Sample records for acquired motor fusion

  1. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

  2. Action Observation and Acquired Motor Skills: An fMRI Study with Expert Dancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Calvo-Merino; D. E. Glaser; J. Grezes; R. E. Passingham

    2005-01-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and

  3. The fusion of actin bundles driven by interacting motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillo, David; Gilboa, Barak; Gurka, Roi; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne

    2009-09-01

    The cooperative action of many molecular motors is essential for dynamic processes such as cell motility and mitosis. This action can be studied by using motility assays which track the motion of cytoskeletal filaments over a surface coated with motor proteins. Here, we propose to use a motility assay consisting of a-polar actin bundles subjected to the action of myosin II motors where no external loading is applied. In this work we focus on those bundles undergoing fusion with other nearby bundles. Specifically, we investigate the role of the bundles' dimension on the transition from bidirectional to directional motion and on the properties of their motion during fusion. Our experimental data reveal that only small bundles exhibit dynamic transition to directional motion, implying that the forces acting on them exceed the threshold value necessary to induce the transition. Moreover, these bundles accelerate along their trajectory, suggesting that the forces acting on them increase while approaching each other. We show that these forces do not originate from external loading but rather arise from the action of the motors on the bundles. These forces are transmitted through the medium over micron-scale distances without being cut off. Moreover, we show that the forces propagate to distances that are proportional to the size of the bundles, or equivalently, to the number of motors, which they interact with.

  4. Human cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells acquire functional cardiac properties through a cell fusion process.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Daniele; Crespi, Alessia; Brioschi, Chiara; Parente, Valeria; Toietta, Gabriele; Devanna, Paolo; Baruscotti, Mirko; Truffa, Silvia; Scavone, Angela; Rusconi, Francesca; Biondi, Andrea; D'Alessandra, Yuri; Vigna, Elisa; Difrancesco, Dario; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Barbuti, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    The efficacy of cardiac repair by stem cell administration relies on a successful functional integration of injected cells into the host myocardium. Safety concerns have been raised about the possibility that stem cells may induce foci of arrhythmia in the ischemic myocardium. In a previous work (36), we showed that human cord blood CD34(+) cells, when cocultured on neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes, exhibit excitation-contraction coupling features similar to those of cardiomyocytes, even though no human genes were upregulated. The aims of the present work are to investigate whether human CD34(+) cells, isolated after 1 wk of coculture with neonatal ventricular myocytes, possess molecular and functional properties of cardiomyocytes and to discriminate, using a reporter gene system, whether cardiac differentiation derives from a (trans)differentiation or a cell fusion process. Umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells were isolated by a magnetic cell sorting method, transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, and seeded onto primary cultures of spontaneously beating rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cocultured EGFP(+)/CD34(+)-derived cells were analyzed for their electrophysiological features at different time points. After 1 wk in coculture, EGFP(+) cells, in contact with cardiomyocytes, were spontaneously contracting and had a maximum diastolic potential (MDP) of -53.1 mV, while those that remained isolated from the surrounding myocytes did not contract and had a depolarized resting potential of -11.4 mV. Cells were then resuspended and cultured at low density to identify EGFP(+) progenitor cell derivatives. Under these conditions, we observed single EGFP(+) beating cells that had acquired an hyperpolarization-activated current typical of neonatal cardiomyocytes (EGFP(+) cells, -2.24 ± 0.89 pA/pF; myocytes, -1.99 ± 0.63 pA/pF, at -125 mV). To discriminate between cell autonomous differentiation and fusion, EGFP(+)/CD34(+) cells were cocultured with cardiac myocytes infected with a red fluorescence protein-lentiviral vector; under these conditions we found that 100% of EGFP(+) cells were also red fluorescent protein positive, suggesting cell fusion as the mechanism by which cardiac functional features are acquired. PMID:21357510

  5. Phonological and Motor Errors in Individuals with Acquired Sound Production Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Adam; Miozzo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare sound production errors arising due to phonological processing impairment with errors arising due to motor speech impairment. Method: Two speakers with similar clinical profiles who produced similar consonant cluster simplification errors were examined using a repetition task. We compared both overall accuracy…

  6. A line-profile based double partial fusion method for acquiring planning CT of oversized patients in radiation treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huanmei; Zhao, Qingya; Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra

    2012-01-01

    True 3D CT dataset for treatment planning of an oversized patient is difficult to acquire due to the bore size and field of view (FOV) reconstruction. This project aims to provide a simple approach to reconstruct true CT data for oversize patients using CT scanner with limited FOV by acquiring double partial CT (left and right side) images. An efficient line profile-based method has been developed to minimize the difference of the CT numbers in the overlapping region between the right and left images and to generate a complete true 3D CT dataset in the natural state. New image processing modules have been developed and integrated to the Insight Segmentation & Registration Toolkit (ITK 3.6) package. For example, different modules for image cropping, line profile generation, line profile matching, and optimized partial image fusion have been developed. The algorithm has been implemented for images containing the bony structure of the spine and tested on 3D CT planning datasets from both phantom and real patients with satisfactory results in both cases. The proposed optimized line profile-based partial registration method provides a simple and accurate method for acquiring a complete true 3D CT dataset for an oversized patient using CT scanning with small bore size, that can be used for accurate treatment planning. PMID:22402380

  7. Transplantation of Xenopus laevis tissues to determine the ability of motor neurons to acquire a novel target.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of novelties is a central problem in biology. At a cellular level this requires, for example, molecularly resolving how brainstem motor neurons change their innervation target from muscle fibers (branchial motor neurons) to neural crest-derived ganglia (visceral motor neurons) or ear-derived hair cells (inner ear and lateral line efferent neurons). Transplantation of various tissues into the path of motor neuron axons could determine the ability of any motor neuron to innervate a novel target. Several tissues that receive direct, indirect, or no motor innervation were transplanted into the path of different motor neuron populations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Ears, somites, hearts, and lungs were transplanted to the orbit, replacing the eye. Jaw and eye muscle were transplanted to the trunk, replacing a somite. Applications of lipophilic dyes and immunohistochemistry to reveal motor neuron axon terminals were used. The ear, but not somite-derived muscle, heart, or liver, received motor neuron axons via the oculomotor or trochlear nerves. Somite-derived muscle tissue was innervated, likely by the hypoglossal nerve, when replacing the ear. In contrast to our previous report on ear innervation by spinal motor neurons, none of the tissues (eye or jaw muscle) was innervated when transplanted to the trunk. Taken together, these results suggest that there is some plasticity inherent to motor innervation, but not every motor neuron can become an efferent to any target that normally receives motor input. The only tissue among our samples that can be innervated by all motor neurons tested is the ear. We suggest some possible, testable molecular suggestions for this apparent uniqueness. PMID:23383335

  8. [Disruption of acquired head and paw movement coordination after unilateral lesioning of the motor cortex in dogs (a kinematic analysis)].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2001-01-01

    Dogs were trained to remove a cup with meat to the head bent down to the feeder and hold the limb flexed during eating. At the early stage of learning, the stable innate head-forelimb coordination characteristic for untrained animals was manifest. The forelimb flexion was accompanied by anticipatory lifting of the bent head, and the following bending of the head led to an extension of the flexed forelimb. The opposite coordination, i.e., the lifting and holding of the forelimb when the head is bent down, was achieved only by training. The lesion of the motor cortex contralateral to the working forelimb in the trained dogs led to a prolonged disturbance of the simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and the head bent down. The lesion of the motor cortex did not affect the individual movements but disturbed their coordination. In the operated dogs the innate relationships between the head and forelimb movement recovered. The results support the previous finding that the lesion of the motor cortex led to recovery of the innate coordination transformed in the process of learning. PMID:11871029

  9. Image-enhancement tools for tracing fringe patterns in holographic interferograms acquired during laser-fusion experiments. KMSF-U-1346

    SciTech Connect

    Vavra, P.C.; Busch, G.E.; Shepard, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A multi-frame probing system developed for use in laser fusion experiments quadruples the number of holographic interferograms acquired during each laser shot. In order to handle the increase in quantity of data, improvements over the previous method of locating fringes using a tablet digitizer were required. Conventional turnkey image enhancement and fringe tracing methods were found to be inadequate due to the noise levels and fringe densities present. A set of interactive adaptive digital image processing tools was developed to help scientists trace fringe patterns in the holographic interferograms. Preliminary results are promising.

  10. Inter-subject variability of cerebral activations in acquiring a motor skill: a study with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schlaug, G; Knorr, U; Seitz, R

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral structures activated during sequential right-hand finger movements were mapped with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements by positron emission tomography (PET) in individual subjects. Nine healthy volunteers were examined twice; after initial learning and after practicing the finger movement sequence for more than 1 h. Task-specific activation sites were identified by statistical distributions of maximal activity and region size in rCBF subtraction images. A consistent task-specific activation in all nine subjects was detected in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex at an average movement rate of 3.2 Hz reached after practice. This corresponded to a significant increase of the mean rCBF in the left primary sensorimotor cortex in spatially standardised and averaged PET images. Additional task-specific activation sites detected by individual analysis were found in the lateral and medial premotor, parietal, and cingulate areas, and in subcortical structures including the basal ganglia of both cerebral hemispheres. These activations showed no or little spatial overlap from subject to subject, thus being obscured in the analysis of pooled data. The observed activity patterns were related to movement rate and accuracy in individual subjects. It is suggested that the rCBF changes associated with acquisition of a motor skill in individual humans may correspond to plasticity of sensorimotor representations reported in monkeys. PMID:8056072

  11. Fusion protein Isl1-Lhx3 specifies motor neuron fate by inducing motor neuron genes and concomitantly suppressing the interneuron programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghee; Cuvillier, James M; Lee, Bora; Shen, Rongkun; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2012-02-28

    Combinatorial transcription codes generate the myriad of cell types during development and thus likely provide crucial insights into directed differentiation of stem cells to a specific cell type. The LIM complex composed of Isl1 and Lhx3 directs the specification of spinal motor neurons (MNs) in embryos. Here, we report that Isl1-Lhx3, a LIM-complex mimicking fusion, induces a signature of MN transcriptome and concomitantly suppresses interneuron differentiation programs, thereby serving as a potent and specific inducer of MNs in stem cells. We show that an equimolar ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3 are crucial for generating MNs without up-regulating interneuron genes. These led us to design Isl1-Lhx3, which maintains the desirable 1:1 ratio of Isl1 and Lhx3 and the LIM domain of Lhx3. Isl1-Lhx3 drives MN differentiation with high specificity and efficiency in the spinal cord and embryonic stem cells, bypassing the need for sonic hedgehog (Shh). RNA-seq analysis revealed that Isl1-Lhx3 induces the expression of a battery of MN genes that control various functional aspects of MNs, while suppressing key interneuron genes. Our studies uncover a highly efficient method for directed MN generation and MN gene networks. Our results also demonstrate a general strategy of using embryonic transcription complexes for producing specific cell types from stem cells. PMID:22343290

  12. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  13. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  14. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The process in which two lighter atomic nuclei are combined to form a heavier atomic nucleus. Very high temperatures are normally required in order for atomic nuclei to collide with sufficient energy to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsions (each atomic nucleus has a positive charge, the magnitude of which depends on the number of protons it contains). Fusion that occurs under high-tempe...

  15. A faster, high resolution, mtPA-GFP-based mitochondrial fusion assay acquiring kinetic data of multiple cells in parallel using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lovy, Alenka; Molina, Anthony J A; Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion plays an essential role in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, bioenergetics, autophagy and quality control. Fusion is quantified in living cells by photo-conversion of matrix targeted photoactivatable GFP (mtPAGFP) in a subset of mitochondria. The rate at which the photoconverted molecules equilibrate across the entire mitochondrial population is used as a measure of fusion activity. Thus far measurements were performed using a single cell time lapse approach, quantifying the equilibration in one cell over an hour. Here, we scale up and automate a previously published live cell method based on using mtPAGFP and a low concentration of TMRE (15 nm). This method involves photoactivating a small portion of the mitochondrial network, collecting highly resolved stacks of confocal sections every 15 min for 1 hour, and quantifying the change in signal intensity. Depending on several factors such as ease of finding PAGFP expressing cells, and the signal of the photoactivated regions, it is possible to collect around 10 cells within the 15 min intervals. This provides a significant improvement in the time efficiency of this assay while maintaining the highly resolved subcellular quantification as well as the kinetic parameters necessary to capture the detail of mitochondrial behavior in its native cytoarchitectural environment. Mitochondrial dynamics play a role in many cellular processes including respiration, calcium regulation, and apoptosis. The structure of the mitochondrial network affects the function of mitochondria, and the way they interact with the rest of the cell. Undergoing constant division and fusion, mitochondrial networks attain various shapes ranging from highly fused networks, to being more fragmented. Interestingly, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Charcot Marie Tooth 2A, and dominant optic atrophy have been correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology, namely fragmented networks. Often times, upon fragmentation, mitochondria become depolarized, and upon accumulation this leads to impaired cell function. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to signal a cell to progress toward apoptosis. It can also provide a mechanism by which to separate depolarized and inactive mitochondria to keep the bulk of the network robust. Fusion of mitochondria, on the other hand, leads to sharing of matrix proteins, solutes, mtDNA and the electrochemical gradient, and also seems to prevent progression to apoptosis. How fission and fusion of mitochondria affects cell homeostasis and ultimately the functioning of the organism needs further understanding, and therefore the continuous development and optimization of how to gather information on these phenomena is necessary. Existing mitochondrial fusion assays have revealed various insights into mitochondrial physiology, each having its own advantages. The hybrid PEG fusion assay, mixes two populations of differently labeled cells (mtRFP and mtYFP), and analyzes the amount of mixing and colocalization of fluorophores in fused, multinucleated, cells. Although this method has yielded valuable information, not all cell types can fuse, and the conditions under which fusion is stimulated involves the use of toxic drugs that likely affect the normal fusion process. More recently, a cell free technique has been devised, using isolated mitochondria to observe fusion events based on a luciferase assay. Two human cell lines are targeted with either the amino or a carboxy terminal part of Renilla luciferase along with a leucine zipper to ensure dimerization upon mixing. Mitochondria are isolated from each cell line, and fused. The fusion reaction can occur without the cytosol under physiological conditions in the presence of energy, appropriate temperature and inner mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, the cytosol was found to modulate the extent of fusion, demonstrating that cell signaling regulates the fusion process. This assay will be very useful for high throughput screening to identify components of the fusion machinery and also pharmacological c

  16. De novo acute myeloid leukemia subtype-M4 with initial trisomy 8 and later acquired t(3;12)(q26;p12) leading to ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript expression: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ACHKAR, WALID AL; ALJAPAWE, ABDULMUNIM; LIEHR, THOMAS; WAFA, ABDULSAMAD

    2014-01-01

    The t(3;12)(q26;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosomal aberration observed in myeloid malignancies. The translocation results in the generation of the ETV6/myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1)/ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) fusion gene. However, the present case report is the first to present this rearrangement in acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML)-M4. Notably, this case is the first report of AML-M4 with an initial trisomy 8 and secondary acquired t(3;12)(q26;p13). Cells harboring the t(3;12) translocation were found to exhibit a higher proliferative capacity than cells with pure trisomy 8, which is consistent with the role of the ETV6/MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcript in the development and progression of malignancy. PMID:24527086

  17. Programmable folding of fusion RNA in vivo and in vitro driven by pRNA 3WJ motif of phi29 DNA packaging motor

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Dan; Khisamutdinov, Emil F.; Zhang, Le; Guo, Peixuan

    2014-01-01

    Misfolding and associated loss of function are common problems in constructing fusion RNA complexes due to changes in energy landscape and the nearest-neighbor principle. Here we report the incorporation and application of the pRNA-3WJ motif of the phi29 DNA packaging motor into fusion RNA with controllable and predictable folding. The motif included three discontinuous ?18 nucleotide (nt) fragments, displayed a distinct low folding energy (Shu D et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 2011, 6:658–667), and folded spontaneously into a leading core that enabled the correct folding of other functionalities fused to the RNA complex. Three individual fragments dispersed at any location within the sequence allowed the other RNA functional modules to fold into their original structures with authentic functions, as tested by Hepatitis B virus ribozyme, siRNA, and aptamers for malachite green (MG), spinach, and streptavidin (STV). Only nine complementary nucleotides were present for any two of the three ?18-nt fragments, but the three 9 bp branches were so powerful that they disrupted other double strands with more than 15 bp within the fusion RNA. This system enabled the production of fusion complexes harboring multiple RNA functionalities with correct folding for potential applications in biotechnology, nanomedicine and nanotechnology. We also applied this system to investigate the principles governing the folding of RNA in vivo and in vitro. Temporal production of RNA sequences during in vivo transcription caused RNA to fold into different conformations that could not be predicted with routine principles derived from in vitro studies. PMID:24084081

  18. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  19. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nabeel Anwar; Naoki Tomi; Koji Ito

    2011-01-01

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Spatial Accuracy of a Fusion Imaging Technique Combining Previously Acquired Computed Tomography and Real-Time Ultrasound for Imaging of Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Deschamps, Frederic; Garcia Marques de Carvalho, Enio; Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; De Baere, Thierry [Gustave Roussy Institute (France)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the spatial accuracy of matching volumetric computed tomography (CT) data of hepatic metastases with real-time ultrasound (US) using a fusion imaging system (VNav) according to different clinical settings. Methods: Twenty-four patients with one hepatic tumor identified on enhanced CT and US were prospectively enrolled. A set of three landmarks markers was chosen on CT and US for image registration. US and CT images were then superimposed using the fusion imaging display mode. The difference in spatial location between the tumor visible on the CT and the US on the overlay images (reviewer no. 1, comment no. 2) was measured in the lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical axis. The maximum difference (Dmax) was evaluated for different predictive factors.CT performed 1-30 days before registration versus immediately before. Use of general anesthesia for CT and US versus no anesthesia.Anatomic landmarks versus landmarks that include at least one nonanatomic structure, such as a cyst or a calcificationResultsOverall, Dmax was 11.53 {+-} 8.38 mm. Dmax was 6.55 {+-} 7.31 mm with CT performed immediately before VNav versus 17.4 {+-} 5.18 with CT performed 1-30 days before (p < 0.0001). Dmax was 7.05 {+-} 6.95 under general anesthesia and 16.81 {+-} 6.77 without anesthesia (p < 0.0015). Landmarks including at least one nonanatomic structure increase Dmax of 5.2 mm (p < 0.0001). The lowest Dmax (1.9 {+-} 1.4 mm) was obtained when CT and VNav were performed under general anesthesia, one immediately after the other. Conclusions: VNav is accurate when adequate clinical setup is carefully selected. Only under these conditions (reviewer no. 2), liver tumors not identified on US can be accurately targeted for biopsy or radiofrequency ablation using fusion imaging.

