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1

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multifocal Acquired Demyelinating Sensory and Motor Neuropathy and Other Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Variants  

PubMed Central

Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and management continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment.

Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

2

Neuron activity in the anterolateral motor cortex in operant food-acquiring and alcohol-acquiring behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of the neuronal mechanisms of food-acquiring behavior and newly formed operant alcohol-acquiring behavior were studied by recording the activity of individual neurons in the anterolateral area of the motor cortex in chronically alcoholized rabbits. Adult animals learned food-acquiring behavior in a cage with two feeders and two pedals, in the corners (the food in the feeders was presented

Yu. I. Aleksandrov; Yu. V. Grinchenko; D. G. Shevchenko; V. N. Mats; S. Laukka; R. G. Averkin

2005-01-01

3

Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

2012-01-01

4

Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn

2010-01-01

5

High-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new high-speed vision device and its application to a grasp system is proposed, and we discuss a processing architecture for grasping based on visual and tactile feedback designed with real-time control in mind. First, we describe a high-speed vision chip that serves as a robotic eye that includes a general-purpose parallel processing array along with a photo-detector all on a single silicon chip. Next, we present a grasping algorithm based on real-time visual and tactile feedback, and a high-speed sensory-motor fusion system for robotic grasping. We then describe a grasping experiment using high-speed vision, and finally, based on these results, the effectiveness of high-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping is discussed.

Namiki, Akio; Komuro, Takashi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

2002-11-01

6

Extensive Fusion of Mitochondria in Spinal Cord Motor Neurons  

PubMed Central

The relative roles played by trafficking, fission and fusion in the dynamics of mitochondria in neurons have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a slow widespread redistribution of mitochondria within cultured spinal cord motor neurons was observed as a result of extensive organelle fusion. Mitochondria were labeled with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein (mitoKaede) that is red-shifted following brief irradiation with blue light. The behavior of these selectively labeled mitochondria was followed by live fluorescence imaging. Marking mitochondria within the cell soma revealed a complete mixing, within 18 hours, of these organelles with mitochondria coming from the surrounding neurites. Fusion of juxtaposed mitochondria was directly observed in neuritic processes at least 200 microns from the cell body. Within 24 hours, photoconverted mitoKaede was dispersed to all of the mitochondria in the portion of neurite under observation. When time lapse imaging over minutes was combined with long-term observation of marked mitochondria, moving organelles that traversed the field of view did not initially contain photoconverted protein, but after several hours organelles in motion contained both fluorescent proteins, coincident with widespread fusion of all of the mitochondria within the length of neurite under observation. These observations suggest that there is a widespread exchange of mitochondrial components throughout a neuron as a result of organelle fusion.

Owens, Geoffrey C.; Walcott, Elisabeth C.

2012-01-01

7

Multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy presenting as a peripheral nerve tumor.  

PubMed

A man with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), or Lewis-Sumner syndrome, presented with a progressive left lumbosacral plexus lesion resembling a neurofibroma. After 7 years he developed a left ulnar nerve lesion with conduction block in its upper segment. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the symptoms and signs of both lesions. We conclude that inflammatory neuropathy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors, and that unifocal lesions may precede multifocal involvement in MADSAM by several years. In addition, we discuss the clinical features in 9 patients attending a specialist peripheral nerve clinic and review the literature. PMID:16609974

Allen, David C; Smallman, Clare A; Mills, Kerry R

2006-09-01

8

Human cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells acquire functional cardiac properties through a cell fusion process.  

PubMed

The efficacy of cardiac repair by stem cell administration relies on a successful functional integration of injected cells into the host myocardium. Safety concerns have been raised about the possibility that stem cells may induce foci of arrhythmia in the ischemic myocardium. In a previous work (36), we showed that human cord blood CD34(+) cells, when cocultured on neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes, exhibit excitation-contraction coupling features similar to those of cardiomyocytes, even though no human genes were upregulated. The aims of the present work are to investigate whether human CD34(+) cells, isolated after 1 wk of coculture with neonatal ventricular myocytes, possess molecular and functional properties of cardiomyocytes and to discriminate, using a reporter gene system, whether cardiac differentiation derives from a (trans)differentiation or a cell fusion process. Umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells were isolated by a magnetic cell sorting method, transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, and seeded onto primary cultures of spontaneously beating rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cocultured EGFP(+)/CD34(+)-derived cells were analyzed for their electrophysiological features at different time points. After 1 wk in coculture, EGFP(+) cells, in contact with cardiomyocytes, were spontaneously contracting and had a maximum diastolic potential (MDP) of -53.1 mV, while those that remained isolated from the surrounding myocytes did not contract and had a depolarized resting potential of -11.4 mV. Cells were then resuspended and cultured at low density to identify EGFP(+) progenitor cell derivatives. Under these conditions, we observed single EGFP(+) beating cells that had acquired an hyperpolarization-activated current typical of neonatal cardiomyocytes (EGFP(+) cells, -2.24 ± 0.89 pA/pF; myocytes, -1.99 ± 0.63 pA/pF, at -125 mV). To discriminate between cell autonomous differentiation and fusion, EGFP(+)/CD34(+) cells were cocultured with cardiac myocytes infected with a red fluorescence protein-lentiviral vector; under these conditions we found that 100% of EGFP(+) cells were also red fluorescent protein positive, suggesting cell fusion as the mechanism by which cardiac functional features are acquired. PMID:21357510

Avitabile, Daniele; Crespi, Alessia; Brioschi, Chiara; Parente, Valeria; Toietta, Gabriele; Devanna, Paolo; Baruscotti, Mirko; Truffa, Silvia; Scavone, Angela; Rusconi, Francesca; Biondi, Andrea; D'Alessandra, Yuri; Vigna, Elisa; Difrancesco, Dario; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Barbuti, Andrea

2011-05-01

9

Vesicular stomatitis virus G protein acquires pH-independent fusion activity during transport in a polarized endometrial cell line.  

PubMed

Entry of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the prototype member of the rhabdovirus family, occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, during traversal through the endosomal compartments, the VSV G protein acquires a low-pH-induced fusion-competent form, allowing for fusion of the viral membrane with endosomal and lysosomal membranes. This fusion event releases genomic RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell. Here we provide evidence that the VSV G protein acquires a fusion-competent form during exocytosis in a polarized endometrial cell line, HEC-1A. VSV infection of HEC-1A cells results in high viral yields and giant cell formation. Syncytium formation is blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by treatment with the lysosomotropic weak base ammonium chloride, which raises intravesicular pH. Virus release is somewhat delayed by treatment with ammonium chloride, but virus yields gradually reach those of control cells. In addition, inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases by treatment with bafilomycin A1 also inhibited cell to cell fusion without altering virus yields. Virions released from infected HEC cells were themselves not fusion competent, since viral entry required an active H(+)-ATPase and a low-pH-induced conformational change in the viral G protein. Thus, the conformation change leading to fusion competence during exocytotic transport is reversible and reverts during or after release of the virion from the infected cell. PMID:10559363

Roberts, P C; Kipperman, T; Compans, R W

1999-12-01

10

THE USE OF MOTOR LEARNING STRATEGIES WITHIN USUAL AND VIRTUAL REALITY-BASED PHYSIOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) receive physiotherapy interventions to promote motor skill relearning. Theoretically-driven motor learning strategies (MLS) may support therapists in this goal, but their use with this complex population is unexplored. Virtual reality (VR) games are popular interventions that may influence therapist use of MLS. A valid, reliable method to examine MLS during usual and VR-based

Danielle Levac

2012-01-01

11

Inferior rectus palsy as an isolated ocular motor sign: acquired etiologies and outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to elucidate underlying etiologies, lesion locations, and outcomes of inferior rectus (IR) palsy of acquired origin. Retrospective search identified 44 patients with acquired IR palsy between April 2006 and May 2011 from four Neurology and two Ophthalmology Clinics in Korea. We analyzed clinical features, the results of radiological and laboratory evaluation, and prognosis. The most common causes were vascular (n = 16, 36 %) and trauma (n = 12, 27 %). Vascular disorders included microvascular ischemia (n = 10, 23 %), cerebral infarction (n = 5, 11 %), and dural arterio-venous fistula (n = 1, 2 %). Other causes were inflammation (n = 7, 16 %), myasthenia gravis (n = 5, 11 %), and thyroid ophthalmopathy (n = 1, 2 %). We were unable to determine the etiology in the remaining three patients (7 %). Most patients (95 %) showed a complete recovery with or without treatment. Acquired IR palsy mostly occurs with brainstem or orbital lesions, and has an excellent prognosis. PMID:22743791

Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Hee Young; Huh, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyo Jung; Oh, Sun-Young; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Kim, Ji Soo

2013-01-01

12

Fresnel prism treatment of sensory exotropia with restoration of sensory and motor fusion.  

PubMed

Anterior segment surgeons may treat patients with long-standing media opacities or uncorrected aphakia who have developed sensory strabismus. These patients are at risk for diplopia after surgery to clear the visual axis and restore emmetropia. This report describes 2 patients who regained comfortable single binocular vision without strabismus surgery. Sensory fusion was restored with Fresnel prisms, which were weaned and ultimately discarded as the patients' motor fusion was re-engaged after decades of disuse. Surgeons who restore vision in an eye with manifest sensory strabismus should be aware of this noninvasive, well-tolerated treatment option. Collaboration with an orthoptist or strabismologist may be helpful. PMID:10079453

Brown, S M

1999-03-01

13

Highly efficient retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons by a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with fusion glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The development of gene therapy techniques to introduce transgenes that promote neuronal survival and protection provides effective therapeutic approaches for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Intramuscular injection of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors, as well as lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G), permits gene delivery into motor neurons in animal models for motor neuron diseases. Recently, we developed a vector with highly efficient retrograde gene transfer (HiRet) by pseudotyping a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based vector with fusion glycoprotein B type (FuG-B) or a variant of FuG-B (FuG-B2), in which the cytoplasmic domain of RV-G was replaced by the corresponding part of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). We have also developed another vector showing neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet) with fusion glycoprotein C type, in which the short C-terminal segment of the extracellular domain and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of RV-G was substituted with the corresponding regions of VSV-G. These two vectors afford the high efficiency of retrograde gene transfer into different neuronal populations in the brain. Here we investigated the efficiency of the HiRet (with FuG-B2) and NeuRet vectors for retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain in mice after intramuscular injection and compared it with the efficiency of the RV-G pseudotype of the HIV-1-based vector. The main highlight of our results is that the HiRet vector shows the most efficient retrograde gene transfer into both spinal cord and hindbrain motor neurons, offering its promising use as a gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of motor neuron diseases. PMID:24086660

Hirano, Miyabi; Kato, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Kenta; Okada, Tomoaki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto

2013-01-01

14

Fusion of real-time transrectal ultrasound with pre-acquired MRI for multi-modality prostate imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for fusion of realtime transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) with pre-acquired 3D images of the prostate was designed and demonstrated in phantoms and volunteer patients. Biopsy guides for endocavity ultrasound transducers were equipped with customized 6 degree-of-freedom (DoF) electromagnetic (EM) tracking sensors, compatible with the Aurora EM tracking system (Northern Digital Inc, NDI, Waterloo, ON, Canada). The biopsy guides were attached to an ultrasound probe and calibrated to map tracking coordinates with ultrasound image coordinates. Six cylindrical gold seeds were placed in a prostate phantom to serve as fiducial markers. The fiducials were first identified manually in 3T magnetic resonance (MR) images collected with an endorectal coil. The phantom was then imaged with tracked realtime TRUS and the fiducial markers were identified in the live image using custom software. Rigid registrations between MR and ultrasound image space were computed and evaluated using subsets of the fiducial markers. Twelve patients were scanned with 3T MRI and TRUS for biopsy and seed placement. In ten patients, volumetric ultrasound images were reconstructed from 2D sweeps of the prostate and were manually registered with the MR. The rigid registrations were used to display live TRUS images fused with spatially corresponding realtime multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of the MR image volume. Registration accuracy was evaluated by segmenting the prostate in the MR and volumetric ultrasound and computing distance measures between the two segmentations. In the phantom experiments, registration accuracies of 2.2 to 2.3 mm were achieved. In the patient studies, the average root mean square distance between the MR and TRUS segmentations was 3.1 mm, the average Hausdorff distance was 9.8 mm. Deformation of the prostate during MR and TRUS scan was identified as the primary source of error. Realtime MR/TRUS image fusion is feasible and is a promising approach to improved target visualization during TRUS-guided biopsy or therapy procedures.

Krücker, Jochen; Xu, Sheng; Glossop, Neil; Guion, Peter; Choyke, Peter; Ocak, Iclal; Singh, Anurag K.; Wood, Bradford J.

2007-03-01

15

BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with abnormal interhemispheric transfer of a newly acquired motor skill.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene can alter cortical plasticity within the motor cortex of carriers, which exhibits abnormally low rates of cortical reorganization after repetitive motor tasks. To verify whether long-term retention of a motor skill is also modulated by the presence of the polymorphism, 20 participants (10 Val66Val, 10 Val66Met) were tested twice at a 1-wk interval. During each visit, excitability of the motor cortex was measured by transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) before and after performance of a procedural motor learning task (serial reaction time task) designed to study sequence-specific learning of the right hand and sequence-specific transfer from the right to the left hand. Behavioral results showed a motor learning effect that persisted for at least a week and task-related increases in corticospinal excitability identical for both sessions and without distinction for genetic group. Sequence-specific transfer of the motor skill from the right hand to the left hand was greater in session 2 than in session 1 only in the Val66Met genetic group. Further analysis revealed that the sequence-specific transfer occurred equally at both sessions in the Val66Val genotype group. In the Val66Met genotype group, sequence-specific transfer did not occur at session 1 but did at session 2. These data suggest a limited impact of Val66Met polymorphism on the learning and retention of a complex motor skill and its associated changes in corticospinal excitability over time, and a possible modulation of the interhemispheric transfer of procedural learning. PMID:24572097

Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Beaumont, Vincent; de Beaumont, Louis; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Théoret, Hugo

2014-05-15

16

Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

17

Promoting adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury, extensive motor and communication disabilities, and consciousness disorders.  

PubMed

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or pressure microswitches (linked to preferred environmental stimuli) and eyelid, toe and finger responses. Study II involved three participants who were emerging from a minimally conscious state and were provided with intervention packages based on computer presentations of stimulus options (i.e., preferred stimuli, functional caregiver's procedures, and non-preferred stimuli) and pressure microswitches to choose among them. Intervention data of Study I showed that the participants acquired relatively high levels of microswitch responding (thus engaging widely with preferred environmental stimuli) and kept that responding consistent except for one case. Intervention data of Study II showed that the participants were active in choosing among preferred stimuli and positive caregivers' procedures, but generally abstained from non-preferred stimuli. The results were discussed in terms of the successful use of fairly new/infrequent microswitch-response arrangements (Study I) and the profitable inclusion of functional caregiver's procedures among the options available to choice (Study II). PMID:22738766

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

18

Strategy for Treating Motor Neuron Diseases Using a Fusion Protein of Botulinum Toxin Binding Domain and Streptavidin for Viral Vector Access: Work in Progress  

PubMed Central

Although advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have suggested attractive treatment strategies, delivery of agents to motor neurons embedded within the spinal cord is problematic. We have designed a strategy based on the specificity of botulinum toxin, to direct entry of viral vectors carrying candidate therapeutic genes into motor neurons. We have engineered and expressed fusion proteins consisting of the binding domain of botulinum toxin type A fused to streptavidin (SAv). This fusion protein will direct biotinylated viral vectors carrying therapeutic genes into motor nerve terminals where they can enter the acidified endosomal compartments, be released and undergo retrograde transport, to deliver the genes to motor neurons. Both ends of the fusion proteins are shown to be functionally intact. The binding domain end binds to mammalian nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions, ganglioside GT1b (a target of botulinum toxin), and a variety of neuronal cells including primary chick embryo motor neurons, N2A neuroblastoma cells, NG108-15 cells, but not to NG CR72 cells, which lack complex gangliosides. The streptavidin end binds to biotin, and to a biotinylated Alexa 488 fluorescent tag. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the delivery of genes to motor neurons in vivo, by the use of biotinylated viral vectors.

Drachman, Daniel B.; Adams, Robert N.; Balasubramanian, Uma; Lu, Yang

2010-01-01

19

The marine cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 synthesizes the compatible solute trehalose by a laterally acquired OtsAB fusion protein.  

PubMed

Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate sucrose or trehalose as the main compatible solutes. The screening of the genome of the marine, unicellular N(2) -fixing cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 revealed that instead of genes for glucosylglycerol biosynthesis, a fusion protein for the synthesis of trehalose was found that displayed similarities to trehalose-phosphate-synthase and -phosphatase (OtsAB pathway) from enterobacteria. Accordingly, cells of Crocosphaera showed salt-stimulated expression of the otsAB gene as well as a salt-dependent trehalose accumulation. The biochemical characterization of recombinant full-length OtsAB and truncated OtsB versions revealed that the otsAB gene in Crocosphaera encodes for an active trehalose-phosphate-synthase/phosphatase fusion protein. Genes coding for such proteins were not found in the genomes of other cyanobacteria but were present in many other, non-related marine bacteria, suggesting that otsAB might have been acquired by lateral gene transfer into the Crocosphaera genome. PMID:22404882

Pade, Nadin; Compaoré, Justine; Klähn, Stephan; Stal, Lucas J; Hagemann, Martin

2012-05-01

20

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acknowledgments; 1. The invention of Dr Spitzer; 2. Behind closed doors; 3. Friends and rivals; 4. Searching for answers; 5. Dawn of the tokamak; 6. Building big science; 7. Forming the major league; 8. The political plasma; 9. The modern fusion lab; 10. The plasma olympics; 11. Different directions; 12. Struggling to sell fusion; 13. In sight of breakeven; 14. Fusion's past and future; Notes; Glossary; Appendices; Index.

Herman, Robin

2006-03-01

21

Controllable homopolar motor-generator energy storage for application in a fusion power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for a homopolar motor generator (HMG) with a controllable excitation field is proposed. Such a controlled field will enable the full volt-second capability of the induction coil to be utilized, so that in a Tokamak application one may achieve burn times twice as long compared to the case of a constant-excitation HMG. For a drum type HMG, it

W. Y. Chen; W. E. Toffolo; J. R. Purcell

1976-01-01

22

Fusion protein Isl1-Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1–Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1–Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1–Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1–Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells.

Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M.; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W.; Lee, Soo-Kyung

2012-01-01

23

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

Herman, Robin

1990-10-01

24

A Faster, High Resolution, mtPA-GFP-based Mitochondrial Fusion Assay Acquiring Kinetic Data of Multiple Cells in Parallel Using Confocal Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial fusion plays an essential role in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, bioenergetics, autophagy and quality control. Fusion is quantified in living cells by photo-conversion of matrix targeted photoactivatable GFP (mtPAGFP) in a subset of mitochondria. The rate at which the photoconverted molecules equilibrate across the entire mitochondrial population is used as a measure of fusion activity. Thus far measurements were performed using a single cell time lapse approach, quantifying the equilibration in one cell over an hour. Here, we scale up and automate a previously published live cell method based on using mtPAGFP and a low concentration of TMRE (15 nm). This method involves photoactivating a small portion of the mitochondrial network, collecting highly resolved stacks of confocal sections every 15 min for 1 hour, and quantifying the change in signal intensity. Depending on several factors such as ease of finding PAGFP expressing cells, and the signal of the photoactivated regions, it is possible to collect around 10 cells within the 15 min intervals. This provides a significant improvement in the time efficiency of this assay while maintaining the highly resolved subcellular quantification as well as the kinetic parameters necessary to capture the detail of mitochondrial behavior in its native cytoarchitectural environment. Mitochondrial dynamics play a role in many cellular processes including respiration, calcium regulation, and apoptosis1,2,3,13. The structure of the mitochondrial network affects the function of mitochondria, and the way they interact with the rest of the cell. Undergoing constant division and fusion, mitochondrial networks attain various shapes ranging from highly fused networks, to being more fragmented. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Charcot Marie Tooth 2A, and dominant optic atrophy have been correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology, namely fragmented networks4,10,13. Often times, upon fragmentation, mitochondria become depolarized, and upon accumulation this leads to impaired cell function18. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to signal a cell to progress toward apoptosis. It can also provide a mechanism by which to separate depolarized and inactive mitochondria to keep the bulk of the network robust14. Fusion of mitochondria, on the other hand, leads to sharing of matrix proteins, solutes, mtDNA and the electrochemical gradient, and also seems to prevent progression to apoptosis9. How fission and fusion of mitochondria affects cell homeostasis and ultimately the functioning of the organism needs further understanding, and therefore the continuous development and optimization of how to gather information on these phenomena is necessary. Existing mitochondrial fusion assays have revealed various insights into mitochondrial physiology, each having its own advantages. The hybrid PEG fusion assay7, mixes two populations of differently labeled cells (mtRFP and mtYFP), and analyzes the amount of mixing and colocalization of fluorophores in fused, multinucleated, cells. Although this method has yielded valuable information, not all cell types can fuse, and the conditions under which fusion is stimulated involves the use of toxic drugs that likely affect the normal fusion process. More recently, a cell free technique has been devised, using isolated mitochondria to observe fusion events based on a luciferase assay1,5. Two human cell lines are targeted with either the amino or a carboxy terminal part of Renilla luciferase along with a leucine zipper to ensure dimerization upon mixing. Mitochondria are isolated from each cell line, and fused. The fusion reaction can occur without the cytosol under physiological conditions in the presence of energy, appropriate temperature and inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, the cytosol was found to modulate the extent of fusion, demonstrating that cell signaling regulates the fusion process 4,5. This assay will be very useful for high throughput screening to identify components of the fusion machiner

Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J.A.; Cerqueira, Fernanda M.; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S.

2012-01-01

25

De novo acute myeloid leukemia subtype-M4 with initial trisomy 8 and later acquired t(3;12)(q26;p12) leading to ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript expression: A case report  

PubMed Central

The t(3;12)(q26;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosomal aberration observed in myeloid malignancies. The translocation results in the generation of the ETV6/myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1)/ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) fusion gene. However, the present case report is the first to present this rearrangement in acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML)-M4. Notably, this case is the first report of AML-M4 with an initial trisomy 8 and secondary acquired t(3;12)(q26;p13). Cells harboring the t(3;12) translocation were found to exhibit a higher proliferative capacity than cells with pure trisomy 8, which is consistent with the role of the ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript in the development and progression of malignancy.

ACHKAR, WALID AL; ALJAPAWE, ABDULMUNIM; LIEHR, THOMAS; WAFA, ABDULSAMAD

2014-01-01

26

Centrosome and spindle function of the Drosophila Ncd microtubule motor visualized in live embryos using Ncd-GFP fusion proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ncd microtubule motor protein is required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila. Null mutant females expressing the Ncd motor fused to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), regulated by the wild-type ncd promoter, are rescued for chromosome segregation and embryo viability. Analysis of mitosis in live embryos shows cell cycle-dependent localiza- tion of Ncd-GFP to

Sharyn A. Endow; Donald J. Komma

1996-01-01

27

Acquired hyperpigmentations.  

