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1

Brain representations for acquiring and recalling visual-motor adaptations.  

PubMed

Humans readily learn and remember new motor skills, a process that likely underlies adaptation to changing environments. During adaptation, the brain develops new sensory-motor relationships, and if consolidation occurs, a memory of the adaptation can be retained for extended periods. Considerable evidence exists that multiple brain circuits participate in acquiring new sensory-motor memories, though the networks engaged in recalling these and whether the same brain circuits participate in their formation and recall have less clarity. To address these issues, we assessed brain activation with functional MRI while young healthy adults learned and recalled new sensory-motor skills by adapting to world-view rotations of visual feedback that guided hand movements. We found cerebellar activation related to adaptation rate, likely reflecting changes related to overall adjustments to the visual rotation. A set of parietal and frontal regions, including inferior and superior parietal lobules, premotor area, supplementary motor area and primary somatosensory cortex, exhibited non-linear learning-related activation that peaked in the middle of the adaptation phase. Activation in some of these areas, including the inferior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus and somatosensory cortex, likely reflected actual learning, since the activation correlated with learning after-effects. Lastly, we identified several structures having recall-related activation, including the anterior cingulate and the posterior putamen, since the activation correlated with recall efficacy. These findings demonstrate dynamic aspects of brain activation patterns related to formation and recall of a sensory-motor skill, such that non-overlapping brain regions participate in distinctive behavioral events. PMID:25019676

Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

2014-11-01

2

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multifocal Acquired Demyelinating Sensory and Motor Neuropathy and Other Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Variants  

PubMed Central

Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and management continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. PMID:23642723

Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

3

Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

2012-01-01

4

Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn

2010-01-01

5

Multisensor fusion for induction motor aging analysis and fault diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction motors are the most commonly used electrical drives, ranging in power from fractional horsepower to several thousand horsepowers. Several studies have been conducted to identify the cause of failure of induction motors in industrial applications. Recent activities indicate a focus towards building intelligence into the motors, so that a continuous on-line fault diagnosis and prognosis may be performed. The purpose of this research and development was to perform aging studies of three-phase, squirrel-cage induction motors; establish a database of mechanical, electrical and thermal measurements from load testing of the motors; develop a sensor-fusion method for on-line motor diagnosis; and use the accelerated aging models to extrapolate to the normal aging regimes. A new laboratory was established at The University of Tennessee to meet the goals of the project. The accelerated aging and motor performance tests constitute a unique database, containing information about the trend characteristics of measured signatures as a function of motor faults. The various measurements facilitate enhanced fault diagnosis of motors and may be effectively utilized to increase the reliability of decision making and for the development of life prediction techniques. One of these signatures is the use of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) using wavelets. Using MRA in trending different frequency bands has revealed that higher frequencies show a characteristic increase when the condition of a bearing is in question. This study effectively showed that the use of MRA in vibration signatures can identify a thermal degradation or degradation via electrical charge of the bearing, whereas other failure mechanisms, such as winding insulation failure, do not exhibit such characteristics. A motor diagnostic system, called the Intelligent Motor Monitoring System (IMMS) was developed in this research. The IMMS integrated the various mechanical, electrical and thermal signatures, and artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic algorithms. The IMMS was then used for motor fault detection and isolation and for estimating its remaining operable lifetime. The performance of the IMMS was evaluated using the motor aging data, and showed that several motor degradation modes could be effectively diagnosed and the prognosis of motor operation could be established.

Erbay, Ali Seyfettin

6

Remote sensing of shorelines using data fusion of hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired from mobile and fixed platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimized data fusion methodology is presented and makes use of airborne and vessel mounted hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired at littoral zones in Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results demonstrate the use of hyperspectral-multispectral data fusion anomaly detection along shorelines and in surface and subsurface waters. Hyperspectral imagery utilized in the data fusion analysis was collected using a 64-1024 channel, 1376 pixel swath width; temperature stabilized sensing system; an integrated inertial motion unit; and differential GPS. The imaging system is calibrated using dual 18 inch calibration spheres, spectral line sources, and custom line targets. Simultaneously collected multispectral three band imagery used in the data fusion analysis was derived either a 12 inch focal length large format camera using 9 inch high speed AGFA color negative film, a 12.3 megapixel digital camera or dual high speed full definition video cameras. Pushbroom sensor imagery is corrected using Kalman filtering and smoothing in order to correct images for airborne platform motions or motions of a small vessel. Custom software developed for the hyperspectral system and the optimized data fusion process allows for post processing using atmospherically corrected and georeferenced reflectance imagery. The optimized data fusion approach allows for detecting spectral anomalies in the resolution enhanced data cubes. Spectral-spatial anomaly detection is demonstrated using simulated embedded targets in actual imagery. The approach allows one to utilize spectral signature anomalies to identify features and targets that would otherwise not be possible. The optimized data fusion techniques and software has been developed in order to perform sensitivity analysis of the synthetic images in order to optimize the singular value decomposition model building process and the 2-D Butterworth cutoff frequency selection process, using the concept of user defined "feature areas". The data fusion "synthetic imagery" forms a basis for spectral-spatial resolution enhancement for optimal band selection and remote sensing algorithm development within "spectral anomaly areas". The methods are applied to imagery intended to support Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation and recovery efforts. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates the data fusion methodology is most sensitive to (a) the pixels and features used in the SVD model building process and (b) the 2-D Butterworth cutoff frequency optimized by application of K-S nonparametric test. The optimized image fusion approach is transferable to sensor data acquired from other platforms, including autonomous underwater vehicles using near real time processing.

Bostater, Charles R.; Frystacky, Heather

2012-06-01

7

Image enhancement tools for tracing fringe patterns in holographic interferograms acquired during laser fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed holographic interferometry is essentially the only direct method for determining electron density profiles in inertial fusion plasmas. Consequently, it is a very important diagnostic tool in laser fusion experimentation. The tracing of fringe patterns in the reconstructed holograms is required to determine their precise number and location for subsequent Abel inversion. This is a very labor-intensive task, for which computer assistance has long been sought. In the KMS Fusion multiframe optical probing system, a sequence of four time resolved image frames is produced at rates equivalent to over 5 billion/sec. The increased number of images thus generated has spurred the development of improved methods for handling data. A plan has evolved for providing scientists with interactive adaptive image enhancement tools to assist in locating the fringes. The feasibility of applying digital techniques to aid in the analysis of holographic interferograms has been demonstrated by others. However, only limited success has been achieved in tracing highly dense fringes in the presence of noise. Traditional noise reduction methods tend to fail in the case of high density fringes, where the spatial frequency of the noise is close to that of the pattern to be discerned. Other problems are introduced by uneven lighting conditions, competing fringe patterns (due to aberrations in optical components or other attenuators in the optical path), and bonafide discontinuities in the fringes. Newly developed digital enhancement tools apply tailorable neighborhood operators to individual pixels as directed by a cursor that may be manipulated via jobstick or keyboard control. Operations may be performed on a sectional blow-up while viewing both the full image and the enlarged section. In this manner, global information can be utilized to aid in the local enhancement operations, and vice versa.

Vavra, P.C.; Busch, G.E.; Shepard, C.L.

1983-01-01

8

Acquiring transgenic tobacco plants with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation.  

PubMed

The advantages of gene 'stacking' or 'pyramiding' are obvious in genetically modified (GM) crops, and several different multi-transgene-stacking methods are available. Using linker peptides for multiple gene transformation is considered to be a good method to meet a variety of needs. In our experiment, the Bt cry1Ah gene, which encodes the insect-resistance protein, and the mG ( 2 ) -epsps gene, which encodes the glyphosate-tolerance protein, were connected by a 2A or LP4/2A linker. Linker 2A is a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that has self-cleavage activity. LP4 is a peptide from Raphanus sativus seeds that has a recognition site and is cleaved by a protease. LP4/2A is a hybrid peptide that contains the first 9 amino acids of LP4 and 20 amino acids from 2A. We used the linker peptide to construct four coordinated expression vectors: pHAG, pHLAG, pGAH and pGLAH. Two single gene expression vectors, pSAh and pSmG(2), were used as controls. The six expression vectors and the pCAMBIA2301 vector were transferred into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and 529 transformants were obtained. Molecular detection and bioassay detection data demonstrated that the transgenic tobaccos possessed good pest resistance and glyphosate tolerance. The two genes in the fusion vector were expressed simultaneously. The plants with the genes linked by the LP4/2A peptide showed better pest resistance and glyphosate tolerance than the plants with the genes linked by 2A. The expression level of the two genes linked by LP4/2A was not significantly different from the single gene vector. Key message The expression level of the two genes linked by LP4/2A was higher than those linked by 2A and was not significantly different from the single gene vector. PMID:22777591

Sun, He; Lang, Zhihong; Zhu, Li; Huang, Dafang

2012-10-01

9

Transplantation of Xenopus laevis Tissues to Determine the Ability of Motor Neurons to Acquire a Novel Target  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary origin of novelties is a central problem in biology. At a cellular level this requires, for example, molecularly resolving how brainstem motor neurons change their innervation target from muscle fibers (branchial motor neurons) to neural crest-derived ganglia (visceral motor neurons) or ear-derived hair cells (inner ear and lateral line efferent neurons). Transplantation of various tissues into the path of motor neuron axons could determine the ability of any motor neuron to innervate a novel target. Several tissues that receive direct, indirect, or no motor innervation were transplanted into the path of different motor neuron populations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Ears, somites, hearts, and lungs were transplanted to the orbit, replacing the eye. Jaw and eye muscle were transplanted to the trunk, replacing a somite. Applications of lipophilic dyes and immunohistochemistry to reveal motor neuron axon terminals were used. The ear, but not somite-derived muscle, heart, or liver, received motor neuron axons via the oculomotor or trochlear nerves. Somite-derived muscle tissue was innervated, likely by the hypoglossal nerve, when replacing the ear. In contrast to our previous report on ear innervation by spinal motor neurons, none of the tissues (eye or jaw muscle) was innervated when transplanted to the trunk. Taken together, these results suggest that there is some plasticity inherent to motor innervation, but not every motor neuron can become an efferent to any target that normally receives motor input. The only tissue among our samples that can be innervated by all motor neurons tested is the ear. We suggest some possible, testable molecular suggestions for this apparent uniqueness. PMID:23383335

Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

2013-01-01

10

Structures of Bacterial Flagellar Motors from Two FliF-FliG Gene Fusion Mutants  

PubMed Central

Flagella purified from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contain FliG, FliM, and FliN, cytoplasmic proteins that are important in torque generation and switching, and FliF, a transmembrane structural protein. The motor portion of the flagellum (the basal body complex) has a cytoplasmic C ring and a transmembrane M ring. Incubation of purified basal bodies at pH 4.5 removed FliM and FliN but not FliG or FliF. These basal bodies lacked C rings but had intact M rings, suggesting that FliM and FliN are part of the C ring but not a detectable part of the M ring. Incubation of basal bodies at pH 2.5 removed FliG, FliM, and FliN but not FliF. These basal bodies lacked the C ring, and the cytoplasmic face of the M ring was altered, suggesting that FliG makes up at least part of the cytoplasmic face of the M ring. Further insights into FliG were obtained from cells expressing a fusion protein of FliF and FliG. Flagella from these mutants still rotated but cells were not chemotactic. One mutant is a full-length fusion of FliF and FliG; the second mutant has a deletion lacking the last 56 residues of FliF and the first 94 residues of FliG. In the former, C rings appeared complete, but a portion of the M ring was shifted to higher radius. The C-ring–M-ring interaction appeared to be altered. In basal bodies with the fusion-deletion protein, the C ring was smaller in diameter, and one of its domains occupied space vacated by missing portions of FliF and FliG. PMID:11591685

Thomas, Dennis; Morgan, David Gene; DeRosier, David J.

2001-01-01

11

Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

12

Image-enhancement tools for tracing fringe patterns in holographic interferograms acquired during laser-fusion experiments. KMSF-U-1346  

SciTech Connect

A multi-frame probing system developed for use in laser fusion experiments quadruples the number of holographic interferograms acquired during each laser shot. In order to handle the increase in quantity of data, improvements over the previous method of locating fringes using a tablet digitizer were required. Conventional turnkey image enhancement and fringe tracing methods were found to be inadequate due to the noise levels and fringe densities present. A set of interactive adaptive digital image processing tools was developed to help scientists trace fringe patterns in the holographic interferograms. Preliminary results are promising.

Vavra, P.C.; Busch, G.E.; Shepard, C.L.

1983-01-01

13

Promoting adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury, extensive motor and communication disabilities, and consciousness disorders.  

PubMed

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or pressure microswitches (linked to preferred environmental stimuli) and eyelid, toe and finger responses. Study II involved three participants who were emerging from a minimally conscious state and were provided with intervention packages based on computer presentations of stimulus options (i.e., preferred stimuli, functional caregiver's procedures, and non-preferred stimuli) and pressure microswitches to choose among them. Intervention data of Study I showed that the participants acquired relatively high levels of microswitch responding (thus engaging widely with preferred environmental stimuli) and kept that responding consistent except for one case. Intervention data of Study II showed that the participants were active in choosing among preferred stimuli and positive caregivers' procedures, but generally abstained from non-preferred stimuli. The results were discussed in terms of the successful use of fairly new/infrequent microswitch-response arrangements (Study I) and the profitable inclusion of functional caregiver's procedures among the options available to choice (Study II). PMID:22738766

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

14

Strategy for Treating Motor Neuron Diseases Using a Fusion Protein of Botulinum Toxin Binding Domain and Streptavidin for Viral Vector Access: Work in Progress  

PubMed Central

Although advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have suggested attractive treatment strategies, delivery of agents to motor neurons embedded within the spinal cord is problematic. We have designed a strategy based on the specificity of botulinum toxin, to direct entry of viral vectors carrying candidate therapeutic genes into motor neurons. We have engineered and expressed fusion proteins consisting of the binding domain of botulinum toxin type A fused to streptavidin (SAv). This fusion protein will direct biotinylated viral vectors carrying therapeutic genes into motor nerve terminals where they can enter the acidified endosomal compartments, be released and undergo retrograde transport, to deliver the genes to motor neurons. Both ends of the fusion proteins are shown to be functionally intact. The binding domain end binds to mammalian nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions, ganglioside GT1b (a target of botulinum toxin), and a variety of neuronal cells including primary chick embryo motor neurons, N2A neuroblastoma cells, NG108-15 cells, but not to NG CR72 cells, which lack complex gangliosides. The streptavidin end binds to biotin, and to a biotinylated Alexa 488 fluorescent tag. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the delivery of genes to motor neurons in vivo, by the use of biotinylated viral vectors. PMID:22069580

Drachman, Daniel B.; Adams, Robert N.; Balasubramanian, Uma; Lu, Yang

2010-01-01

15

A faster, high resolution, mtPA-GFP-based mitochondrial fusion assay acquiring kinetic data of multiple cells in parallel using confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial fusion plays an essential role in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, bioenergetics, autophagy and quality control. Fusion is quantified in living cells by photo-conversion of matrix targeted photoactivatable GFP (mtPAGFP) in a subset of mitochondria. The rate at which the photoconverted molecules equilibrate across the entire mitochondrial population is used as a measure of fusion activity. Thus far measurements were performed using a single cell time lapse approach, quantifying the equilibration in one cell over an hour. Here, we scale up and automate a previously published live cell method based on using mtPAGFP and a low concentration of TMRE (15 nm). This method involves photoactivating a small portion of the mitochondrial network, collecting highly resolved stacks of confocal sections every 15 min for 1 hour, and quantifying the change in signal intensity. Depending on several factors such as ease of finding PAGFP expressing cells, and the signal of the photoactivated regions, it is possible to collect around 10 cells within the 15 min intervals. This provides a significant improvement in the time efficiency of this assay while maintaining the highly resolved subcellular quantification as well as the kinetic parameters necessary to capture the detail of mitochondrial behavior in its native cytoarchitectural environment. Mitochondrial dynamics play a role in many cellular processes including respiration, calcium regulation, and apoptosis. The structure of the mitochondrial network affects the function of mitochondria, and the way they interact with the rest of the cell. Undergoing constant division and fusion, mitochondrial networks attain various shapes ranging from highly fused networks, to being more fragmented. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Charcot Marie Tooth 2A, and dominant optic atrophy have been correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology, namely fragmented networks. Often times, upon fragmentation, mitochondria become depolarized, and upon accumulation this leads to impaired cell function. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to signal a cell to progress toward apoptosis. It can also provide a mechanism by which to separate depolarized and inactive mitochondria to keep the bulk of the network robust. Fusion of mitochondria, on the other hand, leads to sharing of matrix proteins, solutes, mtDNA and the electrochemical gradient, and also seems to prevent progression to apoptosis. How fission and fusion of mitochondria affects cell homeostasis and ultimately the functioning of the organism needs further understanding, and therefore the continuous development and optimization of how to gather information on these phenomena is necessary. Existing mitochondrial fusion assays have revealed various insights into mitochondrial physiology, each having its own advantages. The hybrid PEG fusion assay, mixes two populations of differently labeled cells (mtRFP and mtYFP), and analyzes the amount of mixing and colocalization of fluorophores in fused, multinucleated, cells. Although this method has yielded valuable information, not all cell types can fuse, and the conditions under which fusion is stimulated involves the use of toxic drugs that likely affect the normal fusion process. More recently, a cell free technique has been devised, using isolated mitochondria to observe fusion events based on a luciferase assay. Two human cell lines are targeted with either the amino or a carboxy terminal part of Renilla luciferase along with a leucine zipper to ensure dimerization upon mixing. Mitochondria are isolated from each cell line, and fused. The fusion reaction can occur without the cytosol under physiological conditions in the presence of energy, appropriate temperature and inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, the cytosol was found to modulate the extent of fusion, demonstrating that cell signaling regulates the fusion process. This assay will be very useful for high throughput screening to identify components of the fusion machinery and also pharmacological c

Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J A; Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S

2012-01-01

16

A Faster, High Resolution, mtPA-GFP-based Mitochondrial Fusion Assay Acquiring Kinetic Data of Multiple Cells in Parallel Using Confocal Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial fusion plays an essential role in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, bioenergetics, autophagy and quality control. Fusion is quantified in living cells by photo-conversion of matrix targeted photoactivatable GFP (mtPAGFP) in a subset of mitochondria. The rate at which the photoconverted molecules equilibrate across the entire mitochondrial population is used as a measure of fusion activity. Thus far measurements were performed using a single cell time lapse approach, quantifying the equilibration in one cell over an hour. Here, we scale up and automate a previously published live cell method based on using mtPAGFP and a low concentration of TMRE (15 nm). This method involves photoactivating a small portion of the mitochondrial network, collecting highly resolved stacks of confocal sections every 15 min for 1 hour, and quantifying the change in signal intensity. Depending on several factors such as ease of finding PAGFP expressing cells, and the signal of the photoactivated regions, it is possible to collect around 10 cells within the 15 min intervals. This provides a significant improvement in the time efficiency of this assay while maintaining the highly resolved subcellular quantification as well as the kinetic parameters necessary to capture the detail of mitochondrial behavior in its native cytoarchitectural environment. Mitochondrial dynamics play a role in many cellular processes including respiration, calcium regulation, and apoptosis1,2,3,13. The structure of the mitochondrial network affects the function of mitochondria, and the way they interact with the rest of the cell. Undergoing constant division and fusion, mitochondrial networks attain various shapes ranging from highly fused networks, to being more fragmented. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Charcot Marie Tooth 2A, and dominant optic atrophy have been correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology, namely fragmented networks4,10,13. Often times, upon fragmentation, mitochondria become depolarized, and upon accumulation this leads to impaired cell function18. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to signal a cell to progress toward apoptosis. It can also provide a mechanism by which to separate depolarized and inactive mitochondria to keep the bulk of the network robust14. Fusion of mitochondria, on the other hand, leads to sharing of matrix proteins, solutes, mtDNA and the electrochemical gradient, and also seems to prevent progression to apoptosis9. How fission and fusion of mitochondria affects cell homeostasis and ultimately the functioning of the organism needs further understanding, and therefore the continuous development and optimization of how to gather information on these phenomena is necessary. Existing mitochondrial fusion assays have revealed various insights into mitochondrial physiology, each having its own advantages. The hybrid PEG fusion assay7, mixes two populations of differently labeled cells (mtRFP and mtYFP), and analyzes the amount of mixing and colocalization of fluorophores in fused, multinucleated, cells. Although this method has yielded valuable information, not all cell types can fuse, and the conditions under which fusion is stimulated involves the use of toxic drugs that likely affect the normal fusion process. More recently, a cell free technique has been devised, using isolated mitochondria to observe fusion events based on a luciferase assay1,5. Two human cell lines are targeted with either the amino or a carboxy terminal part of Renilla luciferase along with a leucine zipper to ensure dimerization upon mixing. Mitochondria are isolated from each cell line, and fused. The fusion reaction can occur without the cytosol under physiological conditions in the presence of energy, appropriate temperature and inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, the cytosol was found to modulate the extent of fusion, demonstrating that cell signaling regulates the fusion process 4,5. This assay will be very useful for high throughput screening to identify components of the fusion machiner

Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J.A.; Cerqueira, Fernanda M.; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S.

2012-01-01

17

De novo acute myeloid leukemia subtype-M4 with initial trisomy 8 and later acquired t(3;12)(q26;p12) leading to ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript expression: A case report  

PubMed Central

The t(3;12)(q26;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosomal aberration observed in myeloid malignancies. The translocation results in the generation of the ETV6/myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1)/ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) fusion gene. However, the present case report is the first to present this rearrangement in acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML)-M4. Notably, this case is the first report of AML-M4 with an initial trisomy 8 and secondary acquired t(3;12)(q26;p13). Cells harboring the t(3;12) translocation were found to exhibit a higher proliferative capacity than cells with pure trisomy 8, which is consistent with the role of the ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript in the development and progression of malignancy. PMID:24527086

ACHKAR, WALID AL; ALJAPAWE, ABDULMUNIM; LIEHR, THOMAS; WAFA, ABDULSAMAD

2014-01-01

18

Centrosome and spindle function of the Drosophila Ncd microtubule motor visualized in live embryos using Ncd-GFP fusion proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ncd microtubule motor protein is required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila. Null mutant females expressing the Ncd motor fused to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), regulated by the wild-type ncd promoter, are rescued for chromosome segregation and embryo viability. Analysis of mitosis in live embryos shows cell cycle-dependent localiza- tion of Ncd-GFP to

Sharyn A. Endow; Donald J. Komma

1996-01-01

19

Acquired hyperpigmentations.  