  1. A role for motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for patients without myelopathy: Analysis of 57 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Risheng; Ritzl, Eva K.; Sait, Mohammed; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although the usage of combined motor and sensory intraoperative monitoring has been shown to improve the surgical outcome of patients with cervical myelopathy, the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tceMEP) used in conjunction with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in patients presenting with radiculopathy but without myelopathy has been less clear. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients (n = 57) with radiculopathy but without myelopathy, undergoing anterior cervical decompression and fusion at a single institution over the past 3 years, who had intraoperative monitoring with both tceMEPs and SSEPs. Results: Fifty-seven (100%) patients presented with radiculopathy, 53 (93.0%) with mechanical neck pain, 35 (61.4%) with motor dysfunction, and 29 (50.9%) with sensory deficits. Intraoperatively, 3 (5.3%) patients experienced decreases in SSEP signal amplitudes and 4 (6.9%) had tceMEP signal changes. There were three instances where a change in neuromonitoring signal required intraoperative alteration of the surgical procedure: these were deemed clinically significant events/true positives. SSEP monitoring showed two false positives and two false negatives, whereas tceMEP monitoring only had one false positive and no false negatives. Thus, tceMEP monitoring exhibited higher sensitivity (33.3% vs. 100%), specificity (95.6% vs. 98.1%), positive predictive value (33.3% vs. 75.0%), negative predictive value (97.7% vs. 100%), and efficiency (91.7% vs. 98.2%) compared to SSEP monitoring alone. Conclusions: Here, we present a retrospective series of 57 patients where tceMEP/SSEP monitoring likely prevented irreversible neurologic damage. Though further prospective studies are needed, there may be a role for combined tceMEP/SSEP monitoring for patients undergoing anterior cervical decompression without myelopathy. PMID:22059128

  2. Acquired Tastes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located on Beacon Hill, the Boston Athenaeum is a distinguished private membership society that celebrates history and a myriad of other matters. This particular nook of its site brings together selections from its retrospective exhibition entitled, "Acquired Tastes: 200 Years of Collection for the Boston Athenaeum.� The in situ exhibit included paintings, sculptures, maps, prints, photographs, and decorative arts and this complementary site offers visitors insights into the remarkable collection. Highlights include dramatic early views of Boston, a wonderful portrait of John Adams by Gilbert Stuart, and a view of Boston from 1848 as rendered from East Boston. Each view contains detailed bibliographic information, along with a few paragraphs of the significance of each item. Visitors may peruse three dozen items that offer insight into the collecting preferences of the Athenaeum over time.

  3. Motor Dysfunction III: Concussion, Acquired Brain

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    soccer - 24,000 · Boys soccer - 17,000 · Girls basketball - 7,000 Second Impact Syndrome · Caused receives trauma from an impact or a sudden momentum or movement change ­ may or may not lose consciousness · Outlook, short term problems: Post- concussive syndrome ­ persistent headache lasting weeks to months

  4. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Failure Series : Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease On this page: What is acquired cystic ...

  5. A Motor-Development and Motor-Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the dynamical interaction between the maturing organism, the environment, and the task. It demonstrates the importance of the early acquisition of fundamental motor skills, and the evidence of a proficiency barrier to combining skills when the fundamental motor skills have not been acquired. Teachers need to teach using a…

  6. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  7. Homopolar motor-generator designs for cheap inertial energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Rylander; H. H. Woodson; E. B. Becker; R. Rowberg

    1974-01-01

    From international meeting on the technology of controlled thermonuclear ; fusion experiments and the engineering aspects of fusion reactors; Austin, Texas, ; USA (20 Nov 1972). In technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments ; and the engineering aspects of fusion reactors. Design studies show that ; homopolar motor-generators with 50 to 2000 MJ of inertial energy storage can be ;

  8. Acquiring Goods and Services

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Acquiring Goods and Services Procurement Methods Quick Reference NU External Preferred and Non of external goods and services start with a standard requisition Other procurement methods (the exception

  9. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    Nosocomial pneumonia; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Health-care associated pneumonia; HCAP ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands ...

  10. HYPOPROLIFERATIVE Acquired or Constitutional

    E-print Network

    9/16/2013 1 HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS Acquired or Constitutional Disorder with Chronic Bone Marrow, or megakaryocytic hypoplasia used APLASTIC ANEMIA Criteria Bone Cellularity : Granulocyte Count Anemia with corrected Retic Count

  11. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... years develop ACKD. 1, 2 1 Fick-Brosnahan GM. Polycystic and acquired cystic kidney disease. In: Greenberg ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888– ...

  12. Motor Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides tutorials with some animations on topics such as motor principles, phase angle control, pulse width modulation, and power topologies. Students can learn more about DC motors, stepper motors, brushless AC motors and more. These materials could be used as part of an in-class discussion or explored independently.

  13. Motor Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

  14. ICU-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, William D; Hall, Jesse

    2007-05-01

    Observational studies of patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation and other forms of critical care support have determined acquired neuromuscular disorders to be extremely common. Early studies used electrophysiologic investigations to diagnose critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and muscle biopsy to confirm critical illness myopathy (CIM). More recent approaches seek to obviate these invasive techniques and build on a standardized bedside neuromuscular examination to identify patients with acquired weakness syndromes. Serial examination in the alert patient may serve as a reasonable prognosticator for most patients. The importance of ICU-acquired weakness syndromes is supported by the observation that muscle wasting and weakness are among the most prominent long-term complications of survivors of ARDS. In addition, a strong association appears to exist between acquired weakness and protracted ventilator dependence, an important determinant of ICU length of stay. Multivariate analysis has identified several risk factors associated with increased incidence for ICU-acquired weakness, including severe systemic inflammation, medications (specifically, corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents), glycemic control, and immobility. We advocate an approach to this common syndrome that identifies risk factors early in the hope of minimizing their impact. PMID:17494803

  15. Loss of functional MYO1C/myosin 1c, a motor protein involved in lipid raft trafficking, disrupts autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kishi-Itakura, Chieko; Tumbarello, David A; Manstein, Dietmar J; Buss, Folma

    2014-12-01

    MYO1C, a single-headed class I myosin, associates with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and facilitates their recycling from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. Absence of functional MYO1C disturbs the cellular distribution of lipid rafts, causes the accumulation of cholesterol-enriched membranes in the perinuclear recycling compartment, and leads to enlargement of endolysosomal membranes. Several feeder pathways, including classical endocytosis but also the autophagy pathway, maintain the health of the cell by selective degradation of cargo through fusion with the lysosome. Here we show that loss of functional MYO1C leads to an increase in total cellular cholesterol and its disrupted subcellular distribution. We observe an accumulation of autophagic structures caused by a block in fusion with the lysosome and a defect in autophagic cargo degradation. Interestingly, the loss of MYO1C has no effect on degradation of endocytic cargo such as EGFR, illustrating that although the endolysosomal compartment is enlarged in size, it is functional, contains active hydrolases, and the correct pH. Our results highlight the importance of correct lipid composition in autophagosomes and lysosomes to enable them to fuse. Ablating MYO1C function causes abnormal cholesterol distribution, which has a major selective impact on the autophagy pathway. PMID:25551774

  16. Acquired gynaetresia in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Adelusi, A; Akande, E O; Onifade, A

    1976-04-01

    Acquired atresia of the vagina is much less common than the congenital type, but more frequent in the tropics than in the developed countries (Lawson and Stewart, 1967). This is because most of the causes which include chemical vaginitis (Frith, 1960), female circumcision (Mustafa, 1966) and birth injuries (Lawson and Stewart, 1967) are largely confined to the tropics, due to poverty, ignorance and lack of good medical facilities. In the developed parts of the world, acquired gynatresia is rare, and perhaps follow mainly colporrhaphies and intra-vaginal irradiation from treatment of pelvic malignancies, (Patterson and Rhodes 1958, Whitely, 1964). In Ibadan, Nigeria, however, by far the commonest cause of vaginal atresia is chemical vaginitis from vaginal insertion of local caustic pessaries, for the treatment of certain gynaecological problems. This paper is, therefore, designed to highlight the clinical presentation of acquired gynaetresia as seen in Ibadan with particular emphasis on its incidence, causation, symptomatology and operative management. PMID:16296140

  17. Acquired upper airway obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürg Hammer

    2004-01-01

    Acquired upper airway obstruction is a common cause of respiratory emergencies in children. Most pathologic processes that result in upper airway compromise are a consequence of infection, trauma or aspiration. Today, many of the infectious causes of upper airway obstruction have lost their threat as a result of the progress made in preventing and treating these infections. Prompt recognition and

  18. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  19. Motor Cortex Reorganization across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The brain is a highly dynamic structure with the capacity for profound structural and functional change. Such neural plasticity has been well characterized within motor cortex and is believed to represent one of the neural mechanisms for acquiring and modifying motor behaviors. A number of behavioral and neural signals have been identified that…

  20. Hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Lobdell, Kevin W; Stamou, Sotiris; Sanchez, Juan A

    2012-02-01

    Health-acquired infection (HAI) is defined as a localized or systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents or its toxins. This article focuses on HAIs that are well studied, common, and costly (direct, indirect, and intangible). The HAIs reviewed are catheter-related bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, surgical site infection, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. This article excludes discussion of Clostridium difficile infections and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. PMID:22269261

  1. Acquired von Willebrand Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayalew Tefferi; William L Nichols

    1997-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a rare complication of an autoimmune or neoplastic disease. It is associated mostly with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. The clinical manifestations are similar to congenital von Willebrand disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and von Willebrand factor

  2. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (p<0.001) in acquired disorders which mostly had either no, mild or regional nerve enlargement (CIDP (64%), GBS (95%), and MMN (100%)). In CIDP, subjects treated within three months of disease onset had less nerve enlargement than those treated later. Discussion Ultrasound identified patterns of diffuse nerve enlargement can be used to screen patients suspected of having CMT-1. Normal, mildly, or regionally enlarged nerves in demyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  3. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  4. [Acquired necrotizing myopathies].

    PubMed

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O

    2013-06-01

    Necrotizing myopathies (MN) are defined by a specific histological pattern. They are characterized by a predominant muscle fibre necrosis and regeneration but with little or no associated inflammation. This histological pattern is observed in acquired myopathy but also in muscular dystrophy. Acquired NM can be secondary to drugs or toxics, and if not, autoimmune mechanisms have to be suspected. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is recognized as a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, different from other myositides. Generally, patients present a rapidly progressive and severe symmetrical proximal weakness with high serum creatine kinase level, associated in some patients with cardiac involvement. On the other hand, a slower progression may sometimes be observed, that could lead to erroneous diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy may be associated to specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle, or more recently described, against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Necrotizing auto-immune myopathy can also be described in association with connective tissue diseases such as lupus or sclerodermia. In remaining cases, cancer association may be observed. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are now considered as a new entity, treatable by immunosuppressants and which should not be misdiagnosed as a muscular dystrophy. PMID:22998975

  5. Nuclear fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Fowler

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of nuclear fusion as an energy source and research progress in this area are summarized. The current state of the art is described. Laser fusion, inertial confinement fusion, and magnetic fusion (the tokamak) are explained, the latter in some detail. Remaining problems and planned future reactors are considered. They are the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear

  6. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  7. Motorized Car

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

  8. Expression of NR2B in Cerebellar Granule Cells Specifically Facilitates Effect of Motor Training on Motor Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwei Jiao; Akira Nakajima; William G. M. Janssen; Vytautas P. Bindokas; Xiaoli Xiong; John H. Morrison; James R. Brorson; Ya-Ping Tang; Martin Giurfa

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that gene\\/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular\\/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor

  9. Molecular motors and their functions in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory mechanisms that perform plant-specific functions are yet to be discovered. Although the identification of motors in plants, especially in Arabidopsis, is progressing at a rapid pace because of the ongoing plant genome sequencing projects, only a few plant motors have been characterized in any detail. Elucidation of function and regulation of this multitude of motors in a given species is going to be a challenging and exciting area of research in plant cell biology. Structural features of some plant motors suggest calcium, through calmodulin, is likely to play a key role in regulating the function of both microtubule- and actin-based motors in plants.