PubMed

Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis. PMID:24626644

Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

2014-01-01

28

Programmable folding of fusion RNA in vivo and in vitro driven by pRNA 3WJ motif of phi29 DNA packaging motor  

PubMed Central

Misfolding and associated loss of function are common problems in constructing fusion RNA complexes due to changes in energy landscape and the nearest-neighbor principle. Here we report the incorporation and application of the pRNA-3WJ motif of the phi29 DNA packaging motor into fusion RNA with controllable and predictable folding. The motif included three discontinuous ?18 nucleotide (nt) fragments, displayed a distinct low folding energy (Shu D et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 2011, 6:658–667), and folded spontaneously into a leading core that enabled the correct folding of other functionalities fused to the RNA complex. Three individual fragments dispersed at any location within the sequence allowed the other RNA functional modules to fold into their original structures with authentic functions, as tested by Hepatitis B virus ribozyme, siRNA, and aptamers for malachite green (MG), spinach, and streptavidin (STV). Only nine complementary nucleotides were present for any two of the three ?18-nt fragments, but the three 9 bp branches were so powerful that they disrupted other double strands with more than 15 bp within the fusion RNA. This system enabled the production of fusion complexes harboring multiple RNA functionalities with correct folding for potential applications in biotechnology, nanomedicine and nanotechnology. We also applied this system to investigate the principles governing the folding of RNA in vivo and in vitro. Temporal production of RNA sequences during in vivo transcription caused RNA to fold into different conformations that could not be predicted with routine principles derived from in vitro studies.

Shu, Dan; Khisamutdinov, Emil F.; Zhang, Le; Guo, Peixuan

2014-01-01

29

Motor imagery facilitates force field learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills.

Muhammad Nabeel Anwar; Naoki Tomi; Koji Ito

2011-01-01

30

Retreatment of children after surgery for acquired esotropia: reoperation versus botulinum injection  

PubMed Central

AIMS—Two viable options were compared, reoperation and botulinum toxin injection, in the management of children who need retreatment after surgery for acquired esotropia.?METHODS—47 strabismic children previously operated to correct an acquired esotropia were randomised to reoperation or botulinum toxin injection. Reoperation was undertaken in 24 of these patients and botulinum toxin injection in 23 of them. The percentage net change in distance deviation, the percentage of patients with successful motor outcome, detectable fusion, and stereopsis were compared 1 year after retreatment and at last visit (average follow up: 2.9 years in reoperation group, and 2.7 years in botulinum group). The motor success rate relative to time elapsed from initial surgery was evaluated.?RESULTS—There was no significant difference in the motor and sensory outcomes between patients reoperated and treated with botulinum injection. The frequency of correction to within 8 prism dioptres of orthotropia was, respectively: 75% versus 69.56% at 1 year; 70.83% versus 60.86% at last visit. Botulinum injection could be more effective when performed within 3 months of initial surgery.?CONCLUSIONS—Botulinum injection is a rapid and safe procedure that may be as effective as reoperation in the management of children who need a secondary procedure after surgery for acquired esotropia.?? Keywords: esotropia; reoperation; botulinum toxin

Tejedor, J.; Rodriguez, J.

1998-01-01

31

Corticomotoneuronal function and hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia  

PubMed Central

Acquired neuromyotonia encompasses a group of inflammatory disorders characterized by symptoms reflecting peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, which may be clinically confused in the early stages with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite a clear peripheral nerve focus, it remains unclear whether the ectopic activity in acquired neuromyotonia receives a central contribution. To clarify whether cortical hyperexcitability contributes to development of clinical features of acquired neuromyotonia, the present study investigated whether threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation could detect cortical hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia, and whether this technique could differentiate acquired neuromyotonia from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical excitability studies were undertaken in 18 patients with acquired neuromyotonia and 104 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with results compared to 62 normal controls. Short-interval intracortical inhibition in patients with acquired neuromyotonia was significantly different when compared to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (averaged short interval intracortical inhibition acquired neuromyotonia 11.3 ± 1.9%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2.6 ± 0.9%, P < 0.001). In addition, the motor evoked potential amplitudes (acquired neuromyotonia 21.0 ± 3.1%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 38.1 ± 2.2%, P < 0.0001), intracortical facilitation (acquired neuromyotonia ?0.9 ± 1.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ?2.3 ± 0.6%, P < 0.0001), resting motor thresholds (acquired neuromyotonia 62.2 ± 1.6%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 57.2 ± 0.9%, P < 0.05) and cortical silent period durations (acquired neuromyotonia 212.8 ± 6.9 ms; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 181.1 ± 4.3 ms, P < 0.0001) were significantly different between patients with acquired neuromyotonia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation established corticomotoneuronal integrity in acquired neuromyotonia, arguing against a contribution of central processes to the development of nerve hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia.

Vucic, Steve; Cheah, Benjamin C.; Yiannikas, Con; Vincent, Angela

2010-01-01

32

Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

Burden, J.S.

1999-02-24

33

[Acquired von Willebrand's disease].  

PubMed

We describe a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. He suffered from an acquired tendency to bleed. The laboratory findings were identical to those of congenital von Willebrand's disease. The acquired form of this bleeding disorder is seen in association with immunologically active B cell lymphomas, certain other malignant tumours, and autoimmune diseases. The incidence and prevalence are unknown, but this disorder is probably uncommon. We discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Acquired von Willebrand's disease should be considered in patients with an acquired tendency to bleed, especially if the patient also has a lymphoproliferative, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. PMID:8332973

Berentsen, S; Hammerstrøm, J

1993-05-10

34

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion ... Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done: With ...

35

Homopolar motor-generator designs for cheap inertial energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international meeting on the technology of controlled thermonuclear ; fusion experiments and the engineering aspects of fusion reactors; Austin, Texas, ; USA (20 Nov 1972). In technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments ; and the engineering aspects of fusion reactors. Design studies show that ; homopolar motor-generators with 50 to 2000 MJ of inertial energy storage can be ;

H. G. Rylander; H. H. Woodson; E. B. Becker; R. Rowberg

1974-01-01

36

[Research on the surface electromyography signal decomposition based on multi-channel signal fusion analysis].  

PubMed

The decomposition method of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals was explored by using the multi-channel information extraction and fusion analysis to acquire the motor unit action potential (MUAP) patterns. The action potential waveforms were detected with the combined method of continuous wavelet transform and hypothesis testing, and the effective detection analysis was judged with the multi-channel firing processes of motor units. The cluster number of MUAPs was confirmed by the hierarchical clustering technique, and then the decomposition was implemented by the fuzzy k-means clustering algorithms. The unclassified waveforms were processed by the template matching and peel-off methods. The experimental results showed that several kinds of MUAPs were precisely extracted from the multi-channel sEMG signals. The space potential distribution information of motor units could be satisfyingly represented by the proposed decomposition method. PMID:23198440

Li, Qiang; Yang, Jihai

2012-10-01

37

Motor Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

2013-06-14

38

Motor Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

2013-06-13

39

Acquired Immunity to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works. There is no general agreement about the rate of onset of acquired immunity or what constitutes the key determinants of protection; much less is there a consensus regarding the mechanism(s) of protection. This review summarizes what is understood about naturally acquired and experimentally induced immunity against malaria with the help of evolving insights provided by biotechnology and places these insights in the context of historical, clinical, and epidemiological observations. We advocate that naturally acquired immunity should be appreciated as being virtually 100% effective against severe disease and death among heavily exposed adults. Even the immunity that occurs in exposed infants may exceed 90% effectiveness. The induction of an adult-like immune status among high-risk infants in sub-Saharan Africa would greatly diminish disease and death caused by P. falciparum. The mechanism of naturally acquired immunity that occurs among adults living in areas of hyper- to holoendemicity should be understood with a view toward duplicating such protection in infants and young children in areas of endemicity.

Doolan, Denise L.; Dobano, Carlota; Baird, J. Kevin

2009-01-01

40

Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis  

PubMed Central

We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure.

Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J.; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

2004-01-01

41

Systemic Acquired Resistance  

PubMed Central

Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR.

2006-01-01

42

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

43

Acquired von Willebrand Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a rare complication of an autoimmune or neoplastic disease. It is associated mostly with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. The clinical manifestations are similar to congenital von Willebrand disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and von Willebrand factor

Ayalew Tefferi; William L Nichols

1997-01-01

44

Acquired blaschkolinear dermatoses.  

PubMed

Congenital and/or nevoid skin disorders following the lines of Blaschko may have a delayed onset after birth. They have to be differentiated from acquired dermatoses exhibiting the same linear pattern. In common dermatoses, such as psoriasis or lichen planus, lesions in a blaschkolinear distribution most often occur together with scattered lesions, but occasionally they may be isolated. Less common self-limited dermatoses such as lichen striatus and adult blaschkitis always present in a blaschkolinear fashion. In these diseases, or some other conditions occasionally distributed along these lines (chronic graft versus host reaction, fixed drug eruption, lupus erythematosus, atopic dermatitis, etc.), the cause of the disease may lead to the unmasking of tolerance to an abnormal keratinocyte clone that remained hidden in these lines. In addition to epithelial cells, other cells may be involved in the occurrence of acquired blaschkolinear dermatoses. In linear atrophoderma and linear fibromatosis, the histogenesis seems to involve hypothetic dermal clones. The extension of an acquired dermatosis on a preexisting linear nevoid disorder is an argument in favor of an early embryonic somatic mutation of a skin cell line. PMID:10398254

Grosshans, E M

1999-08-01

45

Linear Induction Motors and Devices: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study were to acquire, generate, transmit and apply knowledge and expertise in the field of Linear Induction Motors and devices. The report is in three parts. The history of development of linear induction motors and various applica...

C. S. Jha R. Arockiasamy V. N. Sharma

1980-01-01

46

[Acquired alopecia in childhood].  

PubMed

Hair loss and alopecia occur frequently in children. The prevalence of the underlying causes and conditions, treatment options and prognosis differ in part significantly from adulthood. This article focuses on frequent forms of acquired alopecia which are not associated with inflammation or scarring of the scalp. Special attention is given to alopecia areata as the most important entity and to trichotillomania as its most difficult differential diagnosis. Significant forms of diffuse hair loss include anagen-dystrophic and telogen effluvium, androgenetic alopecia and loose anagen hair. PMID:23571647

Hamm, H

2013-05-01

47

[Acquired necrotizing myopathies].  

PubMed

Necrotizing myopathies (MN) are defined by a specific histological pattern. They are characterized by a predominant muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration but with little or no associated inflammation. This histological pattern is observed in acquired myopathy but also in muscular dystrophy. Acquired NM can be secondary to drugs or toxics, and if not, autoimmune mechanisms have to be suspected. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is recognized as a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, different from other myositides. Generally, patients present a rapidly progressive and severe symmetrical proximal weakness with high serum creatine kinase level, associated in some patients with cardiac involvement. On the other hand, a slower progression may sometimes be observed, that could lead to erroneous diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy may be associated to specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle, or more recently described, against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Necrotizing auto-immune myopathy can also be described in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus or sclerodermia. In remaining cases, cancer association may be observed. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are now considered as a new entity, treatable by immunosuppressants and which should not be misdiagnosed as a muscular dystrophy. PMID:22998975

Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

2013-06-01

48

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

49

Commutatorless Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been found that the performance of a single-phase reluctance motor driven by a static inverter compares favorably with that of the motor driven by a sinusoidal supply. The investigation here is primarily concerned with the development of extremely ...

S. A. Nasar

1968-01-01

50

Electric Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make an electric motor to explore the transfer of energy. Learners can vary the type and/or length of wire used in the motor to determine what works best. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

51

Motor Bird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a bird that flies in place with help from a motor, wire, and some straws. This engineering activity introduces learners to circuits and motors, automata, and rotational motion. Note: a drill and drill bit are required for this project, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

52

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

53

AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, AC Motors, is the thirteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Synchronous Motors, Tesla polyphase induction motors; Wound rotor induction motors; and Selsyn (synchro) motors. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-04

54

Expression of NR2B in Cerebellar Granule Cells Specifically Facilitates Effect of Motor Training on Motor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that gene\\/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular\\/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor

Jianwei Jiao; Akira Nakajima; William G. M. Janssen; Vytautas P. Bindokas; Xiaoli Xiong; John H. Morrison; James R. Brorson; Ya-Ping Tang; Martin Giurfa

2008-01-01

55

Fusion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

2009-11-05

56

Developmental and acquired dyslexias.  

PubMed

Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias. Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and phonological difficulties evident in explicit oral phonological tasks continues to be a focus for debate. Clear cases of developmental deep dyslexia have now been described and the syndrome has also been described as characterising early reading development in Williams syndrome (WS), where there are also semantic errors in other domains, including naming and receptive vocabulary and there may be a generalised difficulty with the activation of fine grain semantic specifications. In the domain of number, highly selective reading disorders characterised by high rates of semantic errors have been documented, indicating that semantic reading errors can be domain-specific. They can occur to number words despite intact ability to read Arabic numbers and they can occur to Arabic numbers and number words despite intact ability to read words in other domains. Current models of reading written words do not allow for such material-specific dissociation. Developmental surface dyslexia has also been described in a range of countries, languages and orthographies. Descriptions of cases for whom there is no phonological impairment in reading have generated contrary evidence for theories suggesting that phonological impairment underlies all developmental dyslexia. As reading develops in Williams Syndrome, phonological reading skills may improve with over-reliance on these leading to surface dyslexia. Surface dyslexia has also been reported in cases of developmental amnesia in which there are semantic memory impairments. Hyperlexia can take several forms including broad hyperdevelopment with elevated phonological reading abilities, lexico-semantic reading abilities and reading comprehension as in Turner's syndrome (TS). This advantage has early onset in school-starters. These specific modular effects do not have pervasive impact across systems but demonstrate the limitations of functional plasticity in developmental and genetic disorders. The framework Marshall (1984) outlined has provided a foundation for the development of systematic investigation of developmental disorders. PMID:17131596

Temple, Christine M

2006-08-01

57

Molecular motors and their functions in plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory mechanisms that perform plant-specific functions are yet to be discovered. Although the identification of motors in plants, especially in Arabidopsis, is progressing at a rapid pace because of the ongoing plant genome sequencing projects, only a few plant motors have been characterized in any detail. Elucidation of function and regulation of this multitude of motors in a given species is going to be a challenging and exciting area of research in plant cell biology. Structural features of some plant motors suggest calcium, through calmodulin, is likely to play a key role in regulating the function of both microtubule- and actin-based motors in plants.

Reddy, A. S.

2001-01-01

58

Electric Motors 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Penton Media includes a number of introductory "mini" lectures on different types of electric motors, including AC motors, DC motors, Servo motors and Stepper motors. The materials also cover electrical drives and other types of small motors. The site includes information about suppliers of electrical motors.

2012-12-24

59

Motor assessment of developing common marmosets.  

PubMed

Motor development has been extensively studied in human infants and children, with several established scales for the evaluation of motor functions. However, the study of the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development is hampered by the lack of good animal models. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has recently attracted much attention as a potential nonhuman primate model for understanding human physiology and diseases. However, little is known about its gross motor development. In the present study, we found that marmosets have a critical period for motor development in postnatal weeks 2 to 5, and acquire most of their motor skills by 8 weeks of age. We also developed methods to assess their motor functions, which will be useful for the evaluation of motor performance in marmoset models of human diseases. In addition, we found that marmosets exhibit a "head-to-tail" sequence of motor development similar to that found in humans, further supporting the notion that they provide a good animal model for studying the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development. PMID:24395453

Wang, Yiwen; Fang, Qin; Gong, Neng

2014-06-01

60

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-02-22

61

Motor neglect.  

PubMed Central

Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of activity. Predominance of left sided neglect by right sided lesions suggests that the left hemisphere is dominant for deliberate activity; hemispheric dominance could be applied to sensory neglect where conscious awareness would play the role of deliberate activity.

Laplane, D; Degos, J D

1983-01-01

62

Including Our Students Acquiring English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "synthesis display," a literature-related activity that helps students who are acquiring English join in the reading class while simultaneously serving the needs of proficient speakers. (MM)

Nelson, V. R.

1989-01-01

63

Treatment of Acquired Reading Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment of acquired reading disorders are discussed in terms of reading processes, assessment, and external/internal factors affecting comprehension. Treatment methods are distinguished for severely impaired, moderately impaired, and mildly impaired patients. (DB)

Webb, Wanda G.

1987-01-01

64

Molecular motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macro-scale thermodynamic engines convert the random motion of fuel-produced heat into directed motion. Such engines cannot be downsized to the nanometre scale, because thermodynamics does not apply to single atoms or molecules, only large assemblies of them. A great challenge for the field of nanotechnology is the design and construction of microscopic motors that can transform input energy into directed

Joseph Klafter; Michael Urbakh

2005-01-01

65

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

66

Laser fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons

W. A. Smit; P. Boskma

1980-01-01

67

Machine-mediated Motor Skill Training Method in Haptic-enabled Chinese Handwriting Simulation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training of motor skill through machine-mediated method is a promising way to improve complex dexterous manipulation skill. New method of fusion between human motor skill and machine capability is studied to transfer skill from expert to novice. Haptic-enabled Chinese handwriting training system is established as a benchmark platform for studying learning and transfer of motor skill. Perceptible element of haptic

Dangxiao Wang; Yuru Zhang; Chong Yao

2006-01-01

68

Observing the Observer: Self-Regulation in the Observational Learning of Motor Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor skills are among the most basic and prevalent types of knowledge that individuals must acquire over the life span, and observational learning is one of the primary ways in which individuals acquire new knowledge and skills. Observational learning of a motor skill involves: (1) observation of the model, which allows one to imitate and understand a modeled demonstration, and

Michel Ferrari

1996-01-01

69

Synchronous Motor Railcar Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of ac motor drives for rail transit car has centered on the induction motor with pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter control. Interest in the induction motor as a replace for the series dc traction motor stems from the simplicity of the squirrel cage rotor of the induction motor. In this article, the short-comings of PWM inverter-induction motor transit car drive

Frank J. Bourbeau

1977-01-01

70

Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

Vatroslav, Horvat

2011-01-01

71

Linear Induction Motor Electrical Performance Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the electrical performance characteristics of a 2500-hp (at 250 mph) linear induction motor (LIM), based on data acquired while propelling the LIM research vehicle over a 0-to-250-mph speed range. Pertinent LIM design information is ...

R. B. Powell

1976-01-01

72

Motor Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor defects are usually considered as the core of cerebral palsy (CP). Although we know that often this is not the only\\u000a existing problem, and that sometimes it is not even the most important, we think it is necessary to start the analysis of\\u000a the disorders provoked by this complex disease by dealing with the disorders of posture and movement

Adriano Ferrari

73

Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning  

PubMed Central

The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation.

Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

2013-01-01

74

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

75

Precision Grip in Congenital and Acquired Hemiparesis: Similarities in Impairments and Implications for Neurorehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding, and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitation. Objective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, PubMed, and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital and acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly, we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other.

Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gordon, Andrew M.

2014-01-01

76

Fusion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

77

Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

2012-01-01

78

Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors: overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.

Kenji Uchino

1998-01-01

79

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

80

Biometric liveness detection based on cross modal fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose liveness checking technique for multimodal biometric authentication systems based on audio-visual cross-modal fusion. Liveness checking ensures that biometric cues are acquired from a live person who is actually present at the time of capture for authenticating the identity. The liveness check based on mutual dependency models is performed by fusion of acoustic and visual speech

Girija Chetty

2009-01-01

81

Cerebral magnetic resonance image segmentation using data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiautomated method is described for segmenting dual echo MR head scans into gray and white matter and CSF. The method is applied to brain scans of 80 healthy children and adolescents. A probabilistic data fusion equation was used to combine simultaneously acquired T2-weighted and proton density head scans for tissue segmentation. The fusion equation optimizes the probability of a

Jagath C. Rajapakse; J. N. Giedd; A. L. Krain; S. D. Hamburger; J. L. Rapoport; C. DeCarli

1996-01-01

82

Multifocus microscope image fusion analysis based on Daubechies wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this work a multifocus image fusion algorithm based on wavelet transforms applied to multifocus microscopy images acquired by the bright-field technique. The fusion scheme is based on the Daubechies family transforms. Experimental results are presented using metallic samples.

Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Santiago-Tepantlan, C.

2009-06-01

83

Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Ericka Lima; Medeiros, Angela Cristina Rapela; Werkhauser, Roberto Pereira; de Araujo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandao-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

2012-01-01

84

[Acquired disorders of color vision].  

PubMed

This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision. PMID:12677792

Lascu, Lidia; Bala?, Mihaela

2002-01-01

85

Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition of severe hyperinflammation caused by the uncontrolled\\u000a proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Cardinal signs and\\u000a symptoms are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Characteristic biochemical markers include elevated triglycerides,\\u000a ferritin and low fibrinogen. HLH occurs on the basis of various inherited or acquired immune deficiencies. Impaired function

Gritta E. Janka

2007-01-01

86

Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition of severe hyperinflammation caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Cardinal signs and symptoms are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Characteristic biochemical markers include elevated triglycerides, ferritin and low fibrinogen. HLH occurs on the basis of various inherited or acquired immune deficiencies. Impaired function of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) is shared by all forms of HLH. Genetic HLH occurs in familial forms (FHLH) in which HLH is the primary and only manifestation, and in association with the immune deficiencies Chédiak-Higashi syndrome 1 (CHS 1), Griscelli syndrome 2 (GS 2) and x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), in which HLH is a sporadic event. Most patients with acquired HLH have no known underlying immune deficiency. Both acquired and genetic forms are triggered by infections, mostly viral, or other stimuli. HLH also occurs as a complication of rheumatic diseases (macrophage activation syndrome) and of malignancies. Several genetic defects causing FHLH have recently been discovered and have elucidated the pathophysiology of HLH. The immediate aim of therapy in genetic and acquired HLH is suppression of the severe hyperinflammation, which can be achieved with immunosuppressive/immunomodulatary agents and cytostatic drugs. Patients with genetic forms have to undergo stem cell transplantation to exchange the defective immune system with normally functioning immune effector cells. In conclusion, awareness of the clinical symptoms and of the diagnostic criteria of HLH is crucial in order not to overlook HLH and to start life-saving therapy in time. PMID:17151879

Janka, Gritta E

2007-02-01

87

Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2009-01-01

88

School reentry for children with acquired central nervous systems injuries.  

PubMed

Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special education is not necessarily a special classroom, but an individualized set of educational needs, determined by a multidisciplinary school team, to promote educational success. The purpose of this article is to inform those pediatricians and pediatric allied health professionals treating children with CNS injury of the systems in place to support successful school reentry and their role in contributing to developing an appropriate educational plan. PMID:19489086

Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

2009-01-01

89

Neuropsychological outcome in children with acquired or congenital renal disease.  

PubMed

The neuropsychological abilities of children with congenital ( n=13) or acquired ( n=11) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were compared. Patients were being treated with or being prepared for dialysis and were awaiting transplantation. None of the children had an identifiable syndrome with associated central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction or had exposure to drugs with known CNS toxicity. There were no group differences in intelligence, academic achievement, behavior, or immediate memory. Children with congenital ESRD had poorer fine motor coordination and more difficulty on tests of verbal and nonverbal long-term memory than children with acquired ESRD. However, the neuropsychological outcome for congenital ESRD is more favorable than previously described. Psychological and education treatment recommendations should be considered. PMID:12432432

Crocker, John F S; Acott, Philip D; Carter, James E J; Lirenman, David S; MacDonald, G Wayne; McAllister, Mona; McDonnell, Mary Catherine; Shea, Sarah; Bawden, Harry N

2002-11-01

90

Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

1993-10-01

91

Gross motor control  

MedlinePLUS

Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

92

Fine motor control  

MedlinePLUS

... general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, or joints may all decrease fine motor control. The difficulty in speaking, eating, and writing in ...

