18. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  19. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  20. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jon-Hĺkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls' meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

  1. Education through Fiction: Acquiring opinion?forming skills in the context of genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine E. Severiens; Tanja Klop

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four?lesson science module on opinion?forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16?year?old students’ opinion?forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis tested in this study is

  2. Just Pretending Can Be Really Learning: Children Use Pretend Play as a Source for Acquiring Generic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2013-01-01

    Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios…

  3. Realtime Knowledge Space Skill Assessment for Personalized Digital Educational Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Conlan; Cormac Hampson; Neil Peirce; Michael D. Kickmeier-rust

    2009-01-01

    Digital Educational Games offer immersive environments through which learners can enjoy motivational and compelling educational experiences. Applying personalization techniques within these games can further enhance the educational potential, but the often realtime and narrative-driven focus of games presents many challenges to traditional adaptation approaches. This paper describes an approach to the realtime assessment of learner skills for personalization that was

  4. The embryonic cell lineage of Caenorhabditis elegans: A modern hieroglyph: The best way to acquire knowledge in Developmental Biology is to learn how this knowledge was derived.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Zheleva, Angelina; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Cabello, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, in the Internet databases era, certain knowledge is being progressively lost. This knowledge, which we feel is essential and should be acquired through education, is the understanding of how the pioneer researchers faced major questions in their field and made their discoveries. PMID:25545039

  5. Parenting predictors of cognitive skills and emotion knowledge in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  6. Computational skills, working memory, and conceptual knowledge in older children with mathematics learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Donald J; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor multiplication fact mastery and calculation fluency and general working memory discriminated children with MLD from typically achieving age-matched peers. Furthermore, children with MLD were slower in executing backup procedures than typically achieving age-matched peers. The performance of children with MLD on multiple measures of multiplication skill and knowledge was most similar to that of ability-matched younger children. MLD may be due to difficulties in computational skills and working memory. Implications for the diagnosis and remediation of MLD are discussed. PMID:18274501

  7. More than Words: An Early Grades Reading Program Builds Skills and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Five years ago, as a way to ensure that students not only learn to decode but also understand what they decode, the Core Knowledge Foundation, the nonprofit that publishes the Core Knowledge curriculum, created a language arts program for kindergarten through second grade. The program includes two 60-minute strands: (1) a "Skills Strand," in which…

  8. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  9. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  10. How does knowledge promote memory? The distinctiveness theory of skilled memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine A. Rawson; James P. Van Overschelde

    2008-01-01

    The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but also through more effective processing of differences between items in the context of the similarity

  11. How Does Knowledge Promote Memory? The Distinctiveness Theory of Skilled Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Van Overschelde, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but…

  12. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  13. Soft Skills: An Important Asset Acquired from Organizing Regional Student Group Activities

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  14. Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding patient safety: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety. PMID:24708205

  15. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

  16. The Bachelor of Urban and Regional Planning is carefully crafted to provide students with the knowledge and skills needed to obtain positions in a variety of public and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    with the knowledge and skills needed to obtain positions in a variety of public and private organizations, including of individual students as well as the student cohort. CRITICAL THINKING (Analytical Skills, Practical Skills) and CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills, Technical Skills): Students will develop skills in (1) Problem

  17. Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a physics by inquiry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Omer

    Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and rebuttal evidence and justification scores developed during the course. It was also found that improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal evidence scores was content independent whereas improvement of counter-argument and rebuttal justification scores was content dependent. The results showed that prospective science teacher conceptual physics knowledge was improved from the beginning to the end of the instruction. More specifically, their declarative and situational knowledge scores increased from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that prospective science teacher argumentation scores can be related to physics conceptual knowledge pretest and posttest scores. In addition, it was found that argumentation gain scores were not related to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level. According to these findings, implications regarding prospective science teacher education and explicit teaching about argumentation were discussed.

  18. Using knowledge maps applied to open learning to foster thinking skills

    E-print Network

    Alexandra Okada

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the conceptual framework and principles to guide knowledge mapping to foster critical and creative thinking in open content environments. We introduce knowledge mapping techniques and tools and present examples of knowledge maps applied to open learning. Then we present some principles to develop thinking skills, highlighting the importance of mapping techniques to organise knowledge. At the end of this paper, we discuss important issues required? to foster critical and creative thinking through open educational resources and knowledge mapping. 1.

  19. Supporting collaboration in professional soft-skill training courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabina Jeschke; Lars Knipping; Nicole Natho; Olivier Pfeiffer

    2009-01-01

    More and more employers qualify their employees in soft skills or make soft-skill knowledge a decision criterion when assigning new jobs. Soft-skills courses are typically highly interactive as soft skills are no factual knowledge and cannot be acquired by simple drilling. The course instructors, who very often are external experts, have to face the challenge to adapt to new media

  20. The relationship between suicide knowledge and suicide interviewing skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Inman; Loy O. Bascue; Wallace J. Kahn; Peggy Ann Shaw

    1984-01-01

    A survey with 89 nursing students investigated the relationship between knowledge of suicide lethality factors and the capacity to respond appropriately to suicidal people. The resulting lack of association between the two variables suggests they are independent, with both potentially important suicide prevention competencies. It is recommended that training programs attend to both elements when preparing suicide prevention workers.

  1. Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

    2013-09-01

    To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention. PMID:23768932

  2. Going Beyond Classroom Learning: Acquiring Cultural Knowledge via On-Line Newspapers and Intercultural Exchanges via On-Line Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    1998-01-01

    Reports a pilot study on the use of two Internet technologies (online newspapers and online chat rooms) to enhance college-level advanced Spanish students' learning, improve their language and reading skills, and increase their cultural knowledge. Pre- and post-program student surveys indicated that the program successfully enhanced students'…

  3. Is underutilization of knowledge, skills, and abilities a major barrier to innovation?

    PubMed

    Länsisalmi, Hannakaisa; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko

    2004-06-01

    750 employees from 40 small and middle-sized industrial enterprises participated in a study of the extent to which perceived utilization of knowledge, skills, and abilities among personnel is associated with innovative performance. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses, based on structured questionnaire survey and data from organizational and national registers, showed that perceived underutilization of knowledge, skills, and abilities was statistically significantly associated with low innovative performance across all innovation indicators and even after the effects of other major barriers to innovation and a large set of other potential confounding factors had been controlled for. These findings underline the importance of efficient identification, utilization, and allocation of expertise in innovative activities. PMID:15217020

  4. Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Kabba E.

    2006-01-01

    This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

  5. [Validation of knowledge acquired from experience: opportunity or threat for nurses working in operating theatres?].

    PubMed

    Chauvat-Bouëdec, Cécile

    2005-06-01

    The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry. PMID:16008137

  6. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  7. University and Elementary School Perspectives of Ideal Elementary Science Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewart, Bethany Bianca

    Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the teaching of science is valued; the best approach to science teaching; and planning for science instruction. When asked of their teaching effectiveness while teaching science, principals referred to enjoying science teaching and improving their practice, while teachers and science teacher educators discussed content knowledge. Administrators valued conducting experiments and hands-on science while teaching science, while their educational counterparts valued creating student connections and providing real-life applications to science for students. In their professional opinions, administrators preferred a hands-on approach to science teaching. Teachers and science teacher educators stated that they view scientific inquiry, exploration, and discovery as effective approaches to teaching within their classrooms. Administrators predicted that teachers would state that lack of resources affects their lesson planning in science. However, teachers and science teacher educators asserted that taking time to plan for science instruction was most important.

  8. Assessing Complex Problem-Solving Skills and Knowledge Assembly Using Web-Based Hypermedia Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada

    This research project studied the effects of hierarchical versus heterarchical hypermedia structures of Web-based case representations on complex problem-solving skills and knowledge assembly in problem-centered learning environments in order to develop a system or model that informs the design of Web-based cases for ill-structured problems across…

  9. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations…

  10. Critical IS professional activities and skills\\/knowledge: A perspective of IS managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Her Wu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Jack Chang

    2007-01-01

    This study utilized the activity competency model to investigate the perceived importance of crit- ical professional activities and skills\\/knowledge required by three levels of information system (IS) managers. Our findings indicated that the perceived importance of critical IS professional activities were significantly different among the management levels, but not significantly different for various industry types. Carrying a critical IS activity

  11. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  12. Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…

  13. THE MARKET FOR IS AND MIS SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE: ANALYSIS OF ON-LINE JOB POSTINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kent Webb

    2006-01-01

    As part of an effort to keep an MIS curriculum in line with market demand, a sample of job postings from Monster.com was taken over a one year period. A list of most frequently requested skills and knowledge was created for jobs requiring a bachelor's degree in information systems (IS) or management information systems (MIS). The results support the importance

  14. Probation Officer Knowledge/Skill Maps. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    These knowledge/skill maps are intended to assist individuals responsible for developing training courses for probation officers. Maps are provided for the following task areas: processing juveniles taken into custody (dependents, status offenders, and delinquents); juvenile intake and processing; adult or juvenile investigation; procedures for…

  15. Youth Knowledge, Interpersonal Skills, and Media Attitudes After Anti-Tobacco Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M.

    2004-01-01

    To see if youth tobacco use prevention training improves knowledge, interaction skills, and awareness of media influences, junior high and high school students (161 at pre-test, 176 at post-test) from southeastern U.S. public schools completed questionnaires before and after anti-tobacco lessons. After training, high school (but not junior high)…

  16. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…

  17. International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Building skills for the knowledge society

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    - CIST and its success in becoming a working model of university-industry-government cooperation in edu, industry- academia collaboration 1.INTRODUCTION Global trends towards a knowledge economy are influencing a set of skills and competencies, e.g. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and e

  18. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  19. WHAT YOU WILL LEARN The Certificate in Nonprofit Management offers specific knowledge and skills

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    WHAT YOU WILL LEARN The Certificate in Nonprofit Management offers specific knowledge and skills at least two years of work experience in the nonprofit field but do not have formal training in the management aspects of leading a nonprofit organization. The certificate is: · Designed for working

  20. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  1. Are Self-Efficacy Instruments Comparable to Knowledge and Skills Tests in Training Evaluation Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have linked self-efficacy to performance, but they have not investigated the relationship between self-efficacy and knowledge and skills tests within a training evaluation setting, which is the main purpose of this study. Additionally, researchers have acknowledged self-efficacy scores may be distorted as a result of assessors…

  2. Student Teachers' Development of a Positive Attitude towards Research and Research Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…

  3. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Child Abuse Training on the Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills of Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…

  5. Self-Determination and Student Transition Planning Knowledge and Skills: Predicting Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Soukup, Jane H.; Garner, Nancy W.; Lawrence, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Promoting active student involvement in transition planning has become best practice in promoting self-determination. This study examined the contribution of self-determination to transition planning knowledge and skills for 180 students with disabilities. Utilizing multiple regression analyses, the study found that global self-determination was a…

  6. Digital News Stories: Building Language Learners' Content Knowledge and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The study explored how the use of digital news stories promoted the development of content knowledge and oral language skills. The study involved 15 advanced Spanish students who used VoiceThread, an interactive multimedia tool, to create and exchange digital news regarding current events over the course of one semester. Both quantitative and…

  7. Career Investigation Instructional Modules: Implementation Materials for Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Marty

    This curriculum guide for middle school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information…

  8. Career Connections Instructional Modules: Implementation Materials for Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Marty

    This curriculum guide for high school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information…

  9. Revolution of Experiences: Evolution of the Skills and Knowledge Profile. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Anne

    The Skills and Knowledge Profile (SKP) is a tool developed in Canada to document learning styles and strategies of adult learners. The instrument was developed as a systematic approach to capturing the learning styles of unemployed and employed adults across sectors. It is made up of these six sections: (1) Learning Access and Personal…

  10. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents involved in…

  11. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  12. The Knowledge, Experience, Skills, and Characteristics TESOL Employers Seek in Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Caprice L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.; Dewey, Dan P.

    2013-01-01

    In a competitive marketplace, job candidates need to know what TESOL employers are seeking in new hires. A 12-month study of TESOL job announcements examined the types of work offered and the candidate knowledge, experience, skills, and personal characteristics TESOL employers were seeking in full-time hires. An analysis of 169 job advertisements…

  13. The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…

  14. Research in the Combination of Professional Knowledge and Drawing Skills in Teaching of Building Electrical CAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The research is devoted to the study in the relationship between professional knowledge and drawing skills in the process of teaching engineering drawing. Hopefully the research can provide an environment in which professional drawing software can be properly applied and then the learning in the functions of drawing software can enable students to have a good mastery of not only

  15. Interaction of memory systems during acquisition of tool knowledge and skills in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD. PMID:25448858

  16. Are Librarians the Ultimate Knowledge Managers? A Study of Knowledge, Skills, Practice and Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Stuart; Hider, Philip; Lloyd, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the state of knowledge of Knowledge Management (KM) among Library and Information Services (LIS) professionals, the extent to which they find positions in the KM sector, the extent to which they practise identifiable KM processes in their work and the adequacy of educational preparation and professional development…

  17. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS CARBOHYDRATE COUNTING SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE OF HEART-HEALTHY FOODS, AND NUTRITION LABEL-READING SKILLS IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES

    E-print Network

    Walker, Ann Christine

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, thus patients should monitor carbohydrate intake and eat a heart-healthy diet using nutrition labels. To assess carbohydrate counting skills, knowledge of heart-healthy diet, and nutrition...

  18. The Impact of Traditional and Alternative University Teacher Preparation Program Options on Secondary Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, Rebecca B.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of secondary teacher candidates through traditional (n = 13) or alternative (n = 15) options did not statistically significantly impact knowledge, skills or dispositions. Results for content knowledge, as measured at entrance to the program based on the Pre-Professional Skills Test, indicate that candidates who entered the…

  19. Diagnostic Reasoning by Hospital Pharmacists: Assessment of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Chernushkin, Kseniya; Loewen, Peter; de Lemos, Jane; Aulakh, Amneet; Jung, Joanne; Dahri, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hospital pharmacists participate in activities that may be considered diagnostic. Two reasoning approaches to diagnosis have been described: non-analytic and analytic. Of the 6 analytic traditions, the probabilistic tradition has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce unnecessary testing. To the authors’ knowledge, pharmacists’ attitudes toward having a diagnostic role and their diagnostic knowledge and skills have never been studied. Objectives: To describe pharmacists’ attitudes toward the role of diagnosis in pharmacotherapeutic problem-solving and to characterize the extent of pharmacists’ knowledge and skills related to diagnostic literacy. Methods: Pharmacists working within Lower Mainland Pharmacy Services (British Columbia) who spent at least 33% of their time in direct patient care were invited to participate in a prospective observational survey. The survey sought information about demographic characteristics and attitudes toward diagnosis. Diagnostic knowledge and skills were tested by means of 3 case scenarios. The analysis included simple descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to evaluate relationships between responses and experience and training. Results: Of 266 pharmacists invited to participate, 94 responded. The attitudes section of the survey was completed by 90 pharmacists; of these, 80 (89%) agreed with the definition of “diagnosis” proposed in the survey, and 83 (92%) agreed that it is important for pharmacists to have diagnosis-related skills. Respondents preferred an analytic to a non-analytic approach to diagnostic decision-making. The probabilistic tradition was not the preferred method in any of the 3 cases. In evaluating 5 clinical scenarios that might require diagnostic skills, on average 84% of respondents agreed that they should be involved in assessing such problems. Respondents’ knowledge of and ability to apply probabilistic diagnostic tools were highest for test sensitivity (average of 61% of respondents with the correct answers) and lower for test specificity (average of 48% with correct answers) and likelihood ratios (average of 39% with correct answers). Conclusions: Respondents to this survey strongly believed that diagnostic skills were important for solving drug-related problems, but they demonstrated low levels of knowledge and ability to apply concepts of probabilistic diagnostic reasoning. Opportunities to expand pharmacists’ knowledge of diagnostic reasoning exist, and the findings reported here indicate that pharmacists would consider such professional development valuable. PMID:22919102

  20. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  1. Acquiring Self-Knowledge for Career Development. ERIC Digest No. 175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    Learners of all ages need to expand their self-knowledge and determine the ways their interests and abilities are applicable in the changing social, economic, and work environments. Many of the new ways of teaching and learning offer processes by which students can gain experiences that enhance their self-knowledge. These varied learning processes…

  2. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yen Chang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific\\u000a knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’\\u000a divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred\\u000a and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled

  3. Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Pefanis Schlee; Katrin R. Harich

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and Seattle. There were notable differences

  4. Outcomes from the UWS Evidence-Based Practice R25 Grant: Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Mitchell; Leo, Michael; Peterson, David; LeFebvre, Ron; Vavrek, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe an evidence-based practice (EBP) curriculum incorporated throughout a chiropractic doctoral program and the study used to evaluate the effects of the curriculum on EBP knowledge, attitudes, and self-assessed skills and behaviors in chiropractic students. Methods In a prospective cohort design, students from the last entering class under an old curriculum were compared to students in the first 2 entering classes under a new EBP curriculum at the University of Western States. The assessment instruments for evaluating study outcomes were developed for this study and included knowledge exam, behavior and skills self-appraisal, and practice attitudes. ANOVA was performed using a 3-cohort × 2-quarter repeated cross-sectional factorial design to assess the effect of successive entering classes and stage of the students’ education. Results There was a statistically significant cohort effect with each succeeding cohort for the knowledge exam (P < .001). A similar pattern in cohort and quarter effects was found with behavior self-appraisal for greater time accessing databases such as PubMed. Student self-appraisal of their skills was higher in the 11th quarter compared to the 9th quarter. All cohorts rejected a set of sentinel misconceptions about application of scientific literature (practice attitudes). Conclusions An evidence-based practice curriculum can be successfully implemented in a chiropractic-training program. The implementation of the EBP curriculum at this institution resulted in acquisition of knowledge necessary to access and interpret scientific literature, the retention and improvement of skills over time, and the enhancement of self-reported behaviors favoring utilization of quality online resources. PMID:23206965

  5. Guidance for the knowledge and skills required for antimicrobial stewardship leaders.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Sara E; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Rybak, Michael J; File, Thomas M; Parker, Sarah K; Barlam, Tamar F

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly recognized as critical in optimizing the use of antimicrobials. Consequently, more physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare providers are developing and implementing such programs in a variety of healthcare settings. The purpose of this guidance document is to outline the knowledge and skills that are needed to lead an antimicrobial stewardship program. It was developed by antimicrobial stewardship experts from organizations that are engaged in advancing the field of antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:25419765

  6. ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: Left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality

    PubMed Central

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Westbury, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of early event-related potentials (ERPs) to degrees of word semantic knowledge. Participants with strong, average, or weak vocabulary skills made speeded lexical decisions to letter strings. To represent the full spectrum of word knowledge among adult native-English speakers, we used rare words that were orthographically matched with more familiar words and with pseudowords. Since the lexical decision could not reliably be made on the basis of word form, subjects were obliged to use semantic knowledge to perform the task. A d? analysis suggested that high-skilled subjects adopted a more conservative strategy in response to rare versus more familiar words. Moreover, the high-skilled participants showed a trend towards an enhanced “N2c” to rare words, and a similar posterior temporal effect reached significance ~650 ms. Generators for these effects were localized to left temporal cortex. We discuss implications of these results for word learning and for theories of lexical semantic access. PMID:18565637

  7. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjřdt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method. PMID:24039917

  8. Acquiring evidence-based medicine and research skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum: three different didactical formats compared.