PubMed

Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis. PMID:24626644

Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

2014-01-01

20

Acquired hyperpigmentations*  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

2014-01-01

21

Hypothetical Explanations for Fusion Maldevelopment Nystagmus Syndrome and Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome using a Behavioral Ocular Motor System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

For best possible vision, the ocular motor system (OMS) continually has to keep the eyes properly aimed and stable, despite challenges to this stability, whether external or internally generated, such as in the case of nystagmus. We have developed a behavioral model of the OMS that can simulate both normal operation as well as two forms of congenitally present nystagmus,

Jonathan B. JACOBS; Louis F. DELL' OSSO

22

Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase localized to the cytoplasm slowly acquires enzymatic activity in cells whose growth has been suspended: a caution for gene fusion studies.  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase is normally localized to the periplasm of Escherichia coli and is unable to fold into its native conformation if retained in the cytoplasm of growing cells. The alkaline phosphatase activity of E. coli expressing a version of the protein without a signal sequence was nonetheless found to increase gradually when the growth of cells was suspended. At least 30% of the protein was activated over the course of several hours when freshly grown exponential-phase cells were held on ice. Similar behavior was observed with cells expressing certain other mutant versions of alkaline phosphatase that are retained in the cytoplasm. The activation resulted not from the passage of the alkaline phosphatase into the periplasm but from the slow folding of alkaline phosphatase into its native conformation in the cytoplasm. These findings indicate that the mechanism by which proteins are normally kept reduced in the cytoplasm fails to function if cells are not growing. It was found that the addition of the sulfhydryl-alkylating agent iodoacetamide to cells after growth blocks this activation completely. This treatment can therefore diminish the likelihood of spurious enzyme activity measurements in studies that make use of alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. PMID:7601842

Derman, A I; Beckwith, J

1995-01-01

23

Motor Dysfunction III: Concussion, Acquired Brain  

E-print Network

/behavioural ­ agitation, depression, impulsivity · Cognitive (attention, planning, memory) · Seizures Seizure · Chronic condition = epilepsy · Estimated 3% will be diagnosed ­highest incidence, young children & elderly

Sergio, Lauren E.

24

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

25

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

2009-01-01

26

HYPOPROLIFERATIVE Acquired or Constitutional  

E-print Network

9/16/2013 1 HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS Acquired or Constitutional Disorder with Chronic Bone Marrow, or megakaryocytic hypoplasia used APLASTIC ANEMIA Criteria Bone Cellularity : Granulocyte Count Anemia with corrected Retic Count

27

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications  

E-print Network

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser,sroubekf,zitova}@utia.cas.cz #12;Introduction The term fusion means in general an approach to extraction of information acquired in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal

Sroubek, Filip

28

Acquired Immunity to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works. There is no general agreement about the rate of onset of acquired immunity or what constitutes the key determinants of protection; much less is there a consensus regarding the mechanism(s) of protection. This review summarizes what is understood about naturally acquired and experimentally induced immunity against malaria with the help of evolving insights provided by biotechnology and places these insights in the context of historical, clinical, and epidemiological observations. We advocate that naturally acquired immunity should be appreciated as being virtually 100% effective against severe disease and death among heavily exposed adults. Even the immunity that occurs in exposed infants may exceed 90% effectiveness. The induction of an adult-like immune status among high-risk infants in sub-Saharan Africa would greatly diminish disease and death caused by P. falciparum. The mechanism of naturally acquired immunity that occurs among adults living in areas of hyper- to holoendemicity should be understood with a view toward duplicating such protection in infants and young children in areas of endemicity. PMID:19136431

Doolan, Denise L.; Dobaño, Carlota; Baird, J. Kevin

2009-01-01

29

Acquired smooth muscle hamartoma.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle hamartoma is an uncommon, usually congenital, cutaneous hyperplasia of the arrectores pilorum muscles. When it is acquired, it may be confused with Becker's nevus. We report a case of this rare tumor in a 19-year-old man. The disease started several years ago as multiple small skin-colored papules that subsequently coalesced to form a large soft plaque on the back of the left shoulder. The diagnosis of acquired smooth muscle hamartoma was confirmed on histopathology. The patient was reassured about the benign nature of the lesion and was not advised any treatment. PMID:16707840

ul Bari, Arfan; Rahman, Simeen Ber

2006-01-01

30

Molecular Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discover what controls how fast tiny molecular motors in our body pull through a single strand of DNA. How hard can the motor pull in a tug of war with the optical tweezers? Discover what helps it pull harder. Do all molecular motors behave the same?

Simulations, Phet I.; Perkins, Kathy; Malley, Chris; Perkins, Tom; Dubson, Mike; Adams, Wendy

2007-12-01

31

Acquired upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

Jürg Hammer

2004-01-01

32

Motor Cortex Reorganization across the Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain is a highly dynamic structure with the capacity for profound structural and functional change. Such neural plasticity has been well characterized within motor cortex and is believed to represent one of the neural mechanisms for acquiring and modifying motor behaviors. A number of behavioral and neural signals have been identified that…

Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

33

Systemic Acquired Resistance  

PubMed Central

Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

2006-01-01

34

Acquired Reactive Perforating Collagenosis  

PubMed Central

Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis (ARPC) is commonly recognized as an unusual skin reaction to superficial trauma that is observed in patients with a certain genetic predisposition or underlying diseases, such as diabetes mellitus or renal diseases. We present the unusual case of a 55-year-old female diabetic patient with numerous characteristic dome-shaped nodules, which consisted of central umbilication containing firm keratotic plugs.

Ataseven, Arzu; Kayacetin, Serra

2012-01-01

35

[Acquired necrotizing myopathies].  

PubMed

Necrotizing myopathies (MN) are defined by a specific histological pattern. They are characterized by a predominant muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration but with little or no associated inflammation. This histological pattern is observed in acquired myopathy but also in muscular dystrophy. Acquired NM can be secondary to drugs or toxics, and if not, autoimmune mechanisms have to be suspected. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is recognized as a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, different from other myositides. Generally, patients present a rapidly progressive and severe symmetrical proximal weakness with high serum creatine kinase level, associated in some patients with cardiac involvement. On the other hand, a slower progression may sometimes be observed, that could lead to erroneous diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy may be associated to specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle, or more recently described, against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Necrotizing auto-immune myopathy can also be described in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus or sclerodermia. In remaining cases, cancer association may be observed. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are now considered as a new entity, treatable by immunosuppressants and which should not be misdiagnosed as a muscular dystrophy. PMID:22998975

Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

2013-06-01

36

Naturally acquired microchimerism  

PubMed Central

Bi-directional transplacental trafficking occurs routinely during the course of normal pregnancy, from fetus to mother and from mother to fetus. In addition to a variety of cell-free substances, it is now well recognized that some cells are also exchanged. Microchimerism refers to a small number of cells (or DNA) harbored by one individual that originated in a genetically different individual. While microchimerism can be the result of iatrogenic interventions such as transplantation or transfusion, by far the most common source is naturally acquired microchimerism from maternal-fetal trafficking during pregnancy. Microchimerism is a subject of much current interest for a number of reasons. During pregnancy, fetal microchimerism can be sought from the mother’s blood for the purpose of prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, studies of fetal microchimerism during pregnancy may offer insight into complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, as well as insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis which usually ameliorates during pregnancy. Furthermore, it is now known that microchimerism persists decades later, both fetal microchimerism in women who have been pregnant and maternal microchimerism in her progeny. Investigation of the long-term consequences of fetal and maternal microchimerism is another exciting frontier of active study, with initial results pointing both to adverse and beneficial effects. This review will provide an overview of microchimerism during pregnancy and of current knowledge regarding long-term effects of naturally acquired fetal and maternal microchimerism. PMID:19924635

GAMMILL, HILARY S.; NELSON, J. LEE

2010-01-01

37

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

2012-08-20

38

Motor Bird  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a bird that flies in place with help from a motor, wire, and some straws. This engineering activity introduces learners to circuits and motors, automata, and rotational motion. Note: a drill and drill bit are required for this project, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Fresno Community Science Workshop

2011-01-01

39

Molecular motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

2015-10-01

40

AC Motors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, AC Motors, is the thirteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Synchronous Motors, Tesla polyphase induction motors; Wound rotor induction motors; and Selsyn (synchro) motors. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-04

41

[Acquired haemophilia A].  

PubMed

Acquired haemophilia A is a rare auto-immune disease caused by an inhibitory antibody to factor VIII. Patients with this disorder are at high risk of severe bleeding until the inhibitor has been eradicated. Management of this disorder consists in rapid accurate diagnosis, control of bleeding and eradication of the inhibitor by immunosuppression. The cessation of bleeding is based mainly on recombinant factor VIIa and activated prothrombin complex concentrate which are approximately equally efficacious. Immunosuppression is still based on steroids alone or with combination with cyclopfosphamide which may result in a higher rate of remission. New drugs as rituximab or cyclosporine A are the second line option. In case of life-threatening bleeding immunoadsorption and high dose of fac-tor VIII could be advantageous. PMID:23067181

Smejkal, P; Buliková, A; Chlupová, G; Zav?elová, J

2012-01-01

42

Inherited and acquired thrombophilias.  

PubMed

Thrombophilias represent an evolving story that continues to stir controversy for care providers and obstetrical patients. The predominant thrombophilic mutations include the factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, methylene tetrahydrafolate reductase C667T, and deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants proteins C and S, and antithrombin. Prospective cohort studies have provided an accurate assessment of the risk of placenta-mediated complications posed by common inherited thrombophilic conditions. Acquired thrombophilic conditions consist of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) and hyperhomocysteinemia. Well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized trials have demonstrated no benefit of anticoagulation in women with recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia. The routine use of anticoagulation to prevent other placenta-mediated complications in the setting of inherited thrombophilia should be considered experimental until the results of adequate clinical trials are available. Heparin anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies are the cornerstone of treatment of APAS in pregnancy. PMID:23899550

Rambaldi, Marianna Pina; Mecacci, Federico; Guaschino, Secondo; Paidas, Michael J

2014-02-01

43

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

44

Molecular motors and their functions in plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory mechanisms that perform plant-specific functions are yet to be discovered. Although the identification of motors in plants, especially in Arabidopsis, is progressing at a rapid pace because of the ongoing plant genome sequencing projects, only a few plant motors have been characterized in any detail. Elucidation of function and regulation of this multitude of motors in a given species is going to be a challenging and exciting area of research in plant cell biology. Structural features of some plant motors suggest calcium, through calmodulin, is likely to play a key role in regulating the function of both microtubule- and actin-based motors in plants.

Reddy, A. S.

2001-01-01

45

Sensory data fusion of pressure mattress and wireless inertial magnetic measurement units.  

PubMed

Head movement of infants is an important parameter for analysing infant motor patterns. Despite its importance, this field has received little sensory-based research in the past years. Therefore, we present a sensory-supported data fusion model for head movement analysis of infants in supine position. The sensory system comprises a pressure mattress and two wireless inertial magnetic measurement units, rendering precise, objective and non-intrusive information on pressure distribution and 3D trunk orientation, respectively. Algorithms first perform pressure data pre-processing and calculate image moments to acquire 2D trunk orientation. Afterwards, unscented Kalman filter is used for sensory data fusion. After additional data processing, head and trunk coordinates are calculated along with head displacement distance. The sensory system was tested on experimental measurements, performed in eight normally developing infants aged from 1 to 5 months. Results of several algorithm combinations were compared to referential video recordings in terms of head lifts. Combination of algorithms, incorporating head tracking and sensory data fusion provides completely accurate results in comparison to normative data. Statistical data analysis and referential optoelectronic measurements were performed to evaluate accuracy of the sensory fusion model. Suitability of the proposed sensory system for head movement analysis of infants in supine position was verified. PMID:25367736

Rihar, Andraž; Mihelj, Matjaž; Kolar, Janko; Paši?, Jure; Munih, Marko

2015-02-01

46

Motor assessment of developing common marmosets.  

PubMed

Motor development has been extensively studied in human infants and children, with several established scales for the evaluation of motor functions. However, the study of the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development is hampered by the lack of good animal models. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has recently attracted much attention as a potential nonhuman primate model for understanding human physiology and diseases. However, little is known about its gross motor development. In the present study, we found that marmosets have a critical period for motor development in postnatal weeks 2 to 5, and acquire most of their motor skills by 8 weeks of age. We also developed methods to assess their motor functions, which will be useful for the evaluation of motor performance in marmoset models of human diseases. In addition, we found that marmosets exhibit a "head-to-tail" sequence of motor development similar to that found in humans, further supporting the notion that they provide a good animal model for studying the neuronal mechanisms underlying human motor development. PMID:24395453

Wang, Yiwen; Fang, Qin; Gong, Neng

2014-06-01

47

Premium Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

Moser, P. R.

1984-01-01

48

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

49

Motor Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

1984-01-01

50

Starting motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an

T. Tanaka; I Hamano

1989-01-01

51

Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

Vatroslav, Horvat

2011-01-01

52

Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

2006-01-01

53

Theoretical solid-propellant rocket motor internal ballistic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical methods for calculating solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance were investigated and demonstrated through application to a full-scale Minuteman III Stage III motor (MM III SIII). The propellant grain burning surface location as a function of time and internal ballistic performance were calculated and compared to experimental data previously acquired at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Propellant

R. W. McAmis; T. V. Le

1992-01-01

54

Advanced Motors  

SciTech Connect

Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14

55

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-04-20

56

"Polarized" Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

57

Assisted fusion  

E-print Network

A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

German Kälbermann

2009-10-19

58

Image fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

Pavel, M.

1993-01-01

59

The neural correlates of learned motor acuity.  

PubMed

We recently defined a component of motor skill learning as "motor acuity," quantified as a shift in the speed-accuracy trade-off function for a task. These shifts are primarily driven by reductions in movement variability. To determine the neural correlates of improvement in motor acuity, we devised a motor task compatible with magnetic resonance brain imaging that required subjects to make finely controlled wrist movements under visual guidance. Subjects were imaged on day 1 and day 5 while they performed this task and were trained outside the scanner on intervening days 2, 3, and 4. The potential confound of performance changes between days 1 and 5 was avoided by constraining movement time to a fixed duration. After training, subjects showed a marked increase in success rate and a reduction in trial-by-trial variability for the trained task but not for an untrained control task, without changes in mean trajectory. The decrease in variability for the trained task was associated with increased activation in contralateral primary motor and premotor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum. A global nonlocalizing multivariate analysis confirmed that learning was associated with increased overall brain activation. We suggest that motor acuity is acquired through increases in the number of neurons recruited in contralateral motor cortical areas and in ipsilateral cerebellum, which could reflect increased signal-to-noise ratio in motor output and improved state estimation for feedback corrections, respectively. PMID:24848466

Shmuelof, Lior; Yang, Juemin; Caffo, Brian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W

2014-08-15

60

Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Communication problems resulting from acquired brain damage are most frequently manifested as motor speech disorders such as dysarthria, syndromes of aphasia, and impairments of pragmatics. A much less common phenomenon is the onset of stuttering in adults who sustain a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurologic events. When stuttering occurs in association with neuropathology, precise characterization and explanation of observed behaviors is often difficult. Among the clinical challenges presented by acquired stuttering are the problem of distinguishing this form of dysfluency from those associated with dysarthria and aphasia, and identifying the neuropathological condition(s) and brain lesion site(s) giving rise to this speech disorder. Another challenge to the precise characterization of acquired stuttering is the fact that some cases of acquired stuttering apparently have a psychological or neuropsychiatric genesis rather than a neuropathological one. In this paper we provide a review of the literature pertaining to the complicated phenomenon of acquired stuttering in adults and draw some tentative explanatory conclusions regarding this disorder. PMID:20628582

Lundgren, Kristine; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Klein, Reva

2009-01-01

61

Implementing Motor Decision Plans  

E-print Network

The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

Elliott, R. N.

62

Motor Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about electricity and magnetism, learners examine what happens when a magnet exerts a force on a current-carrying wire. Using a simple device, learners discover that when an electrical current flows through a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the current and this force can be used to make an electric motor. Learners will experiment to find out what happens when they reverse the direction of current flow. They will also discover a mathematical tool called the "right-hand rule."

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

63

Precision Grip in Congenital and Acquired Hemiparesis: Similarities in Impairments and Implications for Neurorehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding, and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitation. Objective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, PubMed, and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital and acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly, we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other. PMID:25071502

Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gordon, Andrew M.

2014-01-01

64

Diagnosis and treatment of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies.  

PubMed

Chronic neuropathies are operationally classified as primarily demyelinating or axonal, on the basis of electrodiagnostic or pathological criteria. Demyelinating neuropathies are further classified as hereditary or acquired-this distinction is important, because the acquired neuropathies are immune-mediated and, thus, amenable to treatment. The acquired chronic demyelinating neuropathies include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), neuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG; anti-MAG neuropathy), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and POEMS syndrome. They have characteristic--though overlapping--clinical presentations, are mediated by distinct immune mechanisms, and respond to different therapies. CIDP is the default diagnosis if the neuropathy is demyelinating and no other cause is found. Anti-MAG neuropathy is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of anti-MAG antibodies, MMN is characterized by multifocal weakness and motor conduction blocks, and POEMS syndrome is associated with IgG or IgA ?-type monoclonal gammopathy and osteosclerotic myeloma. The correct diagnosis, however, can be difficult to make in patients with atypical or overlapping presentations, or nondefinitive laboratory studies. First-line treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids or plasmapheresis for CIDP; IVIg for MMN; rituximab for anti-MAG neuropathy; and irradiation or chemotherapy for POEMS syndrome. A correct diagnosis is required for choosing the appropriate treatment, with the aim of preventing progressive neuropathy. PMID:24980070

Latov, Norman

2014-08-01

65

Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

2009-01-01

66

Acquired malposition of the gallbladder.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old woman with a history of cirrhosis and portal hypertension underwent a planned laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for long-standing cholelithiasis. Laparoscopy revealed the gallbladder extending to the left of the falciform ligament, an acquired malposition secondary to cirrhosis. Modification of the surgical approach allowed safe and successful completion of the procedure laparoscopically. PMID:25260427

Hossack, Martin; Date, Ravindra

2014-01-01

67

Chapter 5 Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of induced resistance that is activated by pathogens that induce localized necrotic disease lesions or a hypersensitive response. A major characteristic of SAR is the broad spectrum nature of the protection it confers against a wide range of pathogens, although recent studies suggest that the resistance is most effective against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic

R. Hammerschmidt

2009-01-01

68

SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defense mechanism that is increasingly being exploited for crop protection. However, successful utilization of SAR will likely require optimization of defense induction for each crop followed by a determination of the pathogens against which SAR is effective. ...

69

Starting motor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

1989-05-23

70

Motor control for a brushless DC motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

71

Cerebral magnetic resonance image segmentation using data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiautomated method is described for segmenting dual echo MR head scans into gray and white matter and CSF. The method is applied to brain scans of 80 healthy children and adolescents. A probabilistic data fusion equation was used to combine simultaneously acquired T2-weighted and proton density head scans for tissue segmentation. The fusion equation optimizes the probability of a

Jagath C. Rajapakse; J. N. Giedd; A. L. Krain; S. D. Hamburger; J. L. Rapoport; C. DeCarli

1996-01-01

72

Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets  

SciTech Connect

On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion.

Not Available

1993-06-01

73

Community-acquired Acinetobacter infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acinetobacter infections have been attracting increasing attention during recent years because they have become common in hospitalized\\u000a patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, the available literature suggests that the pathogen\\u000a has another fearful potential; it can cause community-acquired infections. We searched PubMed and the reference lists of the\\u000a initially identified articles and identified six case series

M. E. Falagas; E. A. Karveli; I. Kelesidis; T. Kelesidis

2007-01-01

74

Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition of severe hyperinflammation caused by the uncontrolled\\u000a proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Cardinal signs and\\u000a symptoms are prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Characteristic biochemical markers include elevated triglycerides,\\u000a ferritin and low fibrinogen. HLH occurs on the basis of various inherited or acquired immune deficiencies. Impaired function

Gritta E. Janka

2007-01-01

75

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion  

E-print Network

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

Pelizzari, Charles A.

76

Possibilistic Fusion for Landcover Mapping using Correlated Satellite Imagery for Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acquire detection performance required for an operational system in the detection for satellite image for environmental change, it is necessary to use multiple images over years to know the environmental changes over years. This paper describes a method for decision-level fusion technique where the fusion can compensate for correlation among images. The fusion is done using possibilistic combiners based

SHAHEERA RASHWAN

2006-01-01

77

Exploring the Use of Cognitive Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often experience cognitive, motor, and psychosocial deficits that affect participation in everyday activities. Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is an individualized treatment that teaches cognitive strategies necessary to support successful performance.…

Missiuna, Cheryl; DeMatteo, Carol; Hanna, Steven; Mandich, Angela; Law, Mary; Mahoney, William; Scott, Louise

2010-01-01

78

Pressure Oscillations in Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors (SRM's) exhibit low amplitude longitudinal pressure oscillations during motor burn. Although the oscillations have no known deleterious effect on motor ballistics, the acoustic pressure variations cause thrust oscillations that might affect Shuttle systems or components. The acoustic mode of greatest interest is the first or fundamental mode which, in the SRM, has a nominal frequency of 14-Hz. Oscillations in the SRM are believed to be caused by coupling between large scale vortices and the acoustic modes of the motor chamber. The vortices are thought to be created in the region of the motor segment interfaces and are inherent in the design of the motor. In such a situation the usual approach is to measure the oscillations and assess their impact on any sensitive components through tests and analysis. Questionable components can be altered to survive the vibration environment. As motor firings occur, oscillations are monitored to determine whether there are changes in the nature of the oscillations. Since the first static test, SRM's have been equipped with instrumentation especially designed to acquire chamber pressure oscillation data. Data from the first SRM static tests were used to establish predicted upper bounds for the maximum amplitudes in the latter half of burn. Those bounds have been used as a basis for worst-case simulation scenarios by specialists in structural dynamics at NASA and Rockwell International and to provide a basis for evaluating data from individual motors which were tested subsequent to the original SRM's. This paper updates the upper bounds prediction the High Performance Motors (HPM) by including data from all static tests performed to date including both original SRM's and post Challenger SRM's or Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) in which the joint design was changed. All together, this study examines 27 SRM motors, 16 HPM motors and 11 RSRM motors. Predicted upper bounds will be made for both the first and second longitudinal modes. The first mode upper bounds will be compared to the original seven standard rocket motors (STD). The results indicate that, although the upper bounds have increased, they are still within acceptable bounds.