93

Polarized fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since more than 50 years it has been discussed to increase the gain of nuclear fusion reactors with the use of polarized fuel. For example, the total cross sections of the fusion reactions d + t ? 4He + n or 3He + d ? 4He + p are increased by a factor of about 1.5 if the spins of both incoming particles are aligned. But before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different types of reactors, a number of questions must be answered. In this contribution we give an overview on our various activities in this field of research.

Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Kochenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Rathmann, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Ströher, H.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

2014-01-01

94

Splenogonadal fusion.  

PubMed

We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with a painless left scrotal mass of one year's duration. Clinical examination and diagnostic modalities indicated a solid left testicular mass. Exploration was done and a complete splenogonadal fusion was found. The ectopic splenic tissue was completely removed with preservation of the testis. Splenogonadal fusion is a rare and infrequently reported entity in the paediatric surgical literature. This was our first encounter with this condition. A review of the literature is briefly presented here. PMID:18924073

Alalayet, Y F; Mansoor, K; Shiba, N A; Khan, A M; Al Kasim, F

2008-10-01

95

Motor control for a brushless DC motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

96

Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by uncontrolled hyperinflammation on the basis of various inherited or acquired immune deficiencies. Cardinal symptoms are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias. Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms are common. Biochemical markers include elevated triglyceride and ferritin, high levels of the alpha chain of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor and low fibrinogen. Impaired function of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) is a characteristic of all forms of HLH. Genetic HLH occurs in familial forms (FHLH), in which HLH is the primary and only manifestation, and in association with the immune deficiencies Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GS) and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), in which secondary HLH occurs sporadically. Most patients with acquired HLH have no known underlying immune deficiency. Both acquired and genetic forms are triggered by infections, mostly viruses, or other stimuli. HLH also occurs as a complication of rheumatic diseases (macrophage activation syndrome) and of malignancies. The recent discovery of several genetic defects causing FHLH as well as the identification of the genes responsible for CHS, GS and XLP have underscored the role of granule (perforin/granzymes)-mediated cytotoxicity in both the killing of infected cells and the termination of the immune response. The immediate aim of therapy is suppression of the increased inflammatory response by immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory agents and cytotoxic drugs. Genetic cases can only be cured with stem cell transplantation. Awareness of the clinical symptoms and of diagnostic criteria for HLH is crucial to starting life-saving therapy in time. PMID:16304363

Janka, Gritta; zur Stadt, Udo

2005-01-01

97

Cerebellum Predicts the Future Motor State  

PubMed Central

Feed forward control and estimates of the future state of the motor system are critical for fast and coordinated movements. One framework for generating these predictive signals is based on the central nervous system implementing internal models. Internal models provide for representations of the input–output properties of the motor apparatus or their inverses. It has been widely hypothesized that the cerebellum acquires and stores internal models of the motor apparatus. The results of psychophysical, functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in normal subjects support this hypothesis. Also, the deficits in patients with cerebellar dysfunction can be attributed to a failure of predictive feed forward control and/or to accurately estimate the consequences of motor commands. Furthermore, the computation performed by the cerebellar-like electrosensory lobes in several groups of fishes is to predict the sensory consequences of motor commands. However, only a few electrophysiological investigations have directly tested whether neurons in the cerebellar cortex have the requisite signals compatible with either an inverse or forward internal model. Our studies in the monkey performing manual pursuit tracking demonstrate that the simple spike discharge of Purkinje cells does not have the dynamics-related signals required to be the output of an inverse dynamics model. However, Purkinje cell firing has several of the characteristics of a forward internal model of the arm. A synthesis of the evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in integrating the current state of the motor system with internally generated motor commands to predict the future state.

Pasalar, Siavash

2009-01-01

98

Data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Internet in recent years has made it possible and useful to access many different information systems anywhere in the world to obtain information. While there is much research on the integration of heterogeneous information systems, most commercial systems stop short of the actual integration of available data. Data fusion is the process of fusing multiple records

Jens Bleiholder; Felix Naumann

2008-01-01

99

Nuclear Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion of very light (with only a couple of nucleons) and of heavier nuclei is discussed, respectively, as a source of nuclear energy and towards the extension of the periodic table to include superheavy elements. In particular, laser-induced nuclear fusi...

R. K. Gupta K. V. Subbaram

1978-01-01

100

Pressure Oscillations in Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors (SRM's) exhibit low amplitude longitudinal pressure oscillations during motor burn. Although the oscillations have no known deleterious effect on motor ballistics, the acoustic pressure variations cause thrust oscillations that might affect Shuttle systems or components. The acoustic mode of greatest interest is the first or fundamental mode which, in the SRM, has a nominal frequency of 14-Hz. Oscillations in the SRM are believed to be caused by coupling between large scale vortices and the acoustic modes of the motor chamber. The vortices are thought to be created in the region of the motor segment interfaces and are inherent in the design of the motor. In such a situation the usual approach is to measure the oscillations and assess their impact on any sensitive components through tests and analysis. Questionable components can be altered to survive the vibration environment. As motor firings occur, oscillations are monitored to determine whether there are changes in the nature of the oscillations. Since the first static test, SRM's have been equipped with instrumentation especially designed to acquire chamber pressure oscillation data. Data from the first SRM static tests were used to establish predicted upper bounds for the maximum amplitudes in the latter half of burn. Those bounds have been used as a basis for worst-case simulation scenarios by specialists in structural dynamics at NASA and Rockwell International and to provide a basis for evaluating data from individual motors which were tested subsequent to the original SRM's. This paper updates the upper bounds prediction the High Performance Motors (HPM) by including data from all static tests performed to date including both original SRM's and post Challenger SRM's or Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) in which the joint design was changed. All together, this study examines 27 SRM motors, 16 HPM motors and 11 RSRM motors. Predicted upper bounds will be made for both the first and second longitudinal modes. The first mode upper bounds will be compared to the original seven standard rocket motors (STD). The results indicate that, although the upper bounds have increased, they are still within acceptable bounds.

Blomshield, Fred S.; Bicker, C. J.

1996-01-01

101

Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; helium-3 to helium-4 ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of helium-3/helium-4.

Clayton, E. D.

1989-09-01

102

Linear Motor Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The controller interfaces up to two linear motors to either a manual control panel or a two channel computer. The control commands can emanate from either the computer (for both motors) or a combination of the computer (for one motor) and the linear motor...

R. D. Mohlere

1981-01-01

103

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

104

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

105

Infrared and color visible image fusion system based on luminance-contrast transfer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an infrared and color image fusion algorithm based on luminance-contrast transfer technique is presented. This algorithm shall operate YCbCr transform on color visible image, and obtain the luminance component. Then, the grey-scale image fusion methods are utilized to fuse the luminance component of visible and infrared images to acquire grey-scale fusion image. After that, the grey-scale fusion image and visible image are fused to form color fusion image based on inversed YCbCr transform. To acquire better details appearance, a natural-sense color transfer fusion algorithm based on reference image is proposed. Furthermore, a real-time infrared/visible image fusion system based on FPGA is realized. Finally, this design and achievement is verified experimentally, and the experimental results show that the system can produce a color fusion image with good image quality and real-time performance.

Wang, Bo; Gong, Wenfeng; Wang, Chensheng

2012-12-01

106

Research on speech motor control and its disorders: a review and prospective.  

PubMed

This paper reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders. Speech motor control refers to the systems and strategies that regulate the production of speech, including the planning and preparation of movements (sometimes called motor programming) and the execution of movement plans to result in muscle contractions and structural displacements. Traditionally, speech motor control is distinguished from phonologic operations, but in some recent phonologic theories, there is a deliberate blurring of the boundaries between phonologic representation and motor functions. Moreover, there is continuing discussion in the literature as to whether a given motor speech disorder (especially apraxia of speech and stuttering) should be understood at the phonologic level, the motoric level, or both of these. The motor speech disorders considered here include: the dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. PMID:11081787

Kent, R D

2000-01-01

107

Dissociating motor cortex from the motor  

PubMed Central

Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual ?-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to ?-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces.

Schieber, Marc H

2011-01-01

108

PROGRESS TOWARD UNDERSTANDING MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION (MTF).  

SciTech Connect

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) takes advantage of (1) the reduction of the electron thermal conductivity in a plasma due to magnetization and (2) the efficient heating through bulk compression. MTF proposes to create a warm plasma with an embedded magnetic field and to compress it using an imploded liner or shell. The minimum energy required for fusion in an optimized target is directly proportional to the mass of the ignited fusion fuel. Simple theoretical arguments and parameter studies have demonstrated that MTF has the potential for significantly reducing the power and intensity of a target driver needed to achieve fusion. In order to acquire a comprehensive understanding of MTF and its potential applications it is prudent to develop more complete and reliable computational techniques. This paper briefly reviews the progress toward that goal.

Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.); Lindemuth, I. R. (Irvin R.); Barnes, D. C. (Daniel C.); Faehl, R. J. (Rickey J.); Sheehey, P. T. (Peter T.); Knapp, C. E. (Charles E.)

2001-01-01

109

Towards Motor Skill Learning for Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Learning robots that can acquire new motor skills and refine existing one has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial\\u000a intelligence, and the cognitive sciences. Early steps towards this goal in the 1980s made clear that reasoning and human insights\\u000a will not suffice. Instead, new hope has been offered by the rise of modern machine learning approaches. However, to

Jan Peters; Katharina Mülling; Jens Kober; Duy Nguyen-Tuong; Oliver Krömer

110

Multifocus fusion with oriented windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of image fusion techniques exist. A key term that is common to most is the "decision map". This map determines which information to take and at what place. Multifocus fusion deals with a stack of images that were acquired with a different focus point. In this case, one can say that the task of the decision map is to label parts that are in focus. If the focus length for each image in the stack is known, the decision map determines also a depth map that can be used for 3D surface reconstruction. Accuracy of the decision map is critical not only for image fusion itself, but even more for the surface reconstruction. Erroneous decisions can produce unrealistic glitches. We propose here to use information about image edges for increasing the accuracy of the decision map and enhancing in this way a standard wavelet-based fusion approach. We demonstrate the performance on real multifocus data under different noise levels.

Sroubek, F.; Gabarda, S.; Redondo, R.; Fischer, S.; Cristobal, G.

2005-06-01

111

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  

PubMed

The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

1987-02-01

112

Directed flux motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2011-01-01

113

17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06...Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If,...

2013-04-01

114

Teamwork in microtubule motors.  

PubMed

Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

2013-11-01

115

Induction Motor Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induc...

I. G. Hansen

1990-01-01

116

Energy Efficient Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

1995-01-01

117

Energy efficient motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

1995-01-01

118

Magnetostrictive Direct Drive Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with t...

D. Naik P. H. Dehoff

1990-01-01

119

Multi Sensor Data Fusion (Multisensor Data Fusion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of development of multisensor data fusion is presented as the MUltiSensor Image Processing (MUSIP) project, which developed a proof of concept software demonstrator for the fusion and analysis of remotely sensed images within a knowledge...

T. K. Pike C. Boesswetter

1991-01-01

120

Servo and Stepper Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Math Machines, students will "compare and contrast hobby servo motors and small stepper motors in terms of the type and range of motion, precision, feedback and speed." The exercise is divided into two parts, the first dedicated to servo motors and the second to stepper motors. Step by step instructions are included for each section. A participant handout (including worksheets) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. Links to calculator programs are also included.

Thomas, Fred

2011-10-13

121

Smart motor technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

1984-01-01

122

Experiments on Decision Fusion for Driver Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we study the individual as well as combined performance of various driving behavior signals on identifying\\u000a the driver of a motor vehicle. We investigate a number of classifier fusion techniques to combine multiple channel decisions.\\u000a We observe that some driving signals carry more biometrie information than others. When we employ trainable combining methods,\\u000a we can reduce identification

Hakan Erdogan; Aytül Ereil; Hüseyin Abut

123

Acquired stuttering due to recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.  

PubMed

Acquired (neurogenic) stuttering is a rare phenomenon seen after cerebral infarction or brain injury. Aetiology of this symptom is unclear, but recent evidence supports that it is a disturbance in the left hemispheric neural network involving the interplay between the cortex and basal ganglia. We present the case of a patient who develops acquired stuttering after a recurrence of a right temporoparietal anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). We also review other cases of acquired stuttering and known anatomical correlates. PMID:24252834

Peters, Katherine B; Turner, Scott

2013-01-01

124

Metastasis: inherent vs. acquired phenotype.  

PubMed

The problem how tumor cells get the metastatic ability is still a hot debate. Based on the premise that the default state of normal cells is quiescent rather than mobile, the classic progression and early metastasis model suggested that tumor metastasis should be an acquired trait contributed by the late or early gene mutations during carcinogenesis. Here, an inherent metastasis model is proposed that the metastatic ability of the tumor cells is one of the constitutive features of the normal cells of tumor origin. The idea is based on two facts. One is that tumor arises from stem or progenitor cells and in turn are driven by tumor stem cells. The other is that emerging evidence showing that a small population of stem or progenitor cells has the inherent migration capacity in normal development and adulthood. This inherent metastatic model has some implications. First, metastatic dissemination should occur continually throughout the course of primary tumor development and generate a diverse spectrum of disseminated cells. Second, most of the disseminated tumor cells should have the stem cell like features. Third, migration of stem cells and cancer cells should invoke similar molecular processes involving metastasis. Fourth, genomic alterations that primarily promote the production of tumor cells with stem cell traits, i.e., tumor stem cell, exacerbate tumor progression and metastasis. Finally, overt metastatic production is primarily determined by whether the disseminated tumor cells can survive and grow into overt metastatic foci at the ectopic sites, instead of that whether the tumor cells can leave the primary sites and travel to other sites. All these predictions have gotten increasing supporting evidences. Yet, to confirm whether the new paradigm is true or false, it needs carefully examine whether normal stem or progenitor cells of various tissues have the potential to traveling and arriving at the ectopic sites. Furthermore, exploiting the mechanisms for regulating normal stem or progenitor cells migration may provide more critical results for our deeply understanding the secrets of tumor metastasis and offer new methods for preventing and treating tumor metastasis. PMID:20006450

Zhang, Li-jun; Li, Hang; Zhang, Li-ying; Gu, Yu; Song, Yue; Li, Fanfan; Jiang, Li-na; Li, Qing; Zhang, Hui-zhong; Zhang, Feng

2010-05-01

125

Slurried Propellant Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to slurried rocket propellants and a spinning rocket motor wherein the propellants have viscosities which enable them to form central cores when spun in spinning rocket motors. The motor has a diaphragm-like base plate which assists in ...

R. F. Vetter J. P. Diebold G. F. Sieg H. W. Gerrish H. H. Payne

1977-01-01

126

Motor-pump aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor-pump aggregate whose pump is a glandless centrifugal pump and is intended for use in a nuclear reactor plant has hollow coaxial pump and motor shafts which are sealingly coupled to each other. To this end, the first end portion of the pump shaft extends into the adjacent first end portion of the motor shaft and has an external

W. Schneider; K. Gaffal; J. Peters

1983-01-01

127

Motor Neurons that Multitask  

PubMed Central

Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion.

Goulding, Martyn

2013-01-01

128

Homopolar motor technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homopolar motors are compact and, therefore, are attractive for use in a direct electric drive for a ship. The critical components for the motor are the brushes, the superconducting coils, and the power conversion system to produce the high current, low voltage DC required for the motor. A program is underway at General Atomics for the Office of Naval Research

R. J. Thome; W. Creedon; M. Reed; E. Bowles; K. Schaubel

2002-01-01

129

Torpedo Motor Mounting Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The torpedo motor mounting structure provides noise-isolation and facilitates motor installation and removal. The frame of the motor is provided with end-bells having generally frusto-conical surfaces, and the torpedo tailcone section is provided with a p...

J. G. Shmorhun E. H. Lenker

1964-01-01

130

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than

Kirkpatrick

2001-01-01

131

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than

Ronald C. Kirkpatrick

2002-01-01

132

Motor Development: A Lifelong Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of articles on the lifelong process of motor development focuses on: (1) neural changes in lifespan motor development; (2) the effects of developmental memory differences on learning motor skills; (3) physical growth and motor performance; (4) motor development in children with learning disabilities; (5) a motor development program…

Roberton, Mary Ann; And Others

1982-01-01

133

Integrating Motor-Learning Concepts into Physical Education: Using Guided Discovery to Address NASPE Standard 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K-12 students enter physical education with many naive conceptions or misconceptions of how motor skills are acquired. One goal of physical education is to teach concepts that will help students learn and perform motor skills, but many practitioners don't know how to provide experiences that will teach students to apply their knowledge…

Rukavina, Paul B.; Jeansonne, Jennifer J.

2009-01-01

134

Usefulness of magnetic motor evoked potentials in the surgical treatment of hemiplegic patients with intractable epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hemiplegic patients with intractable epilepsy were studied with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after various surgical treatments. These patients had unilateral widespread cerebral lesions acquired at various times, including congenital, infantile and childhood injury. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles were simultaneously recorded on both sides following TMS of the motor cortex in

TOHRU KAMIDA; HIROSHI BABA; KENJI ONO; MASATO YONEKURA; MINORU FUJIKI; HIDENORI KOBAYASHI

2003-01-01

135

Developing Language in a Developing Body: The Relationship between Motor Development and Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the first eighteen months of life, infants acquire and refine a whole set of new motor skills that significantly change the ways in which the body moves in and interacts with the environment. In this review article, I argue that motor acquisitions provide infants with an opportunity to practice skills relevant to language acquisition before…

Iverson, Jana M.

2010-01-01

136

Research on Speech Motor Control and Its Disorders: A Review and Prospective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders that include dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. Assessment, classification, and treatment of these…

Kent, Ray D.

2000-01-01

137

Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils.

Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

2014-01-01

138

Sequential fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification system such as an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system might yield better performance when fused sequentially than in parallel. Most fused systems have parallel architecture, but, the medical community often uses sequential tests due to costs constraints. We define the different types of sequential fusion and investigate their characteristics. We compare parallel fused systems with sequential fused systems. Another goal of this paper is to compare competing sequential fused systems to arrive at an optimal architecture design given the systems at hand. These systems may be legacy systems whose performances are well known. If these systems have known Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves/manifolds then we derive a formula that yields the ROC curve/manifold for the resultant sequentially fused system, thus, enabling one to make these comparisons. This formula is distribution free. We give an example to demonstrate the utility of our method, and show that one can play "what if" scenarios.

Oxley, Mark E.; Daly, Kathleen E.; Schubert-Kabban, Christine M.; Zitelli, David A.

2011-05-01

139

Solid propellant motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1978-01-01

140

Adiabatic Quantum Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When parameters are varied periodically, charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic conductor without applied bias. Here, we consider the inverse effect in which a transport current drives a periodic variation of an adiabatic degree of freedom. This provides a general operating principle for adiabatic quantum motors which we discuss here in general terms. We relate the work performed per cycle on the motor degree of freedom to characteristics of the underlying quantum pump and discuss the motors’ efficiency. Quantum motors based on chaotic quantum dots operate solely due to quantum interference, and motors based on Thouless pumps have ideal efficiency.

Bustos-Marún, Raúl; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

2013-08-01

141

Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual's ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs). Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01) and wrist (p = 0.01) range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p < 0.05). Using PEGs as a modality for both motor and cognitive intervention is a potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation and warrants further study. PMID:25019661

Simmons, C Douglas; Arthanat, Sajay; Macri, Vincent J

2014-06-01

142

Motorized support jack  

DOEpatents

A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracey, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA)

2001-01-01

143

Inertial Fusion Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) discusses the NIF Inertial Fusion Energy program, an effort to use lasers to begin fusion. The page includes more details on the process of fusion, complete with helpful pictures, and a few possible applications of fusion technology.

2010-03-31

144

Feature Level Sensor Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes two practical fusion techniques (hybrid fusion and cued fusion) for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data at the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescree...

T. Peli M. Young R. Knox K. Ellis F. Bennett

1999-01-01

145

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure,

C. A. Danielson

1996-01-01

146

Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

147

A case of acquired Zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

We report a case of adult-onset acquired zinc deficiency after bariatric surgery. Zinc deficiency may be inherited in the form of acrodermatitis enteropathica or acquired by low nutritional intake, malabsorption, excessive loss of zinc, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22630571

Bae-Harboe, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Solky, Ana; Masterpol, Katherine Szyfelbein

2012-05-01

148

Approach to Acquiring and Applying Knowledge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem addressed in this paper is how to enable a computer system to acquire facts about new domains from tutors who are experts in their respective fields, but who have little or no training in computer science. The information to be acquired is tha...

G. G. Hendrix N. Haas

1980-01-01

149

The Increasing Significance of How to Learn Motor Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The training of surgeons has traditionally been an apprenticeship. In recent times it has become increasingly difficult for trainees to acquire operative skills. The acquisition and refinement of these technical skills by the surgical trainee are central to surgical teaching. Much work has been done looking into the theories of motor skill learning, working on the assumptions that if they

M. S. Khan; D. Widdowson; E. Tiernan

2004-01-01

150

Elimination of saturation effects in sensorless position controlled induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the variable magnetic coupling between the stator windings and the discrete rotor bars of an induction motor, a quasi-continuous rotor position signal can be acquired by instantaneous measurement of the total leakage inductance of the three stator phases. The signals are sampled in synchronism with the regular commutations of the PWM process, thus making the injection of additional

Joachim Holtz; Hangwen Pan

2002-01-01

151

A modified instantaneous speed observer design for brushless AC motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low speed control of servo systems is required in some applications. Motor speed is generally acquired from the so-called M method, which averages the number of pulses from the coupled encoder by a fixed time period. As a result, a long detection delay time, due to speeds lower than the minimum measurable value determined by the sampling frequency and the

Ming-Shyan Wang; Po-Jui Hsiao; Nguyen Thi Hanh

2010-01-01

152

A point mutation in the microtubule binding region of the Ncd motor protein reduces motor velocity.  

PubMed Central

Non-claret disjunctional (Ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein in Drosophila that functions in meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes and spindle pole maintenance in early embryos. The partial loss-of-function mutant ncdD retains mitotic, but not meiotic, function. The predicted NcdD mutant protein contains a V556-->F mutation in the putative microtubule binding region of the Ncd motor domain. Here we report an analysis of the properties of recombinant Ncd and NcdD proteins. A GST-NcdD fusion protein translocated microtubules approximately 10-fold more slowly than the corresponding wild-type protein in gliding assays. The maximum microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity of an NcdD motor domain protein was reduced approximately 3-fold and an approximately 3-fold greater concentration of microtubules was required for half-maximal stimulation of ATPase activity, compared with the corresponding wild-type protein. The Km for ATP and basal rate of ATP turnover were, in contrast, similar for the NcdD mutant and wild-type Ncd motor domain proteins. Pelleting assays demonstrated that the binding of the mutant NcdD motor protein to microtubules was reduced in the absence of nucleotide, relative to wild-type. The reduced velocity of NcdD translocation on microtubules is therefore correlated with reductions in microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity and affinity of the mutant motor for microtubules. The characteristics of the NcdD motor explain its meiotic loss of function, and are consistent with partial motor activity of Ncd being sufficient for its mitotic, but not its meiotic, role. Images

Moore, J D; Song, H; Endow, S A

1996-01-01

153

When Affordances Climb into Your Mind: Advantages of Motor Simulation in a Memory Task Performed by Novice and Expert Rock Climbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does the sight of multiple climbing holds laid along a path activate a motor simulation of climbing that path? One way of testing whether multiple affordances and their displacement influence the formation of a motor simulation is to study acquired motor skills. We used a behavioral task in which expert and novice rock climbers were shown three…

Pezzulo, Giovanni; Barca, Laura; Bocconi, Alessandro Lamberti; Borghi, Anna M.