  10. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  11. Fusion Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  12. Acute motor neuropathy with pure distal involvement--a case report of multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, Sithara; Prasad, Manish; Spillane, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy is an acquired pure motor neuropathy seen principally in adults and usually responds to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. We report a 12 year old boy with marked distal weakness in both upper and lower limbs with no proximal involvement. These clinical features appear to be distinct from more common inflammatory childhood neuropathies and are in keeping with a diagnosis of Multifocal Motor Neuropathy. Confirming the diagnosis, serial nerve conduction studies showed a pattern of pure motor conduction block with normal sensory potentials. To our knowledge this is only the second case report of this condition occurring in childhood. PMID:23416060

  13. Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1999-03-31

    Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

  14. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  15. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  16. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  17. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  18. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  19. Motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-01

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. PMID:20541489

  20. Motor Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  1. Wave motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solell

    1979-01-01

    A wave motor is described comprising a float, a displaceable member coupled to the float so as to be displaced by the ascent and descent of the float, a pair of shafts, and a transmission including a pair of one-way clutches coupling the displaceable member to the shafts to rotate one in one direction during the ascent of the float

  2. Motor oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2007-02-11

    Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

  3. [Motor assymetry].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-02-01

    Although the study of handedness and its association with hemispheric specialisation represents the prevailing focus of motor dominance research, recent inquiry into footedness and other motoric asymmetries has stimulated several interesting propositions. The present review show the variability of assessing motoric asymmetries. Asymmetry in hand use takes two forms: differential hand preference and differential dexterity between the hands. Motoric asymmetries are strongest and most manifest for handedness (hand preference, performance and dexterity), descending through footedness and other less known asymmetries (tonguedness, chewing preference). Handedness is the most easily observed expression of cerebral lateralization. The alpha and omega of relating handedness to other neuropsychological variables or indices of lateral specialization lies in the classification of handedness. A vast range of testing techniques have been used to assess handedness. Writing hand and self-report are two of the most popular techniques. Other preference measures include observation of how people use tools and questionnaires. Performance tests assess speed and accuracy in tasks stressing manipulative dexterity. Although questionnaires are generally thought to be reliable and valid instruments, there is a disagreement as to the nature, the number and weighting of the items to be included. The least stable results will be obtained if a categorization into "right-handers" and "non-right-handers" is made on the basis of exclusive "right" answers. Slightly more stable is a classification that is based on "right-handers", "mixed preference handers" and "left-hander" based on extreme choices in either direction and intermediate choices. We present shortly a possible inventory assessing motoric asymmetries. PMID:10719660

  4. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  5. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  6. Sequential neural changes during motor learning in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura M. Rowland; Reza Shadmehr; Dwight Kravitz; Henry H. Holcomb

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate differences in neural plasticity associated with learning a unique motor task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Working with a robotic manipulandum, subjects learned reaching movements in a force field. Visual cues were provided to guide the reaching movements. PET rCBF measures were acquired while participants learned the motor skill over

  7. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ���������������¢��������������������������������Motors and Generators for the 21st Century���������������¢�������������������������������. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  8. Technology Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tidd; T. Sammut-Bonnici

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion involves the combination and transformation of a number of different core technologies in order to create new product markets. The key element of technology fusion is that it is both complementary and cooperative. Typically, it is the result of reciprocal and substantial R&D expenditure by companies from a range of industries and with different technological competences. For example,

  9. Laser fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Smit; P. Boskma

    1980-01-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons

  10. Motor resonance meets motor performance.

    PubMed

    Barchiesi, Guido; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to explore which of two different models better explains facilitation/interference effects when participants have to conditionally react to an observed action with a movement. The Dimensional Overlap model assumes two parallel routes, an automatic route and a rule-based one, that interact only when the stimulus-set and the response-set share some dimensions. In the alternative model, a motor resonance for rule-based reaction, the automatic visuo-motor transformation is always an obligatory step that provides the correct categorization of the observed action as the input for the rule-based route, thus linking the two routes in a serial fashion. We explicitly tested which of the hypotheses fits better the data by asking participants to perform one of two different actions in a two-choice reaction paradigm. In one condition participants were required to perform the opposite action compared to the one they saw (COUNTER task: see A?do B, see B?do A), while in the other they were required to perform two actions that did not share any dimension with the stimulus-set (NEUTRAL task: see A?do C, see B?do D). We predicted an advantage for the NEUTRAL task if the Dimensional Overlap model was correct, while a similar performance was foreseen if the motor resonance-based model was correct. Since the interpretation of these results was not straightforward, we conducted a distributional analysis of participants' response accuracies in order to understand whether a serial or a general parallel model explained better the data. We found clear evidence that participants responded above chance before the motor representation of the action observed was activated. We conclude that two separate systems in the human brain can transform observed actions in own motor representations. One is stimulus-driven, while the second is rule-driven. Likely, their activity is mutually independent along parallel pathways. PMID:25619846

  11. Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation. PMID:23637843

  12. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Kristine; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Klein, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Communication problems resulting from acquired brain damage are most frequently manifested as motor speech disorders such as dysarthria, syndromes of aphasia, and impairments of pragmatics. A much less common phenomenon is the onset of stuttering in adults who sustain a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurologic events. When stuttering occurs in association with neuropathology, precise characterization and explanation of observed behaviors is often difficult. Among the clinical challenges presented by acquired stuttering are the problem of distinguishing this form of dysfluency from those associated with dysarthria and aphasia, and identifying the neuropathological condition(s) and brain lesion site(s) giving rise to this speech disorder. Another challenge to the precise characterization of acquired stuttering is the fact that some cases of acquired stuttering apparently have a psychological or neuropsychiatric genesis rather than a neuropathological one. In this paper we provide a review of the literature pertaining to the complicated phenomenon of acquired stuttering in adults and draw some tentative explanatory conclusions regarding this disorder. PMID:20628582

  13. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Kristine; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Klein, Reva

    2010-09-01

    Communication problems resulting from acquired brain damage are most frequently manifested as motor speech disorders such as dysarthria, syndromes of aphasia, and impairments of pragmatics. A much less common phenomenon is the onset of stuttering in adults who sustain a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurologic events. When stuttering occurs in association with neuropathology, precise characterization and explanation of observed behaviors is often difficult. Among the clinical challenges presented by acquired stuttering are the problem of distinguishing this form of dysfluency from those associated with dysarthria and aphasia, and identifying the neuropathological condition(s) and brain lesion site(s) giving rise to this speech disorder. Another challenge to the precise characterization of acquired stuttering is the fact that some cases of acquired stuttering apparently have a psychological or neuropsychiatric genesis rather than a neuropathological one. In this paper we provide a review of the literature pertaining to the complicated phenomenon of acquired stuttering in adults and draw some tentative explanatory conclusions regarding this disorder. PMID:20628582

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Latov, Norman

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathies are operationally classified as primarily demyelinating or axonal, on the basis of electrodiagnostic or pathological criteria. Demyelinating neuropathies are further classified as hereditary or acquired-this distinction is important, because the acquired neuropathies are immune-mediated and, thus, amenable to treatment. The acquired chronic demyelinating neuropathies include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), neuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG; anti-MAG neuropathy), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and POEMS syndrome. They have characteristic--though overlapping--clinical presentations, are mediated by distinct immune mechanisms, and respond to different therapies. CIDP is the default diagnosis if the neuropathy is demyelinating and no other cause is found. Anti-MAG neuropathy is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of anti-MAG antibodies, MMN is characterized by multifocal weakness and motor conduction blocks, and POEMS syndrome is associated with IgG or IgA ?-type monoclonal gammopathy and osteosclerotic myeloma. The correct diagnosis, however, can be difficult to make in patients with atypical or overlapping presentations, or nondefinitive laboratory studies. First-line treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids or plasmapheresis for CIDP; IVIg for MMN; rituximab for anti-MAG neuropathy; and irradiation or chemotherapy for POEMS syndrome. A correct diagnosis is required for choosing the appropriate treatment, with the aim of preventing progressive neuropathy. PMID:24980070

  15. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  16. Acquired limb deficiencies. 4. Troubleshooting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Levy; Phillip R. Bryant; Mary C. Spires; Daniel A. Duffy

    2001-01-01

    This self-directed learning module offers practical analyses of and solutions for common clinical problems of amputees. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatrie Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The information presented here has been designed to be useful also to other interested professionals, including prosthetists, physical therapists,

  17. Card Sorts to Acquire Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A. M. Maiden

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a requirement acquisition techniques card sorts. One reason is that requirements projects are often constrained by software solutions such as components, off-the-shelf packages, and application features. More and more projects need to acquire requirements to select between available solutions. This is where card sorts come in. During a card sort, one or more stakeholders work with

  18. Fusion Simulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

  19. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors: overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Uchino

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of ultrasonic motors using piezoelectric resonant vibrations. Following the historical background, ultrasonic motors using standing and traveling waves are introduced. Driving principles and motor characteristics are explained in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. After a brief discussion on speed and thrust calculation, finally, reliability issues of ultrasonic motors are described.

  20. Cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Selective cell fusion is a natural part of development. It is found in sexually reproducing organisms that require fertilization to propagate and in muscles, placenta, bones, lens of the eye and stem cells. Cell fusion is particularly important in the development of C. elegans: in addition to 300 sperm and oocytes that fuse during fertilization, 300 of the 1090 somatic cells born, fuse throughout development. Studies of cell fusion in C. elegans have shown that although different types of cells fuse, cell membrane merger is initiated through a common mechanism involving the action of one gene, eff-1. In worms with mutations that inactivate eff-1, almost none of the 300 somatic cells that normally fuse do so, but appear to differentiate, attach and behave in the same way as fusing cells. Such worms develop and survive but have numerous morphological, behavioral and fertility defects associated to cell fusion failure in the epidermis, pharynx, male tail, vulva and uterus. Cell fusion in embryonic dorsal epithelial cells has been analyzed in great detail by confocal microscopy using membrane fluorescent probes, apical junction markers and cytoplasmic aqueous fluorescent probes allowing the direct observation of membrane disappearance, pore expansion and cytoplasmic content mixing. The complete elimination of the membranes between two fusing cells takes about 30 min and involves vesiculation of the fusing membranes. Genetic and cell biological evidence indicates that eff-1 activity is both necessary and sufficient to fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in vivo. Based on electron microscopic analyses of intermediates of cell fusion in eff-1 mutants, it appears that eff-1 is required for both initiation and expansion of fusion pores, similar to the fusogen of Influenza virus. While only one gene encoding a novel candidate component of the cell membrane fusion machinery has been found, the nematode's cell fusion program is under the control of many cell-specific transcriptional regulators. A large number of these conserved regulators prevent cell fusion by repressing eff-1 activity. For example, if either ceh-16/engrailed or the GATA factor EGL-18/ELT-5 is inactivated, the lateral epidermal cells that normally do not fuse in the embryo will fuse causing embryonic lethality. And if either the Hox protein lin-39/Deformed or its cofactor ceh-20/Extradenticle is inactivated, the ventral epidermal vulval precursor cells that normally do not fuse in the larvae will fuse and the hermaphrodite will have no vulva. In addition, there is evidence for coordinated and complex regulation of lin-39 in the ventral epidermis by Ras, Wnt, Rb/E2F, NuRD and lin-15 pathways. It appears that in many cells that normally do not fuse, specific transcription complexes repress eff-1 expression preventing cell fusion. ref-2 (REgulator of Fusion-2) encodes a Zn-finger protein that is required to generate ventral Pn.p cells and to keep them unfused both in males and hermaphrodites. ref-2 is necessary, but not sufficient, to maintain Pn.p cells unfused. This review shows that far from cell fusion being an unusual phenomenon, there is the clear prospect that animal cells in all tissues are intrinsically programmed to fuse, and are only prevented from fusing by transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. There are three major questions that remain open for future research: (1) How does eff-1 fuse cells? (2) How do Ras, Wnt, Rb, NuRD, E2F, heterochronic and other pathways control cell fusion? (3) What are the implications of cell fusion beyond worms? PMID:18050486

  1. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  2. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  3. Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion.

  4. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  5. The inhibition of acquired fear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iván Izquierdo; Martín Cammarota; Mónica R. M. Vianna; Lía R. M. Bevilaqua

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is\\u000a at the root of a variety of disorders, among which are phobias, generalized anxiety, and the posttraumatic stress disorder\\u000a (PTSD). The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS\\u000a alone, so that

  6. Engelhard acquires German catalyst maker

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-16

    Engelhard will acquire the precious- and base-metal catalyst businesses of Doduco GmbH & Co. (Pforzheim, Germany), a privately held supplier of catalysts to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. {open_quotes}This is an excellent product expansion for us, one that we believe can be leveraged throughout Europe and, later, globally,{close_quotes} says James A. Martin, group v.p., president, and general manager of Engelhard`s chemical catalysts group.

  7. Hereditary and Acquired Polyneuropathy Conditions of the Peripheral Nerves: Clinical Considerations and MR Neurography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jaya R; Phillips, Lauren; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2015-04-01

    Polyneuropathies can be classified as either primarily demyelinating or axonal, and further as hereditary or acquired. It is important to recognize acquired neuropathies because some are amenable to treatment. Clinical findings and electrophysiology are used in the routine diagnosis of these conditions. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a helpful supplementary diagnostic tool. This article discusses the typical clinical findings, electrophysiology findings, and MRN appearances of common hereditary or acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and postsurgical neuropathy. PMID:25764237

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. Sleep Contribution to Motor Memory Consolidation: A Motor Imagery Study

    PubMed Central

    Debarnot, Ursula; Creveaux, Thomas; Collet, Christian; Doyon, Julien; Guillot, Aymeric

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to enhance performance following physical practice (PP) of a new sequence of movements. Apart from a pilot study, it is still unknown whether a similar sleep-dependent consolidation effect can be observed following motor imagery (MI) and whether this mnemonic process is related to MI speed. Design: Counterbalanced within-subject design. Setting: The laboratory. Participants: Thirty-two participants. Interventions: PP, real-time MI, fast MI, and NoSleep (control) groups. Measurements and Results: Subjects practiced an explicitly known sequence of finger movements, and were assigned to PP, real-time MI, or fast MI, in which they intentionally imagined the sequence at a faster pace. A NoSleep group subjected to real-time MI, but without any intervening sleep, was also tested. Performance was evaluated before practice, as well as prior to, and after a night of sleep or a similar time interval during the daytime. Compared with the NoSleep group, the results revealed offline gains in performance after sleep in the PP, real-time MI, and fast MI groups. There was no correlation between a measure of underestimation of the time to imagine the motor sequence and the actual speed gains after sleep, neither between the ease/difficulty to form mental images and performance gains. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that sleep contributes to the consolidation of motor sequence learning acquired through MI and further suggests that offline delayed gains are not related to the MI content per se. They extend our previous findings and strongly confirm that performance enhancement following MI is sleep dependent. Citation: Debarnot U; Creveaux T; Collet C; Doyon J; Guillot A. Sleep contribution to motor memory consolidation: a motor imagery study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1559-1565. PMID:20041591

  10. Pressure Oscillations in Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Bicker, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    All Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors (SRM's) exhibit low amplitude longitudinal pressure oscillations during motor burn. Although the oscillations have no known deleterious effect on motor ballistics, the acoustic pressure variations cause thrust oscillations that might affect Shuttle systems or components. The acoustic mode of greatest interest is the first or fundamental mode which, in the SRM, has a nominal frequency of 14-Hz. Oscillations in the SRM are believed to be caused by coupling between large scale vortices and the acoustic modes of the motor chamber. The vortices are thought to be created in the region of the motor segment interfaces and are inherent in the design of the motor. In such a situation the usual approach is to measure the oscillations and assess their impact on any sensitive components through tests and analysis. Questionable components can be altered to survive the vibration environment. As motor firings occur, oscillations are monitored to determine whether there are changes in the nature of the oscillations. Since the first static test, SRM's have been equipped with instrumentation especially designed to acquire chamber pressure oscillation data. Data from the first SRM static tests were used to establish predicted upper bounds for the maximum amplitudes in the latter half of burn. Those bounds have been used as a basis for worst-case simulation scenarios by specialists in structural dynamics at NASA and Rockwell International and to provide a basis for evaluating data from individual motors which were tested subsequent to the original SRM's. This paper updates the upper bounds prediction the High Performance Motors (HPM) by including data from all static tests performed to date including both original SRM's and post Challenger SRM's or Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) in which the joint design was changed. All together, this study examines 27 SRM motors, 16 HPM motors and 11 RSRM motors. Predicted upper bounds will be made for both the first and second longitudinal modes. The first mode upper bounds will be compared to the original seven standard rocket motors (STD). The results indicate that, although the upper bounds have increased, they are still within acceptable bounds.

  11. Investigating motors and magnetism.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Reierson

    This activity is an activity where students build a motor, learn motor operation and theory, interpret their understanding through troubleshooting, and develop a new, experimental question related to the motor. One follow-up activity would be coupling their motor to a fan blade or other axle to convert electrical energy to magnetic energy into mechanical motion for real world application.

  12. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  13. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  14. RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion

    E-print Network

    Pelizzari, Charles A.

    of anatomical feature #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Types of Data to be Registered Anatomic CT, MRI, US Digitized; markers for repositioning Hybrid scanners, e.g. PET/CT #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Classification of imageRSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph

  15. Research on speech motor control and its disorders: a review and prospective.

    PubMed

    Kent, R D

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders. Speech motor control refers to the systems and strategies that regulate the production of speech, including the planning and preparation of movements (sometimes called motor programming) and the execution of movement plans to result in muscle contractions and structural displacements. Traditionally, speech motor control is distinguished from phonologic operations, but in some recent phonologic theories, there is a deliberate blurring of the boundaries between phonologic representation and motor functions. Moreover, there is continuing discussion in the literature as to whether a given motor speech disorder (especially apraxia of speech and stuttering) should be understood at the phonologic level, the motoric level, or both of these. The motor speech disorders considered here include: the dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. PMID:11081787

  16. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.17 Acquire. Acquire means to have or...

  17. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.17 Acquire. Acquire means to have or...