Blomshield, Fred S.; Bicker, C. J.

1996-01-01

79

The influence of motor expertise on the brain activity of motor task performance: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.  

PubMed

Previous research has investigated the influence of long-term motor training on the brain activity of motor processes, but the findings are inconsistent. To clarify how acquiring motor expertise induces cortical reorganization during motor task performance, the current study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis on 26 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate motor task performance in people with long-term motor training experience (e.g., athletes, musicians, and dancers) and control participants. Meta-analysis of the brain activation in motor experts and novices showed similar effects in the bilateral frontal and parietal regions. The meta-analysis on the contrast between motor experts and novices indicated that experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) than did novices in motor execution and prediction tasks. In motor observation tasks, experts showed stronger effects in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and left precentral gyrus (BA 6) than novices. On the contrary, novices had stronger effects in the right motor areas and basal ganglia as compared with motor experts. These results indicate that motor experts have effect increases in brain areas involved in action planning and action comprehension, and suggest that intensive motor training might elaborate the motor representation related to the task performance. PMID:25450866

Yang, Jie

2014-12-01

80

Investigating motors and magnetism.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

Reierson, David

81

Laser fusion  

SciTech Connect

Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

1980-12-01

82

The inhibition of acquired fear.  

PubMed

A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most commonly studied in rodents. Therefore, it seems safe to continue using extinction-based forms of therapy for disorders secondary to acquired fear. Further, it is useful and desirable to device procedures by which the "no US" component of the extinction is strengthened in order to alleviate the symptoms of victims of acquired fear. PMID:15325957

Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

2004-01-01

83

Acquired smooth-muscle hamartoma.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented with an occasionally pruritic, hyperpigmented and hypertrichotic, indurated plaque on the left upper arm that initially developed during childhood. Histopathologic examination showed changes that were consistent with a smooth-muscle hamartoma. Cutaneous smooth-muscle hamartomas are uncommon benign neoplasms. Most lesions are congenital, but there have been a few reports of acquired lesions. These lesions have been described as part of a spectrum of neoplasms that include Becker nevi since they share many clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:19891920

Yancovitz, Molly; Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Votava, Henry J; Walters, Ruth; Kundu, Roopal; Shupack, Jerome L

2009-01-01

84

Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.  

PubMed

Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. PMID:24846635

Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

2014-08-15

85

7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling...

2011-01-01

86

7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.  

...COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling...

2014-01-01

87

7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling...

2012-01-01

88

7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling...

2010-01-01

89

7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling...

2013-01-01

90

Botryomycosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The first case, to our knowledge, of an integumentary form of botryomycosis is reported in a homosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Anal fistula and ischiorectal and gluteal abscesses developed following severe cryptosporidial diarrhea. Grains composed of gram-positive cocci were identified in the suppurative exudate. The grains had attached to multinucleated macrophages, many of which contained clusters of cocci in their cytoplasm. It is postulated that the cocci were able to survive and probably replicate in the cytoplasm of multinucleated macrophages, and were subsequently extruded as grains. These observations suggest a defect in intracellular killing of cocci by the monocyte-macrophage system. This may relate to failure in induction of control of macrophage activity by T4-inducer subsets. PMID:3827528

Toth, I R; Kazal, H L

1987-03-01

91

Management of acquired haemophilia A.  

PubMed

Acquired haemophilia A is an auto-immune disease caused by an inhibitory antibody to factor VIII. The pattern of bleeding varies but patients remain at risk of life threatening bleeding until the inhibitor has been eradicated. The cornerstones of management are; rapid and accurate diagnosis, control of bleeding, investigation for an underlying cause and eradication of the inhibitor by immunosuppression. Patients should always be managed jointly with a specialist centre even if they present without significant bleeding. Despite an extensive literature, few controlled data are available and treatment guidelines are based on expert opinion. To treat bleeds recombinant factor VIIa and activated prothrombin complex concentrate are equally efficacious but both are superior to factor VIII or desmopressin. Immunosuppression should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made. Commonly used regimens are steroids alone or combined with cytotoxic agents. Rituximab is being used more widely but current evidence does not suggest that it improves outcomes or reduces side effects. PMID:21781259

Collins, P W

2011-07-01

92

Directed flux motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

2011-01-01

93

Acquired hemophilia: a case report.  

PubMed

Acquired hemophilia is a severe bleeding diathesis that affects both males and females. It is caused by suddenly appearing autoantibodies that interfere with coagulation factor VIII activity. This disorder is characterized by spontaneous and post-traumatic subcutaneous bleeds and massive mucosal hemorrhages. We report in the current article a case of acute renal failure and bleeding from the urinary tract caused by idiopathic acquired hemophilia in a 54-year-old woman. Hemostatic tests indicated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) to 107.8 sec (norm 26-36 sec), normal value of the prothrombin index which was 82% (norm 70-130%), increased fibrinogen concentration to 583 mg/dl (normal value 200-400 mg/dl), the bleeding time was 5 min and 20 s (norm < 10 min) and the platelet count was 366 x 10(9)/l (norm 130-400 x10(9)/l). The autoantibody against factor VIII in a titer of 121 Bethesda Units/ml (BU/ml) and decreased factor VIII activity to 2% (norm 50-150%) with normal plasma concentration of factor IX. Activated (FEIBA, Baxter) and nonactivated prothrombin complex concentrates (factor IX concentrate) have been used in the treatment of bleeding episode. Immunosuppressive treatment with the combination of oral prednisone 60 mg/24h and cyclophosphamide 150 mg/24h was administered in order to remove the factor VIII inhibitor. Reduction of the factor VIII inhibitor titer to 38 BU/ml and increase of factor VIII activity to 4% was initially achieved. This treatment has been continued for two years and led to normalization of hemostatic parameters (APTT 26 sec, factor VIII activity 108%) which means a total removal of factor VIII inhibitor. PMID:18575423

Flisi?ski, Mariusz; Windyga, Jerzy; Stefa?ska, Ewa; Huszcza, S?awomir; Donderski, Rafa?; Manitius, Jacek

2008-04-01

94

Chronic motor tic disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

95

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. When there are disruptions in these signals, the ...

96

Teamwork in microtubule motors.  

PubMed

Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. PMID:23877011

Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

2013-11-01

97

Nuclear Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

Astronomical Society of the Pacific

2008-01-01

98

Fusion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In energy technology priority discussions, fusion takes varying positions in different countries. In the U.S., the fashion for solar power presently puts nuclear breeders in the shade, but that priority may reverse later; coal is an extended intermediate. In Europe, oil is the intermediate and nuclear is for the long term. Yet all the U.S., Europe, Japan, the U.S.S.R. want

Rose

1978-01-01

99

Smart motor technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

1984-01-01

100

Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics  

E-print Network

industrial plant. Early Edetection of abnormalities in the motors will help avoid expensive failures. Motor current signature analy- sis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based mainte nance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well

Yazici, Birsen

101

Motor oversizing outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-phase induction motors are intrinsically efficient machines. Due to its common misapplication they are considered a great potential of energy conservation in industries. This paper presents a set of methodologies and a road map to evaluate if a motor is oversized or not, and proposes some overtaking solutions to increase the energy efficiency of the whole motor-load system.

Edson da Costa Bortoni

2007-01-01

102

Systems/Circuits Structure of Plasticity in Human Sensory and Motor  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits Structure of Plasticity in Human Sensory and Motor Networks Due to Perceptual, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada, 2Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal, Quebec H3W 1W5, Canada, and 3Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 As we begin to acquire a new motor skill, we

Malfait, Nicole

103

Detection of Induction Motor Faults: A Comparison of Stator Current, Vibration and Acoustic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the comparison results of induction motor fault detection using stator current, vibration, and acoustic methods. A broken rotor bar fault and a combination of bearing faults (inner race, outer race, and rolling element faults) were induced into variable speed three-phase induction motors. Both healthy and faulty signatures were acquired under different speed and load conditions.

WEIDONG LI; CHRIS K. MECHEFSKE

2006-01-01

104

Divergent Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Who Are Blind or Sighted  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study compared the average ages at which four congenitally blind children acquired 29 gross motor skills with age norms for sighted children. The results indicated distinct developmental delays in the acquisition of motor skills and a high degree of variability in developmental delays within and across the six subdomains that were…

Brambring, Michael

2006-01-01

105

Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils. PMID:24988439

Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

2014-01-01

106

Motor/generator  

DOEpatents

A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

2008-05-13

107

Implementing Motor Management  

E-print Network

cost of the motor. As you can see from the graphic (figure 1), if you are to implement a motor management program lifetime cost of operation must be taken into consideration. For example, a typical 50 Hp motor costs $25,000 to operate continuously... manufactured for sale in the United States. The original intent was to improve the efficiencies of 80% of the installed motor base in the U.S. The "EPAct" bill regulated the minimum efficiencies of motors that fall into the 1 - 200 Hp, three phase, TEFC...

Colip, R. L.

108

Solid propellant motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1978-01-01

109

Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

1976-01-01

110

Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

Horowitz, Jordan M.; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2013-07-01

111

Imitating chemical motors with optimal information motors.  

PubMed

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. PMID:23862988

Horowitz, Jordan M; Sagawa, Takahiro; Parrondo, Juan M R

2013-07-01

112

The Fusion Energy Option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

Dean, Stephen O.

2004-06-01

113

[A case history of acquired haemophilia A].  

PubMed

Acquired haemophilia A is a rare form of acquired coagulopathy caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII. It is characterized by major bleeding complications often life-?threatening. An estimated incidence is about 1-?2 cases per million inhabitants per year. The authors report case history of acquired haemophilia in 85 year old woman. Bleeding complications were well controlled by bypassing agents. Inhibitor eradication was successful after the use of second line agent rituximab. PMID:23711058

Cermáková, Z; Hrdli?ková, R; Blahutová, S; Ligová, A

2013-04-01

114

Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture  

E-print Network

Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Braided Weakly Integral Fusion Fusion Categories #12;Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Outline 1 Braided Fusion Categories Preliminaries Dimensions and Braid Representations 2 First Conjecture Finiteness

Rowell, Eric C.

115

Hospital-acquired infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

A prospective survey was carried out in the winter of 1983-84 to determine the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumococcal chest infection in a district general hospital. Twenty-one patients (of a total of 103 infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae) were assessed as having hospital-acquired infection. The implication of this and the need for further studies are discussed. PMID:2859331

Davies, A J; Dyas, A

1985-03-01

116

Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

2012-01-01

117

Cdc42 controls the dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore by regulating membrane tension  

PubMed Central

Membrane fusion underlies multiple processes, including exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Membrane fusion starts with the formation of a narrow fusion pore. Radial expansion of this pore completes the process and allows fast release of secretory compounds, but this step remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibiting the expression of the small GTPase Cdc42 or preventing its activation with a dominant negative Cdc42 construct in human neuroendocrine cells impaired the release process by compromising fusion pore enlargement. Consequently the mode of vesicle exocytosis was shifted from full-collapse fusion to kiss-and-run. Remarkably, Cdc42-knockdown cells showed reduced membrane tension, and the artificial increase of membrane tension restored fusion pore enlargement. Moreover, inhibiting the motor protein myosin II by blebbistatin decreased membrane tension, as well as fusion pore dilation. We conclude that membrane tension is the driving force for fusion pore dilation and that Cdc42 is a key regulator of this force. PMID:25143404

Bretou, Marine; Jouannot, Ouardane; Fanget, Isabelle; Pierobon, Paolo; Larochette, Nathanaël; Gestraud, Pierre; Guillon, Marc; Emiliani, Valentina; Gasman, Stéphane; Desnos, Claire; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Darchen, François

2014-01-01

118

Application of Dempster Shafer theory in fault diagnosis of induction motors using vibration and current signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach for the fault diagnosis in induction motors by using Dempster-Shafer theory. Features are extracted from motor stator current and vibration signals and with reducing data transfers. The technique makes it possible for on-line application. Neural network is trained and tested by the selected features of the measured data. The fusion of classification results from vibration and current classifiers increases the diagnostic accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed system is demonstrated by detecting motor electrical and mechanical faults originated from the induction motors. The results of the test confirm that the proposed system has potential for real-time applications.

Yang, Bo-Suk; Kim, Kwang Jin

2006-02-01

119

Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HCAP) and Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Antibiotic orders 1 | P a g e  

E-print Network

Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HCAP) and Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Antibiotic orders 1 | P a g e Pneumonia Severity Index Risk Class Score Mortality Low I below Health Care Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is defined

Oliver, Douglas L.

120

17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (iii) Separate financial statements of the acquired...presented once the operating results of the acquired business...audited consolidated financial statements of the registrant...understand the historical financial results of the...

2010-04-01

121

Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

Brown, Gerald V.

2004-01-01

122

Traffic of Molecular Motors  

E-print Network

Molecular motors perform active movements along cytoskeletal filaments and drive the traffic of organelles and other cargo particles in cells. In contrast to the macroscopic traffic of cars, however, the traffic of molecular motors is characterized by a finite walking distance (or run length) after which a motor unbinds from the filament along which it moves. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding aqueous solution until they rebind to a filament. We use variants of driven lattice gas models to describe the interplay of their active movements, the unbound diffusion, and the binding/unbinding dynamics. If the motor concentration is large, motor-motor interactions become important and lead to a variety of cooperative traffic phenomena such as traffic jams on the filaments, boundary-induced phase transitions, and spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems with two species of motors. If the filament is surrounded by a large reservoir of motors, the jam length, i.e., the extension of the traffic jams is of the order of the walking distance. Much longer jams can be found in confined geometries such as tube-like compartments.

Stefan Klumpp; Melanie J. I. Müller; Reinhard Lipowsky

2005-12-06

123

Theories of rotary motors.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flagellar motor and the ATP-hydrolysing F1 portion of the F1Fo-ATPase are known to be rotary motors, and it seems highly probable that the H+-translocating Fo portion rotates too. The energy source in the case of Fo and the flagellar motor is the flow of ions, either H+ (protons) or Na+, down an electrochemical gradient across a membrane. The fact that ions flow in a particular direction through a well-defined structure in these motors invites the possibility of a type of mechanism based on geometric constraints between the rotor position and the paths of ions flowing through the motor. The two best-studied examples of such a mechanism are the 'turnstile' model of Khan and Berg and the 'proton turbine' model of Läuger or Berry. Models such as these are typically represented by a small number of kinetic states and certain allowed transitions between them. This allows the calculation of predictions of motor behaviour and establishes a dialogue between models and experimental results. In the near future structural data and observations of single-molecule events should help to determine the nature of the mechanism of rotary motors, while motor models must be developed that can adequately explain the measured relationships between torque and speed in the flagellar motor. PMID:10836503

Berry, R M

2000-01-01

124

Hybrid vehicle motor alignment  

DOEpatents

A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

2001-07-03

125

Encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep or ESES syndrome including the acquired aphasia.  

PubMed

Encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep or ESES is an age-dependent and self-limited syndrome whose distinctive features include a characteristic age of onset (with a peak around 4-5 years), heterogeneous seizures types (mostly partial motor or unilateral seizures during sleep and absences or falls while awake), a typical EEG pattern (with continuous and diffuse paroxysms occupying at least 85% of slow wave sleep) and a variable neuropsychological regression consisting of IQ decrease, reduction of language (as in acquired aphasia or Landau-Kleffner syndrome), disturbance of behaviour (psychotic states) and motor impairment (in the form of ataxia, dyspraxia, dystonia or unilateral deficit). Despite the long-term favourable outcome of epilepsy and status epilepticus during sleep (SES), the prognosis is guarded because of the persistence of severe neuropsychological and/or motor deficits in approximately half of the patients. No specific treatment has been advocated for this syndrome, but valproate sodium, benzodiazepines and ACTH have been shown to control the seizures and the SES pattern in many cases, although often only temporarily. Subpial transection is proposed in some instances as in non-regressive acquired aphasia. Recent data support the concept that ESES syndrome may include a large subset of developmental or acquired regressive conditions of infancy. PMID:10996561

Tassinari, C A; Rubboli, G; Volpi, L; Meletti, S; d'Orsi, G; Franca, M; Sabetta, A R; Riguzzi, P; Gardella, E; Zaniboni, A; Michelucci, R

2000-09-01

126

The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

2012-01-01

127

Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

2012-01-01

128

Virus membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fusion of enveloped viruses with cellular membranes is mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP). Interaction of GP with cellular receptors alone or coupled to exposure to the acidic environment of endosomes induces extensive conformational changes in the fusion protein which pull two membranes into close enough proximity to trigger bilayer fusion. The refolding process provides the energy for fusion and

Winfried Weissenhorn; Andreas Hinz; Yves Gaudin

2007-01-01

129

Image-fusion-based contour extraction scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel contour extraction scheme for detecting a moving target is proposed. This scheme consists of three steps. First, motion segmentation is applied respectively to infrared (IR) and visible image sequences to acquire an initial contour of the moving target. Second, dynamic contours are applied to make the initial contour converge to the target's contour with the Newmark-based iteration. Finally, two novel image fusions are applied to restrict the convergent dynamic contour in a visible image with that in an IR image. The first fusion minimizes the B-spline L2 norm's square of the difference of control point vectors in the two modal images without image registration. The second fusion is realized by the revised differential coupling with image registration. A contrasting experiment on image sequence of a moving vehicle indicates that the contour extraction's average error decreases by 58.14% for the first fusion and 65.12% for the second fusion. Both image fusions are implemented with the control point vector of a dynamic contour and are suitable for practical application. Moreover, the Newmark based iteration is contrasted with the Wilson-?-based iteration, which indicates that its iteration time requirement for convergence decreases by 21.01%.

Zhao, Peng; Cao, Jun; Wang, Ni Hong; Pu, Zhaobang

2005-12-01

130

Heritability of motor control and motor learning  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty?four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

2013-01-01

131

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective  

E-print Network

Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

Kirschner, Denise

132

Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study  

E-print Network

Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

Dautovich, D. R.

1980-01-01

133

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02

134

Stripped-down Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

135

Stepping motor controller  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

136

Demystifying induction motor behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motors are very simple devices, but, ever since they were introduced by Tesla, they have mystified many practicing engineers. The INSPEC interactive program that runs in Microsoft Windows on 386 or higher PCs, is designed to calculate accurate equivalent circuit models from induction motor standard specifications. It has a full graphical user interface (GUI), created using Microsoft's Visual Basic.

Graham J. Rogers

1994-01-01

137

Novel disc type motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high energy permanent magnets can lead to significantly improved efficiency and performance, especially for subfractional horsepower motors. Obviously motors with air gap windings equipped with Nd-Fe-B magnets benefit from the high remanence of this new material. Integrated designs using Nd-Fe-B magnets are cost effective. The trend towards high flux density drives will continue.

Hanitsch, R.; Park, C.-S.; Hameyer, K.

1989-08-01

138

Trisha Brown's Water Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trisha Brown's signature solo Water Motor (1978) was the first of her choreographies to make the physical intelligence and virtuosity of Brown's unique dancing body the basis for movement and choreography. Preserved in Babette Mangolte's 1978 film, Water Motor returned to the stage in 2011 in its first performance by a dancer other than Brown—an occasion for reexamining the dance's

Susan Rosenberg

2012-01-01

139

Canonical Correlation Analysis for Feature-Based Fusion of Biomedical Imaging Modalities and Its Application to Detection of Associative Networks in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Typically data acquired through imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) are analyzed separately. However, fusing information from such complementary modalities promises to provide additional insight into connectivity across brain networks and changes due to disease. We propose a data fusion scheme at the feature level using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to determine inter-subject covariations across modalities. As we show both with simulation results and application to real data, multimodal CCA (mCCA) proves to be a flexible and powerful method for discovering associations among various data types. We demonstrate the versatility of the method with application to two datasets, an fMRI and EEG, and an fMRI and sMRI dataset, both collected from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. CCA results for fMRI and EEG data collected for an auditory oddball task reveal associations of the temporal and motor areas with the N2 and P3 peaks. For the application to fMRI and sMRI data collected for an auditory sensorimotor task, CCA results show an interesting joint relationship between fMRI and gray matter, with patients with schizophrenia showing more functional activity in motor areas and less activity in temporal areas associated with less gray matter as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, we compare our scheme with an independent component analysis based fusion method, joint-ICA that has proven useful for such a study and note that the two methods provide complementary perspectives on data fusion. PMID:19834573

Correa, Nicolle M.; Li, Yi-Ou; Adal?, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.

2009-01-01

140

Induction motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

141

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

142

Induction motor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

Hansen, Irving G.

1990-01-01

143

Atomic Force Microscope Studies of the Fusion of Floating Lipid Bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the fusion of apposing floating bilayers of egg L-?-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Atomic force microscope measurements of fusion forces under different compression rates were acquired to reveal the energy landscape of the fusion process under varied lipid composition and temperature. Between compression rates of ?1000 and ?100,000 pN\\/s, applied forces in the range from ?100 to

Midhat H. Abdulreda; Vincent T. Moy

2007-01-01

144

Hospital-acquired infection in elderly patients.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of elderly people are being treated in hospitals and are at particular risk of acquiring infections. The incidence, risk factors and types of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) in the elderly are reviewed. Special reference is made to urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infections including Clostridium difficile, bacteraemia, skin and soft tissue infections and infections with antibiotic-resistant organisms. PMID:9602974

Taylor, M E; Oppenheim, B A

1998-04-01

145

Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"  

E-print Network

Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

Rainer W. Kuehne

2006-04-14

146

ISRO's solid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

1989-08-01

147

Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood.  