2010-01-01

154

Image Fusion Based on Multi-scale Kalman Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image fusion algorithm, based on the Multiscale Kalman Filter (MKF), has been applied to combine remotely sensed data, acquired by radars having different resolutions and can improved information carried by each input image. The considered images have been acquired during the AIRSAR Mission and SIR-C\\/X-SAR Mission. The data have been co-registered to refer each pixel of each image to

Zhao Tongzhou; Wang Yanli; Wang Haihui

2010-01-01

155

Fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

Not Available

1990-09-01

156

Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

2012-01-01

157

The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

2012-01-01

158

Contributions of the cerebellum and the motor cortex to acquisition and retention of motor memories.  

PubMed

We investigated the contributions of the cerebellum and the motor cortex (M1) to acquisition and retention of human motor memories in a force field reaching task. We found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum, a technique that is thought to increase neuronal excitability, increased the ability to learn from error and form an internal model of the field, while cathodal cerebellar stimulation reduced this error-dependent learning. In addition, cathodal cerebellar stimulation disrupted the ability to respond to error within a reaching movement, reducing the gain of the sensory-motor feedback loop. By contrast, anodal M1 stimulation had no significant effects on these variables. During sham stimulation, early in training the acquired motor memory exhibited rapid decay in error-clamp trials. With further training the rate of decay decreased, suggesting that with training the motor memory was transformed from a labile to a more stable state. Surprisingly, neither cerebellar nor M1 stimulation altered these decay patterns. Participants returned 24hours later and were re-tested in error-clamp trials without stimulation. The cerebellar group that had learned the task with cathodal stimulation exhibited significantly impaired retention, and retention was not improved by M1 anodal stimulation. In summary, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation resulted in polarity-dependent up- or down-regulation of error-dependent motor learning. In addition, cathodal cerebellar stimulation during acquisition impaired the ability to retain the motor memory overnight. Thus, in the force field task we found a critical role for the cerebellum in both formation of motor memory and its retention. PMID:24816533

Herzfeld, David J; Pastor, Damien; Haith, Adrian M; Rossetti, Yves; Shadmehr, Reza; O'Shea, Jacinta

2014-09-01

159

Exchange of rotor components in functioning bacterial flagellar motor  

SciTech Connect

The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor driven by the electrochemical potential of a coupling ion. The interaction between a rotor and stator units is thought to generate torque. The overall structure of flagellar motor has been thought to be static, however, it was recently proved that stators are exchanged in a rotating motor. Understanding the dynamics of rotor components in functioning motor is important for the clarifying of working mechanism of bacterial flagellar motor. In this study, we focused on the dynamics and the turnover of rotor components in a functioning flagellar motor. Expression systems for GFP-FliN, FliM-GFP, and GFP-FliG were constructed, and each GFP-fusion was functionally incorporated into the flagellar motor. To investigate whether the rotor components are exchanged in a rotating motor, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. After photobleaching, in a tethered cell producing GFP-FliN or FliM-GFP, the recovery of fluorescence at the rotational center was observed. However, in a cell producing GFP-FliG, no recovery of fluorescence was observed. The transition phase of fluorescence intensity after full or partially photobleaching allowed the turnover of FliN subunits to be calculated as 0.0007 s{sup -1}, meaning that FliN would be exchanged in tens of minutes. These novel findings indicate that a bacterial flagellar motor is not a static structure even in functioning state. This is the first report for the exchange of rotor components in a functioning bacterial flagellar motor.

Fukuoka, Hajime; Inoue, Yuichi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan) [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Terasawa, Shun [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroto [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishijima, Akihiko, E-mail: ishijima@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan) [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-03-26

160

General Motors sidestream separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative

Tessier

1981-01-01

161

Application of Dempster Shafer theory in fault diagnosis of induction motors using vibration and current signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach for the fault diagnosis in induction motors by using Dempster-Shafer theory. Features are extracted from motor stator current and vibration signals and with reducing data transfers. The technique makes it possible for on-line application. Neural network is trained and tested by the selected features of the measured data. The fusion of classification results from vibration and current classifiers increases the diagnostic accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed system is demonstrated by detecting motor electrical and mechanical faults originated from the induction motors. The results of the test confirm that the proposed system has potential for real-time applications.

Yang, Bo-Suk; Kim, Kwang Jin

2006-02-01

162

Theories of rotary motors.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flagellar motor and the ATP-hydrolysing F1 portion of the F1Fo-ATPase are known to be rotary motors, and it seems highly probable that the H+-translocating Fo portion rotates too. The energy source in the case of Fo and the flagellar motor is the flow of ions, either H+ (protons) or Na+, down an electrochemical gradient across a membrane. The fact that ions flow in a particular direction through a well-defined structure in these motors invites the possibility of a type of mechanism based on geometric constraints between the rotor position and the paths of ions flowing through the motor. The two best-studied examples of such a mechanism are the 'turnstile' model of Khan and Berg and the 'proton turbine' model of Läuger or Berry. Models such as these are typically represented by a small number of kinetic states and certain allowed transitions between them. This allows the calculation of predictions of motor behaviour and establishes a dialogue between models and experimental results. In the near future structural data and observations of single-molecule events should help to determine the nature of the mechanism of rotary motors, while motor models must be developed that can adequately explain the measured relationships between torque and speed in the flagellar motor.

Berry, R M

2000-01-01

163

Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

Brown, Gerald V.

2004-01-01

164

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

165

Acquired Heart Disease in Ugandan Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acquired heart disease is a major paediatric problem of the tropics and subtropics. Excluding the commonest aetiological factors that may lead to heart disease in children--severe electrolyte imbalance, protein-calorie malnutrition, anaemia, and acute nep...

J. L. Caddell A. Warley D. H. Connor P. G. D'Arbela J. R. Billinghurst

1965-01-01

166

Update on acquired tetracycline resistance genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the changes in the field of bacterial acquired tetracycline resistance (tet) and oxytetracycline (otr) genes identified since the last major review in 2001. Thirty-eight acquired tetracycline resistant (Tcr) genes are known of which nine are new and include five genes coding for energy-dependent efflux proteins, two genes coding for ribosomal protection proteins, and two genes coding for

Marilyn C. Roberts

2005-01-01

167

Canonical Correlation Analysis for Feature-Based Fusion of Biomedical Imaging Modalities and Its Application to Detection of Associative Networks in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Typically data acquired through imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) are analyzed separately. However, fusing information from such complementary modalities promises to provide additional insight into connectivity across brain networks and changes due to disease. We propose a data fusion scheme at the feature level using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to determine inter-subject covariations across modalities. As we show both with simulation results and application to real data, multimodal CCA (mCCA) proves to be a flexible and powerful method for discovering associations among various data types. We demonstrate the versatility of the method with application to two datasets, an fMRI and EEG, and an fMRI and sMRI dataset, both collected from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. CCA results for fMRI and EEG data collected for an auditory oddball task reveal associations of the temporal and motor areas with the N2 and P3 peaks. For the application to fMRI and sMRI data collected for an auditory sensorimotor task, CCA results show an interesting joint relationship between fMRI and gray matter, with patients with schizophrenia showing more functional activity in motor areas and less activity in temporal areas associated with less gray matter as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, we compare our scheme with an independent component analysis based fusion method, joint-ICA that has proven useful for such a study and note that the two methods provide complementary perspectives on data fusion.

Correa, Nicolle M.; Li, Yi-Ou; Adal?, Tulay; Calhoun, Vince D.

2009-01-01

168

Multilevel image fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal-level image fusion has in recent years established itself as a useful tool for dealing with vast amounts of image data obtained by disparate sensors. In many modern multisensor systems, fusion algorithms significantly reduce the amount of raw data that needs to be presented or processed without loss of information content as well as provide an effective way of information integrations. One of the most useful and widespread applications of signal-level image fusion is for display purposes. Fused images provide the observer with a more reliable and more complete representation of the scene than would be obtained through single sensor display configurations. In recent years, a plethora of algorithms that deal with problem of fusion for display has been proposed. However, almost all are based on relatively basic processing techniques and do not consider information from higher levels of abstraction. As some recent studies have shown this does not always satisfy the complex demands of a human observer and a more subjectively meaningful approach is required. This paper presents a fusion framework based on the idea that subjectively relevant fusion could be achieved in information at higher levels of abstraction such as image edges and image segment boundaries are used to guide the basic signal-level fusion process. Fusion of processed, higher level information to form a blueprint for fusion at signal level and fusion of information from multiple levels of extraction into a single fusion engine are both considered. When tested on two conventional signal-level fusion methodologies, such multi-level fusion structures eliminated undesirable effects such as a fusion artifacts and loss of visually vital information that compromise their usefulness. Images produced by inclusion of multi-level information in the fusion process are clearer and of generally better quality than those obtained through conventional low-level fusion. This is verified through subjective evaluation and established objective fusion performance metrics.

Petrovic, Vladimir

2003-04-01

169

Alternative Approaches to Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of ...

R. J. Roth

1976-01-01

170

Review of 'cold fusion'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review describes the results from the following works: (1) to overview the chronological history of 'cold fusion' including the International Conferences on cold fusion (ICCF-3 and ICCF-4), (2) to overview the various theories which can explain the '...

1995-01-01

171

ChemTeacher: Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.

2011-01-01

172

Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)  

MedlinePLUS

... sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) Most people are born with two kidneys, which ... as is the case for people with renal fusion abnormalities. The following information will help you talk ...

173

Fusion Metrics Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Fusion Metrics program, a multi-sensor testbed was developed and an associated multisensor fusion system was demonstrated in an initial data collection. In developing this testbed, algorithms developed in part in previous Air Force research program...

D. Fay P. Ilardi S. Haron

2009-01-01

174

Fusion ignition research experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The...

D. Meade

2000-01-01

175

Bacterial flagellar motor.  

PubMed

The bacterial flagellar motor is a reversible rotary nano-machine, about 45 nm in diameter, embedded in the bacterial cell envelope. It is powered by the flux of H+ or Na+ ions across the cytoplasmic membrane driven by an electrochemical gradient, the proton-motive force or the sodium-motive force. Each motor rotates a helical filament at several hundreds of revolutions per second (hertz). In many species, the motor switches direction stochastically, with the switching rates controlled by a network of sensory and signalling proteins. The bacterial flagellar motor was confirmed as a rotary motor in the early 1970s, the first direct observation of the function of a single molecular motor. However, because of the large size and complexity of the motor, much remains to be discovered, in particular, the structural details of the torque-generating mechanism. This review outlines what has been learned about the structure and function of the motor using a combination of genetics, single-molecule and biophysical techniques, with a focus on recent results and single-molecule techniques. PMID:18812014

Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Berry, Richard M

2008-05-01

176

Electric Motor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The D.C.-energized brushless-motor system is useful in driving film-type recorders, as used in the exercise sections of acoustic-homing torpedoes during underwater test runs. The motor has a permanently-magnetized rotor, a specially wound stator, and a pa...

H. W. Thompson

1965-01-01

177

Stripped-down Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

178

The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

1994-09-01

179

CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY  

PubMed Central

A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning, eyelid conditioning and vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, and primary motor cortex for skilled finger movements. We then review evidence for and against a consolidation process for adaptation of arm movements. We propose that contradictions have arisen because consolidation can be masked by inhibition of memory retrieval.

Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

2008-01-01

180

Superconducting stepper motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercially available stepper motor designed for a remote positioning system of cryogenic acoustic microscopes was modified for use at liquid-He temperatures. The coils of the original disk-magnet motor were rewound with a superconducting wire consisting of 0.076-mm-thick Nb-Ti alloy clad with a 0.025-mm-thick layer of copper and insulated with Formvar. The four coils (each with the resistance of 35 ohm at room temperature) were wound on plastic coil forms, and the three pole pieces were pressed into each coil form. No adhesive was used, making it easy to remove coils from the motor, and the pole pieces from the coil forms. Three motors were thus modified and have proved reliable after many cooldowns over a period of several months. The motors were operated with about 400 mA per coil.

Moulthrop, Andrew A.; Muha, Michael S.

1988-04-01

181

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

182

Induction motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

183

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

184

Energy from inertial fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in drivers, reactors and targets has made smaller, more flexible power plants feasible and has reduced the potential costs of developing them. Fusion is potentially a safe, clean energy source not limited by political boundaries. Magnetic and inertial fusion share this promise, but there are differences between them. An inertial fusion power plant is based on different physics and

William J. Hogan; Roger Bangerter; Gerald L. Kulcinski

1992-01-01

185

Slow liner fusion  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

Shaffer, M.J.

1997-08-01

186

Advanced Motor and Motor Control Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of operating a high-speed permanent-magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of...

K. L. Wuertz E. D. Beauchamp

1988-01-01

187

Interkingdom gene fusions  

PubMed Central

Background: Genome comparisons have revealed major lateral gene transfer between the three primary kingdoms of life - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Another important evolutionary phenomenon involves the evolutionary mobility of protein domains that form versatile multidomain architectures. We were interested in investigating the possibility of a combination of these phenomena, with an invading gene merging with a pre-existing gene in the recipient genome. Results: Complete genomes of fifteen bacteria, four archaea and one eukaryote were searched for interkingdom gene fusions (IKFs); that is, genes coding for proteins that apparently consist of domains originating from different primary kingdoms. Phylogenetic analysis supported 37 cases of IKF, each of which includes a 'native' domain and a horizontally acquired 'alien' domain. IKFs could have evolved via lateral transfer of a gene coding for the alien domain (or a larger protein containing this domain) followed by recombination with a native gene. For several IKFs, this scenario is supported by the presence of a gene coding for a second, stand-alone version of the alien domain in the recipient genome. Among the genomes investigated, the greatest number of IKFs has been detected in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where they are almost always accompanied by a stand-alone alien domain. For most of the IKF cases detected in other genomes, the stand-alone counterpart is missing. Conclusions: The results of comparative genome analysis show that IKF formation is a real, but relatively rare, evolutionary phenomenon. We hypothesize that IKFs are formed primarily via the proposed two-stage mechanism, but other than in the Actinomycetes, in which IKF generation seems to be an active, ongoing process, most of the stand-alone intermediates have been eliminated, perhaps because of functional redundancy.

Wolf, Yuri I; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Koonin, Eugene V

2000-01-01

188

Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.  

PubMed Central

Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images

Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

1996-01-01

189

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion condition is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion. .

Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

2002-01-01

190

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion.  

SciTech Connect

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion conditions is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion.

Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.)

2001-01-01

191

Electric 'LEGO' Motor II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

Pino, Jose

2008-11-17

192

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

193

The competing risks of acquiring and being acquired: Evidence from Colombia's financial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of the probability of participating in a process of merging or acquisition for financial institutions in Colombia. We use survival analysis techniques and competing risks models to estimate the probability of participating in such processes as an acquiring or acquired firm. Using an especially rich database containing financial information of Colombian banks for the period

Andrés Felipe García-Suaza; José Eduardo Goméz-Gonzáleza

2010-01-01

194

The Competing Risks of Acquiring and Being Acquired: Evidence from Colombia´s Financial Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of the probability of participating in a process of merging or acquisition for financial institutions in Colombia. We use survival analysis techniques and competing risks models to estimate the probability of participating in such processes as an acquiring or acquired firm. Using an especially rich database containing financial information of Colombian banks for the period

Andrés Felipe García-Suaza; José Eduardo Gómez-González

2009-01-01

195

High-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new high-speed vision device and its application to a grasp system is proposed, and we discuss a processing architecture for grasping based on visual and tactile feedback designed with real-time control in mind. First, we describe a high-speed vision chip that serves as a robotic eye that includes a general-purpose parallel processing array along with a

Akio Namiki; Takashi Komuro; Masatoshi Ishikawa

2002-01-01

196

Towards a microrotary motor driven by motor proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological molecular motors, motor proteins, have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures. This paper describes a bio- hybrid micro rotary motor using kinesin\\/ microtubule motor. We developed a simple fabrication process for a micro-structure by one-time deposition of parylene and a

Yuichi Hiratsuka; Shoji Takeuchi

2007-01-01

197

Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

2009-01-01

198

An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

2006-01-01

199

How did Light Acquire a Velocity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

Lauginie, Pierre

2013-06-01

200

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies. PMID:23044024

Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

2012-11-01

201

Community-acquired pneumonia in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

regimens. Summary The continued evolution of bacterial resistance highlights the need for appropriate use of antibacterials. Improved diagnostic techniques will aid the treatment of children with community-acquired pneumonia. Aggressive vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and other available vaccines as well as the development of new vaccines will aid the prevention of respiratory disease in children.

Constantine A. Sinaniotis; Athanassios C. Sinaniotis

2005-01-01

202

Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

2011-01-01

203

Intrauterinely Acquired Pseudomonas Infection in the Neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case is presented of a premature infant with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, apparently acquired in utero. After a complicated postnatal course, the child was noted to have a profound hearing loss. The infection itself, was rapid and progressive, with the infant showing signs and symptoms characteristic of Pseudomonas infection, such as necrotizing skin vasculitis and \\

Cecila Ruvalo; Charles R. Bauer

1982-01-01

204

Radiology of community-acquired pneumonia.  

PubMed

This article reviews the radiographic appearance of common community-acquired pneumonia. Included are the common bacterial pneumonias, tuberculosis, fungal pneumonia, pneumocystis pneumonia, and viral pneumonias. The various radiographic appearances and the clues for differentiating the pneumonias are discussed. Images enhance the discussion. PMID:15847813

Tarver, Robert D; Teague, Shawn D; Heitkamp, Darel E; Conces, Dewey J

2005-05-01

205

How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

Lauginie, Pierre

2013-01-01

206

Acquiring a Second Language for School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report offers a conceptual model for use with language minority children who are entering a new school when they must acquire the language of the majority student population. The model has four development components or processes: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These four components are described in detail. Research is…

Collier, Virginia P.

1995-01-01

207

Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language generation (nlg) systems are computer software systems that pro- duce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. nlg systems, like most ai systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two nlg projects suggests that it is dicult to acquire correct knowledge for nlg systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (ka) technique

Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Roma Robertson

2003-01-01

208

The Motor Learning of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents some highlights of what research tells the practitioner about the motor learning of children. Major emphasis is on motor learning in relation to the physical and motor characteristics of the child's maturation and development. In the first three sections of the study, general ideas concerning motor learning are discussed.…

Christina, Robert W.

209

Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

210

DC Motor Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains the basic principles of dc motor operation by a progressive development of magnetic fields and shows how a current-carrying device acts when placed in these fields. Explains the positions of maximum and minimum torque.

1994-01-01

211

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET  

Cancer.gov

MOTOR VEHICLE TRIP TICKET Please read all instructions carefully. INSTRUCTIONS: You are responsible for reporting vehicle defects and accidents immediately. DESTINATION VEHICLE TAG NO. NAME OF ALL DRIVERS: PHONE NO TYPE OF VEHICLE SIGNATURE

212

Stepper Motors Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents tutorials about stepper motors. Topics include unipolar, bipolar, current control, and micro stepping. Clicking on each topic provides an in-depth tutorial complete with graphics.

2013-07-18

213

Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

2011-01-01

214

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

215

Dielectric fluid motors  

SciTech Connect

On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan)] [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)] [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

1997-07-01

216

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... to study disease pathology and identify chemical and molecular processes involved in cellular degeneration. Research options fall ... ineffective in treating motor neuron diseases. Cellular and molecular studies seek to understand the mechanisms that trigger ...

217

Motor Vehicle Emission Estimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New gasoline-powered motor vehicle (light-duty and heavy-duty) emission factors, which supersede those in EPA Publication AP-42 (Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors) for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, are presented based on ...

D. S. Kircher D. P. Armstrong

1973-01-01

218

Plasma Motor Generator System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such ...

G. E. Hite

1987-01-01

219

Booster separation motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

1981-01-01

220

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

221

High Power Density Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it generates. By increasing the heat transfer out of the wire, the wires can carry a larger current and therefore produce more force. This was done by increasing the surface area of the wire to allow more coolant to flow over it. Litz wire was used because it can carry high frequency current. It also can be deformed into configurations that would increase the surface area. The best configuration was determined by heat transfer and force plots that were generated using Maxwell 2D. Future work will be done by testing and measuring the thrust force produced by the wires in a magnetic field.

Kascak, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

222

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

Secunde, R. R.

1981-01-01

223

Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

2010-01-01

224

Fusion Energy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

225

Reduced procedural motor learning in deaf individuals  

PubMed Central

Studies in the deaf suggest that cross-modal neuroplastic changes may vary across modalities. Only a handful of studies have examined motor capacities in the profoundly deaf. These studies suggest the presence of deficits in manual dexterity and delays in movement production. As of yet, the ability to learn complex sequential motor patterns has not been explored in deaf populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the procedural learning skills of deaf adults. A serial reaction-time task (SRTT) was performed by 18 deaf subjects and 18 matched controls to investigate possible motor alteration subsequent to auditory deprivation. Deaf participants had various degrees of hearing loss. Half of the experimental group were early deaf adults mostly using hearing aids, the remaining half were late-deaf adults using a cochlear implant (CI). Participants carried out a repeating 12-item sequence of key presses along with random blocks containing no repeating sequence. Non-specific and sequence-specific learning was analyzed in relation to individual features related to the hearing loss. The results revealed significant differences between groups in sequence-specific learning, with deaf subjects being less efficient than controls in acquiring sequence-specific knowledge. We interpret the results in light of cross-modal plasticity and the auditory scaffolding hypothesis.

Levesque, Justine; Theoret, Hugo; Champoux, Francois

2014-01-01

226

Status of fusion maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

Fuller, G.M.

1984-01-01

227

Viral membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral 'fusion proteins' facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the

Stephen C Harrison

2008-01-01

228

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

229

Multisensor Data Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisensor data fusion is a key enabling technology in which information from a number of sources is integrated to form a\\u000a unified picture [1]. This concept has been applied to numerous fields and new applications are being explored constantly. Even though most multisensor\\u000a data fusion applications have been developed relatively recently, the notion of data fusion has always been around.

Pramod K. Varshney

2000-01-01

230

Cell fusions in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and\\u000a the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development\\u000a and progression. A large number of factors appear to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain\\u000a organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins

Lars-Inge Larsson; Bolette Bjerregaard; Jan Fredrik Talts

2008-01-01

231

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects\\u000a of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015–1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes\\u000a and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of\\u000a fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

232

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in African patients.  