  18. Ensuring the profitability of acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J P

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are aggressively acquiring physician group practices to create primary care networks and broaden their managed care market penetration. However, few are realizing a positive return on investment after acquisition. The odds that acquired practices will be profitable can be improved if healthcare organizations plan carefully by establishing separate acquiring entities, setting clear goals for the practices, forming skilled management teams with strong physician leadership to manage the acquired practices, and carefully structuring their physician incentive compensation plans. PMID:10163897

  19. A new image fusion method based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Binbin; Yang, Xiushun; Qi, Dening; Li, Congli; Lu, Wei

    2010-02-01

    A new image fusion method based on Multiscale Geometric Analysis (MGA), which uses the improved fusion rules, is put forward in this paper. Firstly, the input low-level-light image and infrared image are decomposed by Curvelet transform, which is realized by Unequally-Spaced Fast Fourier Transforms. Secondly, the decomposed coefficients in different scales and directions are fused by corresponding fusion rules. At last, the fusion image is acquired by recomposing the fused coefficients. The simulation results show that this method performs better than the conventional wavelet method both in the subjective vision aspect and the objective estimation indices.

  20. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual ?-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to ?-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  1. Nuclear Fusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-26

    This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

  2. PROGRESS TOWARD UNDERSTANDING MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION (MTF).

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.); Lindemuth, I. R. (Irvin R.); Barnes, D. C. (Daniel C.); Faehl, R. J. (Rickey J.); Sheehey, P. T. (Peter T.); Knapp, C. E. (Charles E.)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) takes advantage of (1) the reduction of the electron thermal conductivity in a plasma due to magnetization and (2) the efficient heating through bulk compression. MTF proposes to create a warm plasma with an embedded magnetic field and to compress it using an imploded liner or shell. The minimum energy required for fusion in an optimized target is directly proportional to the mass of the ignited fusion fuel. Simple theoretical arguments and parameter studies have demonstrated that MTF has the potential for significantly reducing the power and intensity of a target driver needed to achieve fusion. In order to acquire a comprehensive understanding of MTF and its potential applications it is prudent to develop more complete and reliable computational techniques. This paper briefly reviews the progress toward that goal.

  3. Cognitive motor processes: The role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörn Munzert; Britta Lorey; Karen Zentgraf

    2009-01-01

    Motor imagery is viewed as a window to cognitive motor processes and particularly to motor control. Mental simulation theory [Jeannerod, M., 2001. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103–109] stresses that cognitive motor processes such as motor imagery and action observation share the same representations as motor execution. This article presents an overview of

  4. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  5. Cortical Plasticity and Behavioral Recovery Following Focal Lesion to Primary Motor Cortex in Adult Rats

    E-print Network

    Nishibe, Mariko

    2012-05-31

    Acquired brain injuries, such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury, are the leading causes of physical disabilities. Previously, scientists have shown that damage of the primary motor cortex induced neural plasticity ...

  6. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division

    E-print Network

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center; April 10 Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma

  7. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06...Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If,...

  8. Asynchronous induction roller motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Gusel’nikov; V. S. Baklin; P. R. Baranov

    2008-01-01

    Problems of designing special modifications of roller induction motors of ARM2P type for variable-frequency electric drives\\u000a have been considered. Motor designs, energy indices, and adjustment properties are presented.

  9. Stepping Motor Control System

    E-print Network

    Larson, Noble G.

    This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

  10. Implementing Motor Management

    E-print Network

    Colip, R. L.

    Electric motors account for sixty five percent of industrial energy consumed today. There are many opportunities to conserve electricity by using more energy efficient motors and drives. Proven technologies and practices can reduce energy...

  11. A fusion method of metallurgical images based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wencheng; Chang, Faliang; Wang, Lei

    2010-08-01

    On the basis of analyzing several common algorithms of image fusion, a new multi-focus image fusion method based on curvelet transform is proposed according to the question of metallurgical image fusion. Firstly, two different focal images were decomposed using curvelet transform respectively, and then in the curvelet domain of the two transformed images, the new curvelet coefficients were acquired by adopting a simple fusion rule, which was that the low-frequency coefficients were integrated using the weighted average, and high-frequency coefficients were integrated using choose max. Finally, the fused coefficients are reconstructed to obtain fusion results. Experimental results show that the method is more suitable for metallurgical image fusion than other ways, the fused image will have more information and the observation with naked eyes will be clearer.

  12. Acquisition and reacquisition of motor coordination in musicians.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-03-01

    Precise control of movement timing plays a key role in musical performance. This motor skill requires coordination across multiple joints and muscles, which is acquired through extensive musical training from childhood. However, extensive training has a potential risk of causing neurological disorders that impair fine motor control, such as task-specific tremor and focal dystonia. Recent technological advances in measurement and analysis of biological data, as well as noninvasive manipulation of neuronal activities, have promoted the understanding of computational and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of dexterous movements through musical practice and rehabilitation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the behavioral and neurophysiological basis of motor virtuosity and disorder in musicians, representative extremes of human motor skill. We also report novel evidence of effects of noninvasive neurorehabilitation that combined transcranial direct-current stimulation and motor rehabilitation over multiple days on musician's dystonia, which offers a promising therapeutic means. PMID:25773625

  13. Research on Speech Motor Control and Its Disorders: A Review and Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray D.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders that include dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. Assessment, classification, and treatment of these…

  14. Motor Oil Classification Based on Time-Resolved Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Taotao; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Meng, Fandong

    2014-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) technique is presented for classifying motor oils. The system is constructed with a third harmonic Nd:YAG laser, a spectrometer, and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements are reported for several motor oils. It is found that steady-state fluorescence is insufficient to distinguish the motor oil samples. Then contour diagrams of TRF intensities (CDTRFIs) are acquired to serve as unique fingerprints to identify motor oils by using the distinct TRF of motor oils. CDTRFIs are preferable to steady-state fluorescence spectra for classifying different motor oils, making CDTRFIs a particularly choice for the development of fluorescence-based methods for the discrimination and characterization of motor oils. The two-dimensional fluorescence contour diagrams contain more information, not only the changing shapes of the LIF spectra but also the relative intensity. The results indicate that motor oils can be differentiated based on the new proposed method, which provides reliable methods for analyzing and classifying motor oils. PMID:24988439

  15. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  16. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  17. Tomosyn-2 is required for normal motor performance in mice and sustains neurotransmission at motor endplates.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Cornelia J; Plomp, Jaap J; Koopmans, Bastijn; Loos, Maarten; van der Pijl, Elizabeth M; van der Valk, Martin A; Verhage, Matthijs; Groffen, Alexander J A

    2014-04-18

    Tomosyn-1 (STXBP5) is a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex-binding protein that inhibits vesicle fusion, but the role of tomosyn-2 (STXBP5L) in the mammalian nervous system is still unclear. Here we generated tomosyn-2 null (Tom2(KO/KO)) mice, which showed impaired motor performance. This was accompanied by synaptic changes at the neuromuscular junction, including enhanced spontaneous acetylcholine release frequency and faster depression of muscle motor endplate potentials during repetitive stimulation. The postsynaptic geometric arrangement and function of acetylcholine receptors were normal. We conclude that tomosyn-2 supports motor performance by regulation of transmitter release willingness to sustain synaptic strength during high-frequency transmission, which makes this gene a candidate for involvement in neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24744148

  18. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Simmons, C Douglas; Arthanat, Sajay; Macri, Vincent J

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual's ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs). Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01) and wrist (p = 0.01) range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p < 0.05). Using PEGs as a modality for both motor and cognitive intervention is a potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation and warrants further study. PMID:25019661

  19. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motors’ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  20. Cdc42 controls the dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore by regulating membrane tension

    PubMed Central

    Bretou, Marine; Jouannot, Ouardane; Fanget, Isabelle; Pierobon, Paolo; Larochette, Nathanaël; Gestraud, Pierre; Guillon, Marc; Emiliani, Valentina; Gasman, Stéphane; Desnos, Claire; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Darchen, François

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion underlies multiple processes, including exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Membrane fusion starts with the formation of a narrow fusion pore. Radial expansion of this pore completes the process and allows fast release of secretory compounds, but this step remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibiting the expression of the small GTPase Cdc42 or preventing its activation with a dominant negative Cdc42 construct in human neuroendocrine cells impaired the release process by compromising fusion pore enlargement. Consequently the mode of vesicle exocytosis was shifted from full-collapse fusion to kiss-and-run. Remarkably, Cdc42-knockdown cells showed reduced membrane tension, and the artificial increase of membrane tension restored fusion pore enlargement. Moreover, inhibiting the motor protein myosin II by blebbistatin decreased membrane tension, as well as fusion pore dilation. We conclude that membrane tension is the driving force for fusion pore dilation and that Cdc42 is a key regulator of this force. PMID:25143404

  1. About sponsorship Fusion power

    E-print Network

    About sponsorship Fusion power Nuclear ambitions Jun 30th 2005 From The Economist print edition project to build a nuclear-fusion reactor came a step closer to reality when politicians agreed it should century, fusion advocates have claimed that achieving commercial nuclear fusion is 30 years away

  2. Full Body Interaction for Serious Games in Motor Rehabilitation

    E-print Network

    Full Body Interaction for Serious Games in Motor Rehabilitation Christian Schönauer Thomas Systems Vienna University of Technology ABSTRACT Serious games and especially their use in healthcare. Furthermore, a workflow has been established that enables the use of acquired skeletal data for serious games

  3. Acquired poikiloderma: proposed classification and diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Nofal, Ahmad; Salah, Eman

    2013-09-01

    "Poikiloderma" is a morphologic and descriptive term referring to a combination of cutaneous atrophy, telangiectasia, and varied macular pigmentary changes that result in a mottled skin appearance. Its etiology includes both congenital and acquired causes. Many studies have reported different causes of acquired poikiloderma; however, no single well-defined classification has been explored to date. Herein, we analyze all the possible causes of acquired poikiloderma and propose an etiological classification that, hopefully, will lead to better characterization for this ill-defined condition. Moreover, this study presents a step-by-step approach to the management of patients with acquired poikiloderma and summarizes the key differentiating features for each individual cause, which may help in easy and precise diagnosis of different causes of acquired poikiloderma. PMID:22846690

  4. Acquired Chiari malformation secondary to atlantoaxial vertical subluxation in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis combined with atlanto-occipital assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuiko; Seichi, Atsushi; Gomi, Akira; Kojima, Masahiro; Inoue, Hirokazu; Kimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented with a rare case of acquired Chiari malformation secondary to atlantoaxial vertical subluxation, associated with congenital atlanto-occipital assimilation. Syringomyelia and tetraparesis improved immediately after posterior fossa decompression and simultaneous occipito-cervical junction fusion. The progression of acquired Chiari malformation is not well known. We concluded that coexisting assimilation accelerated crowded foramen magnum following atlantoaxial vertical subluxation and induced acquired Chiari malformation over the course of a few years. PMID:23006887

  5. Maturation of spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Tomonori; Croft, Gist F; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Studer, Lorenz; Wichterle, Hynek; Macdermott, Amy B

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of motor neuron biology in humans is derived mainly from investigation of human postmortem tissue and more indirectly from live animal models such as rodents. Thus generation of motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells is an important new approach to model motor neuron function. To be useful models of human motor neuron function, cells generated in vitro should develop mature properties that are the hallmarks of motor neurons in vivo such as elaborated neuronal processes and mature electrophysiological characteristics. Here we have investigated changes in morphological and electrophysiological properties associated with maturation of neurons differentiated from human embryonic stem cells expressing GFP driven by a motor neuron specific reporter (Hb9::GFP) in culture. We observed maturation in cellular morphology seen as more complex neurite outgrowth and increased soma area over time. Electrophysiological changes included decreasing input resistance and increasing action potential firing frequency over 13 days in vitro. Furthermore, these human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons acquired two physiological characteristics that are thought to underpin motor neuron integrated function in motor circuits; spike frequency adaptation and rebound action potential firing. These findings show that human embryonic stem cell derived motor neurons develop functional characteristics typical of spinal motor neurons in vivo and suggest that they are a relevant and useful platform for studying motor neuron development and function and for modeling motor neuron diseases. PMID:22802953

  6. Fusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg

    E-print Network

    Fusion Cons: · It doesn't work yet 8 #12;How does fusion work? Science · Nuclear physics · Plasma physicsFusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg PSFC & NSE January 2012 1 #12;Outline 1. What is fusion's role in energy production 2. How does fusion work? 3. Where is fusion research now? 4. Where might fusion

  7. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HCAP) and Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Antibiotic orders 1 | P a g e

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HCAP) and Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Antibiotic orders 1 | P a g e Pneumonia Severity Index Risk Class Score Mortality Low I below Health Care Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is defined

  8. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Stoianovici; Alexandru Patriciu; Doru Petrisor; Dumitru Mazilu; Louis Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special

  9. Contributions of the cerebellum and the motor cortex to acquisition and retention of motor memories.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, David J; Pastor, Damien; Haith, Adrian M; Rossetti, Yves; Shadmehr, Reza; O'Shea, Jacinta

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the contributions of the cerebellum and the motor cortex (M1) to acquisition and retention of human motor memories in a force field reaching task. We found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum, a technique that is thought to increase neuronal excitability, increased the ability to learn from error and form an internal model of the field, while cathodal cerebellar stimulation reduced this error-dependent learning. In addition, cathodal cerebellar stimulation disrupted the ability to respond to error within a reaching movement, reducing the gain of the sensory-motor feedback loop. By contrast, anodal M1 stimulation had no significant effects on these variables. During sham stimulation, early in training the acquired motor memory exhibited rapid decay in error-clamp trials. With further training the rate of decay decreased, suggesting that with training the motor memory was transformed from a labile to a more stable state. Surprisingly, neither cerebellar nor M1 stimulation altered these decay patterns. Participants returned 24hours later and were re-tested in error-clamp trials without stimulation. The cerebellar group that had learned the task with cathodal stimulation exhibited significantly impaired retention, and retention was not improved by M1 anodal stimulation. In summary, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation resulted in polarity-dependent up- or down-regulation of error-dependent motor learning. In addition, cathodal cerebellar stimulation during acquisition impaired the ability to retain the motor memory overnight. Thus, in the force field task we found a critical role for the cerebellum in both formation of motor memory and its retention. PMID:24816533

  10. Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

  11. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  12. State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION MOTOR VEHICLE FUEL TAX REGULATIONS Regulation 1105.