PubMed

In this report we describe the outcome of a consensus meeting that occurred at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, March 12 through 14, 2005. The meeting brought together 39 specialists from multiple clinical and research disciplines including developmental pediatrics, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physical medicine and rehabilitation, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, motor control, and biomechanics. The purpose of the meeting was to establish terminology and definitions for 4 aspects of motor disorders that occur in children: weakness, reduced selective motor control, ataxia, and deficits of praxis. The purpose of the definitions is to assist communication between clinicians, select homogeneous groups of children for clinical research trials, facilitate the development of rating scales to assess improvement or deterioration with time, and eventually to better match individual children with specific therapies. "Weakness" is defined as the inability to generate normal voluntary force in a muscle or normal voluntary torque about a joint. "Reduced selective motor control" is defined as the impaired ability to isolate the activation of muscles in a selected pattern in response to demands of a voluntary posture or movement. "Ataxia" is defined as an inability to generate a normal or expected voluntary movement trajectory that cannot be attributed to weakness or involuntary muscle activity about the affected joints. "Apraxia" is defined as an impairment in the ability to accomplish previously learned and performed complex motor actions that is not explained by ataxia, reduced selective motor control, weakness, or involuntary motor activity. "Developmental dyspraxia" is defined as a failure to have ever acquired the ability to perform age-appropriate complex motor actions that is not explained by the presence of inadequate demonstration or practice, ataxia, reduced selective motor control, weakness, or involuntary motor activity. PMID:17079590

Sanger, Terence D; Chen, Daofen; Delgado, Mauricio R; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hallett, Mark; Mink, Jonathan W

2006-11-01

148

Review of fusion synfuels  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J.A.

1980-01-01

149

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2013-10-01

150

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2012-10-01

151

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2011-10-01

152

50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...  

...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment...permanent road within a wilderness unit, and except as necessary...no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized...

2014-10-01

153

Motor priming in neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article, we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence, including (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming.Video Abstract available. (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A86) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25415551

Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

2015-01-01

154

System and method for motor parameter estimation  

DOEpatents

A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

2014-03-18

155

Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market  

E-print Network

, or are not readily available. Besides confirming that many motors that meet the CEE Premium-Efficiency criteria are available, recent research using MotorMaster software reveals a startling new reality in the motor market. Some motors that have the low lifetime...

Wroblewksi, R. G.

156

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making commercially viable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada · Plan to demonstrate a fusion system capable of "net gain" within 3 years

157

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

158

BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University;Department of Biological Science)

2007-04-06

159

Electric 'LEGO' Motor II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

Pino, Jose

2008-11-17

160

Structure of Plasticity in Human Sensory and Motor Networks Due to Perceptual Learning  

PubMed Central

As we begin to acquire a new motor skill, we face the dual challenge of determining and refining the somatosensory goals of our movements and establishing the best motor commands to achieve our ends. The two typically proceed in parallel, and accordingly it is unclear how much of skill acquisition is a reflection of changes in sensory systems and how much reflects changes in the brain's motor areas. Here we have intentionally separated perceptual and motor learning in time so that we can assess functional changes to human sensory and motor networks as a result of perceptual learning. Our subjects underwent fMRI scans of the resting brain before and after a somatosensory discrimination task. We identified changes in functional connectivity that were due to the effects of perceptual learning on movement. For this purpose, we used a neural model of the transmission of sensory signals from perceptual decision making through to motor action. We used this model in combination with a partial correlation technique to parcel out those changes in connectivity observed in motor systems that could be attributed to activity in sensory brain regions. We found that, after removing effects that are linearly correlated with somatosensory activity, perceptual learning results in changes to frontal motor areas that are related to the effects of this training on motor behavior and learning. This suggests that perceptual learning produces changes to frontal motor areas of the brain and may thus contribute directly to motor learning. PMID:24523536

Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Darainy, Mohammad

2014-01-01

161

Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill

162

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission  

E-print Network

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion

163

General Motors Goes Metric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

Webb, Ted

1976-01-01

164

Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

2011-01-01

165

Booster separation motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

1981-01-01

166

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

167

MotorWeek  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2009-01-01

168

MotorWeek  

ScienceCinema

In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

None

2013-04-19

169

Motor Vehicle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

170

Mirror position display equipment for the target chamber mirror mounts of the LASL HELIOS laser fusion facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment has been fabricated which records the absolute positions of sixteen mirror mounts used to direct and focus eight high-energy laser beams for research in laser induced fusion. Each mirror mount is driven by three stepping motors, controlled to produce the motions of Focus, Tilt, and Rotate relative to the target. Stepping of the motors is sensed by incremental optical

F. D. Wells; D. A. Remington

1979-01-01

171

Advanced motor and motor control development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

1988-08-01

172

High Power Density Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it generates. By increasing the heat transfer out of the wire, the wires can carry a larger current and therefore produce more force. This was done by increasing the surface area of the wire to allow more coolant to flow over it. Litz wire was used because it can carry high frequency current. It also can be deformed into configurations that would increase the surface area. The best configuration was determined by heat transfer and force plots that were generated using Maxwell 2D. Future work will be done by testing and measuring the thrust force produced by the wires in a magnetic field.

Kascak, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

173

Electric vehicle motors and controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

Secunde, R. R.

1981-01-01

174

Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

2010-01-01

175

Presented by Information Fusion  

E-print Network

Presented by Information Fusion: Science and Engineering of Combining Information from Multiple's Office of Science #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Rao_InfoFusion_SC10 Information Fusion at ORNL · ORNL Instrumental in formulating and fostering this multi-disciplinary area

176

Cluster-impact fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

Echenique, P. M.; Manson, J. R.; Ritchie, R. H.

1990-03-01

177

Cluster-impact fusion  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. (Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, San Sebastian 20080, Spain (ES))

1990-03-19

178

Sensing with the Motor Cortex  

PubMed Central

The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development. PMID:22078507

Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

2011-01-01

179

Acquired dendritic channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Inherited channelopathies are at the origin of many neurological disorders. Here we report a form of channelopathy that is acquired in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The excitability of CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites was increased in TLE because of decreased availability of A-type potassium ion channels due to transcriptional (loss of channels) and posttranslational (increased channel phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase) mechanisms. Kinase inhibition partly reversed dendritic excitability to control levels. Such acquired channelopathy is likely to amplify neuronal activity and may contribute to the initiation and/or propagation of seizures in TLE. PMID:15273397

Bernard, Christophe; Anderson, Anne; Becker, Albert; Poolos, Nicholas P; Beck, Heinz; Johnston, Daniel

2004-07-23

180

The pharmacological treatment of acquired nystagmus.  

PubMed

We review the latest literature on the neuropharmacological treatments for acquired nystagmus.Nystagmus may have a significant [corrected] impact on health, yet there is little scientific evidence on which to make firm recommendations for treatment. Acquired pendular nystagmus may respond to gabapentin or memantine; downbeat and upbeat nystagmus to aminopyridines; and periodic alternating nystagmus to baclofen. To improve treatment we need multi-centre, randomised controlled trials using standardised techniques in reporting objective outcomes, with good follow-up duration and careful reporting of side effects. PMID:22661344

Mehta, Arpan R; Kennard, Christopher

2012-06-01

181

A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

2011-01-01

182

Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.  

PubMed

The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates. PMID:25429111

Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

2015-02-15

183

Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

2010-01-01

184

Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy following Renal Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The clinical, laboratory, and treatment findings of a patient with chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP) in association with renal transplantation are described. Like the present case, many such patients have been described under the rubric of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). PMID:24363943

Younger, D. S.; Orsher, Stuart

2013-01-01

185

Acquired Dendritic Channelopathy in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited channelopathies are at the origin of many neurological disorders. Here we report a form of channelopathy that is acquired in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The excitability of CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites was increased in TLE because of decreased availability of A-type potassium ion channels due to transcriptional (loss of channels)

Christophe Bernard; Anne Anderson; Albert Becker; Nicholas P. Poolos; Heinz Beck; Daniel Johnston

2004-01-01

186

Acquired dermal melanocytosis on the wrist.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old Japanese man had a blue-black patch on the dorsum of his right wrist. Light and electron microscopic study of the lesion revealed dermal melanocytes containing mature melanosomes, predominantly in the upper dermis. This case was diagnosed as acquired dermal melanocytosis confined to the right wrist. PMID:9065709

Kuniyuki, S

1997-02-01

187

Signal Transduction in Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an important component of plant defense against pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) is required for the induction of SAR. However, SA is apparently not the translocated signal but is involved in transducing the signal in target tissues. Interestingly, SA accumulation is not required for production and release of the systemic signal. In addition

John Ryals; Kay A. Lawton; Terrence P. Delaney; Leslie Friedrich; Helmut Kessmann; Urs Neuenschwander; Scott Uknes; Bernard Vernooij; Kris Weymann

1995-01-01

188

THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ACQUIRED HEART DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Success in the surgical treatment of certain forms of congenital cardiac malformation has led to a renewed interest in the treatment of acquired heart disease. Similarly, technical advances and a better understanding of cardiac physiology under operative conditions have enabled surgeons to broaden the field and improve the possibilities of cardiac operations. PMID:14870033

Gerbode, Frank

1951-01-01

189

An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

2006-01-01

190

EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a natural plant defense mechanism shown to be effective against a broad range of pathogens and has been best characterized in tobacco and Arabidopsis. As a step towards evaluating the potential to use SAR for disease control in potato, the effectiveness of diff...

191

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is very frequently observed in pediatric AIDS. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, cognitive deficits, acquired microcephaly, neurological signs, myelopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Neurological complications can be related to opportunistic viral infections such as encephalitis, atypical aseptic meningitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and myelitis. Nonviral syndromes include: toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, candidiasis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis, and Mycobacterium avium subacute

Paola Iannetti; Paola Falconieri; Carlo Imperato

1989-01-01

192

How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

Lauginie, Pierre

2013-01-01

193

Magnetostrictive direct drive motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1991-01-01

194

The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

2011-03-01

195

CNV amplitude as a neural correlate for stuttering frequency: A case report of acquired stuttering.  

PubMed

A neural hallmark of developmental stuttering is abnormal articulatory programming. One of the neurophysiological substrates of articulatory preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely performed in persons who stutter and mainly focus on the effect of task variation rather than on interindividual variation in stutter related variables. However, variations in motor programming seem to be related to variation in stuttering frequency. The current study presents a case report of acquired stuttering following stroke and stroke related surgery in the left superior temporal gyrus. A speech related CNV task was administered at four points in time with differences in stuttering severity and frequency. Unexpectedly, CNV amplitudes at electrode sites approximating bilateral motor and left inferior frontal gyrus appeared to be inversely proportional to stuttering frequency. The higher the stuttering frequency, the lower the activity for articulatory preparation. Thus, the amount of disturbance in motor programming seems to determine stuttering frequency. At right frontal electrodes, a relative increase in CNV amplitude was seen at the test session with most severe stuttering. Right frontal overactivation is cautiously suggested to be a compensation strategy. In conclusion, late CNV amplitude elicited by a relatively simple speech task seems to be able to provide an objective, neural correlate of stuttering frequency. The present case report supports the hypothesis that motor preparation has an important role in stuttering. PMID:25281310

Vanhoutte, Sarah; Van Borsel, John; Cosyns, Marjan; Batens, Katja; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Roost, Dirk; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick

2014-10-01

196

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor Michael Lindstrom fusion en- ergy known as a magnetized target fusion reactor, in which an intense pressure wave the fusion reactor design we have chosen to model. In section 2, we present a simplified model and set

Wetton, Brian

197

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

198

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

199

Acquired haemophilia syndrome: pathophysiology and therapy.  

PubMed

Acquired inhibitors against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), also termed acquired haemophilia A, neutralize its procoagulant function and result in severe or often life-threatening bleeding. The antibodies arise in individuals with no prior history of clinical bleeding. Acquired haemophilia occurs rarely with the incidence of approximately 1 to 4 per million/year, with severe bleeds in up to 90% of affected patients, and high mortality between 8-22%. About 50% of diagnosed patients were previously healthy, while the remaining cases may be associated with postpartum period, autoimmune diseases, malignancy, infections, or medications. Most patients have spontaneous haemorrhages into the skin, muscles or soft tissues, and mucous membranes, or after trauma and surgery, whereas haemarthroses are uncommon. The diagnosis of acquired haemophilia A based on the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time which does not normalize after the addition of normal plasma, reduced FVIII, with evidence of FVIII inhibitor measured by the Bethesda assay (Nijmegen modification). The treatment of acute bleeding episodes and the long-term eradication of the autoantibodies in acquired haemophilia are the main therapeutic strategy. Two options are currently available for acute bleeding control: the use rFVIIa or FEIBA in patients with higher inhibitor titer (> 5 BU), or to raise the level of FVIII by administration of DDAVP or concentrates of FVIII in patients with low level of inhibitors (< 5 BU). Treatment with FEIBA (50-100 IU/ kg every 8-12 hours) has shown good haemostatic response in 76-89% of the bleeding episodes. Patients treated with rFVIIa (90 microg/kg every 2-6 hours) have achieved good response in 95-100% as a first-line, and 75-80% as a salvage therapy. Patients with low inhibitor titer and lower response can be treated with concentrate of FVIII in the recommended dose of 40 IU/kg plus 20 IU/kg for each BU of inhibitor. The treatment of non-life-threatening haemorrhages with desmopressin (DDAVP 0.3 microg/kg) may increase both FVIII and vWF. Sometimes inhibitors disappear spontaneously, but long-term management is necessary for eradication of inhibitors by immunosuppression (prednisone 1 mg/kg 3 weeks alone or in combination cyclophosphamide 2 mg/kg), immunomodulation, intravenous immunoglobulin (HD IgG 2 g/kg 2 or 5 d), physical removal of antibodies (plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption), or various combinations. Recently, a therapy with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has shown to be effective in acquired haemophilia. PMID:20229686

Elezovi?, Ivo

2010-01-01

200

Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices  

DOEpatents

A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Kingston, TN); Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

201

Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control  

E-print Network

In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

2010-01-01

202

Progress on statistical learning systems as data mining tools for the creation of automatic databases in Fusion environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, processing all information of a fusion database is a much more important issue than acquiring more data. Although typically fusion devices produce tens of thousands of discharges, specialized databases for physics studies are normally limited to a few tens of shots. This is due to the fact that these databases are almost always generated manually, which is a very

J. Vega; A. Murari; G. A. Rattá; S. González; S. Dormido-Canto

2010-01-01

203

Clinical laboratory data: acquire, analyze, communicate, liberate.  

PubMed

The availability of portable healthcare devices, which can acquire and transmit medical data to remote experts would dramatically affect healthcare in areas with poor infrastructure. Smartphones, which feature touchscreen computer capabilities and sophisticated cameras, have become widely available with over billion units shipped in 2013. In the clinical laboratory, smartphones have recently brought the capabilities of key instruments such as spectrophotometers, fluorescence analyzers and microscopes into the palm of the hand. Several research groups have developed sensitive and low-cost smartphone-based diagnostic assay prototypes for testing cholesterol, albumin, vitamin D, tumor markers, and the detection of infectious agents. This review covers the use of smartphones to acquire, analyze, communicate, and liberate clinical laboratory data. Smartphones promise to dramatically improve the quality and quantity of healthcare offered in resource-limited areas. PMID:25172035

Azzazy, Hassan M E; Elbehery, Ali H A

2015-01-01

204

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOEpatents

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

1997-03-18

205

Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors  

DOEpatents

A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

206

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion  

E-print Network

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research compiled by the International Fusion Research Council (Nucl. Fusion 45,A1­A28; 2005) provides good reason

Loss, Daniel

207

Acquired Neurological Disorders and Diseases of Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Though relatively rare compared to neurodevelopmental disorders, acquired neurological disorders and diseases represent some\\u000a of the more common disorders seen by child clinical neuropsychologists. This chapter uses a transactional neuropsychological\\u000a approach to review traumatic brain injury in children; exposure to teratogenic agents, including alcohol and cocaine; childhood\\u000a cancer, and infectious diseases of the CNS, including meningitis and encephalitis. Research into

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison

208

Genetic dissection of systemic acquired resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in the past year in understanding the mechanism of systemic acquired resistance. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades have been implicated as negative regulators of salicyclic acid accumulation and the induction of resistance. The salicylic acid signal is transduced through NPR1, a nuclear-localized protein that interacts with transcription factors that are involved in regulating salicylic-acid-mediated gene expression.

Xinnian Dong

2001-01-01

209

Does chromatin remodeling mark systemic acquired resistance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of plant pathogens activates local defense responses and triggers a long-lasting systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response. Activation of SAR requires the hormone salicylic acid (SA), which induces SA-responsive gene expression. Recent data link changes in gene expression to chromatin remodeling, such as histone modifications and histone replacement. Here, we propose a model in which recruitment of chromatin-modifying complexes

Harrold A. van den Burg; Frank L. W. Takken

2009-01-01

210

Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California  

PubMed Central

Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

2013-01-01

211

Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview  

PubMed Central

In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

2011-01-01

212

Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.  

PubMed

Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. PMID:25016285

Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

2014-10-15

213

Apoptosis in acquired and genetic hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an important physiological process. Normally, a healthy cell maintains a delicate balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, allowing it to live and proliferate. It is thus not surprising that disturbance of this delicate balance may result in disease. It is a well known fact that apoptosis also contributes to several acquired forms of hearing impairment. Noise-induced hearing loss is the result of prolonged exposure to excessive noise, triggering apoptosis in terminally differentiated sensory hair cells. Moreover, hearing loss caused by the use of therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and cisplatin potentially may result in the activation of apoptosis in sensory hair cells leading to hearing loss due to the “ototoxicity” of the drugs. Finally, apoptosis is a key contributor to the development of presbycusis, age-related hearing loss. Recently, several mutations in apoptosis genes were identified as the cause of monogenic hearing impairment. These genes are TJP2, DFNA5 and MSRB3. This implies that apoptosis not only contributes to the pathology of acquired forms of hearing impairment, but also to genetic hearing impairment as well. We believe that these genes constitute a new functional class within the hearing loss field. Here, the contribution of apoptosis in the pathology of both acquired and genetic hearing impairment is reviewed. PMID:21782914

de Beeck, Ken Op; Schacht, Jochen; Van Camp, Guy

2012-01-01

214

Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitors: Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, but devastating bleeding disorder caused by spontaneous development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. In 40%-50% of patients it is associated with such conditions as the postpartum period, malignancy, use of medications, and autoimmune diseases; however, its cause is unknown in most cases. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected in patients that present with a coagulation abnormality, and a negative personal and family history of bleeding. Herein we report 3 patients with acquired hemophilia A that had different underlying pathologies, clinical presentations, and therapeutic responses. Factor VIII inhibitor formation in case 1 occurred 6 months after giving birth; underlying disorders were not identified in cases 2 or 3. The bleeding phenotype in these patients’ ranged from no bleeding tendency with isolated prolongation of APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) to severe intramuscular hematoma and hemarthrosis necessitating recombinant activated factor VII infusion and blood components transfusion. Variable responses to immunosuppressive treatment were also observed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385759

Kyaw, Tay Za; Jayaranee, S.; Bee, Ping Chong; Chin, Edmund Fui Min

2013-01-01

215

Modified motor designs save energy  

SciTech Connect

The capital cost of a motor is low compared with the cost of the electricity used to run it. A $2,000 motor, for example, might consume $50,000 worth of electricity over its lifetime. Because electricity is such a significant expense, energy-efficient motors make the most economic sense, even though such premium motors also cost more. However, a variety factors, such as the user`s tendency to specify a higher-horsepower motor than needed to avoid the possibility of burnout, mitigate some of the economic advantages of an energy-saving design. Also, even relatively inefficient motors are good enough for most applications. As a result, most motors purchased are of standard efficiency. Reconfigured components such as rotors and fan blades plus a new generation of superconducting materials are resulting in more-energy-efficient motors.

Paula, G.

1997-01-01

216

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

217

Reconstituted Fusion Pore  

PubMed Central

Fusion pores or porosomes are basket-like structures at the cell plasma membrane, at the base of which, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse to release vesicular contents. Earlier studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of fusion pores at the cell plasma membrane in a number of live secretory cells, revealing their morphology and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time. ImmunoAFM studies demonstrated the release of vesicular contents through the pores. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the presence of fusion pores, and immunoAFM, and immunochemical studies demonstrated t-SNAREs to localize at the base of the fusion pore. In the present study, the morphology, function, and composition of the immunoisolated fusion pore was investigated. TEM studies reveal in further detail the structure of the fusion pore. Immunoblot analysis of the immunoisolated fusion pore reveals the presence of several isoforms of the proteins, identified earlier in addition to the association of chloride channels. TEM and AFM micrographs of the immunoisolated fusion pore complex were superimposable, revealing its detail structure. Fusion pore reconstituted into liposomes and examined by TEM, revealed a cup-shaped basket-like morphology, and were functional, as demonstrated by their ability to fuse with isolated secretory vesicles. PMID:12944316

Jeremic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Marie; Cho, Sang-Joon; Stromer, Marvin H.; Jena, Bhanu P.

2003-01-01

218

Gravity actuated thermal motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a gravity actuated thermal motor which includes a rotor preferably in the form of a ring-shaped annulus which is filled with water. A plurality of collapsible bellows are connected to and extend inwardly from the outer peripheral wall of the annulus into the water-filled chamber. In communication with each of the bellows and extending outwardly from the

Schur

1978-01-01

219

Hydraulic downhole drilling motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the first major engineering reference in English on the design and application of downhole drilling motors, turbodrills, and helidrills. While this equipment has often been used to drill in hard formations or deviated holes, the technology is being used more in ''conventional'' drilling operations because its overall efficiency and reduced drill bit consumption offer major savings in

Tiraspoiski

1985-01-01

220

Plasma motor generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of

Gerald E. Hite

1987-01-01

221

The St. Louis Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2011-01-01

222

Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

Graves, S. R.

2000-01-01

223

Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

Pyfer, Jean L.