PubMed

Between May 1979 and April 1983, 18 previously healthy African patients were hospitalized in Belgium with opportunistic infections (cryptococcosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, central-nervous-system toxoplasmosis, progressive cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection, disseminated cytomegalovirus infection, candidiasis, or cryptosporidiosis) or Kaposi's sarcoma, or with both. Ten of them died. During the same period five other patients were hospitalized with an illness consistent with a prodrome of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (chronic lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and diarrhea). All patients tested had a marked decrease in helper T cells; an inversion of the normal ratio of helper to suppressor T cells, and a decreased or absent blastogenic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Twenty patients had anergy. There was no evidence of an underlying immunosuppressive disease and no history of blood-product transfusion, homosexuality, or intravenous-drug abuse. This syndrome in patients originating in Central Africa is similar to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome reported in American patients. PMID:6229701

Clumeck, N; Sonnet, J; Taelman, H; Mascart-Lemone, F; De Bruyere, M; Vandeperre, P; Dasnoy, J; Marcelis, L; Lamy, M; Jonas, C

1984-02-23

233

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

234

Vacuole membrane fusion  

PubMed Central

Pore models of membrane fusion postulate that cylinders of integral membrane proteins can initiate a fusion pore after conformational rearrangement of pore subunits. In the fusion of yeast vacuoles, V-ATPase V0 sectors, which contain a central cylinder of membrane integral proteolipid subunits, associate to form a transcomplex that might resemble an intermediate postulated in some pore models. We tested the role of V0 sectors in vacuole fusion. V0 functions in fusion and proton translocation could be experimentally separated via the differential effects of mutations and inhibitory antibodies. Inactivation of the V0 subunit Vph1p blocked fusion in the terminal reaction stage that is independent of a proton gradient. ?vph1 mutants were capable of docking and trans-SNARE pairing and of subsequent release of lumenal Ca2+, but they did not fuse. The Ca2+-releasing channel appears to be tightly coupled to V0 because inactivation of Vph1p by antibodies blocked Ca2+ release. Vph1 deletion on only one fusion partner sufficed to severely reduce fusion activity. The functional requirement for Vph1p correlates to V0 transcomplex formation in that both occur after docking and Ca2+ release. These observations establish V0 as a crucial factor in vacuole fusion acting downstream of trans-SNARE pairing.

Bayer, Martin J.; Reese, Christoph; Buhler, Susanne; Peters, Christopher; Mayer, Andreas

2003-01-01

235

Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus  

PubMed Central

Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options.

Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

2012-01-01

236

System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

Walls, Joe T.

1994-01-01

237

Acquired flat foot deformity: postoperative imaging.  

PubMed

Flat foot (pes planus) is a progressive and disabling pathology that is treated initially with conservative measures and often followed by a variety of surgeries. This article briefly reviews the pathology in acquired flat foot deformity, the classification of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, discusses surgical techniques for the management of adult flat foot deformity, and reviews potential complications and their relevant imaging appearances. PMID:22851326

Dimmick, Simon; Chhabra, Avneesh; Grujic, Leslie; Linklater, James M

2012-07-01

238

Self-awareness after acquired brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the factors contributing to deficit in self-awareness following acquired brain injury and to study change in self-awareness during a group support program. Methods Sixty-two patients (mean age: 35.4±15.3 years) attending our Service (295±525 days after injury) were included in the study (41 of them had sustained a head injury). Thirty-six patients were admitted to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation

E. Noé; J. Ferri; M. C. Caballero; R. Villodre; A. Sanchez; J. Chirivella

2005-01-01

239

Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

Ride, Sally

2008-01-01

240

Prognostic factors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify prognostic factors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors studied an inception cohort of 45\\u000a patients in a non-endemic area (Group I). The probability of survival was 67% six months after the diagnosis of AIDS and 32%\\u000a at 12 months. As shown by multivariate Cox regression analysis, survivals were shorter (p<0.01) in patients 35 years old or\\u000a older

Jay D. Wenger; Christopher C. Whalen; Michael M. Lederman; Thomas J. Spech; John T. Carey; J. Walton Tomford; C. Seth Landefeld

1988-01-01

241

Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitors: Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, but devastating bleeding disorder caused by spontaneous development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. In 40%-50% of patients it is associated with such conditions as the postpartum period, malignancy, use of medications, and autoimmune diseases; however, its cause is unknown in most cases. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected in patients that present with a coagulation abnormality, and a negative personal and family history of bleeding. Herein we report 3 patients with acquired hemophilia A that had different underlying pathologies, clinical presentations, and therapeutic responses. Factor VIII inhibitor formation in case 1 occurred 6 months after giving birth; underlying disorders were not identified in cases 2 or 3. The bleeding phenotype in these patients’ ranged from no bleeding tendency with isolated prolongation of APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) to severe intramuscular hematoma and hemarthrosis necessitating recombinant activated factor VII infusion and blood components transfusion. Variable responses to immunosuppressive treatment were also observed. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Kyaw, Tay Za; Jayaranee, S.; Bee, Ping Chong; Chin, Edmund Fui Min

2013-01-01

242

Treatment of hereditary and acquired thrombophilic disorders.  

PubMed

The treatment of hereditary and acquired thrombophilic disorders is based on an understanding of the disease pathophysiology, prevalence, associated morbidity and mortality, and available therapeutic options. Genetic mutations are identified that result in activated protein C (APC) resistance and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. The underlying etiologies are less well-defined; however, the disorders of factor XII deficiency, dysfibrinogenemia, Wien-Penzing platelet defect, and sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) are treatable inherited thrombophilias. Antithrombin deficiency, protein C and protein S deficiencies, and plasminogen deficiency are disorders both inherited and acquired. Antiphospholipid antibodies, myeloproliferative syndromes, and Trousseau's syndrome are acquired. Treatment for acute arterial thrombosis or venous thromboembolism is the same or similar for all thrombophilic disorders. Long-term management is based on the risk of a primary or recurrent acute thrombotic event, compared with the risk of the proposed therapy. Few blinded, controlled studies are available to validate treatment recommendations. When long-term anticoagulation is advised, careful consideration should be given to the risk associated with therapy. Bleeding risk, variable efficacy, and the risk of cutaneous necrosis limit the use of warfarin. Fixed low-dose unfractionated porcine heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) offer significant advantages for long-term management. These recommendations are derived from an analysis of the pertinent medical literature and are expected to change with the progress of clinical and laboratory investigation. PMID:10548072

Baker, W F; Bick, R L

1999-01-01

243

17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting...

2013-04-01

244

Community-acquired and hospital-acquired candiduria: comparison of prevalence and clinical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital-acquired candiduria (HAC) is a well-known finding, related to severely ill patients, prolonged antibiotic treatment,\\u000a use of catheters, and invasive procedures. However, the risk factors and clinical significance of community-acquired candiduria\\u000a (CAC) has not yet been described. In this study, the prevalence and clinical characteristics of CAC and HAC were compared.\\u000a Demographic and clinical data from all patients with positive

R. Colodner; Y. Nuri; B. Chazan; R. Raz

2008-01-01

245

Magnetostrictive direct drive motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1991-01-01

246

Vaginal Anomalies: Fusion and Duplication  

MedlinePLUS

... dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication Having two of everything may be ... if your child's doctor diagnoses an "anomaly of fusion and duplication." What causes vaginal fusion and duplication? ...

247

Multifocus image fusion and denoising scheme based on homogeneity similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel image fusion algorithm based on homogeneity similarity is proposed in this paper, aiming at solving the fusion problem of clean and noisy multifocus images. Firstly, the initial fused image is acquired with one multiresolution image fusion method. The pixels of the source images, which are similar to the corresponding initial fused image pixels, are considered to be located in the sharply focused regions. By this method, the initial focused regions are determined. In order to improve the fusion performance, morphological opening and closing are employed for post-processing. Secondly, the homogeneity similarity is introduced and used to fuse the clean and noisy multifocus images. Finally, the fused image is obtained by weighting the neighborhood pixels of the point of source images which are located at the focused region. Experimental results demonstrate that, for the clean multifocus image fusion, the proposed method performs better than some popular image fusion methods in both subjective and objective qualities. Furthermore, it can simultaneously resolve the image restoration and fusion problem when the source multifocus images are corrupted by the Gaussian white noise, and can also provide better performance than the conventional methods.

Li, Huafeng; Chai, Yi; Yin, Hongpeng; Liu, Guoquan

2012-01-01

248

Basics of AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in AC Motors. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course covers: motor basics, NEMA motors, Siemens motorr, final exam, a glossary, plus a 116 page study guide.

2008-11-26

249

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1998-01-01

250

Magnetostrictive direct drive motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1990-01-01

251

Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices  

DOEpatents

A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

252

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

1996-11-01

253

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

254

Mechanics of membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse membrane fusion reactions in biology involve close contact between two lipid bilayers, followed by the local distortion of the individual bilayers and reformation into a single, merged membrane. We consider the structures and energies of the fusion intermediates identified in experimental and theoretical work on protein-free lipid bilayers. On the basis of this analysis, we then discuss the conserved

Leonid V Chernomordik; Michael M Kozlov

2008-01-01

255

Muon catalysed fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade ago it was established that one muon in a deuterium-tritium mixture can catalyse more than 100 nuclear fusion reactions and that this phenomenon could be used for the production of nuclear fuel and energy. This review presents the state of the art of muon catalysed fusion studies and its place among alternative methods of nuclear breeding. The main

L. I. Ponomarev

1990-01-01

256

Muon-catalyzed fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great progress achieved in muon-catalyzed fusion research in the past decade now makes it possible to review careful quantitative calculations and measurements. The major experimental surprises have doubled the fusion yields, but direct energy production would appear to be excluded without a significant breakthrough.(AIP)

W. H. Breunlich; P. Kammel; J. S. Cohen; M. Leon

1989-01-01

257

Fusion and the cosmos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following investigation we pay special attention to the role of self- organization in fusion plasma physics and in the cosmos. We present a new approach to the expansion of the universe. Formally the technique developed relies on our experience from treating hot fusion plasmas. We account for the possibility that the universe, as it seems, could have a

H. Wilhelmsson

2004-01-01

258

Aspects of Phonological Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

Cutting, James E.

1975-01-01

259

Fusion in the Sun!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates the general conditions necessary to begin fusion in the sun and other stars. You can vary the amount of hydrogen and the temperature in order to start a reaction. Click the "Instructions" button in the top right hand corner for more information on fusion and what the simulation shows. Java is required to use this applet.

Scharein, Rob

2010-03-31

260

Controlled Nuclear Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

Glasstone, Samuel

261

Laplacian based image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental goal in multispectral image fusion is to combine relevant information from multiple spectral ranges while displaying a constant amount of data as a single channel. Because we expect synergy between the views afforded by different parts of the spectrum, producing output imagery with increased information beyond any of the individual imagery sounds simple. While fusion algorithms achieve synergy

Jesse Scott; Michael A. Pusateri

2010-01-01

262

Fusion ignition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion ignition experiment (IGNITEX) is described, the original concept for which was proposed by Rosenbluth, Weldon and Woodson. In this concept, a single-turn-coil tokamak device produces a self-sustained fusion reaction of the type T (d, n) ?. The basic idea is to employ a very high magnetic field and a very high plasma current to heat the plasma ohmically

R. Carrera; E. Montalvo

1990-01-01

263

FRTP fusion ignition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Field-Reversed Theta Pinch (FRTP) represents a promising confinement approach to fusion power. This possibility has become more evident as a result of the favorable confinement scaling predicted by our studies of Loss-Cone Scattering Transport (LCST). Therefore, a step towards a FRTP prototype power reactor is proposed here that involves an ignition experiment designed to study confinement of a fusion

G. H. Miley; Q. T. Fang; J. G. Gilligan

1982-01-01

264

Saliency-Based Sensorless Drive of an Adequately Designed IPM Motor for Robot Vehicle Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology fusion between motor design and control can produce new applications. This paper introduces a saliency-based sensorless drive of adequate designed IPM motor for a specific application in a robot vehicle. The motor is deliberately designed to meet the requirements of robot application and lend itself better for saliency based sensorless control. The speed and position of multiple wheel-motors are synchronously controlled by the drive amplifiers and a single motion controller over the speed range from zero to maximum speed for the robot vehicle application. Finally, two types of robot vehicles, one being a two-wheeled differential drive and the other being an omni directional drive, are developed to transport objects and human. This paper mainly focuses on the concept of motor design and its control. Some analysis and test data are given in this paper.

Ide, Kozo; Takaki, Mamoru; Morimoto, Shinya; Kawazoe, Yosuke; Maemura, Akihiko; Ohto, Motomichi

265

Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells Acquire Epithelial Characteristics through Fusion with Gastrointestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types and are a potential source for epithelial tissue repair. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to repopulate the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in bone marrow transplanted patients or in animal models of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis where they were the source of epithelial cancers. However, mechanism

Jonathan Ferrand; Danièle Noël; Philippe Lehours; Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti; Lucie Chambonnier; Armelle Ménard; Francis Mégraud; Christine Varon; Marian Ludgate

2011-01-01

266

Clinical note: acquired pragmatic impairments and aphasia.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the field of communication sciences have led to the description of acquired communication disorders affecting pragmatic skills in patients with brain damage. The present article discusses the impact of such findings on the clinical concept of aphasia. Through reference to a number of articles contained in this Special Issue, it must be reiterated that pragmatic and other linguistic components of communication abilites are two sides of a same coin-that of language-and intimately interrelated. It is also argued that the difference between traditional (e.g., syntax) and pragmatic components of language cannot be explained in simple terms such as the former being subserved only by linguistic processes and the latter by other cognitive processes. Pragmatic components are thus to be considered as part of language. The evolution of the concept of language has a direct impact on the clinical concept of aphasia. Indeed, if aphasia corresponds to an acquired impairment of language, then pragmatic impairments must be considered part of aphasia. The inclusion of pragmatic impairments in the concept of aphasia does not hold only when they occur within the frame of classic types of aphasia, but also when they occur in isolation. Consequently, a new type of aphasia-pragmatic aphasia-should be considered and defined in order to describe the clinical condition of those individuals suffering from acquired pragmatic disorders as those reported among right-hemisphere-damaged right-handers. It is concluded that the recent evolution around the concept of language should be followed by an evolution of the concept of aphasia per se. PMID:10441192

Joanette, Y; Ansaldo, A I

1999-07-01

267

Is acquired immunological tolerance genetically transmissible?  

PubMed Central

We have attempted to verify that acquired characteristics can be transmitted through the male germ line by using as a model system the vertical transmission of specific immunological tolerance to major histocompatibility antigens. Tolerant males were a tetraparental mouse and separated parabionts, in each case showing stable lymphoid chimerism. Tolerance in the progeny was assessed by two in vivo assays, rejection of cardiac allografts and clearance of 131I-labeled tumor cells. We were unable to find evidence for heritability of the tolerant state in tetraparental or parabiont males, with either assay system.

Nisbet-Brown, E; Wegmann, T G

1981-01-01

268

Acquired trichomegaly and hypertrichosis in metastatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the case of a non-HIV patient suffering from a metastatic renal adenocarcinoma who developed trichomegaly 3 months before death. The patient also developed generalized hypertrichosis of the terminal hair, a feature that has been previously described in malnutrition. Other cases of hypertrichosis, including ectopic hormone production, were excluded and the differential diagnosis with paraneoplastic acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa is discussed. Although trichomegaly is usually considered as a cutaneous marker of AIDS, we suggest that both trichomegaly and hypertrichosis of the terminal hair were secondary to malnutrition. PMID:7671421

Vélez, A; Kindelán, J M; García-Herola, A; García-Lázaro, M; Sánchez-Guijo, P

1995-05-01

269

Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

Margulis, L.

1993-01-01

270

[Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].  

PubMed

Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood. PMID:17878817

Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

2007-09-01

271

Electric motor model repair specifications  

SciTech Connect

These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

NONE

1995-08-01

272

Linear Magnetic Motor/Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first mag...

P. A. Studer

1982-01-01

273

Energy Saving Electrical Motor Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy saving system in AC electrical motors which provides optimum control of the rriac control voltage supplied to different motors with which the system is used, despite the different characteristics of such motors is described. A three phase motor,...

T. M. Edge

1982-01-01

274

Gas-operated motor systems  

SciTech Connect

A gas-operated motor system of the stored energy type-as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,092,830-in which the gas exhausted from the motor is ducted to a chamber during operation of the motor and thereafter compressed back into the gas reservoir vessel. Recompression may be achieved, e.g., by providing the exhaust gas chamber with a movable piston, or by running the motor in the reverse mode as a compressor.

Rilett, J.W.

1980-09-30

275

Changes of motor drive, cortical arousal and perceived exertion following prolonged cycling to exhaustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to (1) quantify any central fatigue that occurs following prolonged dynamic exercise, i.e. reduced muscle force caused by impaired motor drive from the central nervous system and (2) determine whether decreased cortical arousal, assessed using critical flicker fusion threshold (CFF), occurs and is related to impaired exercise performance. Fifteen healthy men cycled at 70%

Jarrod D. Presland; Martin N. Dowson; Simeon P. Cairns

2005-01-01

276

Clinical Outcome and Fusion Rates after the First 30 Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) is gaining popularity. Studies examining a surgeon's early experience are rare. We aim to report treatment, complication, clinical, and radiographic outcomes in an early series of patients. Methods. Prospective data from the first thirty patients treated with XLIF by a single surgeon was reviewed. Outcome measures included pain, disability, and quality of life assessment. Radiographic assessment of fusion was performed by computed tomography. Results. Average follow-up was 11.5 months, operative time was 60 minutes per level and blood loss was 50?mL. Complications were observed: clinical subsidence, cage breakage upon insertion, new postoperative motor deficit and bowel injury. Approach side-effects were radiographic subsidence and anterior thigh sensory changes. Two patients required reoperation; microforaminotomy and pedicle screw fixation respectively. VAS back and leg pain decreased 63% and 56%, respectively. ODI improved 41.2% with 51.3% and 8.1% improvements in PCS and MCS. Complete fusion (last follow-up) was observed in 85%. Conclusion. The XLIF approach provides superior treatment, clinical outcomes and fusion rates compared to conventional surgical approaches with lowered complication rates. Mentor supervision for early cases and strict adherence to the surgical technique including neuromonitoring is essential.

Malham, Gregory M.; Ellis, Ngaire J.; Parker, Rhiannon M.; Seex, Kevin A.

2012-01-01

277

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

278

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellaton/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

279

Solid Rocket Motor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is a test of the TEM-13 solid rocket motor at the ATK test facility in Utah in support of the Ares/CLV first stage. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

280

The St. Louis Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2011-01-01

281

Rocket Motor Charging Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the effect of rocket engines on electrostatic charge accumulation was made. Experiments were conducted to measure short-circuit charging current and open-circuit voltage produced by 5-inch solid-fuel rocket motors during static firings at sea l...

E. F. Vance J. E. Nanevicz

1966-01-01

282

Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

Graves, S. R.

2000-01-01

283

General Motors sidestream separator  

SciTech Connect

On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).

Tessier, R.J.

1981-01-01

284

The primate motor thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional parcellation of the motor thalamus of primates has suffered from serious historical and technical drawbacks, which have led to extreme confusion. This is a problem when thalamic stereotaxy is again being use clinically. The cause usually imputed is the historical conflict between two main schools, the Vogt and the ‘Anglo-American’ (Michigan), which used different nomenclatures. In fact, the

G. Percheron; C. François; B. Talbi; J. Yelnik; G. Fénelon

1996-01-01

285

Magnetostrictive Direct Drive Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENO...

D. Naik P. H. Dehoff

1991-01-01

286

Solid rocket motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

Carpenter, Ronn L.

1993-01-01

287

Magnetostrictive roller drive motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetostrictive drive motor is disclosed which has a rotary drive shaft in the form of a drum which is encircled by a plurality of substantially equally spaced roller members in the form of two sets of cones which are in contact with the respective cam surfaces on the inside surface of an outer drive ring. The drive ring is

John M. Vranish

1992-01-01

288

Fusion-Fission Hybrids Driven By Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a desire to resolve fuel cycle issues for increasing the role of nuclear energy. The recent Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) initiative that builds upon NIF ignition, is likely to rekindle national interest in developing intense, high power ion beam accelerators for fusion energy production and for fusion-fission hybrid concepts that combine an ion beam driven fusion neutron

P. A. Seidl

289

[HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].  

PubMed

On June 4, 1981, MMWR published a report about Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles. This was the first published report. A years later, this disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the following year, Montangier et al in France discovered the causative agent, which they called lymphadenopathy virus (LAV), now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1985, solid-phase enzymeimmunoassay for the detection of the antibody to HIV was developed. Since then, other new techniques for the identification of HIV infection have been become available. These include more sensitive methods (for example; polymerase chain reaction techniques). Although these techniques facilitate early and definite diagnosis of infection, these tests may fail to detect the antibody in sera during window period of infection or overdiagnose infection in sera contaminated with genes not related to HIV. Although preventing blood exposure is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate post-exposure management is an important element of workplace safety. Information suggesting that zidovudine (ZDV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) may reduce the risk for HIV transmission after occupational exposure to HIV infected blood prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group, with expert consultation, and recommendations on PEP and management of occupational exposure to HIV in relation to these findings were discussed. PMID:9170967

Takamatsu, J

1997-05-01

290

Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

2003-01-01

291

[New challenges in community-acquired pneumonia].  

PubMed

Community-acquired pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Severity assessment is a fundamental tool in the management of pneumonia that allows patients to be stratified according to risk of death and the most appropriate treatment intensity to be provided. The most widely used scales are the PSI/Fine and CURB-65 scales, which have been widely validated and are easy to calculate in clinical practice. Biomarkers can additionally be used to increase accuracy in predicting complications and mortality. Etiologic diagnosis of pneumonia continues to pose a challenge to clinicians. With the experience acquired in the 2009 AH1/N1 influenza pandemic, virological diagnosis of pneumonia by rapid polymerase chain reaction techniques has recently begun to be used. Experience has also been gained in antiviral treatment and complications, especially bacterial superinfection as the main unfavorable event in viral pneumonias. Just as the use of antibiotics to treat infections radically changed their prognosis and treatment, reports in the literature have progressively began to appear of the immunomodulatory effect of drugs that were not initially designed for the treatment of pneumonia, leading to hope for the potential modification of outcome in these patients. PMID:21316545

Sanz Herrero, Francisco; Malanda, Nuria Marina; Veiga, Beatriz Montull; Sanjuán López, María Pilar

2010-10-01

292

Cardiomyopathy in Congenital and Acquired Generalized Lipodystrophy  

PubMed Central

Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by loss of adipose tissue and low leptin levels. This condition is characterized by severe dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. Another phenotypic feature that occurs with considerable frequency in generalized lipodystrophy is cardiomyopathy. We report here the cardiac findings in a cohort of patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, and present a literature review of the cardiac findings in patients with generalized lipodystrophy. We studied 44 patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, most of them enrolled in a clinical trial of leptin therapy. Patients underwent electrocardiograms and transthoracic echocardiograms to evaluate their cardiac status. We followed these patients for an extended time period, some of them up to 8 years. Evaluation of our cohort of patients with generalized lipodystrophy shows that cardiomyopathy is a frequent finding in this population. Most of our patients had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and only a small number had features of dilated cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was more frequent in patients with seipin mutation, a finding consistent with the literature. The underlying mechanism for cardiomyopathy in lipodystrophy is not clear. Extreme insulin resistance and the possibility of a “lipotoxic cardiomyopathy” should be entertained as possible explanations.

Lupsa, Beatrice C.; Sachdev, Vandana; Lungu, Andreea O.; Rosing, Douglas R.; Gorden, Phillip

2011-01-01

293

Inducible rodent models of acquired podocyte diseases.  