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    (a) ‘‘Tax-paid fuel’ ’ is the gallonage of motor vehicle fuel acquired with the California motor vehicle fuel license tax paid. An acquisition of motor vehicle fuel will be considered tax-paid only if it can be supported by one of the following: (1) A sales invoice or a contract which clearly states that the motor vehicle fuel tax is included in the invoice or contract and proof that the amount representing motor vehicle fuel tax has been paid, or (2) A motor vehicle fuel purchase receipt showing that the amount paid for the fuel included the motor vehicle fuel tax, or (3) Other documentation showing that the motor vehicle fuel tax has been paid to the state. (b) “Ex-tax fuel’ ’ is the gallonage of motor vehicle fuel acquired without the California motor vehicle fuel license tax paid. History: Adopted February 5, 1986, effective May 4, 1986. In subdivision (a)(1) added definition of tax-paid fuel and explains the support required to consider the fuel tax paid. In subdivision (a)(2) added definition of ex-tax fuel. In subdivision (b)(1) added explanation that a distributor or broker is relieved of further liability of tax on the number of gallons upon which the tax has been paid. In subdivision (b)(2) added explanation that a distributor is not relieved of its liability to report and pay tax on

  13. Emergence of virtual reality as a tool for upper limb rehabilitation: incorporation of motor control and motor learning principles.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Weiss, Patrice L; Keshner, Emily A

    2015-03-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback-based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  14. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-print Network

    Rainer W. Kuehne

    2006-04-14

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  15. Canonical Correlation Analysis for Feature-Based Fusion of Biomedical Imaging Modalities and Its Application to Detection of Associative Networks in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Nicolle M.; Li, Yi-Ou; Adal?, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2009-01-01

    Typically data acquired through imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), structural MRI (sMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) are analyzed separately. However, fusing information from such complementary modalities promises to provide additional insight into connectivity across brain networks and changes due to disease. We propose a data fusion scheme at the feature level using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to determine inter-subject covariations across modalities. As we show both with simulation results and application to real data, multimodal CCA (mCCA) proves to be a flexible and powerful method for discovering associations among various data types. We demonstrate the versatility of the method with application to two datasets, an fMRI and EEG, and an fMRI and sMRI dataset, both collected from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls. CCA results for fMRI and EEG data collected for an auditory oddball task reveal associations of the temporal and motor areas with the N2 and P3 peaks. For the application to fMRI and sMRI data collected for an auditory sensorimotor task, CCA results show an interesting joint relationship between fMRI and gray matter, with patients with schizophrenia showing more functional activity in motor areas and less activity in temporal areas associated with less gray matter as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, we compare our scheme with an independent component analysis based fusion method, joint-ICA that has proven useful for such a study and note that the two methods provide complementary perspectives on data fusion. PMID:19834573

  16. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

  17. Adjacent lumbar disc herniation after lumbar short spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3-5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an "intact" disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

  18. Acquired radial club hand. A case report.

    PubMed

    Iregbulem, L M

    1982-06-01

    An unusual case of acquired radial club hand is presented. It was almost indistinguishable from the congenital variety, but arose from a mismanaged cutaneous infection of the wrist. Surgical treatment resulted in a functionally and cosmetically acceptable hand. PMID:7152889

  19. Asymmetric acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies: MMN and MADSAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Katz; David S. Saperstein

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  More than a half a century after Austin’s initial description of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy\\u000a (CIDP), the clinical spectrum of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies has expanded. Currently there are a number\\u000a of entities that can be put under the heading of chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy (CADP) based on differing clinical\\u000a presentations. In this scheme, CIDP is used only to

  20. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty?four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  1. Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study

    E-print Network

    Dautovich, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

  2. Acquisition of intellectual and perceptual-motor skills.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, D A; Carlson, R A; Gilmore, R O

    2001-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that intellectual and perceptual-motor skills are acquired in fundamentally similar ways. Transfer specificity, generativity, and the use of abstract rules and reflexlike productions are similar in the two skill domains; brain sites subserving thought processes and perceptual-motor processes are not as distinct as once thought; explicit and implicit knowledge characterize both kinds of skill; learning rates, training effects, and learning stages are remarkably similar for the two skill classes; and imagery, long thought to play a distinctive role in high-level thought, also plays a role in perceptual-motor learning and control. The conclusion that intellectual skills and perceptual-motor skills are psychologically more alike than different accords with the view that all knowledge is performatory. PMID:11148313

  3. > DD-10 loudspeaker motors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    > DD-10 loudspeaker motors B. Merit1,2 , G. Lemarquand2 calculations are used to study existing loudspeaker motors totally made of permanent magnets. When the iron is removed from a loudspeaker, Eddy currents and reluctant effects are also removed, improving the linearity

  4. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  5. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  6. Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    ', Rudolph A. KoegP lectric motors play a very important role in the safe and efficient running of any current signature analy- sis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based mainte nance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well

  7. Serotonin and motor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry L Jacobs; Casimir A Fornal

    1997-01-01

    The activity of brain serotonergic neurons in both the pontine-mesencephalic and medullary groups is positively correlated with the level of behavioral arousal and\\/or the behavioral state. This, in turn, appears to be related to the level of tonic motor activity, especially as manifested in antigravity muscles and other muscle groups associated with gross motor activity. In addition, a subset of

  8. Implementing Motor Decision Plans

    E-print Network

    Elliott, R. N.

    are made at the time of motor failure, and the quickest option to get a working motor is chosen with limited regard to the short or long-term cost. This paper discusses how to develop a plan appropriate to the needs of a particular facility....

  9. Stripped-down Motor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

  10. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division

    E-print Network

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz, P close #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Dimensionally No , Yes No #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Ip

  11. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division

    E-print Network

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz M Point Studies #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division A New on assumed p*/E #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Calibration

  12. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  13. Motor carrier evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of the Motor Carrier Evaluation Program is to develop a set of standards or guidelines that can be used to evaluate the ability of motor carriers to safely transport Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive and hazardous materials or wastes owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This program document consists of a narrative report detailing the criteria and methodology used to objectively evaluate potential motor carriers. A sample Motor Carrier Evaluation/Carrier Profile and a Motor Carrier Inspection Data Sheet are included as appendices to this report. Organizations offering hazardous materials, such as radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals or wastes for transportation, have a regulatory and ethical responsibility to select transporters that are in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations related to the transportation of these commodities. 8 refs.

  14. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  15. ChemTeacher: Fusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-24

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.

  16. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were developed. The first and second stages of 1 and 0.8 m dia respectively used low carbon steel casing and PBAN propellant. The first stage used segmented construction with a total propellant weight of 8600 kg. The second stage employed about 3 tonnes of the same propellant. The third and fourth stages were of GFRP construction and employed respectively 1100 and 275 kg of CTPB type propellants. Nozzle expansion ratios upto 30 were employed and delivered vacuum lsp of 2766 Ns/kg realized. The fourth stage motor was subsequently used as the apogee motor for orbit injection of India's first geosynchronous satellite—APPLE. All these motors have been flight proven a number of times. Further design improvements have been incorporated and these motors continue to be in use. Starting in 1984 design for a large booster was undertaken. This booster employs a nominal propellant weight of 125 tonne in a 2.8 m dia casing. The motor is expected to be qualified for flight test in 1989. Side by side a high performance motor housing nearly 7 tonnes of propellant in composite casing of 2 m dia and having flex nozzle control system is also under development for upper stage application. Details of the development of the motors, their leading specifications and performance are described.

  17. Intermodality registration and fusion of liver images for medical diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Chung; X. H. Liu; C. H. Chen; X. N. Sun; N. T. Chiu; J. X. Lee

    1997-01-01

    SPECT is valuable for the evaluation of hepatic function and CT can offer better anatomical images for liver and its adjacent structures. Image registration from the two modalities, CT and SPECT, acquires both structural and functional information, and therefore is very useful for clinical diagnoses. The registration and fusion of CT and SPECT images are studied. We propose a two

  18. Multifocus image fusion by combining curvelet and wavelet transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shutao Li; Bin Yang

    2008-01-01

    When an image is captured by CCD device, only the objects at focus plane would appear sharp. A practicable way to get an image with all objects in focus is to fuse images acquired with different focus levels of the scene. In this paper, we propose a multifocus image fusion algorithm based on combination of wavelet and curvelet transform. Although

  19. Efficient Abdominal Segmentation on Clinically Acquired CT with SIMPLE Context Learning

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Burke, Ryan P.; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal segmentation on clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) has been a challenging problem given the inter-subject variance of human abdomens and complex 3-D relationships among organs. Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS) provides a potentially robust solution by leveraging label atlases via image registration and statistical fusion. We posit that the efficiency of atlas selection requires further exploration in the context of substantial registration errors. The selective and iterative method for performance level estimation (SIMPLE) method is a MAS technique integrating atlas selection and label fusion that has proven effective for prostate radiotherapy planning. Herein, we revisit atlas selection and fusion techniques for segmenting 12 abdominal structures using clinically acquired CT. Using a re-derived SIMPLE algorithm, we show that performance on multi-organ classification can be improved by accounting for exogenous information through Bayesian priors (so called context learning). These innovations are integrated with the joint label fusion (JLF) approach to reduce the impact of correlated errors among selected atlases for each organ, and a graph cut technique is used to regularize the combined segmentation. In a study of 100 subjects, the proposed method outperformed other comparable MAS approaches, including majority vote, SIMPLE, JLF, and the Wolz locally weighted vote technique. The proposed technique provides consistent improvement over state-of-the-art approaches (median improvement of 7.0% and 16.2% in DSC over JLF and Wolz, respectively) and moves toward efficient segmentation of large-scale clinically acquired CT data for biomarker screening, surgical navigation, and data mining.

  20. Slow liner fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

  1. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  2. The Integral Motor — A new variable-speed motor drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Henze

    1996-01-01

    ABB Motors has developed a new, energy-saving variable-speed motor drive for the 0.75 to 7.5 kW power range. A combination of standard induction motor and integrated frequency inverter, the Integral Motor is designed for industrial applications such as driving pumps or fans.

  3. Motor and coordinationMotor and coordination phenotypesphenotypes

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    .htm Normal horizontal swimming Abnormal vertical swimming Kalueff et al., 2006 #12;Motor skills tests · DrugMotor and coordinationMotor and coordination phenotypesphenotypes 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Assessing motor phenotypes · SHIRPA battery: a widely-accepted neurological battery involving a three- stage

  4. BIOCHEMISTRY: Processive Motor Movement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David D. Hackney (Carnegie Mellon University; Department of Biological Science)

    2007-04-06

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Permeating throughout a eukaryotic cell is a lattice of filamentous tracks called microtubules, upon which molecular motors travel, moving cargo about. In this transport system, the molecular motor kinesin-1 carries relatively large loads (molecular complexes, membranous vesicles, and organelles), its motion powered by the energy liberated from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1). A mechanism that controls the stepwise movement of the molecular motor along a filamentous microtubule track in the cell does not seem to require the track itself.

  5. Electric 'LEGO' Motor II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pino, Jose

    This website, presented by Jose Pino, is a guide of how to build a motor with Legos. The Legos will house the motor and allow you to connect the power to something like a wheel. This is a great class projects; it opens up students to new ideas about electronics in an easily accessible format. Pino provides a step by step process with text, and also images, to guide the process. Additionally, there is a video posted at the end of the page that presents a working Lego motor.

  6. Towards a microrotary motor driven by motor proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Hiratsuka; Shoji Takeuchi

    2007-01-01

    Biological molecular motors, motor proteins, have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures. This paper describes a bio- hybrid micro rotary motor using kinesin\\/ microtubule motor. We developed a simple fabrication process for a micro-structure by one-time deposition of parylene and a

  7. In vitro reconstitution of fusion between immature autophagosomes and endosomes.

    PubMed

    Morvan, Joëlle; Köchl, Robert; Watson, Rose; Collinson, Lucy M; Jefferies, Harold B J; Tooze, Sharon A

    2009-07-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative pathway whereby a double membrane engulfs cytoplasmic constituents to form an autophagic vacuole or autophagosome. An essential requirement for efficient autophagy is the acquisition of an adequate degradative capacity by the autophagosomes. To acquire this capacity the immature autophagic vacuoles (AVis) obtain lysosomal hydrolases by fusion with endosomes. The current models suggest that at least two types of endosomes, early and late, fuse with AVis to form mature, degradative AVds. This fusion and maturation requires proteins also involved in endosome maturation such as Rab7. However, it is not known if there are molecular requirements unique to AVi-endosome fusion. To identify and investigate the molecular requirements of this fusion we developed a cell-free fusion assay based on content mixing, which occurs after fusion of isolated AVis and different endosomal fractions. Our assay shows that isolated AVis can fuse to a similar extent in vitro with both early and late endosomes. Furthermore, fusion between autophagosomes and endosomes requires cytosolic and endosomal proteins, but does not show a nucleotide-dependence, and is partially N-ethylmaleimide sensitive. We also demonstrate that the lipidated form of the autophagosomal protein LC3 is dispensable for this fusion event. PMID:19337031

  8. Experimenting with Theoretical Motor Neuroscience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ajemian; Neville Hogan

    2010-01-01

    Motor neuroscience is well over 100 years old, with seminal work such as G. T. Fritz and E. Hitzig's discovery of motor cortex occurring in 1870. Theoretical motor neuroscience has been ongoing for at least the last 50 years. How mature a scientific discipline is motor neuroscience? Are experimentalists and theoreticians working together productively to help the field progress? This

  9. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  10. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  11. Stepper Motors Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource presents tutorials about stepper motors. Topics include unipolar, bipolar, current control, and micro stepping. Clicking on each topic provides an in-depth tutorial complete with graphics.

  12. Dielectric fluid motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otsubo, Y. [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan)] [Center of Cooperative Research, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263 (Japan); Edamura, K. [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)] [New Technology Management Co., Higashi-Shinkoiwa 2-9-1-306, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    On the application of high electric fields to a dielectric fluid, a convective motion of the fluid is induced. By controlling the fluid motion in nonuniform dc fields, a new type of fluid motor is developed. An angular velocity of more than 15s{sup {minus}1} (150 rpm) can be achieved at a dc voltage of 5 kV for a motor with a rotor radius of 10 mm. The efficiency of energy transformation from electric to kinetic energy is about 4{percent}. Since magnetic fields and switching circuits are not required, the advantage of the fluid motor will be enhanced by size reduction. The dielectric fluid motor is attractive as a source of mechanical energy in a micromachine. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  14. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

  15. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision--and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  16. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  17. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  18. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    E-print Network

    Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

    2007-06-20

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  19. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  20. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  1. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

  2. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

  3. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

  4. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

  5. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

  6. Cryogenic testing of stepper motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

    1982-10-01

    Stepper motors may be used in several subsystems of the planned Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Very high reliability is required in all considered applications. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to study the operational reliability of stepper motors, taking into account tests with a type of stepper motor which had previously performed well in uncooled spectrographic instruments. Two stepper motors were tested, in vacuum, at liquid nitrogen temperature. One motor was lubricated with a vacuum stable grease, while the other used unlubricated bearings. Both motors failed after less than 18,000 revolutions. The failure of the unlubricated motor indicated that motor modifications would have to be made to achieve operation at liquid helium temperature. The motor was modified to compensate for the magnitude of different thermal contractions. It was then found that modified stepper motors can perform reliably at LHe temperature for extended periods.

  7. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  8. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  9. Signal Transduction in Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ryals; Kay A. Lawton; Terrence P. Delaney; Leslie Friedrich; Helmut Kessmann; Urs Neuenschwander; Scott Uknes; Bernard Vernooij; Kris Weymann

    1995-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an important component of plant defense against pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) is required for the induction of SAR. However, SA is apparently not the translocated signal but is involved in transducing the signal in target tissues. Interestingly, SA accumulation is not required for production and release of the systemic signal. In addition

  10. Disseminated histoplasmosis associated with acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Ashish; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle; Huebsch, Lothar; Jessamine, Peter; Toye, Baldwin; Padmore, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by uncontrolled activation of lymphocytes and histiocytes resulting in high levels of cytokines. Acquired HLH occurs in autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and immunosuppressive disorders. Prompt identification and treatment of an underlying triggering cause improves clinical outcome. PMID:25838912

  11. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wozniak@isc.cnrs.fr First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do of the paper, we propose a hybrid version of genetic algorithms, differently organizing the flow of genetic information by introducing inheritance of acquired traits and Horizontal Gene Transfer, a good tool for handle

  12. Acquired double pylorus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Yu; Chen, Yan; Liang; Wang, Jing; Du, Qin; Cai, Jian-Ting; Chen, Jia-Min

    2012-06-01

    Double pylorus is one of the rare anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract, it can be congenital or acquired. In this case we report a case of double pylorus because of chronic peptic ulcer. Upper GI endoscopy revealed gastroduodenal fistula located on the lesser curve of the antrum, the patient's symptoms were improved rapidly by intensive antiulcer treatment. PMID:22575987

  13. Acquired digital fibrokeratoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deborah; Morgan, Raymond F

    2015-03-01

    Acquired digital fibrokeratomas are benign, rare tumors that develop most commonly on the fingers. They can have an appearance of a rudimentary supernumerary digit or be misdiagnosed as a more common condition, such as verruca vulgaris. There are no case reports described in the plastic surgery literature. We are reporting a case that presented to our institution recently. PMID:24051460

  14. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  15. Pleural disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Light; H. Hamm

    1997-01-01

    Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) do not frequently have pleural complications. However, pneumothorax is a troublesome complication of patients with AIDS. At some medical centres, more than 50% of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax have AIDS. Most patients with sponta- neous pneumothorax and AIDS have Pneumocystis carinii infection and necrotic subpleural blebs. The pneumothoraces in these patients usually cannot

  16. Acquired limb deficiencies. 2. Perioperative management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Pandian; Mark E. Huang; Daniel A. Duffy

    2001-01-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights recent advances in the evaluation and management of complications arising from diabetes and peripheral vascular disease leading to amputation. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatrie Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article includes discussion of comorbid conditions that may have an

  17. An Acquired Deficit of Audiovisual Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Roy H.; Shenton, Jeffrey T.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2006-01-01

    We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from…

  18. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  19. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  20. EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN POTATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a natural plant defense mechanism shown to be effective against a broad range of pathogens and has been best characterized in tobacco and Arabidopsis. As a step towards evaluating the potential to use SAR for disease control in potato, the effectiveness of diff...