224

Motor planning in primates.  

PubMed

Vaesen asks whether goal maintenance and planning ahead are critical for innovative tool use. We suggest that these aptitudes may have an evolutionary foundation in motor planning abilities that span all primate species. Anticipatory effects evidenced in the reaching behaviors of lemurs, tamarins, and rhesus monkeys similarly bear on the evolutionary origins of foresight as it pertains to tool use. PMID:22698082

Weiss, Daniel J; Chapman, Kate M; Wark, Jason D; Rosenbaum, David A

2012-08-01

225

[Motor neuron diseases. Present].  

PubMed

Recent progress in our understanding of motor neuron diseases, particularly those of degenerative pathogenesis such as spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have to be described as historic. They are essentially of three types: 1) In first place are advances afforded by molecular genetics both in SMA (with the discovery of survival motor neurons and neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, which are markers of the disease and their pathogenetic mechanism) and in ALS (with the discovery of the super oxide dismutase [SOD1] gene, involved in the genesis of familial forms of ALS and other types of SMA such as certain forms of familial juvenile ALS, bulbar-spinal atrophy with gynecomasty and others). 2) In second place are biological data detailing the mechanisms of neuron death, whether programed or not, and emphasizing the importance of the so-called trophic or neurotrophin factors-whether nerve growth factor, brain-derived-neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 or others whose effect of preventing neuron death has been demonstrated in vitro-as well as that of other substances such as Ca(2+)-activated neutral protease, which stabilizes synapses during development. It is assumed that one or another of these data will lead to therapeutic strategies for blocking the cascade of events that lead to neuron degeneration. 3) Finally, the strong impact of neuroimmunology in the field of neuromuscular pathology has been of interest mainly in neurogenic diseases marked purely and essentially be motor expression. As markers and pathogens, antiganglioside antibodies must necessarily be determined at this time in such entities as multifocal motor neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute axon motor neuropathy, Miller-Fisher syndrome and others, as their presence can inform therapeutic approaches. These three aspects and others currently under discussion will be treated in this course. At the same time the basic diagnostic aspects of motor neuron diseases will be emphasized: electrophysiologic assessment, on the one hand, and clinical features on the other. Establishing an exhaustive classification of SMA, from the earliest forms of infancy to adult types, is of great priority, as is exposing the full range of SMA according to whether distal or proximal predominance of atrophy is present. Our current understanding of the field is summarized in ten chapters on degenerative motor neuron diseases. PMID:9044569

Pou, A

1996-12-01

226

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems  

E-print Network

Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems NREL Energy Forum November 2009 www.novatorque.com Emily Liggett, CEO eliggett@novatorque.com November 3, 2009 #12;Proprietary Electric Motor System 2 Much higher over wider operating range with same size motor Uses up to 40% less electricity NREL Energy Forum

227

Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

Harlow, Caroline Wolf

228

Multiple stage miniature stepping motor  

DOEpatents

A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

Niven, William A. (Livermore, CA); Shikany, S. David (Danville, CA); Shira, Michael L. (Fremont, CA)

1981-01-01

229

Spotting drives for large motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power line-fed, constant speed motors sometimes must be operated at very low speed for controlled positioning of the attached load equipment. This process is referred to as 'spotting' or 'inching'. Examples include cement grinding mills (both raw and finish) and metal processing rolls. These motors are usually medium voltage (>2300 V). Two methods of spotting motors have been used

B. Dick

2002-01-01

230

Magazine R729 Motor prediction  

E-print Network

Magazine R729 Primer Motor prediction Daniel M. Wolpert* and J. Randall Flanagan The concept of motor prediction was first considered by Helmholtz when trying to understand how we localise visual position of the eye, predicted the gaze position based on a copy of the motor command acting on the eye

Flanagan, Randy

231

Experiments with a DC Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2010-01-01

232

Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors: Evidence for Direct Motor-Motor Coupling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors’ response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

2013-04-01

233

Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?  

PubMed

The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed. PMID:25167320

Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

2013-04-12

234

Differential recruitment of the sensorimotor putamen and frontoparietal cortex during motor chunking in humans.  

PubMed

Motor chunking facilitates movement production by combining motor elements into integrated units of behavior. Previous research suggests that chunking involves two processes: concatenation, aimed at the formation of motor-motor associations between elements or sets of elements, and segmentation, aimed at the parsing of multiple contiguous elements into shorter action sets. We used fMRI to measure the trial-wise recruitment of brain regions associated with these chunking processes as healthy subjects performed a cued-sequence production task. A dynamic network analysis identified chunking structure for a set of motor sequences acquired during fMRI and collected over 3 days of training. Activity in the bilateral sensorimotor putamen positively correlated with chunk concatenation, whereas a left-hemisphere frontoparietal network was correlated with chunk segmentation. Across subjects, there was an aggregate increase in chunk strength (concatenation) with training, suggesting that subcortical circuits play a direct role in the creation of fluid transitions across chunks. PMID:22681696

Wymbs, Nicholas F; Bassett, Danielle S; Mucha, Peter J; Porter, Mason A; Grafton, Scott T

2012-06-01

235

Differential recruitment of the sensorimotor putamen and frontoparietal cortex during motor chunking in humans  

PubMed Central

Motor chunking facilitates movement production by combining motor elements into integrated units of behavior. Previous research suggests that chunking involves two processes: concatenation, aimed at the formation of motor-motor associations between elements or sets of elements; and segmentation, aimed at the parsing of multiple contiguous elements into shorter action sets. We used fMRI to measure the trial-wise recruitment of brain regions associated with these chunking processes as healthy subjects performed a cued sequence production task. A novel dynamic network analysis identified chunking structure for a set of motor sequences acquired during fMRI and collected on three days of training. Activity in the bilateral sensorimotor putamen positively correlated with chunk concatenation, whereas a left hemisphere frontoparietal network was correlated with chunk segmentation. Across subjects, there was an aggregate increase in chunk strength (concatenation) with training, suggesting that subcortical circuits play a direct role in the creation of fluid transitions across chunks. PMID:22681696

Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.; Grafton, Scott T.

2012-01-01

236

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

2014-06-01

237

Motor technology for mining applications advances  

SciTech Connect

AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

Fiscor, S.

2009-08-15

238

Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

239

Hybrid fusion and demosaicing algorithm with near-infrared image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a unified framework for color filter array (CFA) interpolation and visible/NIR image combination. The proposed method aims to reconstruct a high quality image from raw CFA data and the corresponding NIR image, similar to a multi-spectral fusion of color and NIR images. Based on NIR image, we impose a sparse constraint of gradient difference to modify the traditional color interpolation. The experiments indicate the effectiveness of our hybrid scheme to acquire joint color and NIR information in real-time, and show that this hybrid process can generate a better color image when compared with treating interpolation and fusion separately.

Luo, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Dai, Q. H.

2014-05-01

240

Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit  

E-print Network

tively Increase motor Insulation lIfe by a factor of four and bear I ng I ubr rcant I rfe by a factor of "hto. The resu' tIs fewer motor burnouts, 1ncreas ed bear I ng I I fe annd longer per lads between sche du Ied ma I ntenance. Longer, troub I e... as possible. If you are fortunate to have original motor application data, the desIgn efficiency may be ava II ab I e. However, you must al so know the re wind history of the motor population. Improper rewinding methods can reduce motor efficIency sub...

Evans, T. A.

1984-01-01

241

Big Savings from Smart Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

1984-01-01

242

Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

Margulis, L.

1993-01-01

243

Controlled Nuclear Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

Glasstone, Samuel

244

Fusion power Bouillabaisse sushi  

E-print Network

://www.economist.com/science/PrinterFriendly.cfm?Story_ID=2404587 #12;gerrymandering recalls the worst of the International Space Station, a collaborative effort be chosen for a new international fusion reactor. This is a pity IF AVANT-GARDE cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International

245

Prospective errors determine motor learning  

PubMed Central

Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model’s novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

2015-01-01

246

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance  

E-print Network

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance required for a Fusion Power Plant. Const. Cost $B Date

247

Fusion excitation function revisited  

E-print Network

We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

2012-09-28

248

Electropionics and fusion  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the electropionic mass formula which does not differentiate between nuclei and elementary particles, but gives the deuteron a unique bifurcated space-time description. This hints at fusion products produced by anomalous intermediate mass states of 3026, 3194, and 3515 MeV/c{sup 2} that then decay to produce energy. Another unique possibility in electropionics is that no fusion of deuterons occurs, but the deuteron is changed by electron capture into a D-meson that then decays to produce observed cold fusion energies. All these cold fusion electropionic reactions violate baryon conservation but do produce energy yields consistent with reported cold fusion decay products and energy levels.

Kenny, J.P. (Bradley Univ., Dept. of Physics, Peoria, IL (US))

1991-05-01

249

Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.  

PubMed

This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

2014-08-01

250

Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.  

PubMed

Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm. PMID:18482830

Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

2008-05-01

251

[Necrotizing myopathies: From genetic to acquired forms].  

PubMed

Necrotizing myopathies (NM) are defined by histological features. Muscle biopsy demonstrates marked muscle necrosis with regeneration, with little or an absence of inflammatory infiltrate. Histological pattern of NM is unspecific and can be encountered in diverse conditions as acquired myopathies and muscular dystrophies. Among acquired forms of NM, necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a recently recognized sub-group of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Classically, patients present with a subacute severe proximal myopathy, associated with a markedly elevated creatine kinase level, usually greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal. Nevertheless, the clinical presentation can be misleading, with chronic course mimicking muscular dystrophy. Different forms of NAM can be distinguished with various underlying inciting conditions, including autoantibodies to the SRP, autoantibodies to the HMG-CoA reductase, association to connective tissue disease or underlying malignancy. Other associated conditions need yet to be identified. To confirm a diagnosis of NAM, other causes of NM should be excluded as toxic myopathies, muscular dystrophies and other inflammatory myopathies with a misleading histological pattern. NAM is a rare condition but is probably underdiagnosed. Both clinicoserologic and pathologic data must be taken into account to improve this diagnosis. We propose guidelines for diagnosis of NAM according to clinical course, to be used in clinical practice. PMID:24359726

Salort-Campana, E; De Paula, A M; Figarella-Branger, D; Pouget, J

2014-07-01

252

Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

2003-01-01

253

Therapeutic challenges in acquired factor VIII deficiency.  

PubMed

Management of acquired hemophilia A is challenging and should be undertaken in close collaboration with a hemophilia center with expertise in the field. Treatment involves controlling and preventing bleeds and using immunosuppression to eradicate the inhibitor. Prompt diagnosis is important to allow early hemostatic treatment and to prevent nonessential invasive procedures. First-line hemostatic treatment should be with a bypassing agent. Recombinant activated factor VII and the activated prothrombin complex concentrate anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity, or FEIBA) but equally efficacious but both associated with thrombotic events when used in acquired hemophilia. Immunosuppression should be started as soon as a diagnosis has been confirmed. The combination of steroids and cyclophosphamide may induce more patients into remission than steroids alone. Current data do not suggest that rituximab results in better outcomes. Relapse is common (10%-20%) in the first 6 months after immunosuppression is stopped, and patients need to be followed up regularly to allow early diagnosis and treatment of relapse. PMID:23233606

Collins, Peter W

2012-01-01

254

Magnetostrictive direct drive motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1992-06-01

255

Motor neurone disease  

PubMed Central

Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts. PMID:12357010

Talbot, K

2002-01-01

256

Advanced Motor Drives Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

1997-01-01

257

Dynamically timed electric motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

Casper, Ann M. (inventor)

1994-01-01

258

Dynamically Timed Electric Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

259

Magnetostrictive direct drive motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1992-01-01

260

Ironless armature torque motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

Fisher, R. L.

1972-01-01

261

Libert-E Motor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

2011-01-01

262

and OSM-3 motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

he assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homo- dimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intrafl agellar transport (IFT) particles along microtu- bule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purifi ed kinesin-II and OSM-3 co- operate to generate movement

Xiaoyu Pan; Guangshuo Ou; Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey; Oliver E. Blacque; Nicholas F. Endres; Li Tao; Alex Mogilner; Michel R. Leroux; Ronald D. Vale; Jonathan M. Scholey

263

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

264

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

265

EPDM rocket motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

266

An Extended Motor Network Generates Beta and Gamma Oscillatory Perturbations during Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the time course and neural generators of oscillatory beta and gamma motor responses in typically-developing children. Participants completed a unilateral flexion-extension task using each index finger as whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were acquired. These MEG data were imaged in the frequency-domain using spatial…

Wilson, Tony W.; Slason, Erin; Asherin, Ryan; Kronberg, Eugene; Reite, Martin L.; Teale, Peter D.; Rojas, Donald C.

2010-01-01

267

Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

2012-01-01

268

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven  

E-print Network

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven September 2010 Abstract This short note provides a new and straightforward proof of the original fusion theorem of Alperin, then considers so-called domestic intersections, which are special types of tame intersections that should play a role in fusion

Craven, David A.

269

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Xiangyu Wang  

E-print Network

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Method Xiangyu Wang National Univ. of Singapore multimedia's nature of hav- ing multiple information sources, fusion methods are criti- cal for its data analysis and understanding. However, most of the traditional fusion methods are static with respect to time

Rui, Yong

270

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)  

E-print Network

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE ON DEVELOPING THE MISSION & RESEARCH GOALS Gerald A. Navratil Columbia University Fusion Power Associates 32st in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

271

Fusion-Fission Hybrids Driven By Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a desire to resolve fuel cycle issues for increasing the role of nuclear energy. The recent Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) initiative that builds upon NIF ignition, is likely to rekindle national interest in developing intense, high power ion beam accelerators for fusion energy production and for fusion-fission hybrid concepts that combine an ion beam driven fusion neutron

P. A. Seidl

272

33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and allied...required to provide without cost to the United...

2012-07-01

273

33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and allied...required to provide without cost to the United...

2011-07-01

274

33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and allied...required to provide without cost to the United...

2013-07-01

275

33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and allied...required to provide without cost to the United...

2010-07-01

276

Investigation of SNARE-Mediated Membrane Fusion Mechanism Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Membrane fusion is driven by specialized proteins that reduce the free energy penalty for the fusion process. In neurons and secretory cells, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) mediate vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane during vesicular content release. Although, SNAREs have been widely accepted as the minimal machinery for membrane fusion, the specific mechanism for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion remains an active area of research. Here, we summarize recent findings based on force measurements acquired in a novel experimental system that uses atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism(s) of membrane fusion and the role of SNAREs in facilitating membrane hemifusion during SNARE-mediated fusion. In this system, protein-free and SNARE-reconstituted lipid bilayers are formed on opposite (trans) substrates and the forces required to induce membrane hemifusion and fusion or to unbind single v-/t-SNARE complexes are measured. The obtained results provide evidence for a mechanism by which the pulling force generated by interacting trans-SNAREs provides critical proximity between the membranes and destabilizes the bilayers at fusion sites by broadening the hemifusion energy barrier and consequently making the membranes more prone to fusion. PMID:20228892

Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Moy, Vincent T.

2009-01-01

277

Particle beam fusion  

SciTech Connect

Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

NONE

1980-12-31

278

Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study  

E-print Network

. “Measured Efficiency of High Efficiency and Standard Induction Motors.” IEEE Paper 90/CH 2935- 5/90/0000-018, 1990. [6] Darby, E. Steve. “Managing Electric Motors.” IEEE Paper 0-7803-3297-0/96, 1996. [7] El-Ibiary, Yehia. “An Accurate Low Cost Method... than 60% of rated load, over 40% of the motors studied, are not adequately represented by the software tool. Using the data collected from these 100 motors and case studies, this paper considers the economics and reliability of replacing older...

Kaufman, N. M.

2006-01-01

279

Community-acquired pneumonia: a case study.  

PubMed

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease commonly seen in the primary care environment. CAP is ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. It affects more than 10 million individuals per year and accounts for 500,000-1,000,000 hospital admissions. Precise diagnosis of CAP continues to be complex. Despite enormous advances in serologic analysis and antimicrobial development, at least 50% of causative pathogens are not identified. This article presents a case report of a white female in her seventies diagnosed with CAP and emphasizes the need for early detection, immunization, and prompt interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. This case brings to light the dilemma practitioners can face when treating high-risk populations on an outpatient basis. PMID:11858290

Meister, J

2000-01-01

280

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.  

PubMed

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

1985-11-01

281

Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

2012-01-01

282

Aortoesophageal fistula: congenital and acquired causes.  

PubMed

Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but frequently lethal cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a report of the authors' experience with four cases--two from congenital and two from acquired causes. A review of the pediatric cases reported in the literature is included. The mortality from AEF is high, and can be decreased in two ways. AEF can be prevented by avoiding prolonged nasogastric intubation in patients with known vascular rings, and by promptly removing esophageal foreign bodies and promptly treating periesophageal abscesses. Once an AEF occurs, it presents with typical large-herald upper gastrointestinal bleeding of bright red blood, and cardiovascular collapse. Recognition of this pattern, with vigorous resuscitation and aggressive surgical management, will improve the survival rate. PMID:7807347

Sigalet, D L; Laberge, J M; DiLorenzo, M; Adolph, V; Nguyen, L T; Youssef, S; Guttman, F M

1994-09-01

283

Microbial etiologies in community acquired pneumonia (CAP).  

PubMed

The objective of the study was determination of bacterial etiologic factors, including antibiotic atypical pathogens, of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults and of sensitivity of isolated strains. The examined group comprised 50 patients with clinical and x-ray image of pneumonia. Patients' expectoration sputum was analyzed. Amongst all isolated bacteria, the most frequent were Staphylococcus aureus - 17.9%, Haemophilus parainfluenzae - 12.5% and H. influenzae - 8.9%. Identification of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in 8.9% of CAP cases drew our particular attention. Staphylococcus aureus was the least antibiotic sensitive microorganism. In the majority of patients (26: 52%), serologic markers of chlamydial infection were determined. Pneumonia often results from mixed typical and atypical flora infection. High percentage of atypical pathogens in the examined material suggests the necessity to administer intracellularly acting antibiotics. PMID:15315033

Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Kieszko, Robert; Chudnicka, Alina; Milanowski, Janusz

2003-01-01

284

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and health care professionals.  

PubMed

As health care professionals, we face a grave risk of acquiring HIV infection in the course of our work. But how many of us really know the precautions to be applied in the hospital set up in dealing with HIV infected patients? A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in Pune hospitals to assess the current status. Among the results 65% servants had not heard of AIDS, 85% nursing staff did not apply the Universal Safety Precautions (USP) approach, 13.5% resident thought that the HIV was not transmitted by blood, 30% consultants would avoid contact with an HIV positive patient. This study has shown that definite lacunae exist in knowledge specific to the particular population in question. A proposal for an education programme which is target specific and one of constant renewal is sought. PMID:7836241

Menon, V; Bharucha, K

1994-01-01

285

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging  

SciTech Connect

All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

1987-02-01

286

ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card  

SciTech Connect

Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

Soler, E.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-09-01

287

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights  

E-print Network

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

288

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1  

E-print Network

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1 and St´ephane Hong Tuan Ha2 1 INRIA Rh^one-Alpes 655, av. de l composition method which strives to reconcile modularity and efficiency. Our technique, network fusion fusion. Fusion allows to replace internal commu- nications by assignments and alleviates most time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Nuclear fusion - Focus on Tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of nuclear fusion engineering is presented covering: basic fusion technology, magnetic and inertial confinement schemes, fusion fuel, tritium breeding, blankets, tritium containment and disposal, fusion process waste management, power generation costs, environmental impact, and safety. Attention is focused on closed magnetic confinement systems, specifically Tokamak systems. The outlook for pulsed\\/batch or continuous Tokamak operation is assessed. Power supplies

D. Steiner

1977-01-01

290

Feature-level sensor fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two practical fusion techniques for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data ta the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescreened before the fusion stage. The cued fusion method assumes that one of the sensors is designated as a primary sensor, and thus ATC is only

Tamar Peli; Mon Young; Robert Knox; Kenneth K. Ellis; Frederick Bennett

1999-01-01

291

Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections.  

PubMed

These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, Sn; Samaddar, D P; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

2014-03-01

292

Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections  

PubMed Central

These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

2014-01-01

293

Cluster-impact fusion  

SciTech Connect

Deuteron-deuteron fusion, detected via the 3-MeV protons produced, is shown to occur when singly charged clusters of 25 to 1300 D{sub 2}O molecules, accelerated to 200 to 325 keV, impinge on TiD targets. The energy and cluster-size dependence of the fusion rate are discussed. The fusion events are shown to originate from the cluster-ion impacts rather than from D{sup +} or D{sub 2}O{sup +} ions in the beam. The observed rates may be correlated with the compressions and high energy densities created in collision spikes by cluster-ion impacts.

Beuhler, R.J.; Friedlander, G.; Friedman, L. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (US))

1989-09-18

294

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03

295

Assessing the Risk of Laboratory-Acquired Meningococcal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neisseria meningitidis is infrequently reported as a laboratory-acquired infection. Prompted by two cases in the United States in 2000, we assessed this risk among laboratorians. We identified cases of meningococcal disease that were possibly acquired or suspected of being acquired in a laboratory by placing an information request on e-mail discussion groups of infectious disease, microbiology, and infection control professional

James J. Sejvar; David Johnson; Tanja Popovic; J. Michael Miller; Frances Downes; Patricia Somsel; Robbin Weyant; David S. Stephens; Bradley A. Perkins; Nancy E. Rosenstein

2005-01-01

296

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

297

Motion control with induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motors (IM) provide a very wide speed range, mechanically robust and relatively low cost motion control option. An up-to-date summary of the status of induction motor motion control technology is the subject of this paper. The topics which this paper includes are as follows: basic motion control system requirements; field orientation instantaneous torque control principles for induction motors (FO-IM);

ROBERT D. LORENZ; THOMAS A. LIPO; DONALD W. NOVOTNY

1994-01-01

298

Torque-Summing Brushless Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

Vaidya, J. G.