PubMed

Glomerular diseases remain the leading cause of chronic and end-stage kidney disease. Significant advances in our understanding of human glomerular diseases have been enabled by the development and better characterization of animal models. Diseases of the glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) account for the majority of proteinuric diseases. Rodents have been extensively used experimentally to better define mechanisms of disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets and therapies. The development of podocyte-specific genetically modified mice has energized the research field to better understand which animal models are appropriate to study acquired podocyte diseases. In this review we discuss inducible experimental models of acquired nondiabetic podocyte diseases in rodents, namely, passive Heymann nephritis, puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, adriamycin nephrosis, liopolysaccharide, crescentic glomerulonephritis, and protein overload nephropathy models. Details are given on the model backgrounds, how to induce each model, the interpretations of the data, and the benefits and shortcomings of each. Genetic rodent models of podocyte injury are excluded. PMID:18784259

Pippin, Jeffrey W; Brinkkoetter, Paul T; Cormack-Aboud, Fionnualla C; Durvasula, Raghu V; Hauser, Peter V; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Krofft, Ronald D; Logar, Christine M; Marshall, Caroline B; Ohse, Takamoto; Shankland, Stuart J

2009-02-01

294

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

2014-06-01

295

Toward relating the subthalamic nucleus spiking activity to the local field potentials acquired intranuclearly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on neurophysiological correlates of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reveal a strong relationship between the local field potential (LFP) acquired invasively and metabolic signal changes in fMRI experiments. Most of these studies failed to reveal an analogous relationship between metabolic signals and the spiking activity. That would allow for the prediction of the neural activity exclusively from the fMRI signals. However, the relationship between fMRI signals and spiking activity can be inferred indirectly provided that the LFPs can be used to predict the spiking activity of the area. Until now, only the LFP-spike relationship in cortical areas has been examined. Herein, we show that the spiking activity can be predicted by the LFPs acquired in a deep nucleus, namely the subthalamic nucleus (STN), using a nonlinear cascade model. The model can reproduce the spike patterns inside the motor area of the STN that represent information about the motor plans. Our findings expand the possibility of further recruiting non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to understand the activity of the STN and predict or even control movement.

Michmizos, K. P.; Sakas, D.; Nikita, K. S.

2011-11-01

296

Motor technology for mining applications advances  

SciTech Connect

AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

Fiscor, S.

2009-08-15

297

MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

Stickney, B.L.

1993-12-31

298

Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

2006-01-01

299

Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

300

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03

301

Energy Efficiency and Electric Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric motors account for about half of all energy consumption in the US. They can be found just about everywhere; in fact, motors control the majority of moving parts in machines. Being so widespread, it is possible to see substantial energy savings with just a small improvement in efficiency.A very comprehensive overview of electric motors can be found on the Machine Design Web site (1). It describes five common types of motors and how they operate. Some material is fairly technically oriented. For a more basic introduction, the Western Electric company (2) discusses the underlying theory and construction of electric motors. This is more suited for early high school students and above. The Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (3) provides many documents related to best practices for motor systems. Many energy saving techniques are outlined in these tip sheets and technical publications. Similar information is contained in this Australian Web site (4). Specific issues, such as motor rewinding, are discussed to correct many common mistakes made when conducting maintenance and repairs. Some interesting facts about general motor use and the "Premium-Efficiency Motor Initiative" are given on this Web site (5). The short article demonstrates that industry and government organizations realize the importance of improving motor efficiency. Along these same lines, a project is underway that hopes to make copper motor rotors economically feasible (6). Current rotors are made with aluminum, but switching to copper would help make motors more energy efficient. The Web site has many documents on the status of the project. The University of Missouri at Rolla has a research group investigating piezoelectric motors (7). Some details of piezoelectric motor design and manufacturing are given. A news article from March 2002 (8) tells of a revolutionary new kind of electric motor. This breakthrough could make electric cars cheaper than gasoline fueled vehicles.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

302

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

303

Nuclear fusion - Focus on Tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of nuclear fusion engineering is presented covering: basic fusion technology, magnetic and inertial confinement schemes, fusion fuel, tritium breeding, blankets, tritium containment and disposal, fusion process waste management, power generation costs, environmental impact, and safety. Attention is focused on closed magnetic confinement systems, specifically Tokamak systems. The outlook for pulsed\\/batch or continuous Tokamak operation is assessed. Power supplies

D. Steiner

1977-01-01

304

Information Fusion in Face Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Fusion of multi-modal Biometrics has attracted much attention in recent years. However, this paper focuses on the information fusion in single modals, that is, the face Biometric. Two different representation methods, gray level intensity and Gabor feature, are exploited for fusion. We study the fusion problem in face recognition at both the face representation level and the confidence level.

Wenchao Zhang; Shiguang Shan; Wen Gao; Yizheng Chang; Bo Cao; Peng Yang

2004-01-01

305

Information fusion in face identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information fusion of multi-modal biometrics has attracted much attention in recent years. However, this paper focuses on the information fusion in single models, that is, the face biometric. Two different representation methods, gray level intensity and Gabor feature, are exploited for fusion. We study the fusion problem in face recognition at both the face representation level and the confidence level.

Wenchao Zhang; Shiguang Shan; Wen Gao; Yizheng Chang; Bo Cao; Peng Yang

2004-01-01

306

Oil drying system for motors  

SciTech Connect

A circulation and drying system is provided for the lubricating oil of a submersible motor of the type employed in pumping oil wells. The lubricating system provides a forced, closed system circulation of the lubricating oil for a submersible motor, including an expandable chamber at the bottom portion of the motor for collection of water therein and provision of a hygroscopic material in the circulating path of the motor oil to dry the oil before it passes into contact with the bearing and/or electrical parts of the motor.

Erickson, J.W.

1981-08-25

307

Similar Cerebral Motor Plans for Real and Virtual Actions  

PubMed Central

A simple movement, such as pressing a button, can acquire different meanings by producing different consequences, such as starting an elevator or switching a TV channel. We evaluated whether the brain activity preceding a simple action is modulated by the expected consequences of the action itself. To further this aim, the motor-related cortical potentials were compared during two key-press actions that were identical from the kinematics point of view but different in both meaning and consequences. In one case (virtual grasp), the key-press started a video clip showing a hand moving toward a cup and grasping it; in the other case, the key-press did not produce any consequence (key-press). A third condition (real grasp) was also compared, in which subjects actually grasped the cup, producing the same action presented in the video clip. Data were collected from fifteen subjects. The results showed that motor preparation for virtual grasp (starting 3 s before the movement onset) was different from that of the key-press and similar to the real grasp preparation–as if subjects had to grasp the cup in person. In particular, both virtual and real grasp presented a posterior parietal negativity preceding activity in motor and pre-motor areas. In summary, this finding supports the hypothesis that motor preparation is affected by the meaning of the action, even when the action is only virtual.

Bozzacchi, Chiara; Giusti, Maria Assunta; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

2012-01-01

308

Acquired scalp alopecia. Part I: A review.  

PubMed

In this two-part series we review the acquired scalp alopecias. A broad spectrum of diseases result in alopecia. In this first part we provide a framework for the assessment and diagnosis of scalp hair loss, and begin covering the individual conditions. The non-scarring alopecias covered include effluvium, androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and loose anagen syndrome. The scarring alopecias cause permanent pilosebaceous follicle loss; the lymphocyte-associated scarring alopecia described encompasses lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, pseudopelade, and follicular mucinosis. Part II will cover the neutrophil-associated and infiltrative processes causing scarring alopecia followed by the medical management of alopecia. There is particular reference to newly described conditions and progress in the understanding of older conditions. More recently characterized conditions include the loose anagen syndrome, chronic telogen effluvium, and the frontal fibrosing variant of lichen planopilaris. PMID:9838716

Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

1998-11-01

309

Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development.  

PubMed

Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5' truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

Cooke, Susanna L; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M C; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S; Teague, Jon W; Butler, Adam P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, Neil D; Janes, Sam M; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J

2014-01-01

310

Electric charge acquired by airplanes penetrating thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three airplanes—a sailplane, a piston powered sailplane, and a twin turboprop—have been instrumented to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds and the net electric charge on the airplanes. In unelectrified clouds the powered airplanes become negatively charged during collisions with liquid cloud water droplets whereas the sailplane does not. In thunderstorm clouds, several airplane charging mechanisms are found to operate. These involve collisions with liquid water droplets of the cloud and the shedding of polarization charge in the presence of strong electric fields. For these charging processes, the sign of the acquired charge depends on the sign of the component of the atmospheric electric field along the direction of flight. When the amounts of charge on the powered airplanes are small, the engine exhaust acts to discharge the airplane, while for larger charges, corona emission becomes the predominant mechanism of discharge.

Jones, J. J.

1990-09-01

311

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging  

SciTech Connect

All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

1987-02-01

312

Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.  

PubMed

The cost of treating a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) places a significant burden on healthcare facilities. Associated expenses potentially include increased supplies, equipment, specialty beds, staffing, nutritional support, laboratory testing, and hospital length of stay. The quarterly HAPU data revealed an increased prevalence in our 25-bed intermediate care unit at Central DuPage Hospital at Winfield, Illinois. There were 6 occurrences of HAPU during fiscal year 2005 to fiscal year 2006, and 5 occurred during fiscal year 2006 to 2007. Based on these data, our unit quality council investigated contributory factors and reviewed current tools and standards of practice related to pressure ulcer prevention. Strategic plans were developed to reduce the incidence of HAPU. Follow-up monitoring revealed no HAPU occurrence from October 2006 through September 2007. Pressure ulcer prevention strategies proved effective in reducing incidence during a 1-year period and have been approved as standards of practice for the unit. PMID:19155823

Chicano, Susan G; Drolshagen, Colleen

2009-01-01

313

Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

1991-11-01

314

Acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Acquired or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammation syndrome caused mostly by various infectious agents, autoimmune disorders or malignancy. So far, only anecdotal cases of sHLH associated with multiple myeloma have been published. We provide a review of all these reports and include a previously not published case of myeloma-associated sHLH in a 59-year-old male with complex partial epilepsy. Due to aggressive course of sHLH, increased awareness is indicated in all patients with malignancies which develop unremitting fever, cytopenia and splenomegaly. Early diagnosis and immediate introduction of adequate therapy is crucial for the outcome of HLH. PMID:20358309

Machaczka, Maciej; Vaktnäs, Johan; Klimkowska, Monika; Nahi, Hareth; Hägglund, Hans

2011-06-01

315

Acquired epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina.  

PubMed

Intradural extramedullary epidermoid (EC) cysts are uncommon (0.2-1%). Acquired tumors appear more frequently as a late complication of lumbar punctures (40%). The authors present three cases of epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina which were surgically treated in their department during the past five years. All three had suffered lumbar punctures for rachianesthesia 6-9 years prior to their presentation. The patients' ages ranged between 19 and 31. Surgical treatment was deemed necessary because of the space-occupying nature of this slow-growing lesion, and this indication was supported by the MRI findings. Two-level laminectomy and microsurgical total tumor ablation were performed in all three cases. There were no postoperative complications. PMID:22567058

Nica, D A; Strambu, V E D; Ro?ca, T; Cioti, D; Copaciu, R; Stroi, M; Ciurea, A V; Popa, F

2011-08-15

316

Acquired Epidermoid Cysts of the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

Intradural extramedullary epidermoid (EC) cysts are uncommon (0,2–1%). Acquired tumors appear more frequently as a late complication of lumbar punctures (40%). The authors present three cases of epidermoid cysts of the cauda equina which were surgically treated in their department during the past five years. All three had suffered lumbar punctures for rachianesthesia 6–9 years prior to their presentation. The patients' ages ranged between 19 and 31. Surgical treatment was deemed necessary because of the space–occupying nature of this slow–growing lesion, and this indication was supported by the MRI findings. Two–level laminectomy and microsurgical total tumor ablation were performed in all three cases. There were no postoperative complications.

Strambu, VED; Rosca, T; Cioti, D; Copaciu, R; Stroi, M; Ciurea, AV; Popa, F

2011-01-01

317

Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development  

PubMed Central

Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5? truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context.

Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

2014-01-01

318

Blastomycosis acquired by three children in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Three paediatric cases of blastomycosis, apparently acquired in or near Toronto, Ontario, a region not known to be endemic for this disease, are described. Blastomycosis was not suspected clinically in any of the three cases, and the diagnosis was established only when the diagnostic net was broadened to include fungal and mycobacterial cultures. All three patients were diagnosed after significant delays, which is consistent with the rarity of the disease in children and its acquisition outside previously accepted geographical boundaries. Pulmonary involvement was present in all three children, while one also had multifocal osteomyelitis. Drug therapy was successful in all three cases, either with amphotericin B followed by itraconazole, or itraconazole alone. Blastomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient from the Toronto area who presents with a compatible history despite a negative travel history to known endemic zones.

Bernstein, Stacey; Brunner, Hermine I; Summerbell, Richard; Allen, Upton; Babyn, Paul; Richardson, Susan E

2002-01-01

319

Method of acquiring environment consideration condition information  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Supplier-specific data of material items are extracted from data of various material items used for the manufacture of a product. Tabular data having a structure that allows various pieces of environment consideration condition information about the extracted data to be input is created by using general-purpose spreadsheet software. The tabular data is laid out to locate an item whose contents are likely to change at an end of a table so as to minimize a change in data structure in the event of a change in contents of environment consideration condition items. The tabular data is provided to the supplier. Environment consideration condition information about each material item is acquired by using the tabular data containing the environment consideration condition information added to the tabular data on the supplier side.

2004-12-07

320

Antihelper T cell autoantibody in acquired agammaglobulinemia.  

PubMed Central

A patient with acquired agammaglobulinemia had an antihelper T cell factor that was identified as an immunoglobulin of the IgG class. The factor specifically bound to the TH2- T cell subset and, in the presence of complement, abolished the helper effect of normal T cells. The antihelper T cell antibody preceded by several years the appearance of suppressor TH2+Ia+ T cells, at which time the clinical course rapidly deteriorated. Plasmapheresis resulted in lymphocytosis and reappearance of a functionally intact helper T cell population. It did not affect the suppressor cells. Conversely, total thymectomy resulted in a temporary disappearance of the TH2+Ia+ suppressor cells, but did not decrease the levels of the autoantibody to helper T cells. Neither of these treatments reversed the state of agammaglobulinemia.

Rubinstein, A; Sicklick, M; Mehra, V; Rosen, F S; Levey, R H

1981-01-01

321

Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections.  

PubMed

These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, Sn; Samaddar, D P; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

2014-03-01

322

Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections  

PubMed Central

These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.

Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

2014-01-01

323

Volumetric stereo and silhouette fusion for image-based modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a volumetric stereo and silhouette fusion algorithm for acquiring high quality models from multiple calibrated\\u000a photographs. Our method is based on computing and merging depth maps. Different from previous methods of this category, the\\u000a silhouette information is also applied in our algorithm to recover the shape information on the textureless and occluded areas.\\u000a The proposed algorithm starts

Peng Song; Xiaojun Wu; Michael Yu Wang

2010-01-01

324

Investigation of SNARE-Mediated Membrane Fusion Mechanism Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane fusion is driven by specialized proteins that reduce the free energy penalty for the fusion process. In neurons and secretory cells, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) mediate vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane during vesicular content release. Although, SNAREs have been widely accepted as the minimal machinery for membrane fusion, the specific mechanism for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion remains an active area of research. Here, we summarize recent findings based on force measurements acquired in a novel experimental system that uses atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism(s) of membrane fusion and the role of SNAREs in facilitating membrane hemifusion during SNARE-mediated fusion. In this system, protein-free and SNARE-reconstituted lipid bilayers are formed on opposite (trans) substrates and the forces required to induce membrane hemifusion and fusion or to unbind single v-/t-SNARE complexes are measured. The obtained results provide evidence for a mechanism by which the pulling force generated by interacting trans-SNAREs provides critical proximity between the membranes and destabilizes the bilayers at fusion sites by broadening the hemifusion energy barrier and consequently making the membranes more prone to fusion.

Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Moy, Vincent T.

2009-08-01

325

Spinal fusion - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Interbody cage fusion uses a hollow threaded titanium or carbon fiber cylinder to fuse two vertebrae together. The diseased disk is removed and two interbody cages are placed in the opening where the diseased ...

326

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains extensive status reports regarding background information and reviews of international fusion research and policy. Focus is on two projects, FIRE and ITER, with reports on physics and engineering design considerations, and an engineering appendix.

Laboratory, Princeton P.

2003-10-10

327

Fusion Research Activities, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research activities in plasma physics and controlled fusion during 1978 are summarized as well as the plans for continued activites during 1979. The research program includes investigations into plasma-neutral gas interaction and stability, magnetic c...

B. Lehnert

1979-01-01

328

On cold fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that a high negative voltage on a metal into which deuterium is soaked might enhance fusion reactions. The author discusses how this may have been the way Fleischmann and Pons achieved their results.

Spinrad

1990-01-01

329

Fusion driver study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of multimegajoule, repetitively pulsed CO2 laser system for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. System configurations consisting of 50-100 kJ modules operating at subatmospheric pressures with multiple pass optical extraction appear feasible with present or near term technology. Overall laser system efficiencies of greater than 10% at repetition rates in excess of 10 Hz are possible with the state of the art pulsed power technology. The synthesis of all the laser subsystems into a specific configuration for a Laser Fusion Driver depends upon the reactor chamber(s) layout, subsystem reliability and restrictions on overall dimensions of the fusion driver. A design is presented which stacks power amplifier modules in series in a large torus with centrally located reactor chamber. Cost estimates of the overall laser fusion driver are included.

Friedman, H. W.

1980-04-01

330

Fusion Energy Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the US Department of Energy, the Office of Science contains the Fusion Energy Sciences program, whose mission is to advance plasma science and fusion science technology. The program "supports research to understand the physics of plasmas; to identify and explore innovative and cost-effective development paths to fusion energy; and as a partner in international efforts, to advance the science and technology of energy-producing plasmas." Visitors to the Fusion Energy Sciences Web site will find current news related to the program, a program highlights document, several informative published papers, additional links, and more. If you're interested in energy, physics, or other related sciences, you'll definitely enjoy learning about the cutting edge science being undertaken within the department.

1969-12-31

331

Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-02-20

332

Inertial Confinement Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In these notes, we discuss inertially confined thermonuclear fusion obtained by means of spherically imploded deuterium-tritium fuel. The emphasis is on the 'inner part' of ICF physics, on the implosion dynamics, central fuel ignition, and energy gain, ra...

J. Meyer-ter-Vehn

1985-01-01

333

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

334

FRTP Fusion Ignition Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Field-Reversed Theta Pinch (FRTP) represents a promising confinement approach to fusion power. This possibility has become more evident as a result of the favorable confinement scaling predicted by our studies of Loss-Cone Scattering Transport (LCST)....

G. H. Miley, Q. T. Fang, J. G. Gilligan

1982-01-01

335

Synergetic Multisensor Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synergetic multisensor fusion is the process of integrating information obtained from different sensing modalities in order to extract additional information that cannot be obtained by separately processing the signals from the different sensors. The deve...

J. K. Aggarwal

1990-01-01

336

Advanced spheromak fusion reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spheromak has no toroidal magnetic field coils or other structure along its geometric axis, and is thus more attractive than the leading magnetic fusion reactor concept, the tokamak. As a consequence of this and other attributes, the spheromak reactor...

T. K. Fowler E. B. Hooper

1996-01-01

337

Multifocus image fusion scheme using focused region detection and multiresolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the fusion problem of the multifocus images of the same scene, a novel algorithm based on focused region detection and multiresolution is proposed. In order to integrate the advantages of spatial domain-based fusion methods and transformed domain-based fusion methods, we use a technique of focused region detection and a new fusion method of multiscale transform (MST) to guide pixel combination. Firstly, the initial fused image is acquired with a novel multiresolution image fusion method. The pixels of the original images, which are similar to the corresponding initial fused image pixels, are considered to be located in the sharply focused regions. By this method, the initial focused regions can be determined, and the techniques of morphological opening and closing are employed for post-processing. Then the pixels within the focused regions in each source image are selected as the pixels of the fused image; meanwhile, the initial fused image pixels which are located at the focused border regions are retained as the pixels of the final fused image. The fused image is then obtained. The experimental results show that the proposed fusion approach is effective and performs better in fusing multi-focus images than some current methods.

Chai, Yi; Li, Huafeng; Li, Zhaofei

2011-09-01

338

17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05...

2013-04-01

339

HIV fusion inhibitors.  

PubMed

Drugs based on amino acid sequence of Heptad Repeats of gp41 of HIV have been explored in search of anti-HIV drugs acting by inhibition of the gp41 6-helix formation and subsequent cellular infection. These are classified under a distinct discipline called HIV fusion inhibitors. Resistance to HIV fusion inhibitors and their solutions have also been discussed in this review. PMID:19827030

Qadir, M I; Malik, S A

2010-01-01

340

Synaptic vesicle fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of the neurotransmitter release machinery is formed by SNARE complexes, which bring the vesicle and plasma membranes together and are key for fusion, and by Munc18-1, which controls SNARE-complex formation and may also have a direct role in fusion. In addition, SNARE complex assembly is likely orchestrated by Munc13s and RIMs, active-zone proteins that function in vesicle priming

Josep Rizo; Christian Rosenmund

2008-01-01

341

Cold nuclear fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

Tsyganov, E. N.

2012-02-01

342

Cold nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that negative muons could catalyze nuclear fusion was suggested on theoretical grounds by F.C. Frank and A.D. Sakharov in the late 1940s; the first experimental observations of the process followed serendipitously a decade later, in experiments at Berkeley by L.W. Alvarez. The fastest mechanism for muon-catalyzed, or 'cold' fusion, was suggested by Vesman (1967); it depends on a

Johann Rafelski; Steven E. Jones

1987-01-01

343

Fusion ignition research experiment  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

Dale Meade

2000-07-18

344

Fusion pumped laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10¹⁵ neutrons\\/cm²\\/center dot\\/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor

1987-01-01

345

Central motor conduction is abnormal in motor neuron disease.  

PubMed Central

Conduction in the central motor pathways of the brain and spinal cord was studied in 12 patients with motor neuron disease. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the cortex, cervical cord, thoracic cord and conus medullaris was used to determine motor latencies to the biceps brachii, thenar eminence and tibialis anterior muscles. Prominent, and often asymmetrical, slowing of central motor conduction was demonstrated in seven of the 12 patients; these findings were most marked in the spinal cord and in most cases correlated with clinical features of corticospinal involvement. In general it was more difficult to excite motor pathways in the central nervous system in the patients with motor neuron disease than in control subjects. Evidence of subclinical involvement of central motor pathways was found in five patients. The central lesion in motor neuron disease may thus contribute more significantly to the clinical deficit than has been realised, since the clinical signs of the upper motor neuron lesion are often masked by the more obvious lower motor neuron features.

Ingram, D A; Swash, M

1987-01-01

346

Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.  

PubMed

This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

2014-08-01

347

Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

2012-01-01

348

Ironless armature torque motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

Fisher, R. L.

1972-01-01

349

Dynamically Timed Electric Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

350

Motor neurone disease  

PubMed Central

Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts.

Talbot, K

2002-01-01

351

Understanding social motor coordination.  

PubMed

Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. PMID:20817320

Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

2011-10-01

352

Magnetostrictive direct drive motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1992-01-01

353

Dynamically timed electric motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

Casper, Ann M. (inventor)

1994-01-01

354

ITER Fusion Energy  

ScienceCinema

ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2010-01-08

355

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

356

ITER Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2009-12-01

357

An Internet-Based Telerehabilitation System for the Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an Internet-based telerehabilitation application for the assessment of motor speech disorders in adults with acquired neurological impairment. Method: Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures research design, 2 speech-language pathologists assessed 19 speakers with…

Hill, Anne J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.; Cahill, Louise M.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Kathy M.