    PubMed

    Zee, M; de Boer, M; Jaarsma, A D C

    2014-11-01

    Medical schools have recently witnessed a call for authentic research activities that equip students with the skills required for evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research. Because it is not always possible to make such activities available as a part of the curriculum, evaluating the effectiveness of the various choices of traditional and authentic EBM and research skills courses is essential. This study's purpose was to evaluate students' perceived EBM and research skill acquisition in three different courses in a Dutch medical school. Self-reported surveys were conducted among 163 Dutch medical undergraduates who participated in an undergraduate research project, a basic EBM skills elective, or a traditional lecture-based skills course. MANCOVA was employed to test for group differences in perceived skill acquisition. Students who finished their research project perceived themselves as more experienced in writing and information retrieval skills than students who participated in the lecture-based course or basic skills elective. Students in the lecture-based course identified themselves as being the most experienced in critical judgment. No group differences were found for overall gains. Authentic research activities may have benefits over traditional lecture-based courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum, especially in terms of equipping students with writing and information retrieval skills. PMID:25395228

  9. Feedback on and knowledge, attitude, and skills at the end of pharmacology practical sessions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi; Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B; Singh, Kundan K

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries. PMID:22232708

  10. Feedback on and knowledge, attitude, and skills at the end of pharmacology practical sessions

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B; Singh, Kundan K.

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries. PMID:22232708

  11. Basic life support knowledge and skills of Iranian general dental practitioners to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Jamalpour, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Hossein Kimiaei; Zarei, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Background: When cardiopulmonary arrest occurs, the dentist's ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most important factor to minimize morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of general dental practitioners in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants in the study were 80 Iranian general dental practitioners who were chosen randomly. Their CPR knowledge was evaluated by verbal questions and their CPR skills were determined by CPR execution on a special manikin. Nearly 39% (n = 31) of dentists answered none of the questions and only 2.50% (n = 2) answered all of the questions correctly. Thirty six dentists had been participated CPR course after graduation. Result: There was a significant difference between dentists who participated in CPR training course and those that did not participate (P value = 0.000). Only 3.75% (n = 3) were able to perform CPR properly. Conclusion: The results showed that the amount of CPR knowledge and skills were low in participated Iranian general dental practitioners. However, CPR training courses after graduation increased the amount of knowledge significantly, thus, retraining CPR courses is necessary for dentists.

  12. Relationships among process skills development, knowledge acquisition, and gender in microcomputer-based chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Carla Repsher

    This study investigated how instruction in MBL environments can be designed to facilitate process skills development and knowledge acquisition among high school chemistry students. Ninety-eight college preparatory chemistry students in six intact classes were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: MBL with enhanced instruction in Macroscopic knowledge, MBL with enhanced instruction in Microscopic knowledge, and MBL with enhanced instruction in Symbolic knowledge. Each treatment group completed a total of four MBL titrations involving acids and bases. After the first and third titrations, the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic groups received enhanced instruction in the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic modes, respectively. During each titration, participants used audiotapes to record their verbal interactions. The study also explored the effects of three potential covariates (age, mathematics background, and computer usage) on the relationships among the independent variables (type of enhanced instruction and gender) and the dependent variables (science process skills and knowledge acquisition). Process skills were measured via gain scores on a standardized test. Analysis of Covariance eliminated age, mathematics background, and computer usage as covariates in this study. Analysis of Variance identified no significant effects on process skills attributable to treatment or gender. Knowledge acquisition was assessed via protocol analysis of statements made by the participants during the four titrations. Statements were categorized as procedural, observational, conceptual/analytical, or miscellaneous. Statement category percentages were analyzed for trends across treatments, genders, and experiments. Instruction emphasizing the Macroscopic mode may have increased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements. Instruction emphasizing the Symbolic mode may have increased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements and decreased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements. Instruction emphasizing the Microscopic mode may have increased percentages of conceptual/analytical and miscellaneous statements. Males made higher percentages of procedural comments than did females, while females made higher percentages of conceptual/analytical comments than did males. The use of insoluble unknowns may have increased percentages of procedural and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of observational and conceptual/analytical statements. The exploratory nature of the fourth titration may have decreased percentages of observational statements across all treatments.

  13. Acquiring a Broad Range of Empirical Knowledge in Real Time by Temporal-Difference Learning

    E-print Network

    Modayil, Joseph

    general forms of knowledge. I. INTRODUCTION Predicting the temporally extended consequences of be- haviour et al., 1997), model predictive control for stability (Abbeel et al., 2010), and motion planning (La demonstrate the generality of these predictions by evaluating how they can improve the user interface

  14. Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Robin, Donald A.; Maas, Edwin; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer.…

  15. Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Critical Thinking Skills in Developmental Biology†

    PubMed Central

    Darland, Diane C.; Carmichael, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to assess long-term retention of concepts and critical thinking skills in individuals who completed a Developmental Biology course. Undergraduates who had completed the course between 2006 and 2009 were recently contacted and asked to complete a professional goals survey and a multiple-choice developmental biology assessment test (DBAT) targeting four levels of learning. The DBAT was designed to assess students’ retention of knowledge and skills related to factual recall, concept application, data analysis, and experimental design. Performance of the 2006–2009 cohorts was compared to that of students enrolled in 2010 who completed the DBAT at the beginning and the end of the semester. Participants from the 2010 course showed significant learning gains based on pre- and posttest scores overall and for each of the four levels of learning. No significant difference in overall performance was observed for students grouped by year from 2006–2010. Participants from the 2006–2009 cohorts scored slightly, but significantly, higher on average if they enrolled in graduate or professional training. However, performance on individual question categories revealed no significant differences between those participants with and without postundergraduate training. Scores on exams and a primary literature critique assignment were correlated with DBAT scores and thus represent predictors of long-term retention of developmental biology knowledge and skills. PMID:23653799

  16. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  17. Postgraduate nursing student knowledge, attitudes, skills, and confidence in appropriately referencing academic work.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit. PMID:25054474

  18. First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442

  19. Knowledge and Skill Retention of a Mobile Phone Data Collection Protocol in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.; Lori, Jody R.; Boyd, Carol J.; Andreatta, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With a large number of births occurring outside the formal health system it is difficult to determine the number of pregnant women in rural regions of Liberia. The exponential growth of mobile phone use in developing countries provides a potential avenue for data collection on maternal and child health in such rural, remote regions. Methods A pre-, post-, and one-year post-test design was used to collect data on knowledge and skill retention for seven essential items required for mobile phone use among traditional birth attendants (TBAs) trained in a short message service (SMS) texting data collection protocol (n=99) in rural Liberia. Results Sixty-three participants (63.6% retention) completed the one-year post-test and displayed evidence of statistically significant knowledge and skill retention in six of the seven tasks (p<.005) including the ability to: (a) turn on the phone; (b) use the mobile phone to make a call; (c) recognize they have coverage; (d) recognize the mobile phone is charged; (e) create a SMS text message without help; and (f) send a SMS text message without help. The TBAs continued to have difficulty with more complex tasks such as adding minutes to a phone. Discussion The mobile phone data collection protocol proved feasible with TBAs demonstrating knowledge retention in a one-year post-test, however clinical significance needs further investigation. The protocol increased communication and collaboration among TBAs, certified midwives, and clinic staff. PMID:24655593

  20. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice.

  1. Intelligent E-Learning Systems for Evaluation of User's Knowledge and Skills with Efficient Information Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Kacalak; Maciej Majewski; Jacek M. Zurada

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a new concept of an e-learning system with intelligent two-way speech communication between the system\\u000a and its users. Computational intelligence methods allow for analysis, evaluation and assessment of user’s knowledge and skills\\u000a and user’s ability for efficient information processing. The system is also capable of control, supervision and optimization\\u000a of the e-learning process. Developed as a prototype

  2. Modernising Medical Careers foundation programme curriculum competencies: will all rotations allow the necessary skills to be acquired? The consultants' predictions

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Cavendish, S

    2006-01-01

    The new UK Foundation Programme is competency based, with a trainee's progression dependent on achieving and demonstrating a range of competencies. However, we do not know whether all rotations, comprising different combinations of specialties, will enable the foundation programme trainees to acquire these competencies. Questionnaires were sent to 100 consultants from a range of specialties asking them to predict if a foundation year 1 or foundation year 2 doctor could acquire each competency when working in the consultant's specialty. Views on the competency framework as a whole were also sought. Results suggest that the competencies trainees may acquire depend on the specialties they experience in their rotation. Moreover, a range of competencies may prove difficult to acquire across most of the specialties. This has implications for the composition of foundation programme rotations, for educational and clinical supervision, and for the content and mode of curriculum delivery. PMID:17068280

  3. Knowledge and perceptions about community-acquired staphylococcal infections among health care workers in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Brandyn S; Tice, Alan D; Hurwitz, Eric L; Katz, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Since the early 1990s, national rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have increased dramatically.1,2 Initially identified in health care settings, community-acquired MRSA is now a major public health concern. With Hawai'i's expanding S. aureus and MRSA epidemic closely approximating the national trend in inpatient and outpatient settings,7,8 a high level of knowledge and awareness among health care workers is essential to successfully control this evolving epidemic. Health care and related workers were surveyed to assess their knowledge and perceptions about staphylococcal and MRSA infections. Knowledge was estimated by demonstrated ability to correctly identify risk factors including diabetes and obesity, as well as to demonstrate awareness of a growing staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic.9,10 Perceptions were estimated by level of concern of antibiotic resistance as well as of the severity of the staphylococcal and MRSA epidemic. Variations in knowledge and perception concerning basic principles associated with S. aureus infections as well as characteristics of the evolving S. aureus and MRSA epidemic were observed among various occupations (advance clinical practitioners, nurses, public health professionals, athletic trainers, and non-medical workers) as well as work locations (hospital, community, and non-clinical community). Overall, health care and related workers in community settings demonstrated disparities in knowledge regarding S. aureus and MRSA infections. They were also more likely to misperceive this growing threat. These findings provide support for focused educational interventions targeting community health care and related workers to improve awareness of staphylococcal infections in order to successfully address and combat this evolving epidemic. PMID:24069572

  4. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jon-Hĺkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

  5. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  6. Skills for the knowledge and service society Trends determining future pre-service and in-service VET needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Schneeberger

    SUMMARY The change-over to a knowledge and service society means greater opportuni- ties for the highly skilled. Participation in tertiary education is increasing in all countries, and it can be seen that graduates are being absorbed into knowledge- intensive services in the labour market. The international trend towards mak- ing vocational education and training part of tertiary education is a

  7. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  8. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.

  9. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival. PMID:25327571

  10. The Long Term Effects of Early Acquired Skills and Behaviors on Young Children's Achievement in Literacy and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodovski, Katerina; Youn, Min-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Using the recently available wave of a large nationally representative sample of American elementary school children (ECLS-K data), this study examined the relationship between 6-7 year old students' behaviors exhibited in the 1st grade (approaches to learning, interpersonal skills, externalizing and internalizing behavior) and their reading and…

  11. Acquiring conceptual data modeling skills: the effect of cooperative learning and self-efficacy on learning outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherry D. Ryan; Bijoy Bordoloi; David A. Harrison

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual data modeling has been defined as a complex task for designers. This study draws from educational and psychological research in examining the training of novices in conceptual data modeling. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of self-efficacy and cooperative, team-based participation on complex data modeling skills. Subjects in the cooperative learning treatment did not perform significantly

  12. The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalyan, Figen

    2004-01-01

    Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

  13. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACQUIRING CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION SKILLS THROUGH SELF-CONFRONTATION. FINAL REPORT JUL 1964-AUG 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EACHUS, HERBERT T.; HAINES, DONALD B.

    AN EXPERIMENT CARRIED OUT TO ASSESS THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF TRAINING UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MILITARY ADVISORS IN CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS REQUIRED SUBJECTS TO PLAY THE ROLE OF AN AMERICAN AIR FORCE CAPTAIN WHO HAD TO INTERACT, IN SPECIFIED WAYS, WITH A FOREIGN COUNTERPART PLAYED BY AN ACTOR. A LIST OF 34 BEHAVIORS APPROPRIATE TO…

  14. The cooperation of small and middle-sized companies with universities in Turkey : Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Figen Dalyan

    2004-01-01

    Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education institutions in Turkey might present some opportunities

  15. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  16. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM. PMID:12378432

  17. Strategy knowledge and strategy change in skilled performance: a study of the game Othello.

    PubMed

    Billman, D; Shaman, D

    1990-01-01

    Skill and skill development in playing the game Othello were investigated. In particular, we studied the role of strategies and strategy change, rather than focusing on knowledge of particular board patterns. The history of the development of the game suggests a shift from positional to mobility strategies, a change which also is reproduced in the development of individual players. The first two studies used historical analysis of tournament transcripts to study strategy change. The third study investigated one possible basis for the greater accessibility or ease of positional versus mobility strategy, namely differential encoding and memorability of typical board patterns. Study 3 demonstrated that completely naive as well as positional players remember positional games and moves more easily than mobility games and moves. The easier mastery of positional strategy may be caused in part by the greater ease of encoding typical positional patterns. We suggest that strategic change and conceptual reorganization may be particularly important for domains where the naive encoding of events is not the most apt. We also suggest that similarities exist between strategy change in Othello and other domains. PMID:2349975

  18. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  19. Knowledge and skill in motion: layers of Tibetan medical education in India.

    PubMed

    Pordié, Laurent; Blaikie, Calum

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the transmission of Tibetan medical knowledge in the Himalayan region of Ladakh (India), taking three educational settings as ethnographic ports of entry. Each of these corresponds to a different operating mode in the standardisation of medical knowledge and learning processes, holding profound implications for the way this therapeutic tradition is known, valued, applied and passed on to the next generation. Being at the same time a cause and a consequence of intra-regional variability in Tibetan medicine, the three institutional forms coexist in constant interaction with one another. The authors render this visible by examining the 'taskscapes' that characterize each learning context, that is to say, the specific and interlocking sets of practices and tasks in which a practitioner must be skilled in order to be considered competent. The authors build upon this notion by studying two fields of transmission and practice, relating to medicine production and medical ethics. These domains of enquiry provide a rich grounding from which to examine the transition from enskilment to education, as well as the overlaps between them, and to map out the connections linking different educational forms to social and medical legitimacy in contemporary India. PMID:25074035

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ayl?kç?, Bahad?r U?ur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Çolak, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information. PMID:23633840

  1. Recognizing the Importance of Aging Skills and Knowledge in Generalist Social Work Practice: Effective Strategies for MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bailey, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure…

  2. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  3. Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

  4. Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Initial Set Revalidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children and the Council on the Education of the Deaf have worked together for over a decade to maintain mutually agreed on standards for teachers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This article presents the updated and revalidated standards of knowledge and skills for teachers in their initial preparation…

  5. Knowledge and Skills for Teachers of Individuals Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Advanced Set Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children and the Council on Education of the Deaf have worked together for over a decade to maintain mutually agreed upon standards for teachers of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. This article presents the newly developed and validated standards of knowledge and skills for teachers who are working on advanced…

  6. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  7. Identifying the Knowledge, Skills, and Values Needed to Perform Entry-Level Child Welfare Work in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topuzova, Lazarina N.

    2009-01-01

    Because child welfare workers serve the most vulnerable children and families, it is necessary that they have sufficient knowledge, skills, and values (competencies) to provide quality services. This study focuses on competencies that the Division of Child and Family Services, Utah (DCFS) views as essential for entry-level child welfare work, and…

  8. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and…

  9. The Relative Value of Skills, Knowledge, and Teaching Methods in Explaining Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program Return on Investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Van Auken; Earl Chrysler

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide insight into alumni perceptions of Master of Business Administration (MBA) program return on investment (ROI). They sought to assess the relative value of skills, knowledge, and teaching methods in explaining ROI. By developing insight into the drivers of ROI, the real utility of MBA program ingredients can be used for program positioning. The use

  10. Skills and Knowledge Needs Assessment To Support Multi-Craft Maintenance and Training Design. Report Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; And Others

    The needs assessment reported in this document was undertaken to identify the skills and knowledge needed in the maintenance department of Standard Steel of Burnham, Pennsylvania, so that curriculum could be developed to: (1) train most department employees for most tasks across crafts; and thereby (2) increase productivity by decreasing the time…

  11. Establishing an Accepted Skill Set and Knowledge Base for Directors of University and College Intensive English Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Megan Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an accepted skill set, knowledge base, and overview of personal qualities necessary to be a director of a university or college based, non-proprietary intensive English program (UIEP). This research serves as a means of moving towards meeting three critical needs in the field. This research should inform…

  12. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  13. The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(CAI) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, B.