1986-01-01

299

Justification for Energy Efficient Motors  

E-print Network

. This method is referred to as the Dynamometer, Method "B", in Insti tute of Electrical and Electronic Engi neers Standard 112-1978-IEEE Standard Test Procedure For Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators. The dynamometer method is used for the motor...) Care should be exercised not to damage the stator laminations as this increases losses. (C) The damaged winding should be removed using tempera ture controlled burnout ov ens or mechanical tech niques. Recommendations (1) EE motors should...

Buschart, R. J.

1981-01-01

300

A linear induction motor conveyer  

E-print Network

for Various Conveyers Page 85 10$ LIST OF FIGURES Number 1. Two basic types of linear induction motors. I age 2. An early ancestor of' the linear induction motor 3. Forerunner of present day concepts for linear motor powered rail transportation... about by end turns, ii1umb sr pa. ge 34. Currents in the stator and the magnetic field at t ? 0. . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram for determining relative amount of induced voltage. 52 36. Second right hand. rule 5 3...

Solinsky, Kenneth Sheldon

2012-06-07

301

Spectral Label Fusion  

E-print Network

We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers ...

Wachinger, Christian

302

Laser-Driven Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

Gibson, A. F.

1980-01-01

303

Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

2004-02-20

304

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

305

ITER Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2009-12-01

306

ITER Fusion Energy  

ScienceCinema

ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2010-01-08

307

Evolution of induction motors-the ever-shrinking motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction motor was invented in the 1880s by Nikola Tesla, and is basically unchanged 100 years later. But there have been tremendous changes. One of the most notable is the change in physical size. Progress in induction motors, spurred by keen competition, has been notable. One indication of this progress is the change in specific weight (pounds of material

R. Browning

1997-01-01

308

Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

2015-01-01

309

Intermittent rectal motor activity: a rectal motor complex?  

PubMed Central

Prolonged nocturnal recordings from multiple sites in the anorectum and duodenum were performed in 12 healthy volunteers to investigate the presence and determine the characteristics of nocturnal rectal motor activity and assess any synchronicity with phase III of the small intestinal migrating motor complex. Runs of phasic contractions of two contractile frequencies (3 or 6/minute), sustained for more than three minutes, and preceded and followed by motor quiescence were observed in 10 of the 12 subjects. This phenomenon is similar to that described by other investigators and termed the 'rectal motor complex'. The runs of contractions showed considerable inter- and intrasubject variation, with a duration of 3-30 minutes (median 9.0), amplitude of 10-55 mm Hg (median 20.0), and periods of 10-420 minutes (median 55.5) between contractile activity. There was no propagation through the rectum, the phasic motor activity rarely occurred simultaneously at more than one rectal recording site. No consistent relation with phase III of the small intestinal migrating motor complex was observed in any subject. In view of these findings, we question whether this intermittent motor activity merits the term 'rectal motor complex'. PMID:1752469

Prior, A; Fearn, U J; Read, N W

1991-01-01

310

New developments in transplant-acquired allergies.  

PubMed

Transplant-acquired allergy (TAA) was firstly described as transplant-acquired food allergy (TAFA) after bone marrow transplantations and mostly observed in a transient form. The picture is complicated by numerous case reports of TAFA after the receipt of liver grafts from donors with no documented history of food allergy. The estimated prevalence of TAFA among young children in the literature has been documented in various studies ranging from 6% to 57%. Although TAA is mostly found to be associated with liver transplantation; it has been recently reported to be related with heart, intestinal, lung and even renal transplantations in adults. Previous reviews of published cases of liver TAA misleadingly emphasized the predominance of children and the absence of TAA in cardiac, pulmonary, and renal transplant recipients. In different studies, the male/female ratio is equal. Literature data suggest that children with TAFA typically present within the first year after surgery and are typically allergic to multiple foods. The pathogenesis of TAA is not still completely understood. Most of the studies support the concept that the functioning liver itself, and not only tacrolimus immunosuppression, is one of the main contributors to TAA in these patients. In the light of recent findings, other possible mechanisms can be summarized as following: (1) the recovery of delayed type hypersensitivity; (2) late manifestation of food allergy; (3) intestinal injury as well as inhibition of cellular energy production by tacrolimus; and (4) transfer of food-specific IgE or lymphocytes. Thus, interplay between hematopoietic cells from the transplanted organ and recipient specific factors (e.g., younger age and atopic background) seem to underlie the development of TAA. Most patients will have symptomatic improvement following reduced immunosuppression and an appropriately restricted diet. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that atopic diseases occur in some of pediatric liver transplant recipients, with manifestations including food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. More studies would be needed including greater number of patients to determine whether TAA is transient or not in pediatric/adult solid organ recipients. PMID:24255880

Ozdemir, Oner

2013-09-24

311

46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. 169.684 Section 169.684 Shipping...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in...may be used. (b) The motor branch circuit conductors, the motor control...

2012-10-01

312

46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. 169.684 Section 169.684 Shipping...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in...may be used. (b) The motor branch circuit conductors, the motor control...

2011-10-01

313

46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. 169.684 Section 169.684 Shipping...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in...may be used. (b) The motor branch circuit conductors, the motor control...

2013-10-01

314

46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.  

...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. 169.684 Section 169.684 Shipping...protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in...may be used. (b) The motor branch circuit conductors, the motor control...

2014-10-01

315

Cargo transport by several motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a cell, organelles and vesicles are usually transported by cooperation of several motor proteins, including plus-end-directed motor kinesin and minus-end-directed motor dynein. In recent years, many biophysical models have been constructed to understand the mechanism of this transport; however, so far, its basic principle has not been completely understood. In this paper, we will present a model that is based on recent experimental results and existing theoretical models. In this model, each motor is regarded as a head-spring system. The head can bind to or detach from the track stochastically, and step forward or backward with a fixed step size L and force-dependent transition rates. The spring connects the head to the cargo tightly. The position of the cargo is determined by the force-balance condition. An obvious characteristic of our model is that the motors interact with each other and do not share the external load equally. Results indicate that the basic properties of the cargo, including its mean velocity and stall force (definitions are given in the text), are greatly affected by the intermotor interaction. Stated simplistically, the mean velocity and (average) stall force decrease with the intermotor interaction. Therefore, in a sense, the intermotor interaction is negative to the cooperate motion of motors. However, if the cargo is pulled by motors from the same species, its (average) stall force is usually larger than that of the single motor; this means that under external load, the velocity of cargo transported by several motors might be higher than the single-motor cases. We can infer from this that the cooperation of motors is beneficial to draw big cargoes, while it is not as beneficial as one might expect to improve motion velocity when the external load is low.

Zhang, Yunxin

2011-01-01

316

Acquired coagulopathy due to anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of epistaxis, hematomas, and metrorrhagia. Laboratory data indicated severe coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and decreased serum concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. The patient denied taking any oral anticoagulants. She was given transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (1,180 mL) and phytomenadione daily for 6 weeks (total dose 550 mg), which normalized the coagulation factors concentration. After all other possible causes of acquired coagulopathy had been excluded, rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of her epidemiologic history. The patient was a war refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her absence, the troops of United Nations Protection Force performed rodent extermination in and around her house. History data and therapeutic effects suggested that the coagulopathy had been caused by prolonged exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. This could also explain the need for protracted phytomenadione therapy. PMID:12402407

Hui?, Mirjana; Franceti?, Igor; Bakran, Ivan; Macoli?-Sarini?, Viola; Bilusi?, Marinko

2002-10-01

317

Free radicals mediate systemic acquired resistance.  

PubMed

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR]) abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA), which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Notably, this NO/ROS?AzA?G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR. PMID:24726369

Wang, Caixia; El-Shetehy, Mohamed; Shine, M B; Yu, Keshun; Navarre, Duroy; Wendehenne, David; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

2014-04-24

318

Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies  

PubMed Central

Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

2014-01-01

319

Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies.  

PubMed

Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

2014-01-01

320

Postnatal decline of maternally acquired rubella antibodies  

PubMed Central

The postnatal decline of maternally acquired rubella antibody was studied in a large group of infants. A high degree of variability was found in the rate of antibody decline (half-life). Ninety-two babies had rubella antibody half-lives lying between 14 and 70 days and three had values considerably higher. There was no significant difference between the rubella antibody half-lives of the sexes. The antibody titre at birth was weakly correlated with both birth weight and gestational age. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the baby's antibody titre at birth and that of its mother. There was a positive relationship between the half-life and the persistence of rubella antibody. Some babies had no detectable antibody by 2 months whereas others still possessed antibody at 9 months. It was found that the relationship between the half-life and the rubella antibody titre at or near birth could be described by a rectangular hyperbola. PMID:5272346

Cloonan, M. J.; Hawkes, R. A.; Stevens, L. H.

1970-01-01

321

Comparing cerebellar and motor cortical activity in reaching and grasping.  

PubMed

The activity of single cells in the cerebellar and motor cortex of awake monkeys was recorded during separate studies of whole-arm reaching movements and during the application of force-pulse perturbations to hand-held objects. Two general observations about the contribution of the cerebellum to the control of movement emerge from the data. The first, derived from the study of whole arm reaching, suggests that although both the motor cortex and cerebellum generate a signal related to movement direction, the cerebellar signal is less precise and varies from trial to trial even when the movement kinematics remain unchanged. The second observation, derived from the study of predictable perturbations of a hand-held object, indicates that cerebellar cortical neurons better reflect preparatory motor strategies formed from the anticipation of cutaneous and proprioceptive stimuli acquired by previous experience. In spite of strong relations to grip force and receptive fields stimulated by preparatory grip forces increase, the neurons of the percentral motor cortex showed very little anticipatory activity compared with either the premotor areas or the cerebellum. PMID:8334592

Smith, A M; Dugas, C; Fortier, P; Kalaska, J; Picard, N

1993-05-01

322

Developing a Motor Management Policy at BASF  

E-print Network

In early 1998 Thomas R. Theising, BASF Corporate Engineering initiated the formation of a motor management team. The goal of the team was to develop a Motor Management Guideline to better manage the purchase and repair of motors used throughout...

Zickefoose, B.; Theising, T. R.

323

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

324

Motor Development: Core Curricular Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor developmentalists study the processes that underlie change in behavior. There are at least two fundamental ways in which theory and data emanating from motor development are critical components of what undergraduate kinesiology majors should know. First is an emphasis on the lifespan. We are very different organisms as we progress through…

Ulrich, Beverly

2007-01-01

325

Motor Unit in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

DECREASE of muscular efficiency, fatigue and slowness of motor reactions are considered to be typical consequences of old age. No convincing evidence, however, has been brought forward as yet for the assumption that these motor deficiencies in old age are due to regressive changes, such as loss of nerve cells, disturbances of neuromuscular transmission or to degenerative atrophy of the

E. Gutmann; V. Hanzlíková

1966-01-01

326

Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

2008-01-01

327

Torque control for electric motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

Bernard, C. A.

1980-01-01

328

Determinants of molecular motor directionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work over the past two years has led to a breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular basis of the directionality of the kinesin motor proteins. This breakthrough has come first from the reversal of directionality of the kinesin-related motor Ncd, followed closely by the reversal of kinesin’s directionality and the finding that the Ncd ‘neck’ can convert Ncd or

Sharyn A. Endow

1999-01-01

329

Perceptual Aspects of Motor Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptual-motor functioning is a cyclic process involving: (1) organizing incoming sensory stimuli with past or stored perceptual information; (2) making motor (internal) decisions based on the combination of sensory (present) and perceptual (past) information; (3) executing the actual movement (observable act) itself; and (4) evaluating the act…

Gallahue, David L.

330

Advanced solid propellant motor insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

1972-01-01

331

Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality  

PubMed Central

Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on the theory of exon/domain shuffling. The model leads to a hypothesis that a fusion is more likely to be an oncogenic driver if its partner genes act like hubs in a network because the fusion mutation can deregulate normal functions of many other genes and their pathways. The hypothesis is supported by the observation that for most known cancer fusion genes, at least one of the fusion partners appears to be a hub in a network, and even for many fusions both partners appear to be hubs. Based on this model, we construct fusion centrality, a multi-gene-based network metric, and use it to score fusion drivers. We show that the fusion centrality outperforms other single gene-based methods. Specifically, the method successfully predicts most of 38 newly discovered fusions that had validated oncogenic importance. To our best knowledge, this is the first network-based approach for identifying fusion drivers. Availability: Matlab code implementing the fusion centrality method is available upon request from the corresponding authors. Contact: perwu777@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23505294

Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

2013-01-01

332

MFN2 Couples Glutamate Excitotoxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Motor Neurons.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in glutamate-evoked neuronal excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics are essential for mitochondrial morphology and function. Here, we establish a novel mechanistic linker among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial dysfunction in spinal cord motor neurons. Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the cysteine protease calpain in response to glutamate results in the degradation of a key mitochondrial outer membrane fusion regulator, mitofusin 2 (MFN2), and leads to MFN2-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation preceding glutamate-induced neuronal death. MFN2 deficiency impairs mitochondrial function, induces motor neuronal death, and renders motor neurons vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity. Conversely, MFN2 overexpression blocks glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and/or neuronal death in spinal cord motor neurons both in vitro and in mice. The inhibition of calpain activation also alleviates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity of mitochondria and neurons. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate excitotoxicity causes mitochondrial dysfunction by impairing mitochondrial dynamics via calpain-mediated MFN2 degradation in motor neurons and thus present a molecular mechanism coupling glutamate excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25416777

Wang, Wenzhang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Li; Tang, Fangqiang; Siedlak, Sandra L; Fujioka, Hisashi; Liu, Yingchao; Su, Bo; Pi, Yan; Wang, Xinglong

2015-01-01

333

Experimenting with theoretical motor neuroscience.  

PubMed

Motor neuroscience is well over 100 years old, with seminal work such as G. T. Fritz and E. Hitzig's discovery of motor cortex occurring in 1870. Theoretical motor neuroscience has been ongoing for at least the last 50 years. How mature a scientific discipline is motor neuroscience? Are experimentalists and theoreticians working together productively to help the field progress? This article addresses these questions by advancing the following theses. Motor neuroscience remains at a descriptive stage due to the incredible complexity of the problem to be solved. The proliferation of models--and distinct modeling camps--stems from the absence of unifying conceptual constructs. To advance the field, theoreticians must rely more heavily on the concept of falsification by producing models that lend themselves to clear experimental testing. PMID:21184350

Ajemian, Robert; Hogan, Neville

2010-11-01

334

ASRM subscale plume deflector testing. [advanced solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

1992-01-01

335

Immunoadsorption in the treatment of acquired haemophilia.  

PubMed

In acquired haemophilia (AH) healthy humans can suddenly develop severe bleeding due to autoantibodies (inhibitors) against clotting factors, especially factor VIII. The mortality rate of 21 % is considerable, and standardized treatment protocols have not been developed due to the low disease frequency (1-4 per million). Major goals of treatment are the control of bleeding events and rapid inhibitor elimination. Conventional treatment regimens induce immune tolerance via long-term immunosuppression with success rates between 52% and 82%. However, treatment related mortality can rise to 39%. Lack of complete remission, advanced age, underlying malignancies and infections related to immunosuppressive therapy are regarded as principal risk factors for death. The modified Bonn-Malmö Protocol (MBMP), an immune tolerance protocol consisting of antibody depletion through immunoadsorption, i.v. immunoglobulin treatment, immunosuppression and high dose FVIII supplementation, achieves rapid and safe control of acute bleeding. In the largest published single centre study of high risk patients with AH, we previously demonstrated that complete remission (CR) can be achieved in 88.5% of all patients (54/61) within a median time of 3.9 wks (range: 3.2-4.5 wks) and in 97% (54/56) of AH patients without cancer as an underlying condition. Those 5 patients, who suffered also from cancer, achieved partial remission (PR). Mortality or severe treatment-related side effects were not observed. This study confirmed that MBMP is a safe and effective treatment with a high curative potential for severe AH. However, the severity of bleeding, and therefore the cost-effectiveness of the approach, needs to be considered when initiating this treatment protocol. PMID:20129389

Zeitler, Heike; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Panek, Darius; Goldmann, Georg; Vidovic, Natascha; Brackmann, Hans-Hermann; Oldenburg, Johannes

2009-12-29

336

Reprogramming of plants during systemic acquired resistance  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that during biological activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis, the transcript levels of several hundred plant genes were consistently up- (SAR+ genes) or down-regulated (SAR? genes) in systemic, non-inoculated leaf tissue. This transcriptional reprogramming fully depended on the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1). Functional gene categorization showed that genes associated with salicylic acid (SA)-associated defenses, signal transduction, transport, and the secretory machinery are overrepresented in the group of SAR+ genes, and that the group of SAR? genes is enriched in genes activated via the jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET)-defense pathway, as well as in genes associated with cell wall remodeling and biosynthesis of constitutively produced secondary metabolites. This suggests that SAR-induced plants reallocate part of their physiological activity from vegetative growth towards SA-related defense activation. Alignment of the SAR expression data with other microarray information allowed us to define three clusters of SAR+ genes. Cluster I consists of genes tightly regulated by SA. Cluster II genes can be expressed independently of SA, and this group is moderately enriched in H2O2- and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. The expression of the cluster III SAR+ genes is partly SA-dependent. We propose that SA-independent signaling events in early stages of SAR activation enable the biosynthesis of SA and thus initiate SA-dependent SAR signaling. Both SA-independent and SA-dependent events tightly co-operate to realize SAR. SAR+ genes function in the establishment of diverse resistance layers, in the direct execution of resistance against different (hemi-)biotrophic pathogen types, in suppression of the JA- and ABA-signaling pathways, in redox homeostasis, and in the containment of defense response activation. Our data further indicated that SAR-associated defense priming can be realized by partial pre-activation of particular defense pathways. PMID:23874348

Gruner, Katrin; Griebel, Thomas; Návarová, Hana; Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Jürgen

2013-01-01

337

Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

2012-10-01

338

How to acquire customers on the Web.  

PubMed

Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works. PMID:11183979

Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

2000-01-01

339

Finding new genes causing motor neuron diseases.  

E-print Network

??Doctor of Philosophy%%%Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders are a diverse group of disorders that affect specific subsets of neurons. Motor neuron diseases, neurodegenerative disorders of motor neurons,… (more)

Gopinath, Sumana

2007-01-01

340

Myoblast fusion in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)] [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

2010-11-01

341

Fusion, magnetic confinement  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

Berk, H.L.

1992-08-06

342

Reciprocating linear motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

Goldowsky, Michael P. (inventor)

1987-01-01

343

Reciprocating linear motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

Goldowsky, Michael P.

1987-06-01

344

Magnetic bearing and motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

345

Community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a pathogen that causes infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, community-acquired S. maltophilia infections have been occasionally reported. The objective of this paper was to collect and evaluate the available published\\u000a data referring to community-acquired S. maltophilia infections. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus for articles providing data for patients with community-acquired\\u000a S. maltophilia infections.

M. E. Falagas; A. C. Kastoris; E. K. Vouloumanou; G. Dimopoulos

2009-01-01

346

Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is no longer only hospital acquired. MRSA is defined as community acquired if the MRSA-positive specimen was obtained outside hospital settings or within 2 days of hospital admission, and if it was from a person who had not been hospitalized within 2 years before the date of MRSA isolation. To estimate the proportion of community-acquired MRSA,

Saara Salmenlinna; Outi Lyytikäinen; Jaana Vuopio-Varkila

2002-01-01

347

Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap  

E-print Network

Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap Farrokh Najmabadi Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Director, Center for Energy Research UC San Diego International Fusion Road of emerging nations, energy use is expected to grow ~ 4 fold in this century (average 1.6% annual growth rate

348

Interference in ballistic motor learning: specificity and role of sensory error signals.  

PubMed

Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C; Nielsen, Jens Bo

2011-01-01

349

Local Vote Decision Fusion for Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

1 Local Vote Decision Fusion for Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Natallia Katenka by a wireless sensor network. Sensors acquire measurements emitted from the target that are corrupted by noise sensors, and then make a collective decision as a network. An explicit formula that approximates

Michailidis, George

350

Hand-Based Feature Level Fusion for Single Sample Biometrics Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single sample biometrics recognition may lead to bad recognition result in real-world applications. To solve this problem, we present a novel feature level biometrics fusion approach by combining two kinds of biometrics: palmprint and middle finger image, both of which can be acquired from one hand image. We first utilize a manifold learning method to find the local embedding subspaces

Yanqiang Zhang; Dongmei Sun; Zhengding Qiu

2010-01-01

351

A volumetric fusion technique for surface reconstruction from silhouettes and range data q  

E-print Network

A volumetric fusion technique for surface reconstruction from silhouettes and range data q Y. Yemez of the object surface, that often lead to holes and inaccuracies on the recovered surface. Shape from silhouette information acquired from silhouette images and optical triangulation is presented. Our motivation

Yemez, Yücel

352

Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

2014-11-01

353

Simulation of Fusion Plasmas  

ScienceCinema

The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

Chris Holland

2010-01-08

354

Cryogenics for Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to "fusion for energy" will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Bonneton, M.; Boissin, J. C.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.

2008-03-01

355

Ceramics for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

356

Electric motors: what about premium price  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficient motors (EE motors) are discussed and compared to standard electric motors. Pitfalls and warnings are provided for the novice prospective purchaser. The best comparison between the two types of electric motors is cited to be a direct comparison of the EE motor with published statistics of the average of all known standard motors. It is shown that efficiency of both types of motors increases as the horsepower of the motor increases. The economics of EE motors are discussed with emphasis on the initial cost and cost of operation. Payback periods as a function of horsepower are discussed and illustrated. In most cases, electricity savings exceed the premium initial cost within the first year of operation. For a 200 horsepower motor, the payback period is 4 months even though the EE motor is only 1.2% more efficient. (MJJ)

Not Available

1980-04-01

357

Acquired Dyslexia in Japanese: Implications for Reading Theory .  

E-print Network

??Acquired dyslexia research has been conducted mainly on English neurological patients. A limited number of dyslexia studies on non-alphabetic orthographies are available. Classical case studies… (more)

Sato, H

2007-01-01

358

Early localized morphea mimicking an acquired port-wine stain.  