2006-01-01

358

Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

2012-01-01

359

71 FR 46079 - Commerce in Explosives-Hobby Rocket Motors (2004R-7P)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...has been regulated under the Federal explosives controls since 1971. Thus, requirements...non-exempt rocket motors is nothing new, and many persons who have acquired...Rocketeers must get a LEUP [limited explosives user permit] costing $100. (Comment No. 323) The use of the ATF's new limited [permit] * * * while a step...as follows: PART 555-COMMERCE IN......

2006-08-11

360

A Dual-Pathway Neural Network Model of Control Relinquishment in Motor Skill Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive psychologists have long recognized that the acquisition of a motor skill involves a transi- tion from attention-demanding controlled process- ing to more fluent automatic processing. Neurosci- entific studies suggest that controlled and automatic processing rely on two largely distinct neural path- ways. The controlled pathway, which includes the prefrontal cortex, is seen as acquiring declarative representations of skills. In

Ashish Gupta; David C. Noelle

2007-01-01

361

Elimination of saturation effects in sensorless position-controlled induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the variable magnetic coupling between the stator windings and the discrete rotor bars of an induction motor, a quasicontinuous rotor position signal can be acquired by instantaneous measurement of the total leakage inductance of the three stator phases. The signals are sampled in synchronism with the regular commutations of the pulsewidth-modulation process, thus making the injection of additional

Joachim Holtz; Hangwen Pan

2004-01-01

362

An Extended Motor Network Generates Beta and Gamma Oscillatory Perturbations during Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the time course and neural generators of oscillatory beta and gamma motor responses in typically-developing children. Participants completed a unilateral flexion-extension task using each index finger as whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were acquired. These MEG data were imaged in the frequency-domain using spatial…

Wilson, Tony W.; Slason, Erin; Asherin, Ryan; Kronberg, Eugene; Reite, Martin L.; Teale, Peter D.; Rojas, Donald C.

2010-01-01

363

The St. Louis Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2011-10-01

364

Magnetostrictive direct drive motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Feâ, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of

D. Naik; P. H. Dehoff

1991-01-01

365

Libert-E Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

2011-01-01

366

Lightweight Motorized Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redesigned actuator assembly weighs 50 percent less. Isolator valve operated by ac motor instead of usual dc solenoid. Valve weighs only 3 lb (1.4 kg). New valve functions with either two-phase or three-phase power. Developed for isolating fluids in propellant tanks, manifolds, and interconnecting lines of Space Shuttle reaction control and orbital maneuvering subsystems, valve suited to applications in which leakage must be kept to minimum at high pressure differences - in petroleum and chemical processing.

Gonzalez, R.; Vandewalle, J.

1986-01-01

367

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

368

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

369

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

370

Electrified Motor-Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE to experience an electric shock from a motor-vehicle appears from a recent note to be unusual in England1, it is so common in the United States as to call for no comment. An interesting consequence of this phenomenon is to be seen on the San Francisco-Oakland and Golden Gate Bridges, where thousands of cars a day pass the toll

E. C. Williams

1939-01-01

371

Role of BDNF in central motor structures and motor diseases.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), belonging to the neurotrophic family of growth factors, has a widespread distribution in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In central motor structures including the motor cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, BDNF exerts both neurotrophic and direct electrophysiological effects via a high-affinity tyrosine receptor kinase B receptor and a common low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor. The underlying signaling pathways mainly involve mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, and phospholipase C-? pathway. The loss of BDNF usually leads to neurodegeneration in these motor centers and eventually results in several severe motor diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxias, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, as well as vestibular syndrome. In this review, we summarize the recent understanding of functions of BDNF in motor structures and suggest that BDNF may be a potent candidate for the treatment of these neurodegenerative motor diseases. PMID:23649659

He, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

2013-12-01

372

The primate motor thalamus.  

PubMed

The functional parcellation of the motor thalamus of primates has suffered from serious historical and technical drawbacks, which have led to extreme confusion. This is a problem when thalamic stereotaxy is again being use clinically. The cause usually imputed is the historical conflict between two main schools, the Vogt and the 'Anglo-American' (Michigan), which used different nomenclatures. In fact, the reasons are more profound and serious. A combination of them led to: an archaic, rigid conception of the 'thalamic nucleus'; overexploitation of cytoarchitectonic technique, comparative anatomy and cortical connections; underexploitation of subcortical afferent territories; recent misuse of these territories; hesitations in the use of the VA-VL system; and opposition between ventral ('relay') and dorsal ('associative') 'nuclei'. Previous and current parcellations and nomenclatures for the lateral region finally appeared inappropriate. Before presenting a new parcellation and nomenclature for the lateral region, we explain why we did not adopt one of most common or of recently proposed nomenclatures, and were led to make our own. This is established according to rational and historically grounded rules. Precise definition of thalamic elements is provided. A thalamic 'region' is a gross topographic division corresponding to the former nuclei. A 'territory' is defined as the cerebral space filled by afferent endings from one source. When having a distinct topography in a region, a given territory makes a 'subregion'. For each of the studied 'motor' territories a review was made of its known cortical projections. The thalamic space where neurons project to a given cortical target constitutes a 'source space'. Topographical comparison of the sources spaces with territories reveals that there is often no coincidence between different (afferent or efferent) neuronal set spaces. It appears that source spaces are coincident in the pallidal and nigral territories but not in the cerebellar territory where two topographically distinct source spaces could be distinguished. A 'thalamic nucleus' is defined as the intersection of a thalamocortical source space with one territory. A rapid review of the general anatomy of the diencephalon is made. The ('dorsal') thalamus is divided into 'allo-' and 'isothalamus', the latter with 'bushy' and 'microneurons'. The lateral region is isothalamic. The 'motor thalamus' makes the anterior part of the lateral region. The present work aims to analyse the functional anatomy of the 'motor thalamus' by using precise topography and three-dimensional analyses of the subcortical territories receiving from the cerebellar nuclei (part II), the medial nucleus of the pallidum (part III) and the pars reticulata and mixta of the substantia nigra (part IV). Large injections were used to obtain the maximal extent of each territory. A major deficiency of previous studies was inadequate catography. Reliance on ventricular (CA-CP) landmarks observed by use of orthogonal teleradiography is mandatory. A study was made of intra- and interspecific variations and their effect on stereotactic and cartographic precision in macaques. All three subcortical motor afferent territories to the motor thalamus of macaques are examined in precise cartography with three dimensional reconstructions, rotations and 'reslicing'. The motor thalamus is made up of three topographically distinct and separate territories: cerebellar, pallidal territory and nigral. They cover the entire anterior part of the lateral region. There is no polar subdivision without lower afferents in front of the pallidal and nigral territories and thus no reason for isolating a nucleus lateralis polaris or a polar VA. The cerebellar territory is continuous and dense, in front of the somesthetic nucleus and everywhere separate from it. It has a complex three-dimensional shape, strongly convex anteriorly. Its caudal portion is dorsal to the somesthetic nucleus.(ABSTRACT PMID:8883918

Percheron, G; François, C; Talbi, B; Yelnik, J; Fénelon, G

1996-08-01

373

Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimovi?, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

2006-09-01

374

Improvements of image fusion methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

2014-03-01

375

Implicit motor learning of a balancing task.  

PubMed

This study examined the implicit learning of a balancing task. Three treatment conditions were constructed using different motor learning strategies. In two of the treatment conditions, explicit learning of the balancing task was impeded by using either an analogy or an errorless learning technique. In the third treatment condition, participants learnt the task by discovery learning, which typically results in explicit knowledge. It was hypothesised that in the analogy and errorless learning conditions, learning of the balancing task would be implicit in character. Three criteria of implicit learning were used to test this hypothesis; the accumulation of few explicit rules, robustness under secondary task loading and durability over time. Although the discovery learners acquired more explicit rules, all groups appear to have acquired the skill implicitly, in that all groups were robust to imposition of a concurrent task load and over time. Indeed, balance performance with a concurrent verbal task was better than balance performance alone. Discussion focuses on the contribution of verbal and non-verbal processes to balancing. PMID:16311189

Orrell, A J; Eves, F F; Masters, R S W

2006-01-01

376

Craniocervical fusions in children.  

PubMed

The surgical management of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) instability in pediatric patients presents unique challenges. As compared with the adult patient, the anatomical variations of the CVJ in the pediatric patient are significant, complicate the approach, and limit the use of internal fixation. Diminutive osseous and ligamentous structures and syndromic craniovertebral abnormalities complicate the issue. Advances in imaging analysis and instrumentation have improved the armamentarium for managing the pediatric patient who requires craniocervical stabilization. In this paper, the author's experience of performing more than 850 pediatric CVJ fusions is reviewed. This work includes the indications for atlantoaxial arthrodesis and occipitocervical fusion. Early atlantoaxial fusions were performed using interlaminar rib graft fusion, and more recently using either transarticular screw fixation in the older patient, or lateral mass screws at C-1 and rod fixation with either C-2 pars interarticular screw fixation or pedicle screw fixation. A C-2 translaminar screw fixation is also described. Occipitocervical fusions are performed with rib grafts in patients younger than 6 years of age. Subsequently, above that age, contoured loop fixation was performed, and in the past 8-10 years, screw and rod fixation was used. Abnormal spine growth was not observed in children who underwent craniocervical stabilization below the age of 5 years (clearly the bone grew with the patient). However, no deleterious effects were noted in the children treated with rigid instrumentation. The success rate for bone fusion alone was 98%. The author's success rate with rigid instrumentation is nearly 100%. A detailed review of the technique of fusion is presented, as well as the indications and means of avoidance of complications, their prevention, and management. PMID:22656246

Menezes, Arnold H

2012-06-01

377

Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population.

Collins, F M

1989-01-01

378

Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.  

PubMed

Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

2014-06-01

379

Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.  

PubMed

Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:24389150

Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

2014-01-01

380

Free radicals mediate systemic acquired resistance.  

PubMed

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR]) abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA), which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Notably, this NO/ROS?AzA?G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR. PMID:24726369

Wang, Caixia; El-Shetehy, Mohamed; Shine, M B; Yu, Keshun; Navarre, Duroy; Wendehenne, David; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

2014-04-24

381

Community-acquired pneumonia in children.  

PubMed

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide even in industrialised countries, and its incidence is highest among children aged <5 years. Over the last two years, three international guidelines have been updated with new evidence concerning the incidence, aetiology and management of childhood CAP, but there are still some major problems in standardisation. The main aim of this review is to consider the available data concerning the aetiology, diagnosis, evaluation of severity, and treatment of paediatric CAP. Analysis of the literature shows that there are a number of unanswered questions concerning the management of CAP, including its definition, the absence of a paediatric CAP severity score, the difficulty of identifying its aetiology, the emergence of resistance of the most frequent respiratory pathogens to the most widely used anti-infectious agents, and the lack of information concerning the changes in CAP epidemiology following the introduction of vaccines against respiratory pathogens. More research is clearly required in various areas, and further efforts are needed to increase vaccination coverage with the already available vaccines in order to reduce the occurrence of the disease. PMID:23962481

Cardinale, Fabio; Cappiello, Anna Rita; Mastrototaro, Maria Felicia; Pignatelli, Mariacristina; Esposito, Susanna

2013-10-01

382

Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.

Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

1987-01-01

383

Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MBP-Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the 'ATP state' of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck-core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Allingham, John S., E-mail: allinghj@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2012-11-30

384

STATs and macrophage fusion  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play a pivotal role in host defense against multiple foreign materials such as bacteria, parasites and artificial devices. Some macrophage lineage cells, namely osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), form multi-nuclear giant cells by the cell–cell fusion of mono-nuclear cells. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells, and are formed in the presence of RANKL on the surface of bones, while FBGCs are formed in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 on foreign materials such as artificial joints, catheters and parasites. Recently, fusiogenic mechanisms and the molecules required for the cell–cell fusion of these macrophage lineage cells were, at least in part, clarified. Dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), both of which comprise seven transmembrane domains, are required for both osteoclast and FBGC cell–cell fusion. STAT6 was demonstrated to be required for the cell–cell fusion of FBGCs but not osteoclasts. In this review, advances in macrophage cell–cell fusion are discussed.

2013-01-01

385

Three-phase electromagnetic AC motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced three-phase electromagnetic ac motors based on electromagnetic gate-inductor motors are proposed. The concept of\\u000a development and the constructive scheme of a three-phase electromagnetic ac motor are given. Advantages of the proposed motors\\u000a compared to asynchronous motors are shown.

Yu. V. Smirnov

2009-01-01

386

Development of homopolar type bearingless motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have proposed bearingless motors, that is, magnetic bearings combined with motors in the same stator. It is possible to reduce their shaft length compared with a conventional motor with magnetic bearings, and achieve higher rotational speed. Bearingless motors generate radial force by adding n±2-pole flux on n-pole motor flux to make the flux distribution unbalanced. Several types of

Osaniu Ichikawa; Akira Chiba; Tadashi Fukao

1999-01-01

387

Redundant motor drive system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A drive system characterized by a base supporting a pair of pillars arranged in spaced parallelism, a shaft extended between and supported by the pillars for rotation about the longitudinal axis thereof, a worm gear affixed to the shaft and supported in coaxial relation therewith is described. A bearing housing of a sleeve like configuration is concentrically related to the shaft and is supported thereby for free rotation. A first and a second quiescent drive train, alternatively activatable, is provided for imparting rotation into said bearing housing. Each of the drive trains is characterized by a selectively energizable motor connected to a spur gear.

Calvert, J. A. (inventor)

1980-01-01

388

Bearingless switched reluctance motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

389

Motor fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

A motor fuel composition comprising a mixture of hydrocarbons in the gasoline boiling range containing in combination a reaction product component and a polyolefin polymer/copolymer component is described. The reaction product component is the reaction product of maleic anhydride, a polyether polyamine, and a hydrocarbyl polyamine. The polyolefin polymer/copolymer component is the polymer, copolymer, or corresponding hydrogenated polymer or copolymer of a C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/ unsaturated hydrocarbon, the polymer or copolymer having a molecular weight in the range of 500-3500, preferably 650-2600.

Sung, R.L.; Caggiano, M.A.; Behrens, M.D.

1987-04-21

390

Chapter 22: Hereditary and acquired angioedema.  

PubMed

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by a deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Acquired angioedema (AAE) is caused by either consumption (type 1) or inactivation (type 2) of CI-INH. Both HAE and AAE can be life-threatening. The screening test for both conditions is complement component C4, which is low to absent at times of angioedema or during quiescent periods. A useful test to differentiate HAE from AAE is C1q protein, which is normal in HAE and low in AAE. There are three types of HAE: type 1 HAE is most common, occurring in ?85% of patients and characterized by decreased production of C1-INH, resulting in reduced functional activity to 5-30% of normal. In type 2, which occurs in 15% of cases, C1-INH is detectable in normal or elevated quantities but is dysfunctional. Finally, type 3, which is rare and almost exclusively occurs in women, is estrogen dependent and associated with normal CI-INH and C4 levels. One-third of these patients have a gain-of-function mutation in clotting factor XII leading to kallikrein-driven bradykinin production. Although the anabolic steroid, danazol, is useful in increasing the concentration of C4 and reducing the episodes of angioedema in HAE and AAE, it has expected adverse effects. Fortunately, disease-specific therapies are available and include C1-INH enzyme for i.v. infusion either acutely or empirically, ecallantide, an inhibitor of kallikrein, and icatibant, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, both approved for acute angioedema and administered, subcutaneously. PMID:22794695

Georgy, Mary S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

2012-01-01

391

Post traumatic acquired multiple mesenteric defects  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Internal intestinal hernia has been defined as a bulging of the intestines through a normal or an abnormal peritoneal or mesenteric opening.1 Internal hernias are a rare cause of small-bowel obstruction, with a reported incidence of 0.2–0.9%.2 PRESENTATION OF CASE In this report, the patient presented with multiple episodes of intestinal obstruction. High index of suspicion aided the appropriate management of this case. An abdominal CT revealed signs of small bowel obstruction. With negative signs and symptoms indicating adhesions, malignancy or inflammatory causes, mesenteric defect was suspected. When the patient underwent laparotomy, multiple mesenteric defects were found. DISCUSSION In the adult population, acquired mesenteric defects are more common than congenital defects. They can be caused by bowel surgery or abdominal trauma.11 Patients with a history of blunt abdominal trauma may present with late complication caused by a missed diagnosis of an associated injury, such as bowel mesenteric injuries. In this case, the author describes a patient who developed multiple attacks of small bowel obstruction. He had no previous history of similar symptoms but did give a history of recent abdominal trauma managed conservatively. An abdominal CT was performed, and it showed signs of a mesenteric defect. In such a case, early operative intervention is essential to decrease morbidity and increase survival. 16 CONCLUSION The diagnosis of post traumatic mesenteric injuries can be missed in conservatively managed trauma cases. For this reason, the decision of non-operative approach should be made following the exclusion of associated injuries.

Aref, Hager; Felemban, Bandar

2013-01-01

392

Reprogramming of plants during systemic acquired resistance  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that during biological activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis, the transcript levels of several hundred plant genes were consistently up- (SAR+ genes) or down-regulated (SAR? genes) in systemic, non-inoculated leaf tissue. This transcriptional reprogramming fully depended on the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1). Functional gene categorization showed that genes associated with salicylic acid (SA)-associated defenses, signal transduction, transport, and the secretory machinery are overrepresented in the group of SAR+ genes, and that the group of SAR? genes is enriched in genes activated via the jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET)-defense pathway, as well as in genes associated with cell wall remodeling and biosynthesis of constitutively produced secondary metabolites. This suggests that SAR-induced plants reallocate part of their physiological activity from vegetative growth towards SA-related defense activation. Alignment of the SAR expression data with other microarray information allowed us to define three clusters of SAR+ genes. Cluster I consists of genes tightly regulated by SA. Cluster II genes can be expressed independently of SA, and this group is moderately enriched in H2O2- and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. The expression of the cluster III SAR+ genes is partly SA-dependent. We propose that SA-independent signaling events in early stages of SAR activation enable the biosynthesis of SA and thus initiate SA-dependent SAR signaling. Both SA-independent and SA-dependent events tightly co-operate to realize SAR. SAR+ genes function in the establishment of diverse resistance layers, in the direct execution of resistance against different (hemi-)biotrophic pathogen types, in suppression of the JA- and ABA-signaling pathways, in redox homeostasis, and in the containment of defense response activation. Our data further indicated that SAR-associated defense priming can be realized by partial pre-activation of particular defense pathways.

Gruner, Katrin; Griebel, Thomas; Navarova, Hana; Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Jurgen

2013-01-01

393

Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome.

Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Becavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

2012-01-01

394

Simulation of Fusion Plasmas  

ScienceCinema

The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

Chris Holland

2010-01-08

395

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

396

Simulation of Fusion Plasmas  

ScienceCinema

The upcoming ITER experiment represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the 'burning plasma' regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

397

Ceramics for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1986-01-01

398

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the following topics on fusion energy: cold fusion; alcator confinement experiments; applied plasma physics research; fusion systems; coherent electromagnetic wave generation; and fusion technology and engineering.

1989-07-01

399

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

400

Intense fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

401

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

402

Osteoclast Fusion is Based on Heterogeneity Between Fusion Partners.  

PubMed

Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed through fusion of mononucleated precursors. Their choice of partners during the fusion process remains unclear. We hypothesized that osteoclasts are selective in their choice of fusion partner and that this selectivity is based on heterogeneity among the cells with respect to their maturation stage and their expression and cellular organization of fusion factors. Support for this hypothesis was found from immunofluorescence staining of the osteoclast fusion factors CD47, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and syncytin-1. These stainings revealed heterogeneous localization patterns of all three factors within a given culture of osteoclasts. CD47 was found to be localized primarily in small osteoclasts and preosteoclasts, which were also positive for DC-STAMP but negative for cathepsin K expression. A role of CD47 in the early osteoclast fusion steps was also suggested from experiments with a CD47 blocking antibody, which resulted in an inhibition of the fusion of small osteoclasts. Conversely, blocking of connexin 43 affected the fusion of larger osteoclasts with four or more nuclei. The suggestion that different fusion factors function at different stages of osteoclast fusion supports the idea of heterogeneity in the osteoclast population; our results suggest that osteoclast fusion is indeed based on heterogeneity. Considering the in vivo environment in which osteoclasts develop and fuse, our findings seem very applicable and provide novel, important insight into key issues in bone and fusion research. PMID:24862648

Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

2014-07-01

403

Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency.

DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1997-07-01

404

27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

405

Atomic data for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

1990-07-01

406

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and engineering capabilities have been demonstrated for a fusion reactor gain (Q) of the order of unity (TFTR: 0.25, JET: 0.65, JT-60: Q(sub eq) approx. 1.25). These technological advances made it compelling for considering fusion for propulsion.

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

407

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

408

Fusion Energy Educational Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of resources about nuclear fusion. It provides a large set of definitions for the terms most commonly used in fusion research, and a course developed in conjunction with the Contemporary Physics Education Project.

Laboratory, Princeton P.; Laboratory, Lawrence L.

2003-10-10

409

Fusion technology status and requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

Thomassen, K.I.

1982-01-26

410

Motor field sensitivity for preoperative localization of motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Object In this study the role of magnetic source imaging for preoperative motor mapping was evaluated by using a single-dipole localization method to analyze motor field data in 41 patients. Methods Data from affected and unaffected hemispheres were collected in patients performing voluntary finger flexion movements. Somatosensory evoked field (SSEF) data were also obtained using tactile stimulation. Dipole localization using motor field (MF) data was successful in only 49% of patients, whereas localization with movement evoked field (MEF) data was successful in 66% of patients. When the spatial distribution of MF and MEF dipoles in relation to SSEF dipoles was analyzed, the motor dipoles were not spatially distinct from somatosensory dipoles. Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that single-dipole localization for the analysis of motor data is not sufficiently sensitive and is nonspecific, and thus not clinically useful.

Lin, Peter T.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2014-01-01

411

Infranuclear ocular motor disorders.  

PubMed

This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071

Lueck, Christian J

2011-01-01

412

[Immunohematological study of 7 cases of acquired B transformation using anti-B and selected acquired anti-B].  

PubMed

Seven acquired B samples were studied with selected anti-B sera. Eight sera came from group A subjects, four from group O subjects. The anti-B sera reacting with the acquired B antigen are always a mixture of two kinds of antibodies: a fraction that is only reactive with B antigen, another that is cross-reactive with B and acquired B antigens. In some sera, especially those coming from group O subjects, there is, in addition, a potent antibody of polyagglutination for acquired B red cells. The polyagglutinability associated with acquired B red cells is analysed. According to the results obtained using lectins, four red cell samples are merely acquired B, the three others are acquired B + Tk. The polyagglutinability associated with Tk transformation is non sensitive to acetylation of red cells. The polyagglutinability specific for acquired B is sensitive to acetylation but appears complex in itself. According to the reactivity of selected sera for acquired B samples and the studies of inhibition with simple sugars, there are at least two antigens involved. One of them is present in all of the acquired B samples and it is likely to have arisen from the action of a deacetylase on a structure including N-acetylgalactosamine. PMID:6198707

Janvier, D; Reviron, M; Biernat, S; Saint Paul, B; Reviron, J

1983-11-01

413

Primary motor cortex and ipsilateral control: a TMS study.  