    1997-01-01

    BioChem Thinker is a CAI program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar CAI in other biomedical areas. PMID:9357717

  14. Inter-subject variability of cerebral activations in acquiring a motor skill: a study with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schlaug, G; Knorr, U; Seitz, R

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral structures activated during sequential right-hand finger movements were mapped with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements by positron emission tomography (PET) in individual subjects. Nine healthy volunteers were examined twice; after initial learning and after practicing the finger movement sequence for more than 1 h. Task-specific activation sites were identified by statistical distributions of maximal activity and region size in rCBF subtraction images. A consistent task-specific activation in all nine subjects was detected in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex at an average movement rate of 3.2 Hz reached after practice. This corresponded to a significant increase of the mean rCBF in the left primary sensorimotor cortex in spatially standardised and averaged PET images. Additional task-specific activation sites detected by individual analysis were found in the lateral and medial premotor, parietal, and cingulate areas, and in subcortical structures including the basal ganglia of both cerebral hemispheres. These activations showed no or little spatial overlap from subject to subject, thus being obscured in the analysis of pooled data. The observed activity patterns were related to movement rate and accuracy in individual subjects. It is suggested that the rCBF changes associated with acquisition of a motor skill in individual humans may correspond to plasticity of sensorimotor representations reported in monkeys. PMID:8056072

  15. Conceptual Learning in Social Studies Classroom: An Analysis of Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Social Studies Questions with and without Concept

    E-print Network

    Kilinc, Emin

    2012-07-16

    for the Social Studies TAKS Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills TEA Texas Education Agency TEKS Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills ix TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... (TEA, 1975). To provide sufficient materials for concept attainment, some curriculum materials were designed to teach significant social studies concepts. Major Concepts for the Social Studies: A Progress Report (Price, Smith, & Hickman, 1965...

  16. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What skills do people need to survive in the 21st century? It's a great question and one that is examined in painstaking detail by the authors of this 242-page report published by the National Academies Press. Released in 2012, the report responds to a charge from the National Research Council to define the set of key skills that are referenced by the labels "deeper learning, "21st century skills," and so on. The chapters here include "A Preliminary Classification of Skills and Abilities" and "Importance of Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills." This is a great read for those with an interest in education, public policy, and the like.

  17. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  18. Culturally competent care of women and newborns: knowledge, attitude, and skills.

    PubMed

    Callister, L C

    2001-01-01

    In a variety of health care settings throughout the United States and Canada, nurses are caring for women and newborns from culturally diverse backgrounds. In the technologically complex and bureaucratic world of health care delivery, cultural considerations in provision of care often are overlooked and neglected. The purpose of this article is to define ways in which culturally competent nursing care can be implemented. Nursing education and clinical practice guidelines are clear on the importance of gaining cultural competence. Providing culturally competent care includes understanding the dimensions of culture; moving beyond the biophysical to a more holistic approach; and seeking to increase knowledge, change attitudes, and hone clinical skills. Building on the strengths of women rather than utilizing a deficit model of health care is an essential part of providing culturally competent care. The achievement of both measurable and "soft" outcomes related to the delivery of culturally competent care can make a critical difference in the heath and well-being of women and newborns. PMID:11308111

  19. Do migrants transfer tacit knowledge? : the case of highly skilled Bangladeshi immigrants in the United States

    E-print Network

    Sultana, Moshahida

    2005-01-01

    Transfer of knowledge is a complex process. While codified knowledge is easy to transfer, tacit knowledge is not. "Tacit knowledge is difficult to exchange over long distance because it is heavily imbued with meaning arising ...

  20. Predicting Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of Offline Reading Skills, Online Reading Skills, and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which new reading comprehension proficiencies may be required when adolescents read for information on the Internet. Seventh graders (N = 109) selected from a stratified random sample of diverse middle school students completed a survey of topic-specific prior knowledge and parallel scenario-based measures of…

  1. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peńa-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  2. The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework and its implications for continuing professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Kelly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework has been introduced as part of the Agenda for Change Reforms in the United Kingdom to link pay and career progression to competency. The purpose of this paper is to consider the implications for nurses, their managers and the impact on university departments delivering continuing professional development for nurses. The new system has the potential to increase the human resources management aspect of the clinical nurse managers' role and could have legal implications, for example if practitioners perceive that their needs for continuing professional development have been overlooked to the detriment of their pay and career aspirations. The new system also has implications for providers of continuing professional development in the universities and is likely to demand closer liaison between education providers and trust staff who commission education and training. The Knowledge and Skills Framework is of interest to nurses and nurse educators internationally because the system, if effective, could be introduced elsewhere. PMID:16616397

  3. DETERMINING CRITICAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS OF IT PROFESSIONALS BY ANALYZING KEYWORDS IN JOB POSTINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Kovacs; Gary A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    In a constantly changing job market, Information Technology (IT) practitioners must keep their skills up-to-date. Educational institutions with Informational Technology curricula must also keep current in course offerings and programs of study. One way to maintain relevance is to examine and identify what IT skills and competencies are in demand. Job positions, indicating current expertise needed by companies, are good

  4. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

  5. Utilization of evidence-based practice knowledge, attitude, and skill of clinical nurses in the planning of professional development programming.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kathleen M; Almaskari, Mohammed; Lester, Zanet; Maguire, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This collaborative study explored nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. It also explored the nurses' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that they face related to fully using EBP in the workplace. Findings will afford the healthcare system the information to develop, plan, and restructure the educational services to meet the demand of enhancing EBP strategies and utilization. PMID:25790357

  6. Presentation skills.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Nurses with such skills can share knowledge and expertise, and communicate clearly, in a range of workplace scenarios. PMID:25746884

  7. Enhancing Geographic Knowledge through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Robert A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although international understanding is essential for survival, most high school students do not acquire the necessary skills and knowledge for competing in the global community. Finds that geographic knowledge can be integrated into literature courses and includes exemplary lesson plans. (CFR)

  8. Beyond knowledge and skills: the use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is evidence to suggest that teaching practices in clinical education should include activities that more accurately reflect the real world, many educators base their teaching on transmission models that encourage the rote learning of knowledge and technical skills. Technology-mediated instruction may facilitate the development of professional attributes that go beyond “having” knowledge and skills, but there is limited evidence for how to integrate technology into these innovative teaching approaches. Methods This study used a modified Delphi method to help identify the professional attributes of capable practitioners, the approaches to teaching that may facilitate the development of these attributes, and finally, how technology could be integrated with those teaching strategies in order to develop capable practitioners. Open-ended questions were used to gather data from three different expert panels, and results were thematically analysed. Results Clinical educators should not view knowledge, skills and attitudes as a set of products of learning, but rather as a set of attributes that are developed during a learning process. Participants highlighted the importance of continuing personal and professional development that emphasised the role of values and emotional response to the clinical context. To develop these attributes, clinical educators should use teaching activities that are learner-centred, interactive, integrated, reflective and that promote engagement. When technology-mediated teaching activities are considered, they should promote the discussion of clinical encounters, facilitate the sharing of resources and experiences, encourage reflection on the learning process and be used to access content outside the classroom. In addition, educational outcomes must drive the integration of technology into teaching practice, rather than the features of the technology. Conclusions There is a need for a cultural change in clinical education, in which those involved with the professional training of healthcare professionals perceive teaching as more than the transmission of knowledge and technical skills. Process-oriented teaching practices that integrate technology as part of a carefully designed curriculum may have the potential to facilitate the development of capable healthcare graduates who are able to navigate the complexity of health systems and patient management in ways that go beyond the application of knowledge and skills. PMID:23574731

  9. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks. The correlations with the posttests increased from one enactment to the next, demonstrating that the students' transfer performance improved as they gained more experience in DBS classrooms. Potential threats to the study's internal validity that were identified and discussed were improved teacher proficiency, the nature of the transfer tasks, the difficulty of the science content covered by the units, the similarity between the units and the transfer tasks, and the similarity between the transfer tasks. This dissertation demonstrates that: (a) appropriate learning environments can foster transfer, (b) transfer performance can improve over time, and (c) that it may be necessary to rethink and redefine the procedures for identifying and assessing real-world transfer.

  10. What goal is of most worth? The effects of the implementation of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills on elementary science teaching

    E-print Network

    Rodgers, Pamela England

    2006-08-16

    This qualitative, narrative study centered on the effects of the implementation of the science portion of the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) on the instruction of science at the elementary level, grades one through five...

  11. A Comparative Study of University of Wisconsin-Stout Freshmen and Senior Education Major's Computing and Internet Technology Skills/Knowledge and Associated Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sveum, Evan Charles

    2010-01-01

    A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors' computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC[superscript 3][R] Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator's Computing and Internet Skills Learning…

  12. The Use of Functional Assessment and Frequency Building Procedures to Increase Product Knowledge and Data Entry Skills among Foremen in a Construction Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampino, Ralph N.; Wilder, David A.; Binder, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A functional assessment procedure, which was designed to identify insufficient skills that may have been responsible for employee performance problems, was administered to four foremen employed in a large construction organization. Results of this assessment procedure identified two skill areas, product knowledge and data entry, as deficient.…

  13. Designing Online Strategy Instruction for Integrated Vocabulary Depth of Knowledge and Web-Based Dictionary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…

  14. Resolving Conflict Successfully: Needed Knowledge and Skills. The Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Neil H.; Lawyer, John W.

    This book is the second of a three-volume series on conflict resolution for educational administrators. Following the introduction, the first three chapters discuss the following communication skills critical to communication--building rapport, listening and pacing, and chunking and problem solving. Chapter 4 provides a generic problem-solving…

  15. The Effects of BI on Library Knowledge and Skills among Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Godfrey; Toifel, Ronald C.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of library skills retention which showed that the inclusion of library exercises and hands-on training in undergraduate and graduate bibliographic instruction programs influences education students' retention of subject matter. Statistics are given for each item on a 24-question pre- and posttest; a copy of the test is appended.…

  16. An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

    To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory…

  17. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  18. Collaborative Doctoral Programmes: Employer Engagement, Knowledge Mediation and Skills for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates forms of collaborative doctoral programmes that enable employer engagement in innovation and skills development. Collaborative doctoral programmes exist in different national contexts for the development of the science and technology human capital. Such programmes are also seen as policy tools that enhance relationships…

  19. Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

  20. Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2012-01-01

    For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…

  1. DEVELOPING STUDENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR HOME-BASED SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan F. Allen; Elizabeth M. Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguish- ing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the interven- tion process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safe- ty, boundary, confidentiality, and ethical challenges. This article offers practical

  2. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  3. Knowledge Acquisition and Job Training for Advanced Technical Skills Using Immersive Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.

  4. Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M. Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills. PMID:23971033

  5. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  6. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9?months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine?months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9?months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  7. The Effect of Concept Mapping with Different Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills on Knowledge Acquisition and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different levels of generativity in terms of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. Also, it examined whether or not learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills influenced the effectiveness of concept mapping strategies with different…

  8. Computer-based knowledge extraction tool: a step in the development of a cognitive skills tutor

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M.L.; Kern, R.P.; Emerson, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the Army Research Institute, is developing an experimental computer-tutor to be used as part of the Armor Officer's Basic Course at Fort Knox, Kentucky. The tutor's objective is to train students to apply the types of cognitive processing strategies needed to more effectively organize their knowledge for application in planning and conducting tactical operations. The tutor is being developed through an iterative process with the first phase being a knowledge extraction computer-based tool. Student knowledge organization in this domain will be obtained through collection of online and offline performance data. The tool is designed to obtain the knowledge organization through a motivating, realistic tactical operations exercise. 18 refs.

  9. The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation - a review of current knowledge and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D. K.

    2009-07-01

    Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions), mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.

  10. Utilizing STEM experiential learning to influence attitudes, skills, and knowledge in urban high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, Shannon L.

    This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.

  11. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  12. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K

    2014-03-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  13. The anterior temporal lobes are critically involved in acquiring new conceptual knowledge: evidence for impaired feature integration in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Evans, Gemma A L; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations. Single-cell recordings in monkeys suggest that the ATLs are critically involved in visual associative learning; however, investigations of this region in humans have focused on existing knowledge rather than learning. We studied acquisition of new concepts in semantic dementia patients, who have cortical damage centred on the ventrolateral aspects of the ATLs. Patients learned to assign abstract visual stimuli to two categories. The categories conformed to a family resemblance structure in which no individual stimulus features were fully diagnostic; thus the task required participants to form representations that integrate multiple features into a single concept. Patients were unable to do this, instead responding only on the basis of individual features. The study reveals that integrating disparate sources of information into novel coherent concepts is a critical computational function of the ATLs. This explains the central role of this region in conceptual representation and the catastrophic breakdown of concepts in semantic dementia. PMID:24268323

  14. The anterior temporal lobes are critically involved in acquiring new conceptual knowledge: Evidence for impaired feature integration in semantic dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Evans, Gemma A.L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations. Single-cell recordings in monkeys suggest that the ATLs are critically involved in visual associative learning; however, investigations of this region in humans have focused on existing knowledge rather than learning. We studied acquisition of new concepts in semantic dementia patients, who have cortical damage centred on the ventrolateral aspects of the ATLs. Patients learned to assign abstract visual stimuli to two categories. The categories conformed to a family resemblance structure in which no individual stimulus features were fully diagnostic; thus the task required participants to form representations that integrate multiple features into a single concept. Patients were unable to do this, instead responding only on the basis of individual features. The study reveals that integrating disparate sources of information into novel coherent concepts is a critical computational function of the ATLs. This explains the central role of this region in conceptual representation and the catastrophic breakdown of concepts in semantic dementia. PMID:24268323

  15. Development of Implanted Deaf Children's Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid; Dardier, Virginie; Pajon, Cecile; Tan-Bescond, Geraldine; David, Kristell; Deleau, Michel; Godey, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of preverbal development have highlighted the recurrent difficulties experienced by deaf children in acquiring knowledge of the social rules and social skills pertaining to discourse. We expected cochlear implants in children with bilateral profound deafness to improve their use of verbal language, so that their communication…

  16. Math-oriented critical thinking skills in engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napisah Mohd Radzi; Mohd Salleh Abu; Shahrin Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    The current phenomena of knowledge explosion and technology advancement, has significantly demand engineering practice to participate in research at the extremes; from the microscopic level of nanotechnology to the mega level of global systems such as civil infrastructure. There is also the urgent need to acquire new knowledge and skills in new areas such as cyber infrastructure. Mathematics being one

  17. Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

  18. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

  19. Cultivating Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills for Leading Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge

  20. Knowledge and Skill Differences between Expert and Novice Service Technicians on Technical Troubleshooting Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.

    A two-part study examined the relationship between technical troubleshooting behavior and the level of expertise of service technicians who diagnose faulty equipment. The first investigation addressed the differences in the knowledge base that troubleshooters bring to a problem. A group of five novice troubleshooters and five experts was given…

  1. Graduate Employability, "Soft Skills" versus "Hard" Business Knowledge: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the UK and mainland Europe of the importance of higher education to the development of a knowledge-based economy. European universities are increasingly required to produce highly mobile graduates able to respond to the ever-changing needs of the contemporary workplace. Following the Bologna Declaration (1999),…

  2. Knowledge-based control of grasping in robot hands using heuristics from human motor skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Bekey; Huan Liu; Rajko Tomovic; Walter J. Karplus

    1993-01-01

    The development of a grasp planner for multifingered robot hands is described. The planner is knowledge-based, selecting grasp postures by reasoning from symbolic information on target object geometry and the nature of the task. The ability of the planner to utilize task information is based on an attempt to mimic human grasping behavior. Several task attributes and a set of

  3. Active-Learning Strategies to Develop Health Literacy Knowledge and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lakesha M.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Poirier, Therese I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To implement active-learning exercises in a required pharmacy course and assess their impact on students' knowledge and confidence in identifying and communicating with patients with low health literacy, as part of a required course in cultural competency, health literacy, and health beliefs. Design Active-learning activities including administering health literacy assessments, identifying informal signs of low health literacy, conducting mock patient counseling sessions, rating the readability of drug information, analyzing information in drug advertisements, and writing patient education materials were incorporated into the 6-sesssion health literacy portion of the course. Assessment A pretest and posttest showed that students' knowledge of health literacy increased, and a retrospective pretest found improvement in students' confidence in their ability to care for patients with low health literacy. In-class discussions provided informal evidence that students gained new knowledge from the active-learning activities. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was effective in teaching health literacy concepts to pharmacy students. PMID:21179248

  4. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test. PMID:23265002

  5. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Marcelo E. S.; Souza, Marina G. T. X.; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B. M.; Corręa, Umberto C.; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner’s performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner’s attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60–69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ? 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134

  6. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corręa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ? 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process. PMID:25566134

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921

  8. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

  10. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate prediction of the initiation of translation in sequences of mRNA is an important activity for genome annotation. However, obtaining an accurate prediction is not always a simple task and can be modeled as a problem of classification between positive sequences (protein codifiers) and negative sequences (non-codifiers). The problem is highly imbalanced because each molecule of mRNA has a unique translation initiation site and various others that are not initiators. Therefore, this study focuses on the problem from the perspective of balancing classes and we present an undersampling balancing method, M-clus, which is based on clustering. The method also adds features to sequences and improves the performance of the classifier through the inclusion of knowledge obtained by the model, called InAKnow. Results Through this methodology, the measures of performance used (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and adjusted accuracy) are greater than 93% for the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus organisms, and varied between 72.97% and 97.43% for the other organisms evaluated: Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Nasonia vitripennis. The precision increases significantly by 39% and 22.9% for Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, when the knowledge obtained by the model is included. For the other organisms, the precision increases by between 37.10% and 59.49%. The inclusion of certain features during training, for example, the presence of ATG in the upstream region of the Translation Initiation Site, improves the rate of sensitivity by approximately 7%. Using the M-Clus balancing method generates a significant increase in the rate of sensitivity from 51.39% to 91.55% (Mus musculus) and from 47.45% to 88.09% (Rattus norvegicus). Conclusions In order to solve the problem of TIS prediction, the results indicate that the methodology proposed in this work is adequate, particularly when using the concept of acquired knowledge which increased the accuracy in all databases evaluated. PMID:22369295

  11. A comparison of knowledge of results scheduling methods for promoting motor skill acquisition and retention.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D L; Sherwood, D E