PubMed

Port-wine stains (PWS) and morphea are distinct conditions that are easily recognized and diagnosed in pediatric patients. Rarely, early localized morphea may mimic an acquired PWS. We present 4 such cases, in two of which the initial clinical impression of acquired PWS was thought to be confirmed by histopathology. A diagnosis of morphea was made approximately 6 months to 3 years after the onset of the acquired PWS. Clinicians should be aware that an apparent acquired PWS may be an early manifestation of localized morphea and continue to monitor these lesions. PMID:20850196

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Bard, Susan; Blyumin, Marianna; Smidt, Aimee C; Chamlin, Sarah L; Connelly, Elizabeth A

2011-04-01

359

How do galaxies acquire their mass?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the growth of galaxy masses, via gas accretion and galaxy mergers. We introduce a toy model that describes (in a single equation) how much baryonic mass is accreted and retained into galaxies as a function of halo mass and redshift. In our model, the evolution of the baryons differs from that of the dark matter because 1) gravitational shock heating and AGN jets suppress gas accretion mainly above a critical halo mass of Mshock ~ 1012 M?; 2) the intergalactic medium after reionisation is too hot for accretion onto haloes with circular velocities vcirc ? 40 km s-1; 3) stellar feedback drives gas out of haloes, mainly those with vcirc ? 120 km s-1. We run our model on the merger trees of the haloes and sub-haloes of a high-resolution dark matter cosmological simulation. The galaxy mass is taken as the maximum between the mass given by the toy model and the sum of the masses of its progenitors (reduced by tidal stripping). Designed to reproduce the present-day stellar mass function of galaxies, our model matches fairly well the evolution of the cosmic stellar density. It leads to the same z = 0 relation between central galaxy stellar and halo mass as the one found by abundance matching and also as that previously measured at high mass on SDSS centrals. Our model also predicts a bimodal distribution (centrals and satellites) of stellar masses for given halo mass, in very good agreement with SDSS observations. The relative importance of mergers depends strongly on stellar mass (more than on halo mass). Massive galaxies with mstars > mcrit ~ ?b/?mMshock ~ 1011 M? acquire most of their final mass through mergers (mostly major and gas-poor), as expected from our model's shutdown of gas accretion at high halo masses. However, although our mass resolution should see the effects of mergers down to mstars ? 1010.6 h-1 M?, we find that mergers are rare for mstars ? 1011 h-1 M?. This is a consequence of the curvature of the stellar vs. halo mass relation set by the physical processes of our toy model and found with abundance matching. So gas accretion must be the dominant growth mechanism for intermediate and low mass galaxies, including dwarf ellipticals in clusters. The contribution of galaxy mergers terminating in haloes with mass Mhalo < Mshock (thus presumably gas-rich) to the mass buildup of galaxies is small at all masses, but accounts for the bulk of the growth of ellipticals of intermediate mass (~1010.5 h-1 M?), which we predict must be the typical mass of ULIRGs.

Cattaneo, A.; Mamon, G. A.; Warnick, K.; Knebe, A.

2011-09-01

360

Solid rocket motor witness test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

Welch, Christopher S.

1991-01-01

361

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOEpatents

A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

1997-01-01

362

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOEpatents

A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

1997-10-07

363

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOEpatents

A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1997-01-01

364

The promotion of recovery through rehabilitation after acquired brain injury in children.  

PubMed

A degree of motor recovery is typically seen after acquired brain injury in children. The extent to which rehabilitation efforts can claim credit for this is disputed. Strong correlations between late impairment outcomes and early severity and impairment indices are seen both in adults and children. These correlations have been interpreted by some as evidence that recovery is largely intrinsic and that any additional rehabilitation effects are small. Such views are belied by published animal studies demonstrating the possibility of large rehabilitation effects. Animal models suggest that to achieve similar rehabilitation treatment effect sizes in clinical practice, rehabilitation 'doses' should be greater, rehabilitation efforts should start sooner, and premature accommodation of impairment should be avoided. PMID:25200439

Forsyth, Rob; Basu, Anna

2015-01-01

365

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and engineering capabilities have been demonstrated for a fusion reactor gain (Q) of the order of unity (TFTR: 0.25, JET: 0.65, JT-60: Q(sub eq) approx. 1.25). These technological advances made it compelling for considering fusion for propulsion.

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

366

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

367

Ultra-Compact Motor Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

2012-01-01

368

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

Mitchell, Royce E.

1992-01-01

369

The Fusion Machine (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

The Fusion Machine (extended abstract) Philippa Gardner Cosimo Laneve Lucian Wischik March 27, 2002. In particular, we describe a dis- tributed abstract machine called the fusion machine. In it, only channels exist at runtime. It uses a form of concurrent constraints called fusions--equations on channel names

Gardner, Philippa

370

Human-Centered Fusion Framework  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

2007-05-16

371

What matters to managerial knowledge acquisition in international joint ventures? High knowledge acquirers versus low knowledge acquirers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a general agreement amongst scholars that international joint venture (IJV) is a vehicle to acquire technology\\u000a and knowledge from foreign parents, key factors differentiating high knowledge acquirers from low knowledge acquirers are\\u000a not yet conclusive. For the purpose of this study, the samples are divided into two groups based on the extent of knowledge\\u000a acquisition using cluster

Byung Il Park

2010-01-01

372

Primary motor cortex disinhibition during motor skill learning.  

PubMed

Motor learning requires practice over a period of time and depends on brain plasticity, yet even for relatively simple movements, there are multiple practice strategies that can be used for skill acquisition. We investigated the role of intracortical inhibition in the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor skill learning. Event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability and inhibition thought to involve synaptic and extrasynaptic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Short intracortical inhibition (SICI) was assessed using 1- and 2.5-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Participants learned a novel, sequential pinch-grip task on a computer in either a repetitive or interleaved practice structure. Both practice structures showed equivalent levels of motor performance at the end of acquisition and at retention 1 wk later. There was a novel task-related modulation of 1-ms SICI. Repetitive practice elicited a greater reduction of 1- and 2.5-ms SICI, i.e., disinhibition, between rest and task acquisition, compared with interleaved practice. These novel findings support the use of a repetitive practice structure for motor learning because the associated effects within M1 have relevance for motor rehabilitation. PMID:24717346

Coxon, James P; Peat, Nicola M; Byblow, Winston D

2014-07-01

373

[Report of 2 cases with acquired von Willebrand disease and one with acquired hemophilia A].  

PubMed

We report three patients with acquired inhibitors against F VIII:C/F vW:Ag complex. Two patients had acquired hemophilia A. The three patients presented with bleeding diathesis. Case 1 was a 19 years old woman with Graves-Basedow disease; case 2 was a 40 years old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus of four years; and case 3 a 38 years old woman who had had rheumatoid arthritis for five years and was in her 3d month postpartum. The F VIII:C level was below 8 U/dL in all cases. The F vW:Ag, ristocetin cofactor and platelet aggregation with ristocetin were diminished in the two cases with von Willebrand. Inhibitor to F VIII:C was 50, 38 and 20 Bethesda units, respectively, for cases 1, 2 and 3. The three patients showed clinical response to DDAVP and cryoprecipitates with partial response in laboratory tests. All patients responded to corticosteroid treatment, but immunosuppressive treatment was necessary in case 3. PMID:7569365

Martínez-Murillo, C; Quintana González, S; Ambriz Fernández, R; Domínguez García, V; Rodríguez Moyado, H; Arias Aranda, A; Collazo Jaloma, J; Gutiérrez Romero, M

1995-01-01

374

Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven  

E-print Network

Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven March 2009 Abstract In this article, we consider control of fusion, quotients, and p-soluble fusion systems. For control of fusion, we for fusion systems. We move on to p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us

Craven, David A.

375

Further studies on ceramic superconductor motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several small stepper motors have been developed. Each motor consists of a superconductive primary and a magnetic secondary. The primary is comprised of a mixture of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) superconductive powder and an epoxy resin. The construction of a rotational motor is presented. The evaluation of a linear motor is also given.

Wang, X. W.; Koprevich, J.; Ward, R. C., III; Mannur, N. R.; Petersen, H.; Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.

376

Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that the permanent magnet motor drives, which include the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the brushless DC motor (BDCM) could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back EMF and requires

PRAGASAN PILLAY; R. Krishnan

1988-01-01

377

Proprioception and Motor Control in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a progressive decline in motor function. Growing evidence indicates that PD patients also experience an array of sensory problems that negatively impact motor function. This is especially true for proprioceptive deficits, which profoundly degrade motor performance. This review specifically address the relation between proprioception and motor impairments in PD. It

Jürgen Konczak; Daniel M. Corcos; Fay Horak; Howard Poizner; Mark Shapiro; Paul Tuite; Jens Volkmann; Matthias Maschke

2009-01-01

378

Separating Fusion from Rivalry  

PubMed Central

Visual fusion is the process in which differing but compatible binocular information is transformed into a unified percept. Even though this is at the basis of binocular vision, the underlying neural processes are, as yet, poorly understood. In our study we therefore aimed to investigate neural correlates of visual fusion. To this end, we presented binocularly compatible, fusible (BF), and incompatible, rivaling (BR) stimuli, as well as an intermediate stimulus type containing both binocularly fusible and monocular, incompatible elements (BFR). Comparing BFR stimuli with BF and BR stimuli, respectively, we were able to disentangle brain responses associated with either visual fusion or rivalry. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to these stimulus classes in the visual cortex, and investigated them in detail at various retinal eccentricities. Compared with BF stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli was elevated in visual cortical areas V1 and V2, but not in V3 and V4 – implying that the response to monocular stimulus features decreased from V1 to V4. Compared to BR stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli decreased with increasing eccentricity, specifically within V3 and V4. Taken together, it seems that although the processing of exclusively monocular information decreases from V1 to V4, the processing of binocularly fused information increases from earlier to later visual areas. Our findings suggest the presence of an inhibitory neural mechanism which, depending on the presence of fusion, acts differently on the processing of monocular information. PMID:25054904

Dechent, Peter; Forster, Clemens; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Strasburger, Hans

2014-01-01

379

Mars manned fusion spaceship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

1991-01-01

380

Fusion unit preventive maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The lack of preventive maintenance on any mechanical apparatus can lead to the death of that machine. Experience with fusion equipment, as well as other special purpose equipment manufactured has shown that improperly maintained equipment will require overhaul maintenance from 6 to 10 times earlier than a properly maintained one. This figure can probably be used for most pieces of equipment. The principle of heat fusion is to heat two opposing surfaces of a polyolefin material to a designated temperature, then fuse them together by application of a designated force. This causes flow of the melted materials that results in mixing of the molecular chains and thus fusion. Polyethylene consists of crystalline and amorphous materials, but for all practical purposes, at normal ambient temperatures, it is basically a crystalline structure. When the polyethylene is heated beyond melting temperature, the crystallinity disappears completely and the molecular structure becomes completely amorphous (has no definite shape). When fusion force is applied, the amorphous molecules from each pipe end or fitting mix. As the joint cools below the crystalline melting point, the molecular chain becomes crystalline again. When proper mixing occurs, crystals are formed from one pipe through the joining plane to the other pipe. The original interfaces are gone and the two pipes or fittings have become one homogenous material. The joint area becomes stronger than the pipe or fitting themselves.

Striplin, T.H.

1986-07-01

381

Fusion of conformal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the fusion of conformal interfaces in the c = 1 conformal field theory. We uncover an elegant structure reminiscent of that of black holes in supersymmetric theories. The role of the BPS black holes is played by topological interfaces, which (a) minimize the entropy function, (b) fix through an attractor mechanism one or both of the bulk radii,

C. Bachas; I. Brunner

2008-01-01

382

About sponsorship Fusion power  

E-print Network

with the International Space Station. It is scheduled to run for 30 years, which is handy since, for the past half the International Space Station, had its origins in the superpower politics of the 1980s that brought the cold A step towards commercial fusion power. Perhaps Get article background THIS week, an international

383

Useful signals from motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Historically, the motor cortical function has been explained as a funnel to muscle activation. This invokes the idea that motor cortical neurons, or ‘upper motoneurons’, directly cause muscle contraction just like spinal motoneurons. Thus, the motor cortex and muscle activity are inextricably entwined like a puppet master and his marionette. Recently, this concept has been challenged by current experimentation showing that many behavioural aspects of action are represented in motor cortical activity. Although this activity may still be related to muscle activation, the relation between the two is likely to be indirect and complex, whereas the relation between cortical activity and kinematic parameters is simple and robust. These findings show how to extract useful signals that help explain the underlying process that generates behaviour and to harness these signals for potentially therapeutic applications. PMID:17255162

Schwartz, Andrew B

2007-01-01

384

Fatigue in motor neuron diseases.  

PubMed

Motor neuron diseases as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post-polio syndrome are characterized by prominent muscular weakness and severe motor disability. The prevalence of fatigue in motor neuron diseases is remarkably high, and may contribute significantly to patients' disability and a poor quality of life. Despite its high prevalence, fatigue is an understudied clinical problem in motor neuron diseases and is often overlooked. The present review will attempt to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle fatigue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post-polio syndrome, to cover the various methods of quantification of fatigue that measure both subjective and physiological components, and to summarize the evidence regarding therapeutic interventions that can be used in order to minimize this symptom. PMID:23182639

Abraham, Alon; Drory, Vivian E

2012-12-01

385

Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors  

E-print Network

Anywhere liquid pressure is reduced across a throttling device, there is a potential application for a hydraulic power recovery motor (HPRM). Cost of power makes HPRM's attractive with recoveries as small as 25 hp on a continuous basis. When...

Brennan, J. R.

1982-01-01

386

Gearless speed-reduction motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed rolling electric motor has output shaft speed reductions of 1000 to 1 or better. Light compact unit uses no gears or pulleys to reduce speed presenting less bulk and frictional loss, and more efficiency.

Madey, J.

1977-01-01

387

Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

2012-01-01

388

A hospital study of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on community acquired pneumonia in the United States in patients over the age of 65 years have shown that Gram negative bacilli account for an appreciable proportion of cases, in addition to usual pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. There have been no reports of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly in the United Kingdom. We undertook

P Venkatesan; J Gladman; J T Macfarlane; D Barer; P Berman; W Kinnear; R G Finch

1990-01-01

389

7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to §...

2012-01-01

390

7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to §...

2010-01-01

391

7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to §...

2014-01-01

392

7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to §...

2011-01-01

393

7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to §...

2013-01-01

394

Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms for Acquiring Information from Smart Badges  

E-print Network

, disaster recovery network, smart badge I. INTRODUCTION The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center1 Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms for Acquiring Information from Smart Badges Gil Zussman to construct an ad hoc network of wireless smart badges in order to acquire information from trapped survivors

Zussman, Gil

395

Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1  

E-print Network

, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) mediate symptom development but do not influence bacterial growth but not bacterial growth during subsequent challenge with virulent Xcv. This systemic acquired tolerance (SATSystemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1 Anna Block, Eric Schmelz

Klee, Harry J.

396

45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01...to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...acquire foreign rights. In any case...furtherance of the foreign policies of the...

2010-10-01

397

Enabling Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Multiple Disabilities to Choose among Environmental Stimuli and Request their Repetition via a Technology-assisted Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study replicated\\/extended a pilot investigation of a technology-assisted program to enable persons with acquired brain\\u000a injury and neuro-motor and communication\\/consciousness impairments to choose among environmental stimuli and request their\\u000a repetition whenever they so desired. The study included three adult participants. Within each session, 16 stimuli (12 preferred\\u000a and 4 non-preferred) were planned for the participants. A computer system provided

Giulio E. Lancioni; Nirbhay N. Singh; Mark F. O’Reilly; Jeff Sigafoos; Francesca Buonocunto; Valentina Sacco; Fabio Colonna; Jorge Navarro; Crocifissa Lanzilotti; Marisa Megna

2011-01-01

398

Plasma motor generator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

Hite, Gerald E.

1987-01-01

399

Magnetic bearing and motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

Studer, P. A. (inventor)

1983-01-01

400

Supplementary motor area (SMA) volume is associated with psychotic aberrant motor behaviour of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate whether aberrant motor behavior in schizophrenia was associated with structural alterations in the motor system. Whole brain voxel based morphometry of patients with different severity of motor symptoms identified altered gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a key region of the motor system. PMID:24853647

Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Bracht, Tobias; Laimböck, Karin; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

2014-07-30

401

Data fusion analysis of a surface direct-current resistivity and well pick data set  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. This report discusses the results of evaluating a surface direct-current (dc) resistivity and well-pick data set using two methods: data fusion technology and commercially available software (i.e., RESIX Plus from Interpex Ltd., Golden, Colorado), the conventional method of analysis. The report compares the two technologies; describes the survey, procedures, and results; and includes conclusions and recommendations. The surface dc resistivity and well-pick data set had been acquired by PNL from a study performed in May 1993 at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The resistivity survey data were acquired to map the top of permafrost in support of a hydrogeologic study. This data set provided an excellent opportunity to test and refine the dc resistivity capabilities of the DFW; previously, the data fusion software was untested on dc resistivity data. The DFW was used to evaluate the dc resistivity survey data and to produce a 3-dimensional earth model of the study area.

Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

1995-09-01

402

Direct drive field actuator motors  

DOEpatents

A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

Grahn, A.R.

1998-03-10

403

MINI MOTORS USING SOLID PROPELLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of applications for solid propel- lant mini-motors cover the propulsion of mini satellites, mini-UAV and spreading of MEMs. Combustion in mini-chambers is driven by some effects different from these involved in larger motors. Flows are rather laminar, wall effects are important and time scales are short. In this aim, CFD computations are done with CPS code in order

L. Vignaroli; O. Orlandi; V. Bodart

404

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home website for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). This agency was established as a separate administration within the U.S. Department of Transportation pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999. Their primary mission is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses. There is also information on their website involving anti-terrorism tips for transporters.

2007-02-26

405

Solid rocket motor internal insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

Twichell, S. E. (editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

1976-01-01

406

Genetics of motor neuron disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of genes associated with motor neuron degeneration has increased considerably over the past few years. As more\\u000a gene mutations are identified, the hope arises that certain common themes and\\/or pathways become clear. In this overview,\\u000a we focus on recent discoveries related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophies (SMA), and distal\\u000a hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN). It is

Ludo Van Den Bosch; Vincent Timmerman

2006-01-01

407

Identification of induction motor parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model-based mapping identification concept is used to identify the unknown parameters of induction motors using transient dynamics. The reported state-space identification scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear multivariable continuous-time dynamic systems. To illustrate the analytical results and to demonstrate the practical capabilities, the unknown motor parameters are identified for a voltage-fed squirrel-cage

V. Pappanol; S. E. Lyshevski; B. Friedland

1998-01-01

408

Direct drive field actuator motors  

SciTech Connect

A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1998-01-01

409

Segmented rail linear induction motor  

SciTech Connect

A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1996-01-01

410

Segmented rail linear induction motor  

DOEpatents

A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

1996-09-03

411

An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

2008-01-01

412

Two Brains, One Game: Design and Evaluation of a Multi-User BCI Video Game Based on Motor  

E-print Network

1 Two Brains, One Game: Design and Evaluation of a Multi-User BCI Video Game Based on Motor Imagery--How can we connect two brains to a video game by means of a BCI, and what will happen when we do so? How electroencephalography (EEG): several sensors are placed on the user's scalp to acquire the micro currents produced

Boyer, Edmond

413

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

414

Enhanced image capture through fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

1993-01-01

415

Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion  

E-print Network

We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present technology of producing stau.

K. Hamaguchi; T. Hatsuda; T. T. Yanagida

2006-07-24

416

A novel energy-logic model for multi-modality multi-agent data and information fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance systems heavily rely on data collected by multi-modality sensors to detect and characterize behavior of entities and events over a given situation. In order to transform the multi-modality sensors data into useful information leading to actionable decisions, there is an essential need for a robust fusion engine. A robust fusion engine should be able to acquire data from multi-agent

Haroun R. A Rababaah

2009-01-01

417

To evaluate stereoacuity in patients with acquired esotropia and to determine factors associated with favourable outcomes  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate stereoacuity in patients with acquired esotropia and determine the factors associated with favorable outcomes. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 subjects aged 6 years and above were included in the study. Thorough clinical evaluation including binocular status examination using the Bagolini-striated glass test, The Netherland Organization (TNO), and Randot stereo test were done. The subjects were divided into two groups 1 and 2, based on the amount of deviation. Statistical analysis of the result was performed. Result: The duration of misalignment in the group with deviation less than or equal to 8 prism diopters (PD) was 1.49 ± 0.86 years, whereas in the group with deviation more than or equal to 10 PD was 4.64 ± 2.99 years (P = 0.000). Among the subjects in group 1, 89.5% achieved fusion and 52.6% had stereoacuity on both TNO and Randot, whereas in group 2 40% achieved fusion and 3.3% stereopsis on both TNO and Randot (one case with only coarse stereopsis). A subanalysis within group 1 revealed a statistically significant difference for the duration of misalignment (P = 0.02), but a marginal difference for the amount of deviation (P = 0.3). Conclusion: A horizontal deviation up to 8 PD was compatible with stereopsis. Also, the duration of constant misalignment affects the attainment of stereopsis despite successful realignment. PMID:25005198

Nongpiur, Monisha E; Singh, Anirudh; Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Anudeepa; Sharma, Pradeep

2014-01-01

418

Precision stop control for motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

2000-01-01

419

Kinesin motors and primary cilia.  