  1. Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehud Reiter; Somayajulu Sripada; Roma Robertson

    2003-01-01

    Natural language generation (nlg) systems are computer software systems that pro- duce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. nlg systems, like most ai systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two nlg projects suggests that it is dicult to acquire correct knowledge for nlg systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (ka) technique

  2. Acquiring Information Systems through Organisational Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsti Rantapuska; Outi Ihanainen

    Acquiring ICT applications is becoming a routine in organisations today. However, making an ICT investment decision is a complex task, especially for SMEs which do not have the time and knowledge needed to do the task properly. The existing models supposed to help in the ICT acquisition process are mostly designed for IT professionals and they are too heavy and

  3. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)

    E-print Network

    FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF ELEMENTS OF THE FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

  4. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  5. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  6. Motor adaptation and generalization of reaching movements using motor primitives based on spatial coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-02-15

    The brain processes sensory and motor information in a wide range of coordinate systems, ranging from retinal coordinates in vision to body-centered coordinates in areas that control musculature. Here we focus on the coordinate system used in the motor cortex to guide actions and examine physiological and psychophysical evidence for an allocentric reference frame based on spatial coordinates. When the equations of motion governing reaching dynamics are expressed as spatial vectors, each term is a vector cross product between a limb-segment position and a velocity or acceleration. We extend this computational framework to motor adaptation, in which the cross-product terms form adaptive bases for canceling imposed perturbations. Coefficients of the velocity- and acceleration-dependent cross products are assumed to undergo plastic changes to compensate the force-field or visuomotor perturbations. Consistent with experimental findings, each of the cross products had a distinct reference frame, which predicted how an acquired remapping generalized to untrained location in the workspace. In response to force field or visual rotation, mainly the coefficients of the velocity- or acceleration-dependent cross products adapted, leading to transfer in an intrinsic or extrinsic reference frame, respectively. The model further predicted that remapping of visuomotor rotation should under- or overgeneralize in a distal or proximal workspace. The cross-product bases can explain the distinct patterns of generalization in visuomotor and force-field adaptation in a unified way, showing that kinematic and dynamic motor adaptation need not arise through separate neural substrates. PMID:25429111

  7. Chapter 16: Lower Motor Neuron Circuits

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Chapter 16: Lower Motor Neuron Circuits #12;#12;Upper motor neurons: CNS ( premotor & primary motor cortex) Lower motor neurons: Motor neurons from the spinal cord #12;Wilder Penfield WWW I 1934 he founded #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Motor unit · Alpha motor neuron and muscle Types Slow, fast fatigable, fast

  8. Memory processes and motor control in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Lathan, C E

    1999-08-01

    Cognitive-performance and motor-performance activities in multi-task, high-workload environments were assessed during astronaut performance in space flight and in isolation. Data was collected in microgravity on the International Micro-gravity Laboratory (IML) space shuttle mission (STS-42), and the Canadian Astronaut Program Space Unit Life Simulation (CAPSULS) mission offered an ideal opportunity to collect data for individuals in extreme isolation to complement the space flight data using similar hardware, software, and experimental protocols. The mental workload and performance experiment (MWPE) was performed during the IML-1 space flight mission, and the memory processes and motor control (MEMO) experiment was performed during the CAPSULS isolation mission. In both experiments, short-term exhaustive memory and fine motor control associated with human-computer interaction was studied. Memory processes were assessed using a Sternberg-like exhaustive memory search containing 1, 2, 4, or 7 letters. Fine motor control was assessed using velocity-controlled (joystick) and position-controlled (trackball) computer input devices to acquire targets as displayed on a computer screen. Subjects repeated the tasks under two conditions that tested perceptual motor adaptation strategies: 1) During adaptation to the microgravity environment; and 2) While wearing left-right reversing prism goggles during the CAPSULS mission. Both conditions significantly degraded motor performance but not cognitive performance. The data collected during both the MEMO experiment and the MWPE experiments enhance the knowledge base of human interface technology for human performance in extreme environments. PMID:11542391

  9. CNV amplitude as a neural correlate for stuttering frequency: A case report of acquired stuttering.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Van Borsel, John; Cosyns, Marjan; Batens, Katja; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Roost, Dirk; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    A neural hallmark of developmental stuttering is abnormal articulatory programming. One of the neurophysiological substrates of articulatory preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely performed in persons who stutter and mainly focus on the effect of task variation rather than on interindividual variation in stutter related variables. However, variations in motor programming seem to be related to variation in stuttering frequency. The current study presents a case report of acquired stuttering following stroke and stroke related surgery in the left superior temporal gyrus. A speech related CNV task was administered at four points in time with differences in stuttering severity and frequency. Unexpectedly, CNV amplitudes at electrode sites approximating bilateral motor and left inferior frontal gyrus appeared to be inversely proportional to stuttering frequency. The higher the stuttering frequency, the lower the activity for articulatory preparation. Thus, the amount of disturbance in motor programming seems to determine stuttering frequency. At right frontal electrodes, a relative increase in CNV amplitude was seen at the test session with most severe stuttering. Right frontal overactivation is cautiously suggested to be a compensation strategy. In conclusion, late CNV amplitude elicited by a relatively simple speech task seems to be able to provide an objective, neural correlate of stuttering frequency. The present case report supports the hypothesis that motor preparation has an important role in stuttering. PMID:25281310

  10. Fusion Energy Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

  11. Consolidation patterns of human motor memory.

    PubMed

    Criscimagna-Hemminger, Sarah E; Shadmehr, Reza

    2008-09-24

    Can memories be unlearned, or is unlearning a form of acquiring a new memory that competes with the old, effectively masking it? We considered motor memories that were acquired when people learned to use a novel tool. We trained people to reach with tool A and quantified recall in error-clamp trials, i.e., trials in which the memory was reactivated but error-dependent learning was minimized. We measured both the magnitude of the memory and its resistance to change. With passage of time between acquisition and reactivation (up to 24 h), memory of A slowly declined, but with reactivation remained resistant to change. After learning of tool A, brief exposure to tool B brought performance back to baseline, i.e., apparent extinction. Yet, for up to a few minutes after A+B training, output in error-clamp trials increased from baseline to match those who had trained only in A. This spontaneous recovery and convergence demonstrated that B did not produce any unlearning of A. Rather, it masked A with a new memory that was very fragile. We tracked the memory of B as a function of time and found that within minutes it was transformed from a fragile to a more stable state. Therefore, a sudden performance error in a well-learned motor task does not produce unlearning, but rather installs a competing but fragile memory that with passage of time acquires stability. Learning not only engages processes that adapt at multiple timescales, but once practice ends, the fast states are partially transformed into slower states. PMID:18815247

  12. Consolidation patterns of human motor memory

    PubMed Central

    Criscimagna-Hemminger, Sarah E.; Shadmehr, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Can memories be unlearned, or is unlearning a form of acquiring a new memory that competes with the old, effectively masking it? We considered motor memories that were acquired when people learned to use a novel tool. We trained people to reach with tool A and quantified recall in error-clamp trials, i.e., trials in which the memory was re-activated but error-dependent learning was minimized. We measured both the magnitude of the memory and its resistance to change. With passage of time between acquisition and re-activation (up to 24 hrs), memory of A slowly declined, but upon re-activation remained resistant to change. Following learning of A, brief exposure to B brought performance back to baseline, i.e., apparent extinction. Yet, for up to a few minutes after A+B training, output in error-clamp trials increased from baseline to match those who had trained only in A. This spontaneous recovery and convergence demonstrated that B did not produce any unlearning of A. Rather, it masked A with a new memory that was very fragile. We tracked the memory of B as a function of time and found that within minutes it was transformed from a fragile to a more stable state. Therefore, a sudden performance error in a well-learned motor task does not produce unlearning, but rather installs a competing but fragile memory that with passage of time acquires stability. Learning not only engages processes that adapt at multiple timescales, but that once practice ends, the fast states are partially transformed into slower states. PMID:18815247

  13. Vacuolar reorganization in the motor cells of Albizzia during leaf movement.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N A; Garber, R C

    1980-04-01

    During the leaf movements of Albizzia julibrissin Durazzini, volume changes in the motor cells of the pulvinule (tertiary pulvinus) are closely correlated with a reversible reorganization of the vacuolar compartment. Motor cells have central vacuoles when expanded, but become multivacuolate during the time the cell volume decreases. The central vacuole reforms - apparently by fusion of small vacuoles - during motor-cell expansion. The volume changes of the vacuolar compartment account for all of the change in the size of the protoplast, while the cytoplasmic volume remains constant during the leaf movements. PMID:24309827

  14. Viral membrane fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C Harrison

    2008-01-01

    Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral 'fusion proteins' facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the

  15. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  16. Fusion propulsion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Haloulakos

    1989-01-01

    The results of a US Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL)-sponsored study of fusion propulsion are summarized. The study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D-3He), were considered worthy of further consideration. D-3He was selected as the most attractive

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion

  18. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects\\u000a of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015–1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes\\u000a and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of\\u000a fusion

  19. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  20. Motor considerations for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Halfpap, R.F.; Brotherhood, R. (Louis Allis Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Customers who use large rotating equipment realize motors can be subjected to hostile environmental conditions, nonstandard voltage levels and a variety of load requirements. The motor specifications they write reflect this change and have become far more detailed. Too often in the past, when large projects were being organized and highly technical equipment purchased, induction motors were thought of as standard pieces of equipment not requiring much in the way of specialized design. High-speed compressor applications are good examples of the need for specific compressor torque characteristics and starting requirements to allow for proper motor design. Not only different compressor designs, but adjustments in compressor valves and changes in gas process conditions, can produce a diversity of speed-torque curves. Therefore, it is not practical for a motor designer to be told to assume a standard compressor load torque during acceleration. An example of compressor speed-torque curves illustrates this point. The paper also presents the example of centrifugal pumps to further illustrate the need for properly matching driver torque and power requirements.

  1. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Update on Clinical Characteristics, Pathophysiological Concepts and Therapeutic Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven G. Meuth; Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2010-01-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an acquired immune-mediated neuropathy characterized by chronic or stepwise progressive asymmetrical limb weakness without sensory deficits. The upper extremities are more often affected than the lower extremities with distal paresis dominating over proximal paresis. Important diagnostic features are persistent multifocal partial conduction blocks (CBs) and the presence of high-titer anti-GM1 serum antibodies. Motor neuron disease,

  2. Do mirrors facilitate acquisition of motor imitation in children diagnosed with autism?

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott A; Rodriguez, Nicole M; Rourke, Ami J

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a procedure that incorporated a mirror to teach gross motor imitation with a 2-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autistic disorder. Responses taught with a mirror were acquired more quickly than responses taught without the mirror and were maintained after the mirror was removed. These data indicate that a mirror can facilitate acquisition of motor imitation. PMID:25684255

  3. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  4. X-ray Crystal Structure of the Yeast Kar3 Motor Domain Complexed with Mg,ADP to 2.3 Resolution,

    E-print Network

    Rayment, Ivan

    that is involved in both nuclear fusion, or karyogamy, and mitosis. The Kar3 protein is 729 residues in length domains of the plus- and minus end kinesins are highly conserved and show 40% sequence identity over-terminal motor kinesin, Kar3 (11). The Kar3 kinesin protein is required for nuclear fusion, or karyogamy, during

  5. Hyponatremia in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Don; Giuliana Valerio; Matti Korppi; Mario Canciani

    2008-01-01

    Studies focusing on serum sodium disorders in children with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) are nearly entirely lacking,\\u000a though clinical experience suggests that at least hyponatremia (HN) might be rather common. We evaluated the incidence of\\u000a hypo- and hypernatremia, in relation to other clinical, laboratory and etiological findings, in pediatric CAP. Serum sodium\\u000a concentration was measured in 108 ambulatory and hospitalized children with

  6. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  7. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  8. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  9. Acquired polarization in fundamental symmetry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Paul A.

    1991-05-01

    One interesting class of fundamental symmetry violation tests involves the measurement of low energy neutron transmission through a thick target as projectile/target spin orientations are changed. As the neutron beam propagates through a target, certain components are preferentially absorbed by nuclear resonances. This induces regenerative effects in thick targets, known as the acquired polarization effect, which complicate the interpretation of transmission measurements. We focus on the role that nuclear resonance spectroscopy plays in beam modification. We determine three basic results. First, with known resonance parameters for spin 1/2 targets Fe-57, Rh-102, Cd-111, Cd-113, Sn-117, and Tl-203, and spin 7/2 target La-139, the relative sizes of the various terms are determined, including the values of the cross sections, transmission percentages, the size of the transmission effect, and the percentage of the transmission effect caused by acquired polarization. Second, the effect of imperfect target polarization reversal on the value of the transmission effect is determined in the case of Cd-113. It is found that target orientation inefficiencies as small as 3 pct. will mimic a parity violation. Third, the effect of the depolarization term on the relative size of the acquired polarization is explored.

  10. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting...

  11. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting...

  12. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting...

  13. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting...

  14. Multifocus image fusion and denoising scheme based on homogeneity similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huafeng; Chai, Yi; Yin, Hongpeng; Liu, Guoquan

    2012-01-01

    A novel image fusion algorithm based on homogeneity similarity is proposed in this paper, aiming at solving the fusion problem of clean and noisy multifocus images. Firstly, the initial fused image is acquired with one multiresolution image fusion method. The pixels of the source images, which are similar to the corresponding initial fused image pixels, are considered to be located in the sharply focused regions. By this method, the initial focused regions are determined. In order to improve the fusion performance, morphological opening and closing are employed for post-processing. Secondly, the homogeneity similarity is introduced and used to fuse the clean and noisy multifocus images. Finally, the fused image is obtained by weighting the neighborhood pixels of the point of source images which are located at the focused region. Experimental results demonstrate that, for the clean multifocus image fusion, the proposed method performs better than some popular image fusion methods in both subjective and objective qualities. Furthermore, it can simultaneously resolve the image restoration and fusion problem when the source multifocus images are corrupted by the Gaussian white noise, and can also provide better performance than the conventional methods.

  15. Basics of AC Motors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in AC Motors. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course covers: motor basics, NEMA motors, Siemens motorr, final exam, a glossary, plus a 116 page study guide.

  16. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  17. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  18. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  19. Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control

    E-print Network

    Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

  20. Cognitive motor processes: the role of motor imagery in the study of motor representations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Lorey, Britta; Zentgraf, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Motor imagery is viewed as a window to cognitive motor processes and particularly to motor control. Mental simulation theory [Jeannerod, M., 2001. Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. NeuroImage 14, 103-109] stresses that cognitive motor processes such as motor imagery and action observation share the same representations as motor execution. This article presents an overview of motor imagery studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience that support and extend predictions from mental simulation theory. In general, behavioral data as well as fMRI and TMS data demonstrate that motor areas in the brain play an important role in motor imagery. After discussing results on a close overlap between mental and actual performance durations, the review focuses specifically on studies reporting an activation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery. This focus is extended to studies on motor imagery in patients. Motor imagery is also analyzed in more applied fields such as mental training procedures in patients and athletes. These findings support the notion that mental training procedures can be applied as a therapeutic tool in rehabilitation and in applications for power training. PMID:19167426

  1. Multiple propellant solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Allan J.

    1994-03-01

    An integrated stage solid propellant rocket motor arrangement provides boost and repeated throttling post-boost operations on demand and includes an attitude control system. The rocket motor includes a plurality of casings for enclosing an initial boost motor, a post-boost motor, and gas generator means for producing gases that are used for reignition of the post-boost motor and as a motive source for the attitude control system. The boost motor and the post-boost motor are contained within the same enclosure but are separated by an internal bulkhead. The rocket motor has a plurality of nozzles, one of which is located aft of the boost motor and another located within the internal bulkhead that separates the boost and post-boost motors. The rocket motor of the invention has application in many propulsion systems, including strategic systems requiring both boost and post-boost propulsion, advanced antiballistic missile interceptors requiring boost/sustain thrust and on/off operation, and in space motors for deploying satellites by accomplishing both perigee and apogee burns with a single motor or as an on-demand orbit transfer vehicle for changing orbits.

  2. Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market

    E-print Network

    Wroblewksi, R. G.

    EFFICIENT, INEXPENSIVE MOTORS: A NEW TREND IN THE MOTORS MARKET Ronald G. Wroblewski, P.E. Trainer and Consultant ABSTRACT The Consortiwn for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACf... standard. CEE has set a wrifonn efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some end-users however, have been reluctant to specify these motors because they think they are too expensive...