    1994-06-01

    Providing knowledge of results (KR) to a learner about each trial in a series of trials only after the series is completed is termed summary KR. A variation of summary KR is average KR, in which KR is presented as an average value about the series of trials. This study compared groups receiving either average KR, summary KR, or KR following every attempt in acquisition of a force production task. Following acquisition, groups performed no-KR immediate and long-term retention tests. Analysis of variable error revealed group main effects and group by block interactions in acquisition and long-term retention. Post hoc tests indicated that differences were due primarily to inconsistent performance of the group receiving KR following each acquisition attempt. Post hoc tests did not, however, indicate differences between the average KR and summary KR groups in acquisition or retention. It was concluded that average and summary KR promote consistency in performance in acquisition, with this stability in responding carried over to retention performance. PMID:8047705

  12. Bully Busters Modified: The Effect of a Brief Universal Intervention on Elementary School Teacher Efficacy, Skills and Knowledge, and Reports of Student Victimization of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Kristin K.; Lounsbery, Karyl L.; Behrend, Bonni Nickens; Keller, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a brief, but intensive modified Bully Busters universal prevention program on measures of teacher efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, teacher skills and knowledge about peer victimization, and teacher-reports of students' peer victimization was conducted with 30 elementary school teachers. Paired-samples "t" tests revealed clinically…

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) and Student Performance on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley-Jones, Catherine Spotswood

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) self-ratings and student Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores. The study assessed the relationship between LoTi ratings and TAKS scores of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students as reported in student records at Alamo Heights Independent School…

  14. Team Characteristics and Team Member Knowledge, Skills, and Ability Relationships to the Effectiveness of Cross?Functional Teams in the Public Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne A. Athanasaw

    2003-01-01

    This study examines members of cross?functional teams in the public sector for the necessary knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA) to be effective team members. It was determined that members of cross?functional teams in the public sector possess the necessary KSA to perform effectively. The following characteristics are statistically significant factors: (1) years of professional work experience; (2) frequency of team

  15. Learning about evolution and rejecting a belief in special creation: Effects of reflective reasoning skill, prior knowledge, prior belief and religious commitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton E. Lawson; William A. Worsnop

    1992-01-01

    Students in three sections of a high school biology course were taught a unit on evolution and natural selection. Prior to instruction, students were pretested to determine their (a) reflective reasoning skill, (b) strength of religious commitment, (c) prior declarative knowledge of evolution and natural selection, and (d) beliefs in evolution or special creation and related religiously oriented beliefs. Following

  16. A Teacher Action Research Study: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, Application and Transfer in a Higher Education Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jack Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…

  17. Mass Spectrometry: Using a Game Format to Develop Logic Skills While Applying Fundamental Chemistry Knowledge to Determine Possible Chemical Formula Represented in Graphic Output From A Mass Spetrometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Fenno, Ubah Medical Academy, Hopkins, MN, based on an activity presented by Olaf Runquist, Professor, Hamline University.

    This activity is a series of game-like lessons that assist the student in developing the logic skills needed to read mass spectrometer output and formulate the identity of an unknown molecule. As students endeavor to identify the unknown they must apply fundamental chemistry knowledge including formula mass, isotopes, periodic table, relative abundance, interpreting graphs, organic chemistry, ionization, bonding rules, and structural formulas.

  18. Developing Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through Technology-Rich Tasks: The Influence of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Technology has been shown to positively influence student learning when students explore technology-rich tasks that simultaneously require them to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), such as analyzing or evaluating information or creating new representations of knowledge. Educational technology researchers have posited that in order for…

  19. Predictors of Student Performance in Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics: The Correlation between Benchmark Tests and Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Math Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Timothy Dale

    2012-01-01

    School districts throughout Texas have used archived Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) tests as a benchmark to predict student performance on future TAKS tests without substantial quantitative evidence that these types of benchmark tests are valid predictors of student performance. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study…

  20. The Impact of a Computer Based Math Instruction Program on Fifth Grade Student Academic Performance on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in One School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Brian B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences between two groups of fifth grade students' performance on the 2010 fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) math test. The sample consisted of a group of fifth grade students receiving the traditional instruction from their classroom teacher and a group of fifth grade…

  1. The Effects of Learning Strategies Instruction on Metacognitive Knowledge, Using Metacognitive Skills and Academic Achievement (Primary Education Sixth Grade Turkish Course Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Muhittin; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of learning strategies instruction on metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive skills, and achievement. An experimental pre-test/post-test control group design was used in the research. The study was conducted in the 2008-2009 school year on 6th grade students at Orgeneral Tural and Dikmeli Primary Schools located…

  2. The Influence of Student Teacher Self-Regulation of Learning on Their Curricular Content-Knowledge and Course-Design Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of EFL student teacher self-regulation of learning (SRL) on their curricular content-knowledge and course-design skills. Positivism guided this study at the levels of: ontology (one form of reality); epistemology (detachment from the subjects); and methodology, using nomothetic research strategy (causal…

  3. A Framework of Teacher Knowledge and Skills Necessary in a Standards-Based System: Lessons from High School and University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tell, Christine A.; Bodone, Francoise M.; Addie, Karen L.

    The Standards-based Education Project (STEP) was conducted as part of the Eisenhower Initial Teacher Professional Development Program in Oregon, under the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). STEP focused on the development of a framework of teacher knowledge, skills, and materials for pre-service and practicing teachers. High…

  4. The Effect of a Workshop on School Counselor Trainee's Child-Centered Play Therapy Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes, and Self-Estimate of Counseling Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The results of this experimental study have demonstrated that following participation in a 12-hour training in Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT), school counselor trainees significantly increased their CCPT knowledge and skills in employing CCPT, as compared to a control group. Participants reported that they had learned enough of the philosophy…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the…

  6. A Study of the Relationship Between Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) and Student Performance on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Scores

    E-print Network

    Berkeley-Jones, Catherine Spotswood

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) self-ratings and student Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores. The study assessed the relationship between LoTi ratings and TAKS scores...

  7. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…

  8. Learning Paramedic Science Skills from a First Person Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathy; Barr, Nigel; Oprescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Paramedic students need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform basic as well as complex clinical skills, to ensure patient safety, and to manage sophisticated equipment. Time and resource pressures on students, teaching staff and institutions have led health professional educators to develop and embrace alternative opportunities such…

  9. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353

  10. The ‘Dark Side’ and ‘Bright Side’ of Personality: When Too Much Conscientiousness and Too Little Anxiety Are Detrimental with Respect to the Acquisition of Medical Knowledge and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be problematic, as it may be excluding those with some degree of moderate anxiety. PMID:24586353

  11. Acquisition of intellectual and perceptual-motor skills.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, D A; Carlson, R A; Gilmore, R O

    2001-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that intellectual and perceptual-motor skills are acquired in fundamentally similar ways. Transfer specificity, generativity, and the use of abstract rules and reflexlike productions are similar in the two skill domains; brain sites subserving thought processes and perceptual-motor processes are not as distinct as once thought; explicit and implicit knowledge characterize both kinds of skill; learning rates, training effects, and learning stages are remarkably similar for the two skill classes; and imagery, long thought to play a distinctive role in high-level thought, also plays a role in perceptual-motor learning and control. The conclusion that intellectual skills and perceptual-motor skills are psychologically more alike than different accords with the view that all knowledge is performatory. PMID:11148313

  12. UNF graduates of the B.A.E program in Mathematics Education will demonstrate mastery of content knowledge and teaching skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical task assessments in core, major, and clinical experi

    E-print Network

    Asaithambi, Asai

    . Critical Thinking Skills · Helps students develop concepts through a variety of methods. · Pose critical knowledge and teaching skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical include: 1. Assignments and formal assessments to demonstrate knowledge. 2. Completion of critical tasks

  13. Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Rebecca

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

  14. Correlates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among African-American college students: the effect of HIV knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills.

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan, M.; Kelly, E. M.; Stein, J. A.; Husaini, B. A.; Bazargan, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies theoretically based predictors of condom use in a sample of 253 sexually active African-American college students recruited from two historically African-American colleges. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model of AIDS-preventive behavior was employed to delineate the roles of HIV/AIDS knowledge, experiences with and attitudes toward condom use, peer influences, perceived vulnerability, monogamy, and behavioral skills. A predictive structural equation model revealed significant predictors of more condom use including: male gender, more sexual HIV knowledge, positive experiences and attitudes about condom use, nonmonogamy, and greater behavioral skills. Results imply that attention to behavioral skills for negotiating safer sex and training in the proper use of condoms are key elements in reducing high risk behaviors. Increasing the specific knowledge level of college students regarding the subtleties of sexual transmission of HIV is important and should be addressed. Heightening students' awareness of the limited protection of serial monogamy, and the need to address gender-specific training regarding required behavior change to reduce transmission of HIV should be an additional goal of college health professionals. PMID:10992684

  15. Assessing the capacity for newborn resuscitation and factors associated with providers’ knowledge and skills: a cross-sectional study in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resuscitation with bag and mask is a high-impact intervention that can reduce neonatal deaths in resource-poor countries. This study assessed the capacity to perform newborn resuscitation at facilities offering comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Afghanistan, as well as individual and facility characteristics associated with providers’ knowledge and clinical skills. Methods Assessors interviewed 82 doctors and 142 midwives at 78 facilities on their knowledge of newborn resuscitation and observed them perform the procedure on an anatomical model. Supplies, equipment, and infrastructure were assessed at each facility. Descriptive statistics and simple and multivariate regression analyses were performed using STATA 11.2 and SAS 9.1.3. Results Over 90% of facilities had essential equipment for newborn resuscitation, including a mucus extractor, bag, and mask. More than 80% of providers had been trained on newborn resuscitation, but midwives were more likely than doctors to receive such training as part of pre-service education (59% and 35%, respectively, p?knowledge, clinical skills, or confidence in performing newborn resuscitation. Doctors and midwives scored 71% and 66%, respectively, on knowledge questions and 66% and 71% on the skills assessment; 75% of doctors and 83% of midwives felt very confident in their ability to perform newborn resuscitation. Training was associated with greater knowledge (p?skills (p?knowledge and skills need strengthening in some areas. Midwives proved to be as capable as doctors of performing newborn resuscitation, which validates the major investment made in midwifery education. Competency-based pre-service and in-service training, complemented by supportive supervision, is an effective way to build providers’ capacity to perform newborn resuscitation. This kind of training could also help skilled birth attendants based in the community, at private clinics, or at primary care facilities save the lives of newborns. PMID:24020392

  16. Knowledge & Skills Foundations

    E-print Network

    Hood, Craig

    , the influence of Christianity and the Crusades on European culture and society, the Aztec civilization. They understand the major issues in gender equity and are aware of contemporary social, political and cultural

  17. Strategizing Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning toward Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukama, Evode

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…

  18. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  19. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceiçăo, Simone C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  20. The PPB Systems Analyst: Skills and Training Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Augustus B.

    Results are given of a six-week effort to (1) define the knowledge and skill requirements for successful performance as a Planning-Programming-Budgeting (PPB) systems analyst, (2) determine how these requirements are best acquired, and (3) evaluate the implications for the training programs of the Civil Service Commission. The findings in relation…

  1. A Visual-Based Approach to the Mapping of Generic Skills: Its Application to a Marketing Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Lawrence; D'Alessandro, Steven; Winzar, Hume

    2014-01-01

    With increasing complexity in the world, universities continue to face pressure to demonstrate that their graduates have acquired skills beyond discipline-based knowledge. These are generic skills like critical thinking, intellectual curiosity, problem-solving and so forth. In order to demonstrate this, universities have to show how their teaching…

  2. Empowering elementary teachers in Texas to prepare their students for the science section of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) 2003

    E-print Network

    Blackmon, Scott Alexander

    2004-11-15

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Clark E. Adams (Chair of Committee) Keith Arnold (Member) Tim H. Murphy (Member) Robert D. Brown (Head of Department) August 2003 Major... Blackmon, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Clark E. Adams The need for an effective means of enhancing the science comprehension of elementary teachers brought about changes in the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills...

  3. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  4. The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after the treatment. These findings indicate that socioscientific issues-based instruction can provide benefits for students in agricultural education. Teacher educators should work with teachers to maximize the learning that can occur through the various aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction. Curriculum focusing on socioscientific issues-based instruction should be developed for specific courses in agricultural education. Finally, further investigation should be conducted to better understand how the aspects of socioscientific issues-based instruction can be altered to further enhance student learning.

  5. Knowledge representation and knowledge module structure for uncalibrated vision-guided robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh-Chinh; Bui, Doan-Trong

    2000-10-01

    A new concept for knowledge representation and structure of the knowledge module for vision-guided robots is introduced. It allows the robot to acquire, accumulate and adapt automatically whatever knowledge it may need and to gain experience in the course of its normal operation, i.e., learning by doing, thus, to improve its skills and operating speed over time. The knowledge module is structured into a set of a fairly independent submodules each performing a limited task, and sub-knowledge bases each contains limited knowledge. Such a structure allows to use the acquired knowledge flexibly and efficiently. It makes also easily to extend the knowledge base when the robot's number of degrees of freedom that must be controlled increases. The concept was realized and evaluated in real-world experiments on an uncalibrated vision-guided 5-DOF manipulator to grasp a variety of differently shaped objects.

  6. Offline eLearning for undergraduates in health professions: A systematic review of the impact on knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kristine; Belisario, José Marcano; Wark, Petra A; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Loong, Stewart Lee; Cotic, Ziva; Papachristou, Nikos; Riboli–Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Kunz, Holger; Zhang, Yanfeng; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Svab, Igor; Atun, Rifat; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2014-01-01

    Background The world is short of 7.2 million health–care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource–limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline eLearning, we need to establish its effectiveness in terms of gaining knowledge and skills, students’ satisfaction and attitudes towards eLearning. Methods We conducted a systematic review of offline eLearning for students enrolled in undergraduate, health–related university degrees. We included randomised controlled trials that compared offline eLearning to traditional learning or an alternative eLearning method. We searched the major bibliographic databases in August 2013 to identify articles that focused primarily on students’ knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning, and health economic information and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. We synthesized the findings using a thematic summary approach. Findings Forty–nine studies, including 4955 students enrolled in undergraduate medical, dentistry, nursing, psychology, or physical therapy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of the 33 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 21 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. One study did not test for differences. Eight studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the eLearning intervention groups, whilst the other 5 testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups. No study found offline eLearning as inferior. Generally no differences in attitudes or preference of eLearning over traditional learning were observed. No clear trends were found in the comparison of different modes of eLearning. Most of the studies were small and subject to several biases. Conclusions Our results suggest that offline eLearning is equivalent and possibly superior to traditional learning regarding knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction. Although a robust conclusion cannot be drawn due to variable quality of the evidence, these results justify further investment into offline eLearning to address the global health care workforce shortage. PMID:24976964

  7. Skill Building in the Block?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Louise M.; Pappas, Artemus M.

    1976-01-01

    Teachers in a block or model office program, noting that all students have not acquired basic office skills elsewhere, describe drills they use to improve entry skills advertised for daily in want ads. (Editor/HD)

  8. Framework for the Evolution of Acquiring Knowledge Modules to Integrate the Acquisition of High-Level Cognitive Skills and Professional Competencies: Principles and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warin, Bruno; Kolski, Christophe; Sagar, Mouldi

    2011-01-01

    The changing profile of students, the expectations of business and the capabilities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) makes it necessary to change teaching practices, particularly in higher education. This paper proposes a methodological framework destined to force disciplinary course modules to evolve in order to…

  9. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  10. Behavior, nutrition and lifestyle in a comprehensive health and disease paradigm: skills and knowledge for a predictive, preventive and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health and disease of individuals and of populations are the result of three groups of risk factors: genetics, environment and behavior. Assessment, interventions and tailored changes are possible with integrated approaches more effective if respectful of individuals and different cultures. Assessment tools and integrated interventional strategies are available, but widespread knowledge, skills and competence of well trained individual Medical Doctors still lack. Mediterranean diet is an appropriate reference paradigm because encompasses consistent research background, affordable sustainability, widespread comprehensibility and attractiveness inside a cultural framework of competences and skills in which the Medical Doctors can personally manage the need of prediction (early diagnosis), prevention (intervention on healthy persons) and tailored therapy and follow-up for patients. This profile is flexible and adjustable according to specific needs and preferences due to different economic and ethno-cultural milieus. It can enhanced through on-site/e-learning Continuous Medical Education (CME), by training and using friendly and affordable equipments. PMID:22738244

  11. Intuition in nursing relationships: the result of 'skills' or 'qualities'?

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J

    Maintaining the scientific orientation of health and nursing care systems has resulted in a lack of focus on nurses' intuitive knowledge base. Consequently, confusion exists as to whether intuition in nursing is the result of acquired skills, or is dependent upon the inherent qualities of the individual. In deconstructing the apparently intuitive process of building rapport, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) can offer insight, suggesting that rapport building depends on learnt skills that have moved into unconscious competence. The examination of nurses' intuitive knowledge, in order to identify underlying skills, needs to be just as rigorous as the acquisition of scientific knowledge. Examining intuitive knowledge can be achieved within a framework of reflective practice to counter the inherent dangers of an increasingly scientific approach operating within a caring profession. PMID:10362932

  12. Re-Positioning Australia's International Education in Global Knowledge Economies: Implications of Shifts in Skilled Migration Policies for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…

  13. Fostering Knowledge and Skills to Teach for Diversity: "There Is Nothing so Practical as a Good Theory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchel, Carol A.; Green, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of field-based teacher preparation offers important opportunities to develop skills with diverse learners. However, limited focus on theoretical content restricts understanding and generalization of well-proven theoretical approaches, resulting in fragmented field applications unlikely to result in broad application. Inspired by Kurt…

  14. Evidence of Alphabetic Knowledge in Writing: Connections to Letter and Word Identification Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Armstrong, Natalie E.; Culver, Brittany L.; White, Jamie M.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The writing skills of 286 children (157 female and 129 male) were studied by comparing name writing and letter writing scores from preschool to kindergarten with letter and word reading scores over the same time period. Two rubrics for scoring writing were compared to determine if scores based on multiple components (i.e., letter formation,…