PubMed

In this transcranial magnetic stimulation study, we assessed motor cortex excitability in the resting hemisphere while the homologous side was active during a voluntary unimanual task. Data acquired from left- and right-handers showed that cortical excitability varied as a function of isometric task demands and hand dominance. In particular, facilitation of the motor-evoked potentials was observed across task requirements in left-handers, independent of which hemisphere was active. In right-handers, facilitation was present when the right hemisphere was active whereas this effect was largely reduced when the left hemisphere was active, suggesting pronounced inhibitory interactions from the left (dominant) to the right (non-dominant) hemisphere. The distinct scaling of motor cortex excitability indicates the importance of the left hemisphere in guiding manual control in right-handers whereas both hemispheres are functionally relevant in left-handers. Overall, the results underline the asymmetrical organization of the motor system in right-handers with an important role of the dominant hemisphere whereas symmetrical functional abilities of both hemispheres characterize left-handers. PMID:24726982

Reid, C S; Serrien, D J

2014-06-13

414

Central motor pathways in patients with mirror movements.  

PubMed Central

Central motor pathways were investigated in three patients with congenital mirror movements using magnetic motor cortex stimulation. Response thresholds, amplitudes and latencies were normal. The projection of the corticomotoneuronal pathways was assessed by placing the coil over the vertex and comparing the size of responses in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles evoked by anticlockwise and clockwise [corrected] coil currents. In normal subjects, right FDI responses are larger with anticlockwise currents than with clockwise [corrected] currents at the same stimulation strength and vice versa. In two out of three patients with congenital mirror movements, this sensitivity of response amplitude to coil current direction was reversed. The third patient with congenital mirror movements and a fourth patient with acquired mirror movements had responses which were normally sensitive to current direction. These findings support the hypothesis that some cases of congenital mirror movements may be due to abnormal projection of corticomotoneuronal pathways.

Britton, T C; Meyer, B U; Benecke, R

1991-01-01

415

Community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a pathogen that causes infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, community-acquired S. maltophilia infections have been occasionally reported. The objective of this paper was to collect and evaluate the available published\\u000a data referring to community-acquired S. maltophilia infections. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus for articles providing data for patients with community-acquired\\u000a S. maltophilia infections.

M. E. Falagas; A. C. Kastoris; E. K. Vouloumanou; G. Dimopoulos

2009-01-01

416

How do galaxies acquire their mass?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the growth of galaxy masses, via gas accretion and galaxy mergers. We introduce a toy model that describes (in a single equation) how much baryonic mass is accreted and retained into galaxies as a function of halo mass and redshift. In our model, the evolution of the baryons differs from that of the dark matter because 1) gravitational shock heating and AGN jets suppress gas accretion mainly above a critical halo mass of Mshock ~ 1012 M?; 2) the intergalactic medium after reionisation is too hot for accretion onto haloes with circular velocities vcirc ? 40 km s-1; 3) stellar feedback drives gas out of haloes, mainly those with vcirc ? 120 km s-1. We run our model on the merger trees of the haloes and sub-haloes of a high-resolution dark matter cosmological simulation. The galaxy mass is taken as the maximum between the mass given by the toy model and the sum of the masses of its progenitors (reduced by tidal stripping). Designed to reproduce the present-day stellar mass function of galaxies, our model matches fairly well the evolution of the cosmic stellar density. It leads to the same z = 0 relation between central galaxy stellar and halo mass as the one found by abundance matching and also as that previously measured at high mass on SDSS centrals. Our model also predicts a bimodal distribution (centrals and satellites) of stellar masses for given halo mass, in very good agreement with SDSS observations. The relative importance of mergers depends strongly on stellar mass (more than on halo mass). Massive galaxies with mstars > mcrit ~ ?b/?mMshock ~ 1011 M? acquire most of their final mass through mergers (mostly major and gas-poor), as expected from our model's shutdown of gas accretion at high halo masses. However, although our mass resolution should see the effects of mergers down to mstars ? 1010.6 h-1 M?, we find that mergers are rare for mstars ? 1011 h-1 M?. This is a consequence of the curvature of the stellar vs. halo mass relation set by the physical processes of our toy model and found with abundance matching. So gas accretion must be the dominant growth mechanism for intermediate and low mass galaxies, including dwarf ellipticals in clusters. The contribution of galaxy mergers terminating in haloes with mass Mhalo < Mshock (thus presumably gas-rich) to the mass buildup of galaxies is small at all masses, but accounts for the bulk of the growth of ellipticals of intermediate mass (~1010.5 h-1 M?), which we predict must be the typical mass of ULIRGs.

Cattaneo, A.; Mamon, G. A.; Warnick, K.; Knebe, A.

2011-09-01

417

Artificial neural network based fault identification scheme implementation for a three-phase induction motor.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from the implementation and testing of a PC based monitoring and fault identification scheme for a three-phase induction motor using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To accomplish the task, a hardware system is designed and built to acquire three-phase voltages and currents from a 1/3 HP squirrel-cage, three-phase induction motor. A software program is written to read the voltages and currents, which are first used to train a feed-forward neural network structure using the JavaNNS program. The trained network is placed in a LabVIEW based program formula node that monitors the voltages and currents online and displays the fault conditions and turns the motor off. The complete system is successfully tested in real time by creating different faults on the motor. PMID:17336306

Kolla, Sri R; Altman, Shawn D

2007-04-01

418

System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation  

DOEpatents

A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

Zhou, Wei (Los Angeles, CA); Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Nowak, Michael P. (Menomonee Falls, WI); Dimino, Steven A. (Wauwatosa, WI)

2010-12-07

419

Experience-dependent changes in cerebellar contributions to motor sequence learning  

PubMed Central

Studies in experimental animals and humans have stressed the role of the cerebellum in motor skill learning. Yet, the relative importance of the cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei, as well as the nature of the dynamic functional changes occurring between these and other motor-related structures during learning, remains in dispute. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a motor sequence learning paradigm in humans, we found evidence of an experience-dependent shift of activation from the cerebellar cortex to the dentate nucleus during early learning, and from a cerebellar–cortical to a striatal–cortical network with extended practice. The results indicate that intrinsic modulation within the cerebellum, in concert with activation of motor-related cortical regions, serves to set up a procedurally acquired sequence of movements that is then maintained elsewhere in the brain.

Doyon, Julien; Song, Allen W.; Karni, Avi; Lalonde, Francois; Adams, Michelle M.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

2002-01-01

420

Automated traffic surveillance using fusion of Doppler radar and video information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Continuous Wave (CW) Doppler radar speed measurement systems lack the ability to distinguish multiple targets. Most systems can only identify the strongest (closest) target or the fastest target. In this paper, a traffic surveillance system is presented that is capable of automatically monitoring all vehicle speeds on roadways using sensor fusion on data acquired from a video camera and

Arunesh Roy; Nicholas Gale; Lang Hong

2011-01-01

421

Fusion Crust and the Measurement of Surface Ages of Antarctic Ordinary Chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural thermoluminescence (TL) reflects radiation exposure and storage temperature. Meteorites generally exhibit thermoluminescence acquired during their long exposure to galactic cosmic rays in space. During atmospheric passage, temperatures are high enough to completely drain the TL, in the first mm of material under the fusion crust. We therefore refer to this surface layer as \\

Jannette M. C. Akridge; Paul H. Benoit; Derek W. G. Sears

1997-01-01

422

Mobile robot based human detection and tracking using range and intensity data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and tracking human from a mobile robot is an essential technology in robot applications. This paper presents a data fusion modeling methodology to detect and track human. Each image with human is simultaneously acquired with a range profundity scanning from a laser range finder (LRF). In the image, the face is detected and tracked by our modified AdaBoost scheme.

Ren C. Luo; Yi J. Chen; Chung T. Liao; An C. Tsai

2007-01-01

423

Monitoring and information fusion for search and rescue operations in large-scale disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the project, which is currently under development, is to design tools to monitor the situation after a large-scale disaster, with a particular focus on the task on situation assessment and high-level information fusion, as well as on the issues that arise in coordinating the agent actions based on the acquired information. The development environment is based on

Fabrizio d'Agostino; A. Farinelli; G. Grisetti; L. Iocchi; D. Nardi

2002-01-01

424

Local Vote Decision Fusion for Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of target detection by a wireless sensor network. Sensors acquire measurements emitted from the target that are corrupted by noise, and initially make individual decisions about the presence\\/absence of the target. We propose the Local Vote Decision Fusion algorithm, in which sensors first correct their decisions using decisio ns of neighboring sensors, and then make

Natallia Katenka; Elizaveta Levina; George Michailidis

2008-01-01

425

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

426

Possibility theory in information fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility theory and the body of aggregation operations from fuzzy set theory provide some tools to address the problem of merging information coming from several sources. The approach to fusion is set-theoretic and the choice of conjunctive versus disjunctive fusion modes depends on assumptions on whether all sources are reliable or not. Quantified, prioritized and weighted fusion rules are described.

Didier Dubois; H. Prade

2000-01-01

427

Bead fusion in polystyrene foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative technique has been developed to measure the extent of fusion between expanded beads in molded polystyrene foams. Experiments were conducted with ASTM D638 tensile test specimens that were molded under conditions to produce various levels of bead fusion in the foam. The tensile properties of the foam for various levels of bead fusion were measured according to ASTM

J. Rossacci; S. Shivkumar

2003-01-01

428

Objective image fusion performance measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measure for objectively assessing the pixel level fusion performance is defined. The proposed metric reflects the quality of visual information obtained from the fusion of input images and can be used to compare the performance of different image fusion algorithms. Experimental results clearly indicate that this metric is perceptually meaningful

C. S. Xydeas; V. Petrovic

2000-01-01

429

Physics in Action: Fusion Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Physics Central provides a description of fusion machines and plasma power. The process and challenges to producing a sustained fusion reaction that could lead to electric power generation are explained. Current research being conducted with fusion machines is also presented along with links to additional information.

2007-04-26

430

Summary of inertial fusion sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and ion beam inertial fusion research has made remarkable progress during the last two years. As a highlight of the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference among over 30 presentations the National Ignition Facility has been reported for completion as of 27 March 2009 to achieve the first fusion shot within 2010 or 2011 with a central ignition scheme. The

Kazuo A. Tanaka

2009-01-01

431

Economic potential of inertial fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global

Nuckolls

1984-01-01

432

Information integration for data fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing are...

O. H. Bray

1997-01-01

433

Human-Centered Fusion Framework  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

2007-05-16

434

Fundamental Motor Patterns. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is primarily for teachers of physical education and specialists in the field of motor development. The popular emphasis on transforming knowledge into a practical form will be seen throughout this edition, especially in connection with skill analysis. At the end of each chapter, there are additional suggestions for analyzing motor…

Wickstrom, Ralph L.

435

Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

2008-01-01

436

Miniature solid propellant rocket motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, a...

M. C. Grubelich M. Hagan E. Mulligan

1997-01-01

437

Constant Thrust Hybrid Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The constant thrust hybrid rocket motor of this invention is capable of providing operation for at least 50 seconds over a wide temperature range and with minimal variation in chamber pressure. The constant thrust hybrid rocket motor of this invention inc...

A. L. Holzman

1981-01-01

438

Torque control for electric motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

Bernard, C. A.

1980-01-01

439

Power control for ac motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

Dabney, R. W. (inventor)

1984-01-01

440

Motor Run-Up System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A starting system for bringing a large synchronous motor up to speed to prevent large power line disturbances at the moment the motor is connected to the power line is introduced. The system includes a digital counter which generates a count determined by...

J. J. Daeges

1974-01-01

441

Teaching Reading through Motor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a foundation of research and theory, this book presents a case for the inclusion of motor learning activities in the reading curriculum. Chapter one introduces the concept generally, while chapter two provides a theoretical basis for the approach, along with some exploratory evidence to support it. Chapter three discusses some motor…

Sullivan, Dorothy D.; Humphrey, James H.

442

Modeling and Motor Skill Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the psychological and motor performance modeling literature to identify important factors involved in and affecting the modeling process as it relates to motor skill acquisition. Topics discussed include modeling theory, task specificity of modeling effects, the importance of symbolic coding, temporal spacing of demonstrations, social factors influencing modeling, and the role of modeling in reducing anxiety when

Daniel R. Gould; Glyn C. Roberts

1981-01-01

443

Determinants of molecular motor directionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work over the past two years has led to a breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular basis of the directionality of the kinesin motor proteins. This breakthrough has come first from the reversal of directionality of the kinesin-related motor Ncd, followed closely by the reversal of kinesin’s directionality and the finding that the Ncd ‘neck’ can convert Ncd or

Sharyn A. Endow

1999-01-01

444

Advanced solid propellant motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

1972-01-01

445

Motors and Bulbs in Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

Whitaker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

446

Motor Coordination and Executive Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

Michel, Eva

2012-01-01

447

Wavelets and image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to image fusion using the wavelet transform. When images are merged in wavelet space, we can process different frequency ranges differently. For example, high frequency information from one image can be combined with lower frequency information from another, for performing edge enhancement. We have built a prototype system that allows experimentation with various wavelet array

Laure J. Chipman; Timothy M Orr; Lewis N. Graham

1995-01-01

448

Fission and fusion dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I a unified macroscopic approach to the field of fission and heavy ion fusion is stressed. The principal degrees of freedom relevant to this field are described. In the equations of motion there are three types of terms (potential, dissipative and inertial terms). The principal features of the potential energy landscape are illustrated qualitatively by means of an

W. J. Swiatecki; S. Bjørnholm

1972-01-01

449

Inertial-confinement fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports that larger drivers, projected for the near future, are expected to compress the deuterium-tritium fuel to 1000 times its liquid density and achieve ignition of the fuel pellet. Vast amounts of fusion energy are released from the sun (and other stars) by natural thermonuclear processes that fuse atoms of lighter elements into atoms of heavier elements. In comparison to

J. H. Pitts; J. Hovingh; S. Walters

1982-01-01

450

Mars manned fusion spaceship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

1991-01-01

451

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-01

452

Multisensor data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisensor data fusion refers to the acquisition, processing and synergistic combination of information gathered by various knowledge sources and sensors to provide a better understanding of a phenomenon. It is a fascinating and rapidly evolving field that has generated a lot of excitement in the research and development community. These concepts are being applied to a wide variety of fields

P. K. Varshney

1997-01-01

453

Compact fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power are proposed to improve economic viability through the use of less-advanced technology in systems of considerably reduced scale. The rationale for and the means by which these systems can be achieved are discussed, as are unique technological problems.

Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

1983-01-01

454

Fusion gamma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactions of interest in fusion research often possess a branch yielding prompt emission of gamma radiation in excess of 15 MeV which can be exploited to provide a new fusion reaction diagnostic having applications similar to conventional neutron emission measurements. Conceptual aspects of fusion gamma diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on application to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during deuterium neutral beam heating of D--T and D--/sup 3/He plasmas. Recent measurements of the D (T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/He, D(/sup 3/He, ..gamma..)/sup 5/Li, and D(D, ..gamma..)/sup 4/He branching ratios at low center-of-mass energy (30--100 keV) and of the response of a large volume Ne226 detector for gamma detection in high neutron backgrounds are presented. Using a well-shielded Ne226 detector during 20 MW--120 kV deuterium beam heating of a tritium plasma in TFTR, the D(T, ..gamma..)/sup 5/He gamma signal level is estimated to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ cps.

Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.; Cole, D.; Conway, M.A.; Wilkinson F.J. III

1985-05-01

455

Method of Fusion Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Author Certificate has been issued for a method of fusion welding in which the welding pool is treated by a traveling stray magnetic field. To increase the welding speed and improve the quality of welds by moving the molten metal of the welding pool al...

B. E. Paton S. L. Mandelberg V. K. Lebedev B. G. Sidorenko V. E. Lopata

1970-01-01

456

Fusion Pumped Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic fi...

D. S. Pappas

1987-01-01

457

Separating Fusion from Rivalry  

PubMed Central

Visual fusion is the process in which differing but compatible binocular information is transformed into a unified percept. Even though this is at the basis of binocular vision, the underlying neural processes are, as yet, poorly understood. In our study we therefore aimed to investigate neural correlates of visual fusion. To this end, we presented binocularly compatible, fusible (BF), and incompatible, rivaling (BR) stimuli, as well as an intermediate stimulus type containing both binocularly fusible and monocular, incompatible elements (BFR). Comparing BFR stimuli with BF and BR stimuli, respectively, we were able to disentangle brain responses associated with either visual fusion or rivalry. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to these stimulus classes in the visual cortex, and investigated them in detail at various retinal eccentricities. Compared with BF stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli was elevated in visual cortical areas V1 and V2, but not in V3 and V4 – implying that the response to monocular stimulus features decreased from V1 to V4. Compared to BR stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli decreased with increasing eccentricity, specifically within V3 and V4. Taken together, it seems that although the processing of exclusively monocular information decreases from V1 to V4, the processing of binocularly fused information increases from earlier to later visual areas. Our findings suggest the presence of an inhibitory neural mechanism which, depending on the presence of fusion, acts differently on the processing of monocular information.

Dechent, Peter; Forster, Clemens; von Steinbuchel, Nicole; Wustenberg, Torsten; Strasburger, Hans

2014-01-01

458

Status of inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs rf linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program.

Keefe, D.

1987-04-01

459

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much less than external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional 'sling shot' that is 'loaded' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R. A.

460

Speech motor skill and stuttering.  

PubMed

The authors review converging lines of evidence from behavioral, kinematic, and neuroimaging data that point to limitations in speech motor skills in people who stutter (PWS). From their review, they conclude that PWS differ from those who do not in terms of their ability to improve with practice and retain practiced changes in the long term, and that they are less efficient and less flexible in their adaptation to lower (motor) and higher (cognitive-linguistic) order requirements that impact on speech motor functions. These findings in general provide empirical support for the position that PWS may occupy the low end of the speech motor skill continuum as argued in the Speech Motor Skills approach (Van Lieshout, Hulstijn, & Peters, 2004). PMID:22106825

Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

2011-01-01

461

Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual molecular motors, or motor proteins, are enzymatic molecules that convert chemical energy, typically obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), into mechanical work and motion. Processive motor proteins, such as kinesin, dynein, and certain myosins, step unidirectionally along linear tracks, specifically microtubules and actin filaments, and play a crucial role in cellular transport processes, organization, and function. In this review some theoretical aspects of motor-protein dynamics are presented in the light of current experimental methods that enable the measurement of the biochemical and biomechanical properties on a single-molecule basis. After a brief discussion of continuum ratchet concepts, we focus on discrete kinetic and stochastic models that yield predictions for the mean velocity, V(F, [ATP], …), and other observables as a function of an imposed load force F, the ATP concentration, and other variables. The combination of appropriate theory with single-molecule observations should help uncover the mechanisms underlying motor-protein function.

Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.

2007-05-01

462

Membrane fusion: role of SNAREs and calcium.  

PubMed

Life processes are governed at the chemical level, and therefore knowledge of how single molecules interact, provides a fundamental understanding of nature. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion essential to vital cellular activities such as intracellular transport, hormone secretion, enzyme release, or neurotransmission, involve the assembly and disassembly of a specialized set of proteins present in opposing bilayers. Target membrane proteins at the cell plasma membrane SNAP-25 and syntaxin termed t-SNAREs, and secretory vesicle-associated protein VAMP or v-SNARE, are part of the conserved protein complex involved in fusion of opposing membranes. It has been demonstrated that in the presence of Ca2+, t-SNAREs and v-SNARE in opposing bilayers interact and self-assemble in a circular pattern, to form conducting channels. Such self-assembly of t-/v-SNAREs in a ring conformation occurs only when the respective SNAREs are in association with membrane. X-ray diffraction measurements further demonstrate that t-SNAREs in the target membrane and v-SNARE in the vesicle membrane overcome repulsive forces to bring opposing membranes close to within a distance of 2.8 A. Studies suggest that calcium bridging of the opposing bilayers, lead to release of water from hydrated Ca2+ ions as well as the loosely coordinated water at PO-lipid head groups, leading to membrane destabilization and fusion. The t-/v-SNARE is a tight complex, who's disassembly requires an ATPase called NSF, which functions as a right-handed molecular motor. PMID:19601899

Jena, Bhanu P

2009-01-01

463

Recent Advances of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of motor technology began with the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday. Various kinds of motors were developed by the recent progress of the fundamental technology (magnetic structure, magnetic material, drive circuit, control method). Especially, motors using the reluctance torque have many advantages and some of them are used as high efficient motors. This paper overviews recent advances of reluctance torque assisted motors such as Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM).

Ohyama, Kazunobu

464

Motor imagery in physical therapist practice.  

PubMed

Motor imagery is the mental representation of movement without any body movement. Abundant evidence on the positive effects of motor imagery practice on motor performance and learning in athletes, people who are healthy, and people with neurological conditions (eg, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease) has been published. The purpose of this update is to synthesize the relevant literature about motor imagery in order to facilitate its integration into physical therapist practice. This update also will discuss visual and kinesthetic motor imagery, factors that modify motor imagery practice, the design of motor imagery protocols, and potential applications of motor imagery. PMID:17472948

Dickstein, Ruth; Deutsch, Judith E

2007-07-01

465

Information exchanged between fusion tracker and other fusion functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art of tracking has matured and consequently, the priorities for improved performance and expanded or new processing capabilities have changed. Future directions in algorithm development in tracking and related data processing are not easy to predict with accuracy. The future priorities of development tasks predicted in this presentation are subjective; that is, simply the author's view. While there will continue to be algorithm development to improve many aspects of tracking, the emphasis is expected to change in favor of expanded or new capabilities. This paper concentrates on the interactions between the fusion tracker and the other fusion functions. Fusion is expected to have higher priority for algorithm development than tracking with single sensor data. The interactions between the fusion tracker and the other fusion functions are expected to be of special interest to achieve advanced fusion performance. To facilitate this discussion, the categories of the state of the art of tracking are expanded beyond the previous paper. Many aspects of single sensor, multiple target tracking have matured during the last 20 years but room for improvement remains. In contrast, fusion of data from multiple distributed sensors is far less mature and interest is expected to continue to increase. Many fusion systems pose challenges that are not of much concern in tracking with data from a single sensor and algorithm development of those aspects of fusion will continue to be needed. The capability of the many functions and users of the output of trackers needs to be improved and expanded. Consequently, an increase is expected in the need to improve in the interactions between the fusion tracker and the other fusion functions. Some of important interactions between the fusion tracker and the other fusion functions of a high performance multiple sensor fusion system are discussed and a dialogue on this topic is encouraged.

Drummond, Oliver E.

2011-09-01

466

Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.  

PubMed

Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems. PMID:24571957

van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

2014-05-01

467

Directions for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

1986-01-01

468

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

469

Reciprocating linear motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

Goldowsky, Michael P.

1987-06-01

470

Reciprocating linear motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

Goldowsky, Michael P. (inventor)

1987-01-01

471

Piezoelectric wave motor  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

2001-07-17

472

Piezoelectric wave motor  

DOEpatents

A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

2003-02-11

473

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. ``Fusion for Neutrons'' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

474

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

475

The Need for Fusion Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

Cassibry, Jason

2005-01-01

476

Physics of magnetic confinement fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

Wagner, F.

2013-06-01

477

Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals  

PubMed Central

Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Int