  3. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  4. Central motor conduction is abnormal in motor neuron disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Ingram; M Swash

    1987-01-01

    Conduction in the central motor pathways of the brain and spinal cord was studied in 12 patients with motor neuron disease. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the cortex, cervical cord, thoracic cord and conus medullaris was used to determine motor latencies to the biceps brachii, thenar eminence and tibialis anterior muscles. Prominent, and often asymmetrical,

  5. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  6. DISCOVER --Economic and societal benefit through research and collaboration The ground breaking motor

    E-print Network

    Leeds, University of

    of applications across a variety of sectors from automotive, wind energy and defence through to marine, oil & gas and reduce the size of the next generation of marine propulsion motors. "Magnomatics has created a new assessment and IP protection that Fusion IP, an AIM listed company in which the University is a key

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  8. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hedrick; B. Buchholtz; P. Ward; J. Freuh; E. Jensen

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and

  9. FEL amplifiers for fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Segall; H. R. Hiddleston; G. C. Catella

    1980-01-01

    Potential advantages of the free electron laser (FEL) as a fusion driver are noted and proposed high power FEL systems are described. Advantages for fusion of a pulsed multipass FEL system, in which the optical pulses are built up inside a long (approx. 400 m) resonator cavity and a storage ring provides the electron beam, are described. In one possible

  10. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV /sup 28/Si+/sup 100/Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Tandem motors reduce well costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, M.; Daigle, C. [Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States); Crowe, R. [Halliburton Energy Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    The new generation of tandem mud motors that recently appeared on the drilling scene is significantly affecting drilling efficiency worldwide. These motors provide drillers with increased horsepower at the bit, higher torque, and faster rates of penetration (ROP). With advanced engineering and more durable materials, motor life is being extended, thereby increasing the time between bit trips and reducing drilling costs. This article reviews the performance, design, and operation of these motors.

  12. Motor Imagery: Does Strategy Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CINDY HOVINGTON

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Motor imagery requires individuals to form an internal representation of a specific action within working memory,without any overt output. Motor imagery has proven effective in improving motor performance,of specific skills. This study explored whether different motor imagery strategies influence corticospinal excitability in young (20-35 years) and older subjects (over 55 years). In addition, the effectiveness of these strategies in

  13. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  14. Wind motor machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goedecke

    1984-01-01

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the

  15. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  16. The primate motor thalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Percheron; C. François; B. Talbi; J. Yelnik; G. Fénelon

    1996-01-01

    The functional parcellation of the motor thalamus of primates has suffered from serious historical and technical drawbacks, which have led to extreme confusion. This is a problem when thalamic stereotaxy is again being use clinically. The cause usually imputed is the historical conflict between two main schools, the Vogt and the ‘Anglo-American’ (Michigan), which used different nomenclatures. In fact, the

  17. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  18. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 solid rocket motor at the ATK test facility in Utah in support of the Ares/CLV first stage. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  19. Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is a test of the TEM-13 Solid Rocket Motor in support of the Ares/CLV first stage at ATK, Utah . Constellaton/Ares project. This image is extracted from a high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  20. Motor Learning and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Hartmut

    Two recent conferences on the science of sport have focused on the topic of sports for older people. Investigations have been made on the special demand in motor learning, in table-tennis, family-tennis, gymnastics, and dancing. This paper summarizes some experiences and conclusions drawn from these studies, including special notes on isolated…

  1. Tandem motors reduce well costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hooper; C. Daigle; R. Crowe

    1995-01-01

    The new generation of tandem mud motors that recently appeared on the drilling scene is significantly affecting drilling efficiency worldwide. These motors provide drillers with increased horsepower at the bit, higher torque, and faster rates of penetration (ROP). With advanced engineering and more durable materials, motor life is being extended, thereby increasing the time between bit trips and reducing drilling

  2. Fluid motor and telemetry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A motor for driving a rotary drilling bit within a well through which mud is circulated during a drilling operation, with the motor being driven by a secondary fluid which is isolated from the circulating mud but derives energy therefrom to power the motor. A pressure drop in the circulating mud across a choke in the drill string is utilized

  3. Rehabilitation following motor nerve transfers.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christine B

    2008-11-01

    Cortical mapping and relearning are key factors in optimizing patient outcome following motor nerve transfers. To maximize function following nerve transfers, the rehabilitation program must include motor reeducation to initiate recruitment of the weak reinnervated muscles and to establish new motor patterns and cortical mapping. Patient education and a home program are essential to obtain the optimal functional result. PMID:18928890

  4. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A. (Livermore, CA); Shikany, S. David (Danville, CA); Shira, Michael L. (Fremont, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  5. Brushless direct-current motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Survey results are presented on the use of unconventional motor windings and switching sequences to optimize performance of brushless dc motors. A motor was built, each coil terminal having a separate, accessible lead. With the shaft and all electronics excluded, length and outside diameter measured 1.25 and 0.75 in., respectively.

  6. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  7. Triple arthrodesis for adult acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Catanzariti, Alan R; Dix, Brian T; Richardson, Phillip E; Mendicino, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of triple arthrodesis for stage III and IV adult acquired flatfoot is to obtain a well-aligned plantigrade foot that will support the ankle in optimal alignment. Ancillary procedures including posterior muscle group lengthening, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, medial column stabilization, peroneus brevis tenotomy, or transfer and harvest of regional bone graft are often necessary to achieve adequate realignment. Image intensification is helpful in confirming optimal realignment before fixation. Results of triple arthrodesis are enhanced with adequate preparation of joint surfaces, bone graft/orthobiologics, 2-point fixation of all 3 tritarsal joints, and a vertical heel position. PMID:24980931

  8. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  9. Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor

    E-print Network

    Wetton, Brian

    conditions suitable for nuclear fusion on earth have made significant leaps and bounds in re- cent years due;1.1 Fusion Challenges and Requirements There are a number of ongoing large-scale efforts to acheive nuclear fusion, including NIF[15] and ITER. This paper reports on an effort by a Canadian nuclear fusion research

  10. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  11. Energy Efficiency and Electric Motors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors account for about half of all energy consumption in the US. They can be found just about everywhere; in fact, motors control the majority of moving parts in machines. Being so widespread, it is possible to see substantial energy savings with just a small improvement in efficiency.A very comprehensive overview of electric motors can be found on the Machine Design Web site (1). It describes five common types of motors and how they operate. Some material is fairly technically oriented. For a more basic introduction, the Western Electric company (2) discusses the underlying theory and construction of electric motors. This is more suited for early high school students and above. The Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (3) provides many documents related to best practices for motor systems. Many energy saving techniques are outlined in these tip sheets and technical publications. Similar information is contained in this Australian Web site (4). Specific issues, such as motor rewinding, are discussed to correct many common mistakes made when conducting maintenance and repairs. Some interesting facts about general motor use and the "Premium-Efficiency Motor Initiative" are given on this Web site (5). The short article demonstrates that industry and government organizations realize the importance of improving motor efficiency. Along these same lines, a project is underway that hopes to make copper motor rotors economically feasible (6). Current rotors are made with aluminum, but switching to copper would help make motors more energy efficient. The Web site has many documents on the status of the project. The University of Missouri at Rolla has a research group investigating piezoelectric motors (7). Some details of piezoelectric motor design and manufacturing are given. A news article from March 2002 (8) tells of a revolutionary new kind of electric motor. This breakthrough could make electric cars cheaper than gasoline fueled vehicles.

  12. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, S; Itoh, T; Miura, A B

    1997-10-01

    We reviewed the clinical features of 150 patients with acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in Japan. There were 35 patients with acute type and 115 with chronic type PRCA. Of the acute PRCA patients, 17 had human parvovirus B19 infection. Drug-induced PRCA was demonstrated in 7 patients. Of the 115 patients with chronic PRCA, 51 patients were classified as primary and 64 cases were associated with miscellaneous diseases such as thymoma, a variety of hematological disorders and collagen diseases. Among the hematological disorders, PRCA was most frequently seen in granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPD). The erythroid colony growth patterns from bone marrow were variable. The serum erythropoietin level was high in most patients. Various kinds of treatment were tried for the chronic PRCA cases. Cyclosporin A (CyA) was the most effective form of treatment and the response rate was 82% (31/38). Twenty-three of 37 patients (62%) responded to bolus methylprednisolone therapy. The largest number of patients were treated with oral prednisolone, and the therapy was effective in 27 of the 55 (49%). The response rate to cyclophosphamide was only 29% (5/17), but in combination with prednisolone, half of the patients (7/14) responded to the therapy. CyA is recommended as the first-line therapy for acquired chronic PRCA. PMID:9338617

  13. Big Savings from Smart Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

  14. Particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1980-12-31

    Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

  15. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion for continued optimism. Nuclear fusion power relies on the energy released when two light atomic nuclei fuse, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research

  16. Prospective errors determine motor learning.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model's novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  17. Prospective errors determine motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model’s novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  18. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  19. Investigation of SNARE-Mediated Membrane Fusion Mechanism Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Moy, Vincent T.

    2009-08-01

    Membrane fusion is driven by specialized proteins that reduce the free energy penalty for the fusion process. In neurons and secretory cells, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) mediate vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane during vesicular content release. Although, SNAREs have been widely accepted as the minimal machinery for membrane fusion, the specific mechanism for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion remains an active area of research. Here, we summarize recent findings based on force measurements acquired in a novel experimental system that uses atomic force microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism(s) of membrane fusion and the role of SNAREs in facilitating membrane hemifusion during SNARE-mediated fusion. In this system, protein-free and SNARE-reconstituted lipid bilayers are formed on opposite (trans) substrates and the forces required to induce membrane hemifusion and fusion or to unbind single v-/t-SNARE complexes are measured. The obtained results provide evidence for a mechanism by which the pulling force generated by interacting trans-SNAREs provides critical proximity between the membranes and destabilizes the bilayers at fusion sites by broadening the hemifusion energy barrier and consequently making the membranes more prone to fusion.

  20. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

  1. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm. PMID:18482830

  2. Multifocus image fusion scheme using focused region detection and multiresolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yi; Li, Huafeng; Li, Zhaofei

    2011-09-01

    To solve the fusion problem of the multifocus images of the same scene, a novel algorithm based on focused region detection and multiresolution is proposed. In order to integrate the advantages of spatial domain-based fusion methods and transformed domain-based fusion methods, we use a technique of focused region detection and a new fusion method of multiscale transform (MST) to guide pixel combination. Firstly, the initial fused image is acquired with a novel multiresolution image fusion method. The pixels of the original images, which are similar to the corresponding initial fused image pixels, are considered to be located in the sharply focused regions. By this method, the initial focused regions can be determined, and the techniques of morphological opening and closing are employed for post-processing. Then the pixels within the focused regions in each source image are selected as the pixels of the fused image; meanwhile, the initial fused image pixels which are located at the focused border regions are retained as the pixels of the final fused image. The fused image is then obtained. The experimental results show that the proposed fusion approach is effective and performs better in fusing multi-focus images than some current methods.

  3. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  4. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  5. Dynamically timed electric motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  6. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  7. Lightweight Motorized Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Vandewalle, J.

    1986-01-01

    Redesigned actuator assembly weighs 50 percent less. Isolator valve operated by ac motor instead of usual dc solenoid. Valve weighs only 3 lb (1.4 kg). New valve functions with either two-phase or three-phase power. Developed for isolating fluids in propellant tanks, manifolds, and interconnecting lines of Space Shuttle reaction control and orbital maneuvering subsystems, valve suited to applications in which leakage must be kept to minimum at high pressure differences - in petroleum and chemical processing.

  8. and OSM-3 motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyu Pan; Guangshuo Ou; Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey; Oliver E. Blacque; Nicholas F. Endres; Li Tao; Alex Mogilner; Michel R. Leroux; Ronald D. Vale; Jonathan M. Scholey

    he assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homo- dimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intrafl agellar transport (IFT) particles along microtu- bule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purifi ed kinesin-II and OSM-3 co- operate to generate movement

  9. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  10. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  11. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  12. Motors and Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hood-Daniel; James Floyd Kelly

    \\u000a Your 3D printer is now ready for the motors that will control movement and allow the Plastic Extruder to “print” on the tabletop.\\u000a There are three axes of movement: X, Y, and Z. The X-axis consists of the Table that will move forwards and backwards (front\\u000a to back), the Y-axis will move the Extruder left and right, and the Z-axis

  13. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  14. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O’Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5? truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  15. Signal transduction in systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, J; Lawton, K A; Delaney, T P; Friedrich, L; Kessmann, H; Neuenschwander, U; Uknes, S; Vernooij, B; Weymann, K

    1995-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an important component of plant defense against pathogen infection. Accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) is required for the induction of SAR. However, SA is apparently not the translocated signal but is involved in transducing the signal in target tissues. Interestingly, SA accumulation is not required for production and release of the systemic signal. In addition to playing a pivotal role in SAR signal transduction, SA is important in modulating plant susceptibility to pathogen infection and genetic resistance to disease. It has been proposed that SA inhibition of catalase results in H2O2 accumulation and that therefore H2O2 serves as a second messenger in SAR signaling. We find no accumulation of H2O2 in tissues expressing SAR; thus the role of H2O2 in SAR signaling is questionable. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:11607545

  16. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  17. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Chicano, Susan G; Drolshagen, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    The cost of treating a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) places a significant burden on healthcare facilities. Associated expenses potentially include increased supplies, equipment, specialty beds, staffing, nutritional support, laboratory testing, and hospital length of stay. The quarterly HAPU data revealed an increased prevalence in our 25-bed intermediate care unit at Central DuPage Hospital at Winfield, Illinois. There were 6 occurrences of HAPU during fiscal year 2005 to fiscal year 2006, and 5 occurred during fiscal year 2006 to 2007. Based on these data, our unit quality council investigated contributory factors and reviewed current tools and standards of practice related to pressure ulcer prevention. Strategic plans were developed to reduce the incidence of HAPU. Follow-up monitoring revealed no HAPU occurrence from October 2006 through September 2007. Pressure ulcer prevention strategies proved effective in reducing incidence during a 1-year period and have been approved as standards of practice for the unit. PMID:19155823

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  19. Innate and acquired bacteriophage-mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jeremy J.; Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-host-derived, phage-mediated immunity active at mucosal surfaces, the main site of pathogen entry in metazoans. In that work, we showed that phage T4 adheres to mucus glycoproteins via immunoglobulin-like domains displayed on its capsid. This adherence positions the phage in mucus surfaces where they are more likely to encounter and kill bacteria, thereby benefiting both the phage and its metazoan host. We presented this phage-metazoan symbiosis based on an exclusively lytic model of phage infection. Here we extend our bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model to consider the undoubtedly more complex dynamics in vivo. We hypothesize how mucus-adherent phages, both lytic and temperate, might impact the commensal microbiota as well as protect the metazoan epithelium from bacterial invasion. We suggest that BAM may provide both an innate and an acquired antimicrobial immunity. PMID:24228227

  20. Intestinal leishmaniasis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molaei, M; Minakari, M; Pejhan, Sh; Mashayekhi, R; Modaress Fatthi, A R; Zali, M R

    2011-05-01

    In endemic regions, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients. Simultaneous infection with Leishmania and HIV has been reported in some countries but this is the first report of such a case in Iran. Our patient was a 27 years old man with intermittent night fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, watery diarrhea and severe weight loss for 6 months. He had low socio-economic status with an imprisonment history. The patient was quite cachectic and had low grade fever. Physical exam and upper GI endoscopy revealed oropharyngeal candidiasis. Microscopic evaluation of duodenal biopsy material showed Leishmania amastigotes in macrophages of lamina propria. Leishman bodies were also observed in bone marrow aspiration specimen. Serologic tests were positive for Leishmania infantum. HIV antibody was also positive with a CD4+cell count of 80/?l. The diagnosis was acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with simultaneous visceral leishmaniasis involving intestinal mucosa. PMID:22737493

  1. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  2. Do Mirrors Facilitate Acquisition of Motor Imitation in Children Diagnosed with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.; Rourke, Ami J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a procedure that incorporated a mirror to teach gross motor imitation with a 2-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autistic disorder. Responses taught with a mirror were acquired more quickly than responses taught without the mirror and were maintained after the mirror was removed. These data indicate that a…