  15. The Effects of Reciprocal Teaching and Direct Instruction Approaches on Knowledge Map (k-map) Generation Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgen, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate whether reciprocal teaching approach or direct instruction approach is more effective in the teaching of k-map generation skill. Secondary purpose of the study is to determine which of the k-map generation principles are more challenging for students to apply. The results of the study…

  16. The Effects of Reciprocal Teaching and Direct Instruction Approaches on Knowledge Map (K-Map) Generation Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Görgen, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate whether reciprocal teaching approach or direct instruction approach is more effective in the teaching of k-map generation skill. Secondary purpose of the study is to determine which of the k-map generation principles are more challenging for students to apply. The results of the study…

  17. Developing Observational Skills and Knowledge of Anatomical Relationships in an Art and Anatomy Workshop Using Plastinated Specimens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charleen M.; Lowe, Constance; Lawrence, Jane; Borchers, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    One of the strong trends in medical education today is the integration of the humanities into the basic medical curriculum. The anatomy program is an obvious choice for using the humanities to develop professionalism and ethical values. They can also be used to develop close observational skills. Many medical schools have developed formal art…

  18. TV as Storyteller: How Exposure to Television Narratives Impacts At-Risk Preschoolers' Story Knowledge and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy…

  19. Stratification of attitudes and skill level as correlated with knowledge and self confidence in a pre-engineering curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pete Hylton; Wendy Otoupal

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that a solid background in the appropriate math and science classes prior to college is a key to success in pursuing careers in Engineering and Technology (E & T). Pre-engineering courses for K-12 students have repeatedly shown that they can help improve the skill level, and self-confidence of students as they enter the university E &

  20. Ensuring the profitability of acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J P

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are aggressively acquiring physician group practices to create primary care networks and broaden their managed care market penetration. However, few are realizing a positive return on investment after acquisition. The odds that acquired practices will be profitable can be improved if healthcare organizations plan carefully by establishing separate acquiring entities, setting clear goals for the practices, forming skilled management teams with strong physician leadership to manage the acquired practices, and carefully structuring their physician incentive compensation plans. PMID:10163897

  1. The Knowledge-Based Technology Applications Center (KBTAC) seminar series; Volume 3: Introductory knowledge-based system development seminar. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Wood; W. Meyer; R. J. DeLuke; M. E. Wood

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge-based systems (KBSs) are a means of capturing and productively and efficiently using a utility`s accumulated knowledge and expertise. To apply this technology, utility personnel need to acquire knowledge and skills in a number of areas: (1) Fundamental concepts of computerized knowledge representation and reasoning ({open_quotes}inferencing{close_quotes}); (2) Methods of identifying applications suitable for KBSs, and for analyzing their feasibility, costs,

  2. Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

  3. Acquired Tastes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located on Beacon Hill, the Boston Athenaeum is a distinguished private membership society that celebrates history and a myriad of other matters. This particular nook of its site brings together selections from its retrospective exhibition entitled, "Acquired Tastes: 200 Years of Collection for the Boston Athenaeum.â?ť The in situ exhibit included paintings, sculptures, maps, prints, photographs, and decorative arts and this complementary site offers visitors insights into the remarkable collection. Highlights include dramatic early views of Boston, a wonderful portrait of John Adams by Gilbert Stuart, and a view of Boston from 1848 as rendered from East Boston. Each view contains detailed bibliographic information, along with a few paragraphs of the significance of each item. Visitors may peruse three dozen items that offer insight into the collecting preferences of the Athenaeum over time.

  4. Reading skills and family planning knowledge and practices in a low-income managed-care population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JulieA Gazmararian; RuthM Parker; DavidW Baker

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between reading ability and family planning knowledge and practices among Medicaid managed care enrollees.Methods: A total of 406 women age 19–45 years enrolled in TennCare and members of Prudential HealthCare Community Plan in Memphis, Tennessee were interviewed to determine their methods of contraception, desire for additional information about contraceptives, and knowledge about the time in

  5. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire

  6. CAREER ENHANCEMENT SKILLS TRAINING

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    SOLICITOR BARRISTER CAREER ENHANCEMENT CONVERSION SKILLS TRAINING EMPLOYABILITY DEVOLUTION JUSTICE of training I Wish to enhance their employability by acquiring an extra skill set that can be applied LAW a professional legal education Graduate Diploma in Law Swansea #12;WHAT IS THE GRADUATE DIPLOMA

  7. Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gian Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.

  8. Intercultural Communication Skills among Prospective Turkish Teachers of German in the Context of the Comparative Country Knowledge Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basbagi, R. Ragip

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and provides a sample implementation of a seminar for the "Comparative Country Knowledge" course taught in the German Language Teaching departments of Turkish universities. The study was conducted with the participation of forty-seven 1st year students attending a German Language Teaching department. As part of the study,…

  9. The Effect of a Multimedia Learning Environment on the Knowledge, Attitude, Confidence, and Skill of Dental Hygiene Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegeman, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a student-centered, interactive, case-based, multimedia learning environment to a traditional tutorial-based, multimedia learning environment on second-year dental hygiene students (n = 29). Surveys were administered at four points to measure attainment and retention of knowledge, attitude,…

  10. An evaluation of a science professional development model: Examining participants' learning and use of new knowledge and skills, organizational support and change, and student learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Georgi Anne

    The problem of this study was to determine in what ways science professional development would support kindergarten through sixth grade teachers in their implementation of a revised curriculum. The problem centered on evaluating the relationship between professional development involvement and teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills, organizational support and change, and student learning outcomes. Using data derived from survey responses and other sources (e.g., test scores, financial records, etc.), this study examined use of a science course of study, use of activities/experiments from workshops, use and adequacy of materials adoptions, administrative support, and achievement scores. This research was completed using an Ex Post Facto research design. Using the General Linear Model and causal-comparative analyses, thus study significantly concluded that teachers with a higher level of involvement in science professional development were more likely to use the revised course of study for lesson planning and to perceive materials adoptions as being adequate, and that districts that had participated in science professional development to revise curriculum showed more gains in student learning outcomes. Data on teachers' learning and use of new knowledge and skills implied that districts needed to continue to design teacher leadership situations that implement long-term professional development, build capacity for shared decision making, create a supportive environment for leaders, and incorporate assessments. Teacher leaders needed to actively engage in action research as a professional development strategy to promote reflection on their teaching and student learning. Data on organizational support and change implied that without logistical and financial support for teaching and learning in terms of hands-on materials, teachers would be unable to support future curriculum improvement efforts. Building principals needed to play a more active role in the implementation of curriculum. Data on student learning outcomes implied that both content knowledge and inquiry skills were critical bases for curriculum in terms of teacher efficacy and student achievement. Teachers needed to examine student work as a professional development strategy to also promote reflection on teaching and learning. Further research and professional development in the area of science assessment, in terms of scientific content and processes, was suggested.

  11. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  12. Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-16

    This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.

  13. An Investigation Of The Effects Of Model-Centered Instruction In Individual And Collaborative Contexts: The Case Of Acquiring Instructional Design Expertise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyewon Kim

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of model-centered instruction (MCI) in both individual and collaborative contexts. The study focuses on learning effectiveness in acquiring instructional design knowledge, developing mental model of instructional design, and acquiring instructional design skill by making lesson plans when an expert model is presented and a cognitive apprenticeship model is applied within a collaborative context.\\u000aThe main

  14. How to Build a Course in Mathematical–Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical–biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966

  15. Online eLearning for undergraduates in health professions: A systematic review of the impact on knowledge, skills, attitudes and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Papachristou, Nikos; Belisario, José Marcano; Wang, Wei; Wark, Petra A; Cotic, Ziva; Rasmussen, Kristine; Sluiter, René; Riboli–Sasco, Eva; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Heng, Bee Hoon; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2014-01-01

    Background Health systems worldwide are facing shortages in health professional workforce. Several studies have demonstrated the direct correlation between the availability of health workers, coverage of health services, and population health outcomes. To address this shortage, online eLearning is increasingly being adopted in health professionals’ education. To inform policy–making, in online eLearning, we need to determine its effectiveness. Methods We performed a systematic review of the effectiveness of online eLearning through a comprehensive search of the major databases for randomised controlled trials that compared online eLearning to traditional learning or alternative learning methods. The search period was from January 2000 to August 2013. We included articles which primarily focused on students' knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning and cost-effectiveness and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. Due to significant heterogeneity among the included studies, we presented our results as a narrative synthesis. Findings Fifty–nine studies, including 6750 students enrolled in medicine, dentistry, nursing, physical therapy and pharmacy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 50 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the online eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 27 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. Eleven studies did not test for differences. Six studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the online eLearning intervention groups, whilst 3 other studies testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups and 1 study showed mixed results. Twelve studies tested students' attitudes, of which 8 studies showed no differences in attitudes or preferences for online eLearning. Students' satisfaction was measured in 29 studies, 4 studies showed higher satisfaction for online eLearning and 20 studies showed no difference in satisfaction between online eLearning and traditional learning. Risk of bias was high for several of the included studies. Conclusion The current evidence base suggests that online eLearning is equivalent, possibly superior to traditional learning. These findings present a potential incentive for policy makers to cautiously encourage its adoption, while respecting the heterogeneity among the studies. PMID:24976965

  16. The Influence of Children's Prior Knowledge and Previous Experience on Their Spatial Orientation Skills in an Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Hemmer, Michael; Neidhardt, Eva; Obermaier, Gabriele; Uphues, Rainer; Wrenger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the capacity of children to develop map-based skills in spatial orientation in an urban environment unknown to them. In this quantitative study, a total of 328 pupils of grades 3-5 had to achieve specific skills with regard to map-based skills in spatial orientation (such as turning-off skills, transformation from map to…

  17. Evolution from Collaborative Learning to Symbiotic E-Learning: Creation of New E-Learning Environment for Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhao, He; Saito, Kenji; Maeda, Takashi; Kubo, Takara

    2011-01-01

    For people who live in the knowledge society which has rapidly been changing, learning in the widest sense becomes indispensable in all phases of working, living and playing. The construction of an environment, to meet the demands of people who need to acquire new knowledge and skills as the need arises, and enlighten each other regularly, is…

  18. An Approach for Technical Skill Development & Succession in Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    The original mission as electric power supplier is to stably supply high-quality and inexpensive electricity. In order to achieve this mission, for the employees that actually deal with the electric equipment, to engage themselves in precise job performance is crucial. In fostering human resources, we emphasize both on knowledge development that is required for employees and on skill building that is necessary for the precise job performance. Each engineering department is proactive in conducting the engineering training that is devised along with respective operation through OJT and Off-JT to acquire and transfer practical techniques and skills. Hereafter, we will furthermore work to enhance in-company training, visualizing the techniques and skills that engineers are required to acquire, and the achievement that each engineer has acquired.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Likelihood of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among US Women at Risk of Acquiring HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women “at substantial risk of HIV acquisition” in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  20. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  1. Teachers Don't Always Do What They Think They Should: A Preliminary Validation of the Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge of Self-Regulation Skills Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura; Bliss, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which teachers understand the concept of self-regulation skills and how best to implement practices that enhance self-regulation in children in the early childhood education classroom remains unexamined. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the self-reporting Early Childhood Educators Knowledge of…

  2. Why skill matters.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

    2013-09-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

  3. Teaching Basic Caregiver Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.

    This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…

  4. Measuring Internet Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander van Deursen; J. A. G. M. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed, applied in two large-scale performance tests, and tested for reliability and validity. The framework consists of four Internet

  5. The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.

  6. Retrospective Reflection: Insight into Pre-Service School Librarians' Competencies and Skill Development as Revealed through Field Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefl-Mabry, Joette; Dequoy, Elyse; Stevens, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to expand our understanding of how educators, and in particular school librarians, acquire and use professional-practice knowledge. This exploratory study, grounded in "lived practice" (Spillane, Hunt, and Healey, 2009) uses reflective analysis to amplify competencies and skill development in pre-service school library education.…

  7. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™). PMID:23177732

  8. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Espańol National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Failure Series : Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease On this page: What is acquired cystic ...

  9. Acquiring Innovation Knowledge Peter Busch, Debbie Richards

    E-print Network

    Richards, Debbie

    in activities of a particular community of practice" [5, p.123]. We too see innovation taking place as a process innovation is not simply a process of trial-and-error rooted in experience, innovation needs to produce of the innovation process and how these responses correspond to our current understanding of innovation including

  10. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrah, William M., III

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

  11. Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimler, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

  12. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Framework for robot skill learning using reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang

    2003-09-01

    Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.

  14. What goal is of most worth? The effects of the implementation of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills on elementary science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Pamela England

    This qualitative, narrative study centered on the effects of the implementation of the science portion of the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) on the instruction of science at the elementary level, grades one through five. Fourteen teachers and five administrators were interviewed at two elementary schools (kindergarten through grade four) and one middle school (grades five and six). Classroom observations of each of the teachers were also conducted. The study focused on the effect of the implementation of the science TAKS on the amount of time spent on science as well as the instructional methods utilized in the elementary science classroom. Lower grade levels were found to have changed little in these areas unless strong administrative leadership---emphasizing curriculum alignment, providing adequate materials and facilities, and encouraging sustained, content-based professional development in science---was present in the school. At the fifth grade level, however, the amount of time spent on science had increased significantly, although the instructional methods utilized by the teachers were focused more often upon increasing ratings on the test rather than providing the research-based best practice methods of hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction. In addition, the study also explored the teachers' and administrators' perceptions of the state and local mandates concerning science instruction and preparation for the TAKS. Other topics that came to light during the course of the study included the teachers' views on accountability and the effects of the state assessments on children in their classrooms. It was found that most teachers readily accept accountability for themselves, but are opposed to one-shot high-stakes tests which they feel are damaging for their students emotionally and academically---adversely affecting their love of learning science.

  15. Nurturing 21st century physician knowledge, skills and attitudes with medical home innovations: the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education teaching health center curriculum experience.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Hemak, Linda; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Gollamudi, Lakshmi Rani; Sheth, Jignesh; Ebersole, Brian; Gardner, Katlyn J; Nardella, Julie; Ruddy, Meaghan P; Meade, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The effect of patient centered medical home (PCMH) curriculum interventions on residents' self-reported and demonstrated knowledge, skills and attitudes in PCMH competency arenas (KSA) is lacking in the literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of PCMH curricular innovations on the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. Methods. Twenty four (24) Internal Medicine residents-12 Traditional (TR) track residents and 12 Teaching Health Center (THC) track residents-began training in Academic Year (AY) 2011 at the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education (WCGME). They were followed through AY2013, covering three years of training. PCMH curricular innovations were focally applied July 2011 until May 2012 to THC residents. These curricular innovations were spread program-wide in May 2012. Semi-annual, validated PCMH Clinician Assessments assessing KSA were started in AY2011 and were completed by all residents. Results. Mean KSA scores of TR residents were similar to those of THC residents at baseline for all PCMH competencies. In May 2012, mean scores of THC residents were significantly higher than TR residents for most KSA. After program-wide implementation of PCMH innovations, mean scores of TR residents for all KSA improved and most became equalized to those of THC residents. Globally improved KSA scores of THC and TR residents were maintained through May 2014, with the majority of improvements above baseline and reaching statistical significance. Conclusions. PCMH curricular innovations inspired by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA's) Teaching Health Center funded residency program expansion quickly and consistently improved the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. PMID:25699213

  16. Map Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ali

    2010-02-23

    Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...

  17. LET'S TEACH WORD ANALYSIS SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOYLE, ANNE M.; AND OTHERS

    A GUIDE ON THE TEACHING OF WORD ANALYSIS SKILLS IS PRESENTED. KNOWLEDGE OF WORD ANALYSIS ALONE DOES NOT ENSURE GOOD READING ABILITY. IT SHOULD, HOWEVER, ENABLE THE INDIVIDUAL TO BECOME MORE INDEPENDENT IN HIS READING. SKILLS DEVELOPED THROUGH A KNOWLEDGE OF WORD ANALYSIS CAN DO MUCH TO ENHANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF WRITTEN MATERIAL AND TO ENABLE…

  18. EMPLOYABILITY AND HIGH-LEVEL SKILLS EQUIPPING STUDENTS FOR SUCCESS

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    The importance of higher-level skills to the knowledge-based economy 08 Aerospace engineering 10 Skills in an increasingly competitive world. This strategy focuses on the soft and hard skills required by a successful, Universities and Skills. #12;THE IMPORTANCE OF HIGHER LEVEL SKILLS TO THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY 05 Since its

  19. Robotic surgical skill acquisition: What one needs to know?

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Jeong, Wooju; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Campbell, Logan; Aggarwal, Shruti; Menon, Mani; Bhandari, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Robotic surgery has been eagerly adopted by patients and surgeons alike in the field of urology, over the last decade. However, there is a lack of standardization in training curricula and accreditation guidelines to ensure surgeon competence and patient safety. Accordingly, in this review, we aim to highlight ‘who’ needs to learn ‘what’ and ‘how’, to become competent in robotic surgery. We demonstrate that both novice and experienced open surgeons require supervision and mentoring during the initial phases of robotic surgery skill acquisition. The experienced open surgeons possess domain knowledge, however, need to acquire technical knowledge under supervision (either in simulated or clinical environment) to successfully transition to robotic surgery, whereas, novice surgeons need to acquire both domain as well as technical knowledge to become competent in robotic surgery. With regard to training curricula, a variety of training programs such as academic fellowships, mini-fellowships, and mentored skill courses exist, and cater to the needs and expectations of postgraduate surgeons adequately. Fellowships provide the most comprehensive training, however, may not be suitable to all surgeon-learners secondary to the long-term time commitment. For these surgeon-learners short-term courses such as the mini-fellowships or mentored skill courses might be more apt. Lastly, with regards to credentialing uniformity in criteria regarding accreditation is lacking but earnest efforts are underway. Currently, accreditation for competence in robotic surgery is institutional specific. PMID:25598593

  20. Robotic surgical skill acquisition: What one needs to know?

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay; Jeong, Wooju; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Campbell, Logan; Aggarwal, Shruti; Menon, Mani; Bhandari, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Robotic surgery has been eagerly adopted by patients and surgeons alike in the field of urology, over the last decade. However, there is a lack of standardization in training curricula and accreditation guidelines to ensure surgeon competence and patient safety. Accordingly, in this review, we aim to highlight 'who' needs to learn 'what' and 'how', to become competent in robotic surgery. We demonstrate that both novice and experienced open surgeons require supervision and mentoring during the initial phases of robotic surgery skill acquisition. The experienced open surgeons possess domain knowledge, however, need to acquire technical knowledge under supervision (either in simulated or clinical environment) to successfully transition to robotic surgery, whereas, novice surgeons need to acquire both domain as well as technical knowledge to become competent in robotic surgery. With regard to training curricula, a variety of training programs such as academic fellowships, mini-fellowships, and mentored skill courses exist, and cater to the needs and expectations of postgraduate surgeons adequately. Fellowships provide the most comprehensive training, however, may not be suitable to all surgeon-learners secondary to the long-term time commitment. For these surgeon-learners short-term courses such as the mini-fellowships or mentored skill courses might be more apt. Lastly, with regards to credentialing uniformity in criteria regarding accreditation is lacking but earnest efforts are underway. Currently, accreditation for competence in robotic surgery is institutional specific. PMID:25598593

  1. The relationship between teacher Levels of Technology Integration (LoTi) on 3rd-5th Grade Students on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores at Alamo Heights Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas

    E-print Network

    Bashara, Dana Marie

    2008-10-10

    Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas. In addition, the study determined whether a teacher’s LoTi scores impacted students’ achievement levels for the variable of socioeconomic status. School and student performance analysis included only Cambridge... xii TABLE Page 4.12 Summary of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Test by Math Teacher Level of Technology Implementation (LoTi) Score and Student Socio-Economic Status of Students Who Took the Math Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Test...