PubMed

Cilia and flagella play important roles in human health by contributing to cellular motility as well as sensing and responding to environmental cues. Defects in ciliary assembly and/or function can lead to a range of human diseases, collectively known as the ciliopathies, including polycystic kidney, liver and pancreatic diseases, sterility, obesity, situs inversus, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. A basic understanding of how cilia form and function is essential for deciphering ciliopathies and generating therapeutic treatments. The cilium is a unique compartment that contains a distinct complement of protein and lipid. However, the molecular mechanisms by which soluble and membrane protein components are targeted to and trafficked into the cilium are not well understood. Cilia are generated and maintained by IFT (intraflagellar transport) in which IFT cargoes are transported along axonemal microtubules by kinesin and dynein motors. A variety of genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches has established the heterotrimeric kinesin-2 motor as the 'core' IFT motor, whereas other members of the kinesin-2, kinesin-3 and kinesin-4 families function as 'accessory' motors for the transport of specific cargoes in diverse cell types. Motors of the kinesin-9 and kinesin-13 families play a non-IFT role in regulating ciliary beating or axonemal length, respectively. Entry of kinesin motors and their cargoes into the ciliary compartment requires components of the nuclear import machinery, specifically importin-?2 (transportin-1) and Ran-GTP (Ran bound to GTP), suggesting that similar mechanisms may regulate entry into the nuclear and ciliary compartments. PMID:21936775

Verhey, Kristen J; Dishinger, John; Kee, Hooi Lynn

2011-10-01

420

Motor mapping in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The measurement of motor deficits in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) has been largely based on clinical criteria. Yet functional imaging and non-invasive stimulation methods provide a means to measure directly abnormalities of the motor system. The size and location of muscles and movement representations can be determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetics resonance imaging. Thus the homunculus can be individually mapped in children with CP. Because size of representation within the homunculus relates to quality of motor control, measurement of the distance between body parts provides a metric that may be useful in classifying deficits. Bilateral motor control in one hemisphere, while normal in neonates, persists variably in CP, providing another physiological metric. In this study, we used TMS to measure hand and ankle representations in a convenience sample of children with spastic CP. Overlapping thumb and ankle maps were found in children with both hemiplegia and diplegia, and these maps may be from either side of the body. While more participants are required to make conclusions about disability and compression/bilaterality of the homunculus, it appears as if TMS-derived metrics relate to motor abnormalities. These abnormal motor maps also are a therapeutic target, as stimulation methods are being developed as adjuncts to physical means of rehabilitation. PMID:19740221

Wittenberg, George F

2009-10-01

421

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

422

The path to fusion power.  

PubMed

Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power. PMID:17272246

Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

2007-04-15

423

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

424

Cerebellar Motor Function in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, involves dysmorphology of the cerebellum, and\\u000a its most obvious manifestations are motor deficits. This paper reviews cerebellar neuropathology and motor function across\\u000a several motor systems well studied in SBM in relation to current models of cerebellar motor and timing function. Children\\u000a and adults with SBM have widespread motor deficits in trunk, upper

Maureen Dennis; Michael S. Salman; Jenifer Juranek; Jack M. Fletcher

2010-01-01

425

The Need for Fusion Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

Cassibry, Jason

2005-01-01

426

An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

2009-01-01

427

Cerebellar contributions to visuomotor adaptation and motor sequence learning: an ALE meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cerebellar contributions to motor learning are well-documented. For example, under some conditions, patients with cerebellar damage are impaired at visuomotor adaptation and at acquiring new action sequences. Moreover, cerebellar activation has been observed in functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of various motor learning tasks. The early phases of motor learning are cognitively demanding, relying on processes such as working memory, which have been linked to the cerebellum as well. Here, we investigated cerebellar contributions to motor learning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. This allowed us to determine, across studies and tasks, whether or not the location of cerebellar activation is constant across differing motor learning tasks, and whether or not cerebellar activation in early learning overlaps with that observed for working memory. We found that different regions of the anterior cerebellum are engaged for implicit and explicit sequence learning and visuomotor adaptation, providing additional evidence for the modularity of cerebellar function. Furthermore, we found that lobule VI of the cerebellum, which has been implicated in working memory, is activated during the early stages of explicit motor sequence learning. This provides evidence for a potential role for the cerebellum in the cognitive processing associated with motor learning. However, though lobule VI was activated across both early explicit sequence learning and working memory studies, there was no spatial overlap between these two regions. Together, our results support the idea of modularity in the formation of internal representations of new motor tasks in the cerebellum, and highlight the cognitive processing relied upon during the early phases of motor skill learning. PMID:23403800

Bernard, Jessica A; Seidler, Rachael D

2013-01-01

428

Motoric cognitive risk syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ?4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ?25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

2014-01-01

429

Lower Motor Neuron Findings after Upper Motor Neuron Injury: Insights from Postoperative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hypertonia and hyperreflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hyperreflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexia motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock. PMID:23508473

Florman, Jeffrey E.; Duffau, Hugues; Rughani, Anand I.

2013-01-01

430

46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.  

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control...

2014-10-01

431

46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control...

2010-10-01

432

46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control...

2013-10-01

433

46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control...

2011-10-01

434

46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control...

2012-10-01

435

Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear systems like electrical circuits and systems, mechanics, optics and even incidents in nature may pass through various bifurcations and steady states like equilibrium point, periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic states. Although chaotic phenomena are widely observed in physical systems, it can not be predicted because of the nature of the system. On the other hand, it is known that, chaos is strictly dependent on initial conditions of the system [1-3]. There are several methods in order to define the chaos. Phase portraits, Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents are the most common techniques. Lyapunov Exponents are the theoretical indicator of the chaos, named after the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918). Lyapunov Exponents stand for the average exponential divergence or convergence of nearby system states, meaning estimating the quantitive measure of the chaotic attractor. Negative numbers of the exponents stand for a stable system whereas zero stands for quasi-periodic systems. On the other hand, at least if one of the exponents is positive, this situation is an indicator of the chaos. For estimating the exponents, the system should be modeled by differential equation but even in that case mathematical calculation of Lyapunov Exponents are not very practical and evaluation of these values requires a long signal duration [4-7]. For experimental data sets, it is not always possible to acquire the differential equations. There are several different methods in literature for determining the Lyapunov Exponents of the system [4, 5]. Induction motors are the most important tools for many industrial processes because they are cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. In order to have healthy processes in industrial applications, the conditions of the machines should be monitored and the different working conditions should be addressed correctly. To the best of our knowledge, researches related to Lyapunov exponents and electrical motors are mostly focused on the controlling the mechanical parameters of the electrical machines. Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the other general purpose permanent magnet (PM) motors are the most widely examined motors [1, 8, 9]. But the researches, about Lyapunov Exponent, subjected to the induction motors are mostly focused on the control theory of the motors. Flux estimation of rotor, external load disturbances and speed tracking and vector control position system are the main research areas for induction motors [10, 11, 12-14]. For all the data sets which can be collected from an induction motor, vibration data have the key role for understanding the mechanical behaviours like aging, bearing damage and stator insulation damage [15-18]. In this paper aging of an induction motor is investigated by using the vibration signals. The signals consist of new and aged motor data. These data are examined by their 2 dimensional phase portraits and the geometric interpretation is applied for detecting the Lyapunov Exponents. These values are compared in order to define the character and state estimation of the aging processes.

Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Y?d?r?m; ?eker, Serhat

2012-09-01

436

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOEpatents

A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

1997-08-19

437

Emergence of Motor Circuit Activity  

PubMed Central

In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

2014-01-01

438

Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma. PMID:25100919

Tuncer, Samuray; Cebeci, Zafer

2014-01-01

439

Difference of neural connectivity for motor function in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Difference of neural connectivity for motor function had been studied by observation of neural activity within gray matter and nucleus using functional neuroimaging techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by a probabilistic tracking is useful for exploration of structural connectivity in the brain. We attempted to investigate difference of neural connectivity for motor function of the affected hand in chronic hemiparetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forty-four patients with ICH and 31 normal control subjects were recruited. Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil at 1.5 T. Motor function was evaluated using the motricity index (MI) for hand and Modified Brunnstrom Classification (MBC). The presence or absence of a connection was confirmed between the precentral knob of the affected hemisphere and seven areas. Compared with healthy subjects, the patient group showed lower connectivity to the contralesional primary motor cortex, ipsilesional basal ganglia, ipsilesional thalamus, contralesional cerebellum, and ipsilesional medullary pyramid in the affected hemisphere (p<0.05). Connections to the ipsilesional basal ganglia, ipsilesional thalamus, and ipsilesional medullary pyramid showed positive correlation with MI and MBC (p<0.05). We found difference of neural connectivity for motor function between chronic hemiparetic patients with ICH and control subjects. Our results suggest that the motor function of the stroke patient is related to neural connectivity between the ipsilesional M1 and the ipsilesional medullary pyramid, ipsilesional basal ganglia, and ipsilesional thalamus. PMID:23123782

Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Dong Yeop; Hong, Ji Heon

2012-12-01

440

Ready, Set, Fuse! The Coronavirus Spike Protein and Acquisition of Fusion Competence  

PubMed Central

Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these entry triggers. We focus on receptors and proteases in prompting entry and highlight the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) known to activate several virus fusion proteins. These and other proteases are essential cofactors permitting coronavirus infection, conceivably being in proximity to cell-surface receptors and thus poised to split entering spike proteins into the fragments that refold to mediate membrane fusion. The review concludes by noting how understanding of coronavirus entry informs antiviral therapies. PMID:22590686

Heald-Sargent, Taylor; Gallagher, Tom

2012-01-01

441

Fusion pumped laser  

DOEpatents

The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Pappas, D.S.

1987-07-31

442

Motor and non-motor aspects of slow brain potentials.  

PubMed

In order to study motor and non-motor aspects of the contingent negative variation (CNV), fifteen right-handed subjects were asked to perform tightly controlled responses in a WS-S1-S2 paradigm. WS was a non-informative warning signal; S1 and S2 provided information about the response required at S2. This information was either delivered before a block of trials (Simple), at S1 (Precued), or at S2 (Choice). Negativity was larger prior to the informative than to the non-informative stimulus, suggesting the presence of a component called stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN). This finding supported the hypothesis that the late CNV consists of a readiness potential and an SPN. The scalp distribution of the SPN was different before S1 and before S2. The significance of these components is discussed in terms of motor preparation, stimulus anticipation and energetical processes. PMID:7999929

van Boxtel, G J; Brunia, C H

1994-09-01

443

Balancing speed and efficiency in motor selection  

SciTech Connect

Motor speed can be just as important as efficiency in selecting the most economical induction motor to drive so-called ``cube-law`` loads such as HVAC fans or centrifugal pumps. The amount of energy used in these loads is very sensitive to rotational speed. An increase in motor efficiency can be quickly negated by the extra energy consumed by a faster turning cube-law load. For induction motors, operating speed is always less than the synchronous speed, the familiar round number usually associated with motors (1,200 rpm, 1,800 rpm, 3,600 rpm and so on). The difference between the synchronous speed of an induction motor -- how fast it would spin if the rotor kept perfect pace with the rotating magnetic field that it is chasing -- and the rotor`s actual speed of rotation is called ``slip.`` Slip ranges from about half a percent of the synchronous speed in large motors to over 5 percent in small units; the higher the slip, the slower the motor. Induction motors of identical synchronous speed can differ significantly in operating speed. Most utility motor programs provide incentives simply on the basis of motor efficiency, ignoring the potential impact of a motor`s speed on the system`s energy use. In many cases, then, utilities are overestimating the energy savings in motor installations on cube-law loads.

Howe, B.; Shepard, M.

1993-12-31

444

Teachers Debate Cold Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows is a collection of messages about cold fusion from teachers. The messages were posted on the internet discussion list, Phys-L, or were sent to me in private. They illustrate a wide range of opinion. Phys-L is a list dedicated to learning and teaching physics with 700 subscribers from over 35 countries, the majority of whom are physics educators. <>.

Kowalski, Ludwik

2005-12-01

445

Tokamak fusion power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major parameters and corresponding economic characteristics of a representative class of commercial Tokamak fusion power reactors are examined as a function of four major design parameters: plasma beta-t, toroidal magnetic field strength, first-wall lifetime, and power output. It is shown that for beta-t greater than or equal to 0.06, the minimum cost of energy is obtained for toroidal field

W. M. Stacey Jr.; M. A. Abdou

1978-01-01

446

Fusion development and technology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

Montgomery, D.B.

1992-01-01

447

Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine  

SciTech Connect

NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

2012-05-11

448

Inertial Confinement fusion targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

Hendricks, C. D.

1982-01-01

449

Trigonometry-Based Numerical Method to Compute Nonlinear Magnetic Characteristics in Switched Reluctance Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on two-dimensional (2-D) trigonometry, a new numerical method is presented to compute the nonlinear magnetic and electromagnetic torque characteristics in switched reluctance motors (SRMs). In the proposed method, the mathematical model is composed of the 2-D truncated Fourier series. The coefficients can be determined from a small amount of given magnetic or torque data acquired by experiment or finite-element

X. D. Xue; K. W. E. Cheng; S. L. Ho; K. F. Kwok

2007-01-01

450

Coregistration of EEG and fMRI in a simple motor task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to waluate the adequacy of coregistration of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Data were acquired in four normal subjects during right and left simple index finger movements. In fMRI (single-slice, 1.5 Tesla, T2*-weighted FLASH sequence), contralateral primary motor (Ml) and primary sensory cortex

Christian Gerloff; Wolfgang Grodd; Rupert Kolb; Thomas Naegele; Uwe Klose; Karsten Voigt; Johannes Dichgans

1996-01-01

451

High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

2013-05-01

452

COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

Chang, Choong Seock

2012-06-05

453

Filament overwrapped motor case technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

Compton, Joel P.

1993-11-01

454

Three phase AC motor controller  

DOEpatents

A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

Vuckovich, Michael (Elizabeth, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Burkett, John P. (South Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1984-03-20

455

Multisensor data fusion technologies in counterchecking disturbed targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of data fusion is a new kind of data processing technique and has broad appliance foreground. Appearance of stealthy and disturbed targets in modern battlefield leads to data extraction and fusion by networking various sensors to maximize use of information to perform recognition, orientation and tracking of targets. As we known well, radar only acquire angle information without range information when encounter noise suppress jammer. Netted radars could get position information of interference by make use of radars position relatively and target angle information. Yet if there is more than one target, the orientation of targets could error due to orientation confuse. The paper present methods that through association arithmetic of kalman filter to avoid confuse.

Wang, Ju; Wu, Si-Liang

2003-04-01

456

Registration and Fusion of Multiple Source Remotely Sensed Image Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth and Space Science often involve the comparison, fusion, and integration of multiple types of remotely sensed data at various temporal, radiometric, and spatial resolutions. Results of this integration may be utilized for global change analysis, global coverage of an area at multiple resolutions, map updating or validation of new instruments, as well as integration of data provided by multiple instruments carried on multiple platforms, e.g. in spacecraft constellations or fleets of planetary rovers. Our focus is on developing methods to perform fast, accurate and automatic image registration and fusion. General methods for automatic image registration are being reviewed and evaluated. Various choices for feature extraction, feature matching and similarity measurements are being compared, including wavelet-based algorithms, mutual information and statistically robust techniques. Our work also involves studies related to image fusion and investigates dimension reduction and co-kriging for application-dependent fusion. All methods are being tested using several multi-sensor datasets, acquired at EOS Core Sites, and including multiple sensors such as IKONOS, Landsat-7/ETM+, EO1/ALI and Hyperion, MODIS, and SeaWIFS instruments. Issues related to the coregistration of data from the same platform (i.e., AIRS and MODIS from Aqua) or from several platforms of the A-train (i.e., MLS, HIRDLS, OMI from Aura with AIRS and MODIS from Terra and Aqua) will also be considered.

LeMoigne, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

457

Fusion Policy Advisory Committee FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) FINAL REPORT September 1990 Report of the Technical Panel on Magnetic Fusion of the Energy Research Advisory Board Washington, D .C. 20585 #12;#12;Fusion Policy of your Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. It presents a fusion policy that the Committee believes

458

MSc Programme In the programme, MT engineers acquire a thorough  

E-print Network

MSc Programme Marine Technology In the programme, MT engineers acquire a thorough understanding of basic engineering sciences and marine technology disciplines, and develop multidisciplinary problem, risk analysis, marine engineering, and many other topics. Designs for the high seas Programme tracks

Langendoen, Koen

459

Multiple cases of acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis presenting in an outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of the study was to examine the variability in presentation and outcome of individuals presenting with acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis in the setting of an outbreak of the disease.

Andrew J Burnett; Stanley G Shortt; Judith Isaac-Renton; Arlene King; Denise Werker; William R Bowie

1998-01-01

460

10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...

2011-01-01

461

10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...

2010-01-01

462

10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...

2012-01-01

463

10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase...capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors, and...

2013-01-01

464

Building and Acquiring Resources for Biomedical Language Processing  

E-print Network

of Biomedical Natural Language Processing Biomedical Natural Language Processing processes language material (e Tasks of Biomedical Natural Language Processing Biomedical Natural Language Processing processesBuilding and Acquiring Resources for Biomedical Language Processing Pierre Zweigenbaum LIMSI, CNRS

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

465

Fusion power production in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

Up to 9.3 MW of fusion power has been produced from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The total fusion yield from a single plasma pulse has reached 6.5 MJ. The experiments in TFTR with deuterium-tritium plasmas fueled and heated by neutral beam injection span wide ranges in plasma and operating conditions. Through the use of lithium pellet conditioning to control the edge recycling, the plasma confinement in TFTR has been improved to the point where the stability of the plasma to pressure driven modes is limiting the fusion power for plasma currents up to 2.5 MA. The central energy and fusion power densities in these plasmas are comparable to those expected in a thermalized DT reactor, such as ITER.

Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1994-11-01

466

Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).  

PubMed

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level. PMID:22517903

Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

2012-07-01

467

Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)  

PubMed Central

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level. PMID:22517903

Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

2012-01-01

468

IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii specific IgA and IgM antibodies were quantitated by an antibody capture agglutination assay in 260 patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and from 94 fetuses suspected of congenital toxoplasmosis and 30 infected children. In acquired toxoplasmosis, IgA antibodies to T gondii were found in 95% of the cases. In congenital toxoplasmosis IgA antibodies were more frequently detected (75%) in cord

M H Bessières; C Roques; A Berrebi; V Barre; M Cazaux; J P Séguéla

1992-01-01

469

The emergency department community-acquired pneumonia trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-acquired pneumonia causes more than 4 million episodes of illness each year and has high morbidity, mortality, and total cost of care. Nationwide, nearly 75% of community-acquired pneumonia patients are initially evaluated and treated in hospital-based emergency departments (EDs). Substantial variation exists in illness severity assessment, hospital admission decisions, and performance of recommended processes of care. We designed an ED-based

Donald M Yealy; Thomas E Auble; Roslyn A Stone; Judith R Lave; Thomas P Meehan; Louis G Graff; Jonathan M Fine; D. Scott Obrosky; Stacey M Edick; Linda J Hough; Kathy Tuozzo; Michael J Fine

2004-01-01

470

Brief Periods of Auditory Perceptual Training Can Determine the Sensory Targets of Speech Motor Learning.  

PubMed

The perception of speech is notably malleable in adults, yet alterations in perception seem to have little impact on speech production. However, we hypothesized that speech perceptual training might immediately influence speech motor learning. To test this, we paired a speech perceptual-training task with a speech motor-learning task. Subjects performed a series of perceptual tests designed to measure and then manipulate the perceptual distinction between the words head and had. Subjects then produced head with the sound of the vowel altered in real time so that they heard themselves through headphones producing a word that sounded more like had. In support of our hypothesis, the amount of motor learning in response to the voice alterations depended on the perceptual boundary acquired through perceptual training. The studies show that plasticity in adults' speech perception can have immediate consequences for speech production in the context of speech learning. PMID:24815610

Lametti, Daniel R; Krol, Sonia A; Shiller, Douglas M; Ostry, David J

2014-05-01

471

Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control  

PubMed Central

An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural–functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: (1) the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief) vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements, and gaze holding, (2) the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained) vestibular responses, and (3) the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region) for saccades and pursuit initiation. PMID:21909334

Kheradmand, Amir; Zee, David S.

2011-01-01

472

DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY WITHIN CORTICAL MOTOR NETWORK DURING MOTOR LEARNING IN STROKE - CORRELATIONS WITH "TRUE" MOTOR RECOVERY  

E-print Network

Arm motor recovery after stroke is usually incomplete; six months after onset about two-thirds of patients suffer from arm motor impairment that significantly impacts the individual's activities of daily living. Thus, novel ...

BANI-AHMED, ALI

2013-08-31

473

Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

2012-01-01

474

Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

Iba, Wayne

1991-01-01

475

Fusion of Multiple Facial Features for Age Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel age estimation method is presented which improves performance by fusing complementary information acquired from global and local features of the face. Two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA) is used for dimensionality reduction and construction of individual feature spaces. Each feature space contributes a confidence value which is calculated by Support vector machines (SVMs). The confidence values of all the facial features are then fused for final age estimation. Experimental results demonstrate that fusing multiple facial features can achieve significant accuracy gains over any single feature. Finally, we propose a fusion method that further improves accuracy.

Lu, Li; Shi, Pengfei

476

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29

477

Homopolar motor with dual rotors  

DOEpatents

A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

478

Homopolar motor with dual rotors  

DOEpatents

A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

Hsu, J.S.

1998-12-01

479

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

Mitchell, Royce E.

1992-01-01

480

Acute lower motor neuron tetraparesis.  

PubMed

Flaccid nonambulatory tetraparesis or tetraplegia is an infrequent neurologic presentation; it is characteristic of neuromuscular disease (lower motor neuron [LMN] disease) rather than spinal cord disease. Paresis beginning in the pelvic limbs and progressing to the thoracic limbs resulting in flaccid tetraparesis or tetraplegia within 24 to 72 hours is a common presentation of peripheral nerve or neuromuscular junction disease. Complete body flaccidity develops with severe decrease or complete loss of spinal reflexes in pelvic and thoracic limbs. Animals with acute generalized LMN tetraparesis commonly show severe motor dysfunction in all limbs and severe generalized weakness in all muscles. PMID:25441630

Añor, Sònia

2014-11-01

481

The path to fusion power†  

PubMed Central

The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16?MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

2010-01-01

482

Fusion rings for quantum groups  

E-print Network

We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [KS] and give a similar description of the sp(2n)-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings extending known results in special cases. Finally we also compute the fusion rings for type G2.

Henning Haahr Andersen; Catharina Stroppel

2014-04-02

483

Differential Cargo Mobilisation within Weibel-Palade Bodies after Transient Fusion with the Plasma Membrane  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (?2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis. PMID:25233365

Kiskin, Nikolai I.; Babich, Victor; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J.; Carter, Tom

2014-01-01

484

Differential cargo mobilisation within Weibel-Palade bodies after transient fusion with the plasma membrane.  

PubMed

Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (? 2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis. PMID:25233365