  2. Integrating chronic care with primary care activities: enriching healthcare staff knowledge and skills and improving glycemic control of a cohort of people with diabetes through the First Line Diabetes Care Project in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Grace Marie V.; Kegels, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of integrating primary chronic care with current healthcare activities in two local government health units (LGHU) of the Philippines on knowledge and skills of the LGHU staff and clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. Design Integration was accomplished through health service reorganization, (re)distribution of chronic care tasks, and training of LGHU staff. Levels of the staff's pre- and post-training diabetes knowledge and of their self-assessment of diabetes care-related skills were measured. Primary diabetes care with emphasis on self-care development was provided to a cohort of people with diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and obesity measures were collected prior to and one year after full project implementation. Results The training workshop improved diabetes knowledge (p<0.001) and self-assessed skills (p<0.001) of the LGHU staff. Significant reductions in HbA1c (p<0.001), waist–hip ratio (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.011) of the cohort were noted. Although the reduction in HbA1c was somewhat greater among those whose community-based care providers showed improvement in knowledge and self-assessed skills, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Primary care for chronic conditions such as diabetes may be integrated with other healthcare activities in health services of low-to-middle-income countries such as the Philippines, utilizing pre-existing human resources for health, and may improve clinical endpoints. PMID:25361726

  3. Study of Skill Development through Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreekumar, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the extent of attainment of managerial skills through distance education, the impact of multimedia on career of learners and the influence of acquired managerial skills on the managerial performance. Findings revealed that the multimedia materials helped greatly in the development of managerial skills, which facilitates the performance of…

  4. Graduate Profile for the BSc The Faculty of Science Graduate Profile is a description of the learning outcomes, personal qualities, skills and attributes a student

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    knowledge 1. An understanding of concepts, theories and empirical results in their chosen major(s), meeting to analyse or solve complex problems. 4. An understanding of current issues and debates in the majoring of the learning outcomes, personal qualities, skills and attributes a student is expected to have acquired

  5. Early Intervention Service Coordinator's Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg. Office of Mental Retardation.

    Developed by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare, this skills inventory addresses skill development for service coordinators in two major areas: technical skills development related to the service coordination duties as defined by state and federal statues and policies, and personal skill development related to attitudes and knowledge

  6. Developing a skills-based competency course.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Kathy; Koithan, Mary

    2012-12-01

    Skills-based competency programs evaluate whether participants can demonstrate knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors associated with a skill in a simulated or actual clinical setting. Critical elements for program development include accurate and precise outcome statements that delineate the skill to be performed and valid and reliable evaluation criteria that identify the critical behaviors necessary for safe and competent performance. PMID:23181403

  7. Integration and Reuse in Cognitive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to…

  8. Teaching physicists' thinking skills in the laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Reif; Mark St. John

    1979-01-01

    We describe a prototype introductory physics laboratory designed to teach students some general intellectual skills widely useful in scientific work. These skills include both basic skills (such as estimating quantities, determining errors, or applying useful measuring techniques) and higher-level skills (such as effectively describing experiments and flexibly adapting the resulting knowledge to different conditions). The teaching methods emphasize the utility

  9. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-18

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  10. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students will demonstrate a broad knowledge of fundamental and applied engineering subjects: fluid and solid

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Communication, Oral Communication, Team/Collaborative Communication), and CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS and final presentation. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Technical Skills), and COMMUNICATION SKILLS (Written engineering problems; · understanding of professional and ethical responsibility; · ability to communicate

  11. Acquiring Goods and Services

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Acquiring Goods and Services Procurement Methods Quick Reference NU External Preferred and Non of external goods and services start with a standard requisition Other procurement methods (the exception

  12. The Search for a New Role of Liberal Education in an Age of Globalization: The Challenge of Transferable Skills to Liberal Knowledge at Japanese Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayakawa, Misao

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks facing Japanese colleges and universities is to implement a continuum of effective educational programs in order to properly respond to the impact of globalization. Effective university educational programs are needed to construct a new higher education system for nurturing transferable learning skills and cultivating hope for the…

  13. Are They Really Ready to Work? Employers' Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century U.S. Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casner-Lotto, Jill; Barrington, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In collaboration, The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the Society for Human Resource Management conducted an in-depth study of the corporate perspective on the readiness of new entrants into the U.S. workforce by level of educational attainment. The study includes results…

  14. Developing Knowledge and Skills for Aspiring Educational Leaders that Address Best Practices in Classroom Assessment and Instruction: An NCPEA Course Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This is an Instructional Module for a course entitled Assessment and Instruction for Educational Leaders addresses classroom assessment and the evaluation of instruction. The goal of this course is to help aspiring educational leaders to develop teacher observation and evaluation skills, better understand the construction of teacher generated…

  15. An Expedient Study on Back-Propagation (BPN) Neural Networks for Modeling Automated Evaluation of the Answers and Progress of Deaf Students' That Possess Basic Knowledge of the English Language and Computer Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettaros, John; Vouros, George; Drigas, Athanasios S.

    This article studies the expediency of using neural networks technology and the development of back-propagation networks (BPN) models for modeling automated evaluation of the answers and progress of deaf students' that possess basic knowledge of the English language and computer skills, within a virtual e-learning environment. The performance of the developed neural models is evaluated with the correlation factor between the neural networks' response values and the real value data as well as the percentage measurement of the error between the neural networks' estimate values and the real value data during its training process and afterwards with unknown data that weren't used in the training process.

  16. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  17. Knowledge-Based Jobs and the Boundaries of Firms Agent-based simulation of Firms Learning and Workforce Skill Set Dynamics1

    E-print Network

    Hales, David

    of the environment increases, long-term employment and firm-specific knowledge building emerge as the survival and are the ground upon which firms build their heterogeneity. The fact that the knowledge content of jobs increases of fact, employers maintain a de iure ownership of produced goods or services and of the physical means

  18. The Returns to General versus Job-Specific Skills: the Role of Information and Communication Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Kirby; Rebecca Riley

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the return paid to two different types of skill: general skills, acquired through schooling and work experience, and job-specific skills, acquired by experience in a particular job. Using the UK Labour Force Survey we estimate skill returns in different industries over the period 1994-2001. We evaluate the marginal

  19. Developing Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Principals often think of professional development in terms of activities--attending a workshop, networking with colleagues at a conference, reading a professional article or book, and so on. Although these are all good things in and of themselves, genuine professional growth does not occur until knowledge and skills are put into practice at the…

  20. Mediation: Skills and techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Boulle; Colatrella Jr. Michael T; Anthony P. Picchioni

    2008-01-01

    Mediation-Skills and Techniques is an essential and comprehensive addition to the professional library of all mediators. It provides a thorough course of study of the mediation process, from convening the mediation to formalizing the settlement agreement. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to mediation, integrating knowledge and expertise from law, psychology, and sociology. Practical examples and case studies are used

  1. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  2. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  3. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  4. Camping Skills. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit on camping skills is designed for special education students at the high school level. The objective of the unit is to provide students with an adequate camping knowledge and skill development to allow them to participate in camping activities. There is an emphasis on maintaining environmental quality as a part of good camping practices.…

  5. Instructional design principles for 21st century learning skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Can Sahin

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, people have to have high level thinking skills called 21 century learning skills in order to solve new problems of the new world. They should know how to use their knowledge and skills. These learning skills can be summarized under the three main subtitles; information and communication skills, thinking and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and self-directional skills.

  6. Semiconductor Manufacturing Technician Skill Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Skill standards are quality standards applied to people. They are specific statements of desired skill and knowledge presented in observable and measurable form. The statement contains a condition that defines under what circumstances it will be observed and measured. The desired behavior is defined and the standard criteria are stated in terms of "how good is good enough?" Skill standards specify the expected behavior, the condition and the standard for performance for technicians working in highly automated environments such as 300mm semiconductor fabs.The manufacturing environment has evolved from one that was populated with self-contained tools utilizing robotics technology to one that is composed of large numbers of these tools interconnected by automated material handling systems (AMHS) and driven by a centralized manufacturing execution system (MES) in such a way as to maximize factory throughput and output.The skills required to work in such an environment consist of most of the skills required by the previous environment (i.e., 200mm fabs) plus some emerging skills. These emerging skills are primarily skills and knowledge related to the new, enterprise automation systems, their maintenance, and the ability to utilize the vast amount of information they provide.Importantly, these skills are transferable to a great extent to a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing and automotive manufacturing. In the course of this project, research into transportation industries (railroads) and chemical processing (refineries) showed a high degree of commonality of the skills required.

  7. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Nosocomial pneumonia; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Health-care associated pneumonia; HCAP ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands ...

  8. HYPOPROLIFERATIVE Acquired or Constitutional

    E-print Network

    9/16/2013 1 HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS Acquired or Constitutional Disorder with Chronic Bone Marrow, or megakaryocytic hypoplasia used APLASTIC ANEMIA Criteria Bone Cellularity : Granulocyte Count Anemia with corrected Retic Count

  9. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... years develop ACKD. 1, 2 1 Fick-Brosnahan GM. Polycystic and acquired cystic kidney disease. In: Greenberg ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888– ...

  10. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    PubMed Central

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  11. A knowledge services roadmay for online learning

    E-print Network

    Rajagopal, Anand, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    In today's society, there is a need for organizations to have a robust knowledge infrastructure in place, so that they can create or acquire knowledge; store knowledge; disseminate knowledge, and protect and manage their ...

  12. UNF graduates of the ASL/English Interpreting Program will demonstrate mastery of content knowledge and interpreting skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical task assessments. It is expected that candidates apply

    E-print Network

    Asaithambi, Asai

    -monitoring skills to assess interpretation for accuracy and make repairs when necessary. Critical Thinking Skills · Apply critical thinking skills to ethical decision-making. · Apply critical thinking skills and interpreting skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical task

  13. Shop Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

  14. "Riding the bumpy seas": or the impact of the Knowledge Skills Framework component of the Agenda for Change initiative on staff in intermediate care settings.

    PubMed

    McClimens, Alex; Nancarrow, Susan; Moran, Anna; Enderby, Pamela; Mitchell, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the compatibility of the recently modernized NHS pay structure, "Agenda for Change" (AfC) with the workforce flexibilities arising within intermediate care services in the NHS in England. The findings reported here were an unanticipated outcome of a larger, Department of Health (England) study which explored the impact of workforce flexibility on the costs and outcomes of older peoples' community-based services. The research coincided with the introduction of AfC, and, as such pay modernization was a strongly emergent theme from focus groups that involved 11 teams as part of the larger study. In principle, it appears that both intermediate care and AfC should support the concepts of interprofessional working, blurring of role boundaries and role substitution, however the findings from this study suggest otherwise. In particular, intermediate care was described as a largely non-hierarchical service structure where staff roles expand horizontally to take on a broad plethora of generic tasks. In contrast, AfC promotes a hierarchical framework for career progression that recognizes and rewards defined skills, expertise and responsibility. From this perspective, AfC was seen to reward specialization rather than skill sharing, and had difficulty differentiating between and rewarding staff with broad generalist roles. PMID:19705315

  15. Knowledge, People, and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.

  16. Wanted: nurses with critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J

    1990-01-01

    Knowing how to think, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate are crucial skills for nursing professionals. Development of critical thinking skills requires educational involvement beyond the level of basic preparation. The diffusion of nursing knowledge afforded by continuing education in nursing makes it the perfect milieu for the enhancement and continuous development of critical thinking skills. PMID:2107227

  17. The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Wells Bishoff

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were

  18. The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

  19. The Effect of an Integrated Course Cluster Learning Community on the Oral and Written Communication Skills and Technical Content Knowledge of Upper-Level College of Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Cynthia; Miller, Greg; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, and agronomic/economic technical content knowledge. The population (N = 182)…

  20. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  1. ICU-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, William D; Hall, Jesse

    2007-05-01

    Observational studies of patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation and other forms of critical care support have determined acquired neuromuscular disorders to be extremely common. Early studies used electrophysiologic investigations to diagnose critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and muscle biopsy to confirm critical illness myopathy (CIM). More recent approaches seek to obviate these invasive techniques and build on a standardized bedside neuromuscular examination to identify patients with acquired weakness syndromes. Serial examination in the alert patient may serve as a reasonable prognosticator for most patients. The importance of ICU-acquired weakness syndromes is supported by the observation that muscle wasting and weakness are among the most prominent long-term complications of survivors of ARDS. In addition, a strong association appears to exist between acquired weakness and protracted ventilator dependence, an important determinant of ICU length of stay. Multivariate analysis has identified several risk factors associated with increased incidence for ICU-acquired weakness, including severe systemic inflammation, medications (specifically, corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents), glycemic control, and immobility. We advocate an approach to this common syndrome that identifies risk factors early in the hope of minimizing their impact. PMID:17494803

  2. Acquiring Information Systems through Organisational Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsti Rantapuska; Outi Ihanainen

    Acquiring ICT applications is becoming a routine in organisations today. However, making an ICT investment decision is a complex task, especially for SMEs which do not have the time and knowledge needed to do the task properly. The existing models supposed to help in the ICT acquisition process are mostly designed for IT professionals and they are too heavy and

  3. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  4. Phases of Learning: Ninth Graders' Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-01-01

    Explores students' cognitive behaviors observed in the process of learning as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill such as choosing wisely. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata…

  5. Acquired gynaetresia in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Adelusi, A; Akande, E O; Onifade, A

    1976-04-01

    Acquired atresia of the vagina is much less common than the congenital type, but more frequent in the tropics than in the developed countries (Lawson and Stewart, 1967). This is because most of the causes which include chemical vaginitis (Frith, 1960), female circumcision (Mustafa, 1966) and birth injuries (Lawson and Stewart, 1967) are largely confined to the tropics, due to poverty, ignorance and lack of good medical facilities. In the developed parts of the world, acquired gynatresia is rare, and perhaps follow mainly colporrhaphies and intra-vaginal irradiation from treatment of pelvic malignancies, (Patterson and Rhodes 1958, Whitely, 1964). In Ibadan, Nigeria, however, by far the commonest cause of vaginal atresia is chemical vaginitis from vaginal insertion of local caustic pessaries, for the treatment of certain gynaecological problems. This paper is, therefore, designed to highlight the clinical presentation of acquired gynaetresia as seen in Ibadan with particular emphasis on its incidence, causation, symptomatology and operative management. PMID:16296140

  6. The Evolution of Procedural Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Miller, Mark L.

    1975-01-16

    A focus on planning and debugging procedures underlies the enhanced proficiency of recent programs which solve problems and acquire new skills. By describing complex procedures as constituents of evolutionary sequences of ...

  7. Pathways to Knowledge Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, Mark

    A study examined how the occupational structure of the Australian labor market evolved and how individuals fared in the process. It identified issues in defining skill and knowledge and followed Elias and McKnight (2001) in stating that sufficient evidence showed a very high correlation between job-required cognitive ability and ordinal skill

  8. Acquired upper airway obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürg Hammer

    2004-01-01

    Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

  9. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  10. Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

  11. Retention of Military Skills Acquired in Basic Combat Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert D.

    Performance data were collected in the three general basic combat training (BCT) proficiency areas (rifle marksmanship, physical combat fitness, end of cycle tests) from independent groups of soldiers (60 per group) during BCT, during Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and combat support training (CST), and for permanent party personnel in the…

  12. National Photonics Skill Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This document marks an important milestone in the development and maintenance of high-quality associate degree programs in photonics in U.S. community and technical colleges. The need for photonics education is critical. The problem cannot be remedied through on-the-job training. Our public educational institutions, particularly two-year colleges, must get involved. But most cannot do so without guidelines for determining what knowledge and skills photonics graduates will need in the coming years.

  13. High Skills: The Concept and Its Application to South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues the case for re-visiting the concepts of high and low skills as used in academic and political debates in the older industrial countries. There the concept of low skills has, for a number of reasons, acquired negative connotations in that low skilled jobs are seen to "drag down" the economy and therefore something which policy…

  14. Transferable Skills Training for Researchers: Supporting Career Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are embarking on increasingly diverse careers where collaboration, networking and interdisciplinarity are becoming more important. Transferable skills (e.g. communication skills and problem-solving abilities) can help researchers operate more effectively in different work environments. While researchers acquire some of these skills in…

  15. Skill learning and task outcome prediction for manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Pastor; Mrinal Kalakrishnan; Sachin Chitta; Evangelos Theodorou; Stefan Schaal

    2011-01-01

    Learning complex motor skills for real world tasks is a hard problem in robotic manipulation that often requires painstaking manual tuning and design by a human expert. In this work, we present a Reinforcement Learning based approach to acquiring new motor skills from demonstration. Our approach allows the robot to learn fine manipulation skills and significantly improve its success rate

  16. Communication Skills Training for Parents: Experimental and Social Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohr, Melinda A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight mothers of developmentally disabled children (ages 2-11) were individually trained in eight skill domains (e.g., preparation, complete communication, clarification, consensus, feedback) to enhance their communication skills with professionals. Each parent acquired the targeted skills during simulated conferences, and correct responding…

  17. Hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Lobdell, Kevin W; Stamou, Sotiris; Sanchez, Juan A

    2012-02-01

    Health-acquired infection (HAI) is defined as a localized or systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents or its toxins. This article focuses on HAIs that are well studied, common, and costly (direct, indirect, and intangible). The HAIs reviewed are catheter-related bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, surgical site infection, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. This article excludes discussion of Clostridium difficile infections and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. PMID:22269261

  18. Acquired von Willebrand Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayalew Tefferi; William L Nichols

    1997-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a rare complication of an autoimmune or neoplastic disease. It is associated mostly with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. The clinical manifestations are similar to congenital von Willebrand disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and von Willebrand factor

  19. Writing Self-Efficacy and Written Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascle, Deanna DeBrine

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential professional skill. The goal of writing instruction in business communication classes is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to successfully meet future writing challenges. However, many writers struggle to transfer skills and knowledge from one context to another. The primary reason for this struggle is that…

  20. Employability and skill set of newly graduated engineers in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Blom; Hiroshi Saeki

    2011-01-01

    Skill shortage remains one of the major constraints to continued growth of the Indian economy. This employer survey seeks to address this knowledge-gap by answering three questions: (i) Which skills do employers consider important when hiring new engineering graduates? (ii) How satisfied are employers with the skills of engineering graduates? and (iii) In which important skills are the engineers falling

  1. Qualifications Mismatch and Skills Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of "over-qualification" (i.e. holding a qualification which is above that required to gain entry to the job being done) and "skills under-utilisation" (i.e. being in a job which does not make use of the knowledge and skills possessed) in the United Kingdom and to examine whether these…

  2. Implications of Domain-General "Psychological Support Skills" for Transfer of Skill and Acquisition of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccles, David W.; Feltovich, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article proposes that individuals who acquire certain psychological support skills may experience accelerated learning and enhanced performance in many domains. In support of this proposal, we present evidence that these skills enhance learning and performance, that they are domain-general in that they can be applied in a variety of domains,…

  3. A comparison study of live instruction versus interactive television for teaching MSW students’ critical thinking skills

    E-print Network

    Marie Thielke Huff; Marie Thielke Huff

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The acquisition of critical thinking skills over one semester by distant and campus social work students enrolled in a graduate-level policy course were compared. Method: The scores of pretests and posttests of 62 master’s of social work students were analyzed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Results: Both groups significantly increased their critical thinking skills with no significant differences found between the two groups. Conclusion: Distance education using interactive television was found to be equivalent to face-to-face instruction with regard to acquisition of critical thinking skills. The Council on Social Work Education (1992) states that graduates of master’s degree programs should be able to “apply critical thinking skills within professional contexts, including synthesizing and applying appropriate theories and knowledge to practice interventions ” (p. 4). Because critical thinking is an essential skill for social workers to acquire to become effective practitioners, quality social work education means teaching students to think critically and independently. Social workers are often called on to make independent decisions that directly affect their clients ’ lives. If they are unable to

  4. Using the known to chart the unknown: A review of first-language influence on the development of English-as-a-second-language spelling skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Figueredo

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a practical demand and necessity for research on how English-as-a-second language (ESL) learners acquire literacy skills, such as spelling. One important issue of this research agenda is how ESL learners apply first-language knowledge to learning to spell in English. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed that investigated the influence of the first language on ESL learners’ development of English

  5. The Bridge of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2014-01-01

    Although many English language learners (ELLs) in the United States have knowledge gaps that make it hard for them to master high-level content and skills, ELLs also often have background knowledge relevant to school learning that teachers neglect to access, this author argues. In the Common Core era, with ELLs being the fastest growing population…

  6. [Acquired necrotizing myopathies].

    PubMed

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

    2013-06-01

    Necrotizing myopathies (MN) are defined by a specific histological pattern. They are characterized by a predominant muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration but with little or no associated inflammation. This histological pattern is observed in acquired myopathy but also in muscular dystrophy. Acquired NM can be secondary to drugs or toxics, and if not, autoimmune mechanisms have to be suspected. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is recognized as a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, different from other myositides. Generally, patients present a rapidly progressive and severe symmetrical proximal weakness with high serum creatine kinase level, associated in some patients with cardiac involvement. On the other hand, a slower progression may sometimes be observed, that could lead to erroneous diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy may be associated to specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle, or more recently described, against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Necrotizing auto-immune myopathy can also be described in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus or sclerodermia. In remaining cases, cancer association may be observed. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are now considered as a new entity, treatable by immunosuppressants and which should not be misdiagnosed as a muscular dystrophy. PMID:22998975

  7. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  8. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study strategies used to assist mildly handicapped students become more actively engaged and successful in gaining and responding to information in content area classes are described. They include using advance organizers, summarizing/paraphrasing what is read, enhancing listening skills, and improving the organization, appearance, and accuracy of…

  9. Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

  10. Employability Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center will help students understand and develop their own set of personal employability skills, such as communication and teamwork. The activity aims to help students understand the importance of communication and teamwork in a business setting. The lesson should require one class period to complete.

  11. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdičre, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  12. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  13. Ambidexterity in laparoscopic surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anna; Auner, Gregory; Meadors, Margaret; Sebrechts, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the way in which specialized medical skills are acquired is critical for developing effective training curricula, as well as effective metrics and methodologies for assessing skill acquisition, proficiency, and retention. Currently, a need exists for novel, objective metrics to support training and assessment of specialized surgical skills, such as those involved in laparoscopy, and to support a deeper understanding of the way in which these skills are acquired and decay during periods of nonuse. Ambidexterity has been identified by expert surgeons as a critical factor in the achievement of laparoscopic psychomotor surgical skill proficiency; however, the current standardized training and assessment protocols do not measure or account for differential performance between the dominant and non-dominant hands. Two experiments compared performance with the left and right hands during training of laparoscopic psychomotor surgical skills using the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) platform, examining the role of ambidexterity in skill acquisition and proficiency. The results of these investigations indicate that degree of ambidexterity in task performance increases with overall task performance improvement and may be related to achievement of task proficiency. Measures that account for degree of task-related ambidexterity may provide useful metrics for assessing laparoscopic surgical skill acquisition, proficiency, and decay. PMID:23400194

  14. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  15. Skills for Innovation and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Innovation holds the key to ongoing improvements in living standards, as well as to solving pressing social challenges. Skilled people play a crucial role in innovation through the new knowledge they generate, how they adopt and develop existing ideas, and through their ability to learn new competencies and adapt to a changing environment. This…

  16. Procedural frameworks for simple arithmetic skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myeong-Ho Sohn; Richard A. Carlson

    1998-01-01

    Rule-application skills such as simple arithmetic are often used as components of complex, goal-directed routines, and evidence suggests that goals to perform such skills can be instantiated in advance of information about specific operands. The procedural framework hypothesis is that goal instantiation evokes frameworks that guide the application of procedural knowledge, suggesting distinct processing roles for operator and operand symbols.

  17. State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

  18. Reading Skills among Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning…

  19. Executive Perceptions of the Top 10 Soft Skills Needed in Today's Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Marcel M.

    2012-01-01

    Hard skills are the technical expertise and knowledge needed for a job. Soft skills are interpersonal qualities, also known as people skills, and personal attributes that one possesses. Business executives consider soft skills a very important attribute in job applicants. Employers want new employees to have strong soft skills, as well as hard…

  20. Reducing the Knowledge Tracing Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Steven; Harris, Thomas K.; Nixon, Tristan; Dickison, Daniel; Murray, R. Charles; Towle, Brendon

    2009-01-01

    In Cognitive Tutors, student skill is represented by estimates of student knowledge on various knowledge components. The estimate for each knowledge component is based on a four-parameter model developed by Corbett and Anderson [Nb]. In this paper, we investigate the nature of the parameter space defined by these four parameters by modeling data…

  1. CASE in Point: Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passman, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE) has searched for mechanisms to share information that is important and helpful to the CASE membership. During the past year, CASE initiated the use of "Survey Monkey" as a mechanism to obtain information and opinions from the membership. This article shares some of the input…

  2. Research and the knowledge and skills framework.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Shelley

    2010-05-01

    Carrying out research is part of many academic courses. As this article explains, researchers must understand how their influence on participants can affect their studies' findings, and how the ways they analyse and present their data depend on the nature of the research. PMID:20527453

  3. What Knowledge and Skills Do Caregivers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.; Given, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses and multiple comorbid conditions have intricate treatment protocols that require caregiver involvement, further complicating this already-difficult care. Because better treatments have extended the life spans of most patients with chronic illnesses, caregiver involvement often is required for several years. Many…

  4. Tacit Knowledge. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Tacit knowledge, the knowledge that workers possess but do not articulate, is associated with terms such as "skill,""know-how,""working knowledge," and "expertise" that are used to describe knowledge about and ability to perform work. Learning that takes place through apprenticeships draws heavily on tacit knowledge, and it has been connected with…

  5. New engineering: from knowledge to competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main innovations of Bologna system has been to link learning outcomes, ECTS workload based credits and competences. Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Competences can be distinguished in subject specific and generic ones (instrumental, interpersonal and systemic competences). Actually in Spain Engineering degrees are changing to the new University educational system and should aim to satisfy the real needs of European society. This change has been long and complex, particularly. on the issue that have influenced curricular change Consultation with "actors" and "stakeholders", the definition of academic and professionals profiles and the translation of these into desired learning outcomes. Generic competences or transferable skills are relevant for preparing students well for their future role in society in terms of employability and citizenship. The criteria used by the companies to select their engineers are based in a good background and capacity to adapt and to acquire new knowledge, better than specific education, even postgraduate. It was interesting to note the great importance of generic competences However, Spanish government has regulated conditions of core curriculum need for to guarantee the acquisition of the competences needs to exercise the correspondent professional activities. The new degrees should comply with the core curriculum if the graduates want maintain the legal attributions guaranteed actually by the Spanish Professional Associations. After these degrees, students can access to professional master with actually horizontal attributions of regulated professions.

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  7. Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

  8. AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamport, Lynda L.; Andre, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Examines knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sexual behavior among 221 midwestern high school and 153 college students. Findings for the 187 males and 187 females studied show that females were more knowledgeable about AIDS and more sexually responsible than males, and AIDS knowledge and level of sexual activity were…

  9. Contact hours, skills fairs, and competency assessment.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth; Stone, Lisa; Reynolds, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Various regulatory agencies have indicated the need to measure initial and ongoing competency among health care workers. Yet, what is competency and how can it be measured? In reality, competency assessment is about outcomes. Maintaining and advancing our knowledge, skills, and analytical abilities is important for achieving optimal patient outcomes. Competency assessment should go beyond the act of attending lectures and skills fairs. Competency assessment should be a time when nurses can demonstrate and document their problem-solving and decision-making skills, inclusion of best practices, and evidence of how those skills make a difference for the patients they care for. PMID:23985474

  10. Psychology students’ self-assessment of their professional skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiuraniemi Juhani; Hatakka Mika; Keskinen Esko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how reliably psychology students assessed their professional skills and knowledge. Participants consisted of 117 students and were from three groups, namely: beginners, intermediate and advanced. They were asked to evaluate their skills in different areas of psychology using a questionnaire. Their skills in describing psychologists’ practice in two cases were also evaluated.

  11. WHY RESEARCH? Drawing Conclusion, Critical Analysis, and Problem Solving Skills

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    communication skills and working independently · Understanding and applying research methods, ethics of environment would you like to work in? Clinical Based Lab based Outdoor (ecology) What skills or knowledge do#12;WHY RESEARCH? · Drawing Conclusion, Critical Analysis, and Problem Solving Skills · Developing

  12. Recall of Briefly Presented Chess Positions and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Jerad H.

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill. PMID:25774693

  13. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanfei; Ericsson, K Anders; Moxley, Jerad H

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill. PMID:25774693

  14. Teaching communication skills: beyond wishful thinking.

    PubMed

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:25664624

  15. Method for distributed object communications based on dynamically acquired and assembled software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundermier, Amy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for acquiring and assembling software components at execution time into a client program, where the components may be acquired from remote networked servers is disclosed. The acquired components are assembled according to knowledge represented within one or more acquired mediating components. A mediating component implements knowledge of an object model. A mediating component uses its implemented object model knowledge, acquired component class information and polymorphism to assemble components into an interacting program at execution time. The interactions or abstract relationships between components in the object model may be implemented by the mediating component as direct invocations or indirect events or software bus exchanges. The acquired components may establish communications with remote servers. The acquired components may also present a user interface representing data to be exchanged with the remote servers. The mediating components may be assembled into layers, allowing arbitrarily complex programs to be constructed at execution time.

  16. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students will demonstrate that they have learned the vocabulary and concepts specific to the discipline of history.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    and technical skills. COMMUNICATION (Written Communication; Oral Communication): Students will produce will also demonstrate effective oral communication skills by presenting a portion of the written work of History through various oral and written assignments. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills; Technical

  17. Acquisition of human skills for robotic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Kosuge; Toshio Fukuda; H. Asada

    1991-01-01

    A method for representing human skills in assembly tasks so that they can be transferred to intelligent robotic systems is proposed. Data from which control strategies of the human operator are extracted are acquired by a direct teaching method. Two levels of control strategies are extracted from the data: one is a high-level sequence of motion with regard to discrete

  18. Entry Level Skills Program Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A guide to the implementation of the Entry Level Skills Program (ELSP) and a conceptual framework for evaluation research is presented. Attention is directed to strategies for the attainment of goals and management of the ELSP project, which is a developmental program for freshmen students who have not acquired the full range or level of cognitive…

  19. Teaching Information Evaluation and Critical Thinking Skills in Physics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Adriana; Morgan, James

    2007-01-01

    The physics curriculum at all educational levels can be enriched to include tools for strengthening students' information evaluation skills. The "Report of the Joint APS-AAPT Task Force on Graduate Education in Physics" calls for such training to be part of graduate programs, but training to acquire these lifetime skills can be incorporated in the…

  20. Teaching a Cooperative Leisure Skill to Severely Handicapped Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietupski, John; Svoboda, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Six formerly institutionalized severely handicapped adults living in a nursing home were taught a cooperative leisure skill. All six participants acquired the leisure skill. Informal followup observations indicated that participants continued to self initiate, sustain, and terminate the leisure activity as much as 2 weeks beyond the program's…

  1. Engineering soft skills development to avoid hard knocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Dravid; Andrea Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Engineering and technology sectors have long recognised the importance of soft skills for successful career progression. Research suggests that soft skills are better developed when acquired and practiced than taught. The research describes initial reflections on the potential of discipline-oriented, web-based resource for Personal Development Planning (PDP) to promote and support learner's engagement with personal development and their increased employability

  2. Test-Taking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabers, Darrell

    There are two types of skills needed to perform well on a standardized achievement test: (1) the cognitive ability or basic skill that the test is designed to measure, and (2) the ability to demonstrate that cognitive ability or basic skill within the test situation. Test-taking skills (sometimes referred to as test wiseness) are the skills needed…

  3. Learning Psychomotor Skills in TAFE (or The Psychology of Psychomotor Skills). Educational Psychology for TAFE Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anthony

    Developed for use in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teacher education, this module is intended to widen teachers' knowledge and understanding of the psychology of psychomotor skills to improve teaching of psychomotor skills in the TAFE classroom or workshop. The module is divided into two parts: basic and advanced. The first part, "What…

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Tool for Acquiring Spatial Data for Research and Commercial Purposes. New Course in the Geography and Cartography Curriculum in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeziorska, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the syllabus for the innovative course "Unmanned aerial observations of Terrain" introduced to the curriculum by the Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). It indicates the objectives of the new subject, its didactic purpose, methods used in the teaching process, specifications of teaching materials, and the knowledge and skills that students are expected to acquire. Finally, it presents the content of the course and description of lesson units. The subject will be obligatory for graduate students majoring in Geography, who are participants in the Geoinformatics and Cartography Master's program. Thirty-eight hours in a summer semester has been earmarked for the course. That includes 30 hours of instructor-guided laboratory and fieldtrip work, and 8 hours of individual work. The course aims to prepare future geographers to conduct a multi-step process that includes defining the purpose of using UAV in light of the chosen research problem, preparation of the mission, flight execution; geoprocessing of acquired aerial imagery; generation of cartomertic final products, and analysis of outcomes in order to answer the initially asked research question. This comprehensive approach will allow students, future experts in the field of geoinformatics and cartography, to gain the skills needed to acquire spatial data using an UAV, process them, and apply the results of their analysis in practice.

  5. Novel monitoring concepts to acquire new water quality knowledge.

    PubMed

    Noij, Th H M; Bobeldijk, I

    2003-01-01

    Two novel water quality monitoring concepts were developed: the HPLC-fingerprint for the monitoring of yet unidentified pollutants and the HPLC-Toxprint for the recognition of (unknown) toxic or genotoxic compounds. The paper describes applications of both concepts. The HPLC-fingerprint is used for the evaluation of the overall water quality in addition to the monitoring of individual pollutants. Based on their occurrence (frequency, concentration, location) a listing of unknown priority pollutants is set up. Participating waterworks monitor for these compounds using a dedicated HPLC-DAD library that contains the required compound data (UV-absorbance spectrum, retention time index). In five years of experience with this concept, the HPLC-fingerprint was also found very suitable for the retrieval of new priority pollutants in existing HPLC-fingerprint databases, providing historic data on these new compounds. The HPLC-fingerprint concept was also used as an Early Warning System for accidental spills or sabotage. The HPLC-Toxprint was successfully applied in identifying genotoxicity (in the umu-test) in various waste water samples. By the application of LC-MS/MS genotoxicity could be assigned to acridine-derivatives in one of these wastewaters. To enable the evaluation of drinking water resources, the sensitivity of the HPLC-Toxprint was improved, now allowing the detection of pollutants with a 10% genotoxic potential as compared to 2-aminoanthracene (the positive control compound) at concentrations as low as 0.1 microg/l. PMID:12636078

  6. The Defense Technical Information Center: Acquiring Information and Imparting Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molholm, Kurt N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This overview of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) discusses how DTIC fits into the Department of Defense Scientific and Technical Information Program; its history, organization, users, and operations; types of information handled; subject classification; cataloging standards; Information Analysis Centers (IACs); and research and…

  7. 1 Sociology Students acquire knowledge about human social structure and

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    in criminal justice (http://bulletin.gwu.edu/arts- sciences/sociology/minor-criminal-justice) · Minor in law and analysis. Note: A student majoring in sociology may not declare a second major or a minor in criminal.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/sociology/ba) · Bachelor of Arts with a major in criminal justice (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/sociology/ba-criminal

  8. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  9. Beyond Useful Knowledge: Developing the Subjective Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wringe, Colin

    2015-01-01

    While not underestimating the value of useful knowledge and skills, it is suggested that education should also develop the subjective self of the learner. A distinction is drawn between an "additive" view of education which simply furnishes the individual with knowledge and skills and a "transformative" concept which concerns…

  10. Biotechnology Skills Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

  11. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge

  12. The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Foster, Thomas

    Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Structured Curriculum in Teaching Procedural and Basic Diagnostic Ultrasound Skills to Internal Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schnobrich, Daniel J.; Olson, Andrew P. J.; Broccard, Alain; Duran-Nelson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care ultrasound has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool and is also being increasingly used by clinicians to guide procedures. Many current and future internists desire training, yet no formal, multiple-application, program-wide teaching interventions have been described. Intervention We describe a structured 30-hour ultrasound training course in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound implemented during intern orientation. Internal medicine interns learned basic ultrasound physics and machine skills; focused cardiac, great vessel, pulmonary, and abdominal ultrasound diagnostic examinations; and procedural applications. Results In postcourse testing, learners demonstrated the ability to acquire images, had significantly increased knowledge scores (P?skills would be valuable during residency and in their careers. Conclusions A structured ultrasound course can increase knowledge and can result in learners who have skills in image acquisition, interpretation, and integration in management. Future work will focus on refining and improving these skills to allow these learners to be entrusted with the use of ultrasound independently for patient care decisions. PMID:24404316

  14. Knowledge tracing: Modeling the acquisition of procedural knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert T. Corbett; John R. Anderson

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to model students' changing knowledge state during skill acquisition. Students in this research are learning to write short programs with the ACT Programming Tutor (APT). APT is constructed around a production rule cognitive model of programming knowledge, called theideal student model. This model allows the tutor to solve exercises along with the student and provide

  15. Microsystems Jobs and Skill Sets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This resource contains articles on the Microsystems skill set, knowledge, and job opportunities in this field. The audience for this collection is college administrators considering adding a Microsystems curriculum to their school. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

  16. Business Communication Skills in Information Systems (IS) Curricula: Perspectives of IS Educators and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Lane, Peggy L.; Miller, Donald

    2011-01-01

    As the importance of communication skills for students, regardless of their disciplines, becomes evident, it is important to determine whether colleges provide students with adequate opportunities to acquire such skills. The authors compared information systems (IS) educator and student perceptions of communication skills in IS curricula. Gender,…

  17. Student Perceptions of the Importance of Employability Skill Provision in Business Undergraduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining student perceptions of employability skill development in business undergraduate programs are limited. Assurance of student buy-in is important to ensure learners engage with skill provision; to enable them to articulate their capabilities to potential employers; and to facilitate the transfer of acquired skills. The author…

  18. New Kid on the Block. Social Skills. Student Guide--Footsteps. Report Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Joanna; And Others

    This student guide for a program concerned with how young children acquire social skills defines social skills and describes some ways that parents can build upon their child's desire to get along with people and learn these skills. Designed around a magazine format to allow maximum flexibility to different groups using the materials, the guide is…

  19. Teaching Critical Reading Skills: Value Sheets as a Means to This End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert G.; Casteel, J. Doyle

    1976-01-01

    Three important goals of general education are: (1) to hone critical reading skills so that students will gain the skills of acquiring and processing the information demanded for meaningful participation in a free society; (2) to develop and refine valuing skills in order that students will feel competent about and operate efficiently in…

  20. Core Knowledge and Cultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John M.; Pelletier, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Three Oaks Elementary School in Fort Myers, Florida, was the first school to adopt Core Knowledge, an articulated K-6 curriculum promoted by E.D. Hirsch, author of "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know" (1987). Hirsch feels that emphasizing skills over knowledge unintentionally injures disadvantaged students. Program specifics and…

  1. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

  2. Automated Reaction based on Risk Analysis and Attackers Skills in Intrusion Detection Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automated Reaction based on Risk Analysis and Attackers Skills in Intrusion Detection Systems Wael by adopting a risk assessment and analysis approach, and (ii) assess the skill and knowledge level, countermeasure, risk analysis, potentiality, impact, skill and knowledge. 1 Introduction In intrusion detection

  3. Translation of Etiology into Evidence-Based Prevention: The Life Skills Program IPSY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina

    2014-01-01

    IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) is a universal life skills program aiming at the promotion of generic intra-and interpersonal life skills, substance specific skills (for example, resistance skills), school bonding, knowledge, and the prevention of substance misuse with a focus on alcohol and tobacco in youth. This program…

  4. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  5. The Outcomes of a Social Skills Teaching Program for Inclusive Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sazak Pinar, Elif; Sucuoglu, Bülbin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a Social Skills Teaching Program (SSTP) prepared for inclusive classroom teachers was investigated. The SSTP gauged (1) teachers' expectations related to social skills of students with special needs, (2) their knowledge levels related to teaching social skills, and (3) their use of social skills teaching…

  6. Acquisition of cognitive skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

  7. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: Punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  8. The acquisition of syntactic knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Berwick

    1985-01-01

    This work in computational linguistics describes a break-through in the design of expert systems because it suggests how extensive knowledge might be acquired automatically, without outside intervention. Computationally, the author looks at the developmental problem of the interaction between innate genetic endowment and environmental input, using computational methods to uncover the constraints on the acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Learning and

  9. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:25467362

  10. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders. PMID:24324241

  11. Acquired limb deficiencies. 4. Troubleshooting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Levy; Phillip R. Bryant; Mary C. Spires; Daniel A. Duffy

    2001-01-01

    This self-directed learning module offers practical analyses of and solutions for common clinical problems of amputees. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatrie Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The information presented here has been designed to be useful also to other interested professionals, including prosthetists, physical therapists,

  12. Card Sorts to Acquire Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A. M. Maiden

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a requirement acquisition techniques card sorts. One reason is that requirements projects are often constrained by software solutions such as components, off-the-shelf packages, and application features. More and more projects need to acquire requirements to select between available solutions. This is where card sorts come in. During a card sort, one or more stakeholders work with

  13. When Unbiased Probabilistic Learning Is Not Enough: Acquiring a Parametric System of Metrical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric systems have been proposed as models of how humans represent knowledge about language, motivated in part as a way to explain children's rapid acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Given this, it seems reasonable to examine if children with knowledge of parameters could in fact acquire the adult system from the data available to them.…

  14. Comparing new BSN RN self skills assessment to actual skills demonstration.

    PubMed

    Adair, Jean; Hughes, Lin; Davis, Sue; Wolcott-Breci, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the self-skills assessment with the skill competence during an actual skills demonstration of newly hired bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) registered nurse graduates. This retrospective study included 32 randomly selected BSN registered nurse graduates from January 2010 to December 31, 2010. The participants were already hired into a midwest health system. Because this was a retrospective study, no demographic data were collected, and no consent from participants was needed. This study included a clinical skills check list where the participants rated themselves on specific skills utilizing a Likert scale ranging from 1 (no knowledge) to 4 (able to perform independently). The same clinical check list was utilized by an expert registered nurse when the skill was demonstrated. This study compared the difference between the subject's self-rating of skills and the clinical demonstration of the skills. We used t tests in the analysis to demonstrate the differences between the participant's self-rating of skills and the expert evaluation of the clinical demonstration of the skills. The data were inserted into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 19 software program to assist in the analysis process. The study demonstrated 17 significant differences in the skills ratings between the participant and competency demonstration of new BSN graduates. These significant results (2 tailed) ranged from .000 to .048.The 17 out of 46 specific skills where differences were noted included the following: staple removal, nasal pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter specimen collection, site care dressing change, urinary catheter irrigation, Juzo application and measurement, 5-lead telemetry, oral airway insertion, hemovac/Jackson Pratt, oral pharyngeal suctioning, urinary catheter insertion, dry suction chest drainage, bed to cart/slider board, urinary catheter removal, antiembolism stockings, measurement and application, removal of iv and sit-and-stand alarm. Overall, the participants rated their skill levels lower in 15 out of 17 significant skills when compared with their competency assessment (t test: -3.284, df = 31, P = .003). In two skill ratings (urinary catheter specimen collection and oral pharyngeal suction), the participants rated themselves higher than the competency demonstration. Two skills that had a mean participant and expert score between 1 (no knowledge) and 2 (able to perform with 1-to-1 coaching) were oral airway insertion and dry suction chest drainage. Some possible reasons why the participants rated themselves lower could be the use of different or unfamiliar terms or uncertainty of the procedure at a different health institution. Some newly graduated BSN nurses may have not performed the skills on a regular basis or only in simulation. PMID:24720948

  15. Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Don

    The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

  16. Critical Skills of IS Professionals: Developing a Curriculum for the Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn L. Wilkins; Cheryl L. Noll

    A study was conducted to determine the expected skills and knowledge required for Information Systems professionals in three general staffing groups: programmers, analysts, and end-user support. A survey instrument was developed asking respondents to rate the importance of each knowledge\\/skill area three years from now for each of the staffing groups. The results show that Information Systems knowledge relating to

  17. A Context-Aware Mobile Learning System for Supporting Cognitive Apprenticeships in Nursing Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, Liang-Hao; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    The aim of nursing education is to foster in students the competence of applying integrated knowledge with clinical skills to the application domains. In the traditional approach, in-class knowledge learning and clinical skills training are usually conducted separately, such that the students might not be able to integrate the knowledge and the…

  18. The Gain-Loss Model: A Probabilistic Skill Multimap Model for Assessing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robusto, Egidio; Stefanutti, Luca; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of knowledge space theory, a probabilistic skill multimap model for assessing learning processes is proposed. The learning process of a student is modeled as a function of the student's knowledge and of an educational intervention on the attainment of specific skills required to solve problems in a knowledge

  19. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandăo-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  20. Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion.

  1. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  2. The inhibition of acquired fear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iván Izquierdo; Martín Cammarota; Mónica R. M. Vianna; Lía R. M. Bevilaqua

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is\\u000a at the root of a variety of disorders, among which are phobias, generalized anxiety, and the posttraumatic stress disorder\\u000a (PTSD). The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS\\u000a alone, so that

  3. Engelhard acquires German catalyst maker

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-16

    Engelhard will acquire the precious- and base-metal catalyst businesses of Doduco GmbH & Co. (Pforzheim, Germany), a privately held supplier of catalysts to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. {open_quotes}This is an excellent product expansion for us, one that we believe can be leveraged throughout Europe and, later, globally,{close_quotes} says James A. Martin, group v.p., president, and general manager of Engelhard`s chemical catalysts group.

  4. Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Use Counting-on Strategies to Enhance Independent Purchasing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Grim, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The demands of basic math skills often limit the ability of students with autism spectrum disorders to master purchasing skills. This study examined the use of counting-on math skills in conjunction with the next-dollar strategy to enhance independent purchasing skills. Four students with autism and intellectual disabilities successfully acquired

  5. Practical Money Skills - Guide for Teachers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Practical Money Skills for Life

    This site, published by Visa, provides you with lesson plans to help your students better comprehend money management and acquire skills for life. According to Visa, 77 percent of parents believe personal money management is a subject "very important" to their children's lives as adults -- second only to writing at 89 percent. Noting that many of today's consumers have learned to manage money by trial and error, they produced this site to help bridge the gap.

  6. Global Skill Shortages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

    This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

  7. The Michigan Essential Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    This publication lists skill expectations in ten curriculum areas for grades 1-9. Although intended to be used by educators in Michigan, the skill list can be used or adapted by educators in other states. The ten curriculum areas are: communication skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening); health education; mathematics; music; physical…

  8. Entry Skills for BSNs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Mary K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  9. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  10. Teaching Organizational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2004-01-01

    Kerr and Zigmond (1986) found that 67 percent of all high school teachers surveyed viewed organizational skills as crucial for student success in school. How can teachers get their students to agree? One way is to teach organizational skills just as they would teach writing or computation skills. Explain and demonstrate what students are to do,…

  11. School Leadership Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  12. Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation. PMID:23637843

  13. Learning to hunt Crocodiles: social organization in the process of knowledge generation and the emergence of management practices among Mayan of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New kinds of knowledge, usage patterns and management strategies of natural resources emerge in local communities as a way of coping with uncertainty in a changing world. Studying how human groups adapt and create new livelihoods strategies are important research topics for creating policies in natural resources management. Here, we study the adoption and development of lagartos (Crocodylus moreletii) commercial hunting by Mayan people from a communal land in Quintana Roo state. Two questions guided our work: how did the Mayan learn to hunt lagartos? And how, and in what context, did knowledge and management practices emerge? We believe that social structures, knowledge and preexisting skills facilitate the hunting learning process, but lagarto ecological knowledge and organizational practice were developed in a “learning by doing” process. Methods We conducted free, semi-structured and in-depth interviews over 17 prestigious lagartos hunters who reconstructed the activity through oral history. Then, we analyzed the sources of information and routes of learning and investigated the role of previous knowledge and social organization in the development of this novel activity. Finally, we discussed the emergence of hunting in relation to the characteristic of natural resource and the tenure system. Results Lagarto hunting for skin selling was a short-term activity, which represented an alternative source of money for some Mayans known as lagarteros. They acquired different types of knowledge and skills through various sources of experience (individual practice, or from foreign hunters and other Mayan hunters). The developed management system involved a set of local knowledge about lagartos ecology and a social organization structure that was then articulated in the formation of “working groups” with particular hunting locations (rumbos and trabajaderos), rotation strategies and collaboration among them. Access rules and regulations identified were in an incipient state of development and were little documented. Conclusions In agreement to the hypothesis proposed, the Mayan used multiple learning paths to develop a new activity: the lagarto hunting. On the one hand, they used their traditional social organization structure as well as their culturally inherited knowledge. On the other hand, they acquired new ecological knowledge of the species in a learning-by-doing process, together with the use of other sources of external information. The formation of working groups, the exchange of information and the administration of hunting locations are similar to other productive activities and livelihood practiced by these Mayan. Skills such as preparing skins and lagartos ecological knowledge were acquired by foreign hunters and during hunting practice, respectively. We detected a feedback between local ecological knowledge and social organization, which in turn promoted the emergence of Mayan hunting management practices. PMID:23706104

  14. Oxford-Style Debates in a Microbiology Course for Majors: A Method for Delivering Content and Engaging Critical Thinking Skills

    PubMed Central

    Boucaud, Dwayne W.; Nabel, Michael; Eggers, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing scientific expertise in the classroom involves promoting higher-order cognitive skills as well as content mastery. Effective use of constructivism can facilitate these outcomes. However this is often difficult to accomplish when delivery of content is paramount. Utilizing many of the tenets of constructivist pedagogy, we have designed an Oxford-style debate assignment to be used in an introductory microbiology course. Two teams of students were assigned a debatable topic within microbiology. Over a five-week period students completed an informative web page consisting of three parts: background on the topic, data-based positions for each side of the argument, and a data-based persuasive argument to support their assigned position. This was followed by an in-class presentation and debate. Analysis of student performance on knowledge-based questions shows that students retain debate-derived content acquired primarily outside of lectures significantly better than content delivered during a normal lecture. Importantly, students who performed poorly on the lecture-derived questions did as well on debate-derived questions as other students. Students also performed well on questions requiring higher-order cognitive skills and in synthesizing data-driven arguments in support of a position during the debate. Student perceptions of their knowledge-base in areas covered by the debate and their skills in using scientific databases and analyzing primary literature showed a significant increase in pre- and postassignment comparisons. Our data demonstrate that an Oxford-style debate can be used effectively to deliver relevant content, increase higher-order cognitive skills, and increase self-efficacy in science-specific skills, all contributing to developing expertise in the field. PMID:23858349

  15. Interdisciplinary Robotic Activity Hones Important Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan; Zeigler, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    As educators, the authors believe in guiding students towards the life skills, knowledge, and expertise they need to succeed in life and in the workforce of the 21st century. With that in mind, they have created a project in which students drive their own learning through creativity and collaborative work to develop an efficient product. Through…

  16. Assessing College-Level Communicating Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joe M.

    In 1976, the American College Testing Program (ACT) organized the College Outcome Measures Project (COMP) to design, develop, validate, and implement assessment materials for measuring the knowledge and skills that are expected of general education college graduates and that are important to functioning effectively in adult society. The Composite…

  17. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  18. MIT Program to Focus on Engineering Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a post-graduate chemical engineering education program which developed an organization chart of the skills and information needed to solve chemical engineering problems as well as small, self-contained teaching units which provide knowledge to the practicing engineer undertaking a new project. (MLH)

  19. Making Cities Skilled. Civic Bulletin No. 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, cities that have been centers of great learning have usually also taken their place as economic powerhouses. Here in America, economists have long noticed that educated cities--that is, cities with a greater percentage of knowledgeable and skilled residents--have fared better economically than their unskilled counterparts, but…

  20. Learning Teamwork Skills in University Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho-Thomas, Pilar; Fuentes-Fernandez, Ruben; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    University courses about computer programming usually seek to provide students not only with technical knowledge, but also with the skills required to work in real-life software projects. Nowadays, the development of software applications requires the coordinated efforts of the members of one or more teams. Therefore, it is important for software…