  3. An Extended Motor Network Generates Beta and Gamma Oscillatory Perturbations during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tony W.; Slason, Erin; Asherin, Ryan; Kronberg, Eugene; Reite, Martin L.; Teale, Peter D.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the time course and neural generators of oscillatory beta and gamma motor responses in typically-developing children. Participants completed a unilateral flexion-extension task using each index finger as whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were acquired. These MEG data were imaged in the frequency-domain using spatial…

  4. A Multimedia System for Augmented Sensory Assessment and Treatment of Motor Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhouse, Richard H.; Maulucci, Ruth A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a motor rehabilitation workstation based on a microcomputer and equipped with a set of sensory input devices (touch plate, touch screen, electrodes to acquire electromyographic activity, and force-sensitive foot plates) that allows rehabilitation professionals to assess and treat patients in a multimedia environment. Discusses the…

  5. Infantile and acquired nystagmus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, periodic eye movement caused by a slow drift of fixation which is followed by a fast refixation saccade (jerk nystagmus) or a slow movement back to fixation (pendular nystagmus). In childhood most cases are benign forms of nystagmus: idiopathic infantile, ocular or latent nystagmus. They arise at the age of 3 months, without oscillopsia and show the absence of the physiologic opto-kinetic nystagmus. A full ophthalmologic evaluation is all that is needed in most cases: albinism, macular or optic nerve hypoplasia and congenital retinal dystrophies are the most common forms of ocular nystagmus. Idiopathic infantile nystagmus can be hereditary, the most common and best analyzed form being a mutation of the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26.2. The mutation shows a mild genotype-phenotype correlation. In all female carriers the opto-kinetic nystagmus is absent and half had mild nystagmus. Latent nystagmus is part of the infantile esotropia syndrome and shows the unique feature of change of direction when the fixing eye changes: it is always beating to the side of the fixing eye. There is no cure for infantile nystagmus but therapeutic options include magnifying visual aids or eye muscle surgery at the age of 6-8 y in patients with head turn. Less than 20% of childhood nystagmus are acquired and need further neurological and imaging work-up. Alarming signs and symptoms are: onset after the age of 4 months, oscillopsia, dissociated (asymmetric) nystagmus, preserved opto-kinetic nystagmus, afferent pupillary defect, papilloedema and neurological symptoms like vertigo and nausea. The most common cause is due to pathology of the anterior optic pathway (e.g. optic nerve gliomas). It shows the same clinical feature of dissociated nystagmus as spasmus nutans but has a higher frequency as in INO. Other forms of acquired nystagmus are due to brainstem, cerebellar or metabolic diseases. PMID:22459007

  6. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  7. Fusion Chamber Technology Publications

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    .N. Ruzic, and J.P. Allain, "Erosion/deposition analysis of lithium- based liquid surface divertors," J. 981-985, March (2001).. 16. E.T. Cheng, "Study of a Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fusion Blanket for Burning

  8. Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2004-02-20

    Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

  9. Acquired limb deficiencies. 1. Acquired Limb deficiencies in children and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip R. Bryant; Geetha Pandian

    2001-01-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights prosthetic treatment considerations and challenges in children and young adults. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatrie Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article specifically focuses on prosthetic considerations for a child experiencing a mutilating traumatic amputation, examines the rationale for limb

  10. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05...

  11. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05...

  12. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05...

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial statements of businesses acquired or...FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933...OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05...

  14. Cold nuclear fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann Rafelski; Steven E. Jones

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that negative muons could catalyze nuclear fusion was suggested on theoretical grounds by F.C. Frank and A.D. Sakharov in the late 1940s; the first experimental observations of the process followed serendipitously a decade later, in experiments at Berkeley by L.W. Alvarez. The fastest mechanism for muon-catalyzed, or 'cold' fusion, was suggested by Vesman (1967); it depends on a

  15. Fusion ignition research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  16. [Memory transfer in cerebellar motor learning].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Most of our motor skills are acquired through learning. Experiments of gain adaptation of ocular reflexes have consistently suggested that the memory of adaptation is initially formed in the cerebellar cortex, and is transferred to the cerebellar (vestibular) nuclei for consolidation to long-term memory after repetitions of training. We have recently developed a new system to evaluate the motor learning in human subjects using prism adaptation of hand reaching movement, by referring to the prism adaptation of dart throwing of Martin et al. (1996). In our system, the subject views the small target presented in the touch-panel screen, and touches it with his/her finger without direct visual feedback. After 15-30 trials of touching wearing prisms, an adaptation occurs in healthy subjects: they became able to touch the target correctly. Meanwhile, such an adaptation was impaired in patients of cerebellar disease. We have proposed a model of human prism adaptation that the memory of adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and is later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei after repetitions of training. The memory in the cerebellar cortex may be formed and extinguished independently of the memory maintained in the cerebellar nuclei, and these two memories work cooperatively. PMID:23196495

  17. Urologist-Acquired Renal Access for Percutaneous Renal Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B Lashley; Eugene F Fuchs

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. In most endourology programs an interventional radiologist is employed to acquire renal access for percutaneous renal surgery. Over the last 13 years the senior endourologist at Oregon Health Sciences University has acquired access without employing a radiologist. We report our experience with urologist-acquired renal access for percutaneous renal surgery in 522 cases.Methods. We reviewed the records of all patients

  18. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  19. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Mitochondrial fusion and function in CharcotMarieTooth type

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Janet M.

    inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by axonal degeneration of sensory and motor 18 nerves; Peripheral neuropathy; Mitochondria; Mitofusin; Mfn2; Mfn1; GTPase; Membrane fusion; Fibroblasts 31 32 axonal peripheral neuropathy caused by 40heterozygous mutations in MFN2, the gene encoding Mitofusin 412

  20. A more efficient man\\/machine interface: fusion of the interacting telethesis and smart wheelchair projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Pino; P. Arnoud; Eric Brangier

    1998-01-01

    Presents a new and more efficient man\\/machine interface resulting from the fusion of two projects: the smart wheelchair project and the interacting telethesis project. This new interface allows a more natural control of the automatic motion capabilities of the smart wheelchair VAHM (autonomous vehicle for motor impaired people). Indeed, the pilot needs only to make his request (switch on the

  1. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  2. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  3. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators

    PubMed Central

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten motor resonance during dance observation. PMID:22457754

  4. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. PMID:21704532

  5. Improvements of image fusion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-03-01

    Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

  6. Justification for Energy Efficient Motors

    E-print Network

    Buschart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    trical power costs and other economic factors. Unless otherwise specified it is based on motor operation 90% of the time - referred to as 90% duty cycle. Typical values for Justified Capital per Kilowatt range from 1000 to 4000 dollars per kilowatt... motor before and after rewinding. Motor efficiency cannot be measured di rectly but is calculated as the ratio of the mechanical power output of the shaft (proportional to the product of torque times speed) divided by the electrical power input...

  7. Toroidally wound brushless DC motor

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, L. W.; Fisher, R. L.

    1985-10-15

    A high speed DC brushless motor in which the stator is toroidal and the stator core does not include winding slots. In the preferred embodiment the core material for the stator is an amorphous metal alloy which provides high speed motor efficiency. For some applications core materials like ferrite or low silicon-alloys can be used. According to one embodiment of the invention a ferrite shielding ring can be added surrounding the motor to further improve high speed efficiency.

  8. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  9. Gas-operated motor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rilett

    1980-01-01

    A gas-operated motor system of the stored energy type-as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,092,830-in which the gas exhausted from the motor is ducted to a chamber during operation of the motor and thereafter compressed back into the gas reservoir vessel. Recompression may be achieved, e.g., by providing the exhaust gas chamber with a movable piston, or by running the

  10. Deformation in cooperative molecular motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Taneri; M. Cemal Yalab?k

    2001-01-01

    :   We implement a model to represent the effect of the deformation of the backbone of a system of motor proteins while sliding\\u000a on a track filament. This model incorporates a nearest neighbor interaction term among the motors for the deformation energy.\\u000a Correlations induced by this term result in increased motor force for inter-particle distances small compared to the ratchet

  11. Using MotorMaster to Track Motor Inventory and Analyze Purchasing Decisions

    E-print Network

    Brown, M.; Meffort, W.

    2007-01-01

    maintenance actions and to analyze motor replacement options. The approach used to secure and enter motor nameplate data along with examples of purchasing analyses completed will be presented. The success of the MotorMaster software with large motors has...

  12. Redundant information encoding in primary motor cortex during natural and prosthetic motor control

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    Redundant information encoding in primary motor cortex during natural and prosthetic motor control of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA M. C. Gastpar School of Computer and prosthetic motor control. Keywords Mutual information . Neural ensemble . Motor control . Brain

  13. Electrical motor with superconducting winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugeat, J. P.; Petit, R.

    1985-01-01

    The winding of an electrical motor tested under vaccum and at cryogenic temperature (10K) was modified. The niobium-titanium copper wire used allows the motor to run from room temperature to liquid helium temperature. Under the transition temperature (9.5K) heat dissipation in the coil is 0 whereas in a copper wound motor this dissipation is 30 mW. The motor sustained a complete test program including: functional test including torque measurement at cryogenic temperature; endurance test: 750,000 turns performed; environment test: vibration test at qualification level at cryogenic temperature. The tests reveal no degradation of mechanical (plays, friction torque) or electrical (transition temperature) performances.

  14. ams2000.com Stepper Motor System Basics

    E-print Network

    Bechtold, Jill

    . There are numerous types of motion control systems, including; Stepper Motor, Linear Step Motor, DC Brush, Brushless, Servo, Brushless Servo and more. This document will concentrate on Step Motor technology. In Theoryams2000.com Stepper Motor System Basics I. STEPPER MOTOR SYSTEMS OVERVIEW - INTRODUCTION 2

  15. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Shoykhet; R. Schiferl; R. Duckworth; C. M. Rey; S. W. Schwenterly; M. J. Gouge

    2008-01-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the

  16. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  17. Testicular tumor and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buzelin, F; Karam, G; Moreau, A; Wetzel, O; Gaillard, F

    1994-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), present an increased risk of tumoral pathology. From the observation of a testicular lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus in a HIV + patient, we review 19 cases of testicular tumor in HIV + patients previously published in the literature. These tumors are either lymphomas (4 cases) or germ cell tumors (15 cases). Their diagnosis was not difficult, although in the first stages enlarged and painful testicles are often wrongly identified as orchiepididymitis and treated as such. Therapy management proves to be delicate as a result of the significant tumor spread seen in these patients with dysfunctional immune systems. Regarding lymphomas, a low-dose multiagent chemotherapy with intrathecal chemotherapy was recommended by Levine. Concerning germ cell tumors, Wilson prefers an instant aggressive treatment with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (whether or not combined with chemotherapy) to avoid the risk of recurrence. In fact, tumor relapses will be difficult to control in the progressive stages of immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:7925534

  18. Free radicals mediate systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; El-Shetehy, Mohamed; Shine, M B; Yu, Keshun; Navarre, Duroy; Wendehenne, David; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2014-04-24

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR]) abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA), which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Notably, this NO/ROS?AzA?G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR. PMID:24726369

  19. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  1. Uremic acquired cystic disease of kidney.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, I

    1985-08-01

    Multiple cystic disease occurring in the diseased kidneys of patients with end-stage renal insufficiency is called uremic acquired cystic disease of the kidney. In male patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis the incidence of ACDK is markedly high. ACDK is known to be accompanied by tumor, bleeding, calculus, abscess, etc., and the complication of cancer of the kidney is a special problem. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, occurrence of ACDK, tumor, and kidney cancer are observed respectively at the rate of 47.1, 4.8, and 1.5 per cent. When hemodialysis patients show gross hematuria, flank pain, rapid decrease in hematocrit, and sustained fever, ACDK or its complications should be investigated. Since the risk accompanied by kidney cancer is high in spite of a lack of symptoms, regular screening by ultrasonic examination or CT scan is needed. Renal transplantation is also recommended because of the regression of ACDK after successful renal transplantation. In the future, it appears that ACDK should be considered one disease entity and added to the categories of renal cystic diseases. In addition, ACDK can be studied as a model for clarification of the mechanism of cyst and tumor occurrence. PMID:3895708

  2. Acquired Hemophilia A Successfully Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation.

  3. [Nosocomially acquired infection of the urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Carton, J A; Gómez Moro, M B; González López, B; Maradona, J A; de Diego, I; Cárcaba, V; Arribas, J M

    1989-10-01

    We have evaluated 283 consecutive hospital acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI) in a University hospital (incidence 5.6% of admissions). In females, spontaneous, symptomatic and younger patient infections predominated, while in males HAUTI were mostly asymptomatic, after catheterization and in elderly patients. Chronic nonfatal diseases--particularly neurologic disease and diabetes--, old age, previous antibiotic use, the postoperative period, and cancer were the major general predisposing factors, mostly because they involved urological procedures. There was an urethral catheter in 78% of cases, with questionable indication or maintenance in 37%. In 65% of cases there were clinical data attributable to HAUTI; however, on strict criteria only 5% of pyelonephritis and 24% of cystitis were detected. Mortality rate was 0.4%. Etiology was E. coli in 29%, Proteus in 13%, Enterobacter in 12%, enterococcus in 11.5%, Serratia in 7%, Pseudomonas in 6.5%, and Klebsiella in 6.5%. There were differences regarding endogenous and hospital flora on the basis of sex, hospital situation, catheterization, mobility, and previous duration of hospitalization. The microbial resistance pattern was high in the hospital flora. The major therapeutical problem was the high number of unnecessary treatments representing the automatic medical response to the finding of a positive urine culture. PMID:2490855

  4. Redundant motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J. A. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A drive system characterized by a base supporting a pair of pillars arranged in spaced parallelism, a shaft extended between and supported by the pillars for rotation about the longitudinal axis thereof, a worm gear affixed to the shaft and supported in coaxial relation therewith is described. A bearing housing of a sleeve like configuration is concentrically related to the shaft and is supported thereby for free rotation. A first and a second quiescent drive train, alternatively activatable, is provided for imparting rotation into said bearing housing. Each of the drive trains is characterized by a selectively energizable motor connected to a spur gear.

  5. Light-driven motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Hideki

    2011-02-01

    A light-driven motor operated by a single source of light is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wire initially trained straight shape. The SMA wire was formed in a loop and put around two wheels. In the experiment a steady and continuous rotation was achieved with a bundled loop of 0.3-mm diameter wire. The rotational speed was proportional to the incident light power and 60 rpm was obtained at 3.6 W of light power. The experimental result was consistent with the theory.

  6. 50 Years of Fusion Research Fusion Innovation Research and Energy

    E-print Network

    · Theory of Fusion Plasmas ­ Energy Principle developed in mid-50s became a powerful tool for assessing · Theory of Fusion Plasmas ­ Energy Principle developed in mid-50s became a powerful tool for assessing

  7. STATs and macrophage fusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in host defense against multiple foreign materials such as bacteria, parasites and artificial devices. Some macrophage lineage cells, namely osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), form multi-nuclear giant cells by the cell–cell fusion of mono-nuclear cells. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells, and are formed in the presence of RANKL on the surface of bones, while FBGCs are formed in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 on foreign materials such as artificial joints, catheters and parasites. Recently, fusiogenic mechanisms and the molecules required for the cell–cell fusion of these macrophage lineage cells were, at least in part, clarified. Dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), both of which comprise seven transmembrane domains, are required for both osteoclast and FBGC cell–cell fusion. STAT6 was demonstrated to be required for the cell–cell fusion of FBGCs but not osteoclasts. In this review, advances in macrophage cell–cell fusion are discussed. PMID:24069561

  8. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)] [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  9. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  10. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

  11. Topic 7 Organization of Motor System -Cortical Motor Areas

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    Corticospinal tract - to spinal motor neurons innervating limbs/trunk #12;2 Topic 7 ­ Organization of Motor From Shinoda et al., Cerebr. Cortex 1993. · inject horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into corticospinal Interconnections · inject HRP into specific region · Reveals horizontal connections between cortical areas · Info

  12. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works. PMID:11183979

  13. [Acquired pendular nystagmus after pontine hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yokota, J; Kosaka, K; Yoshimoto, Y; Amakusa, T

    1999-12-01

    A 60-year-old hypertensive woman had a pontine hemorrhage that caused slight right hemiplegia, deep sensory disturbance on her right side and dysarthria. Three months after the stroke, she was transferred to our hospital for rehabilitation. Approximately 6 months later, she gradually began to complain of the visual oscillation. Continual, unceasing conjugate vertical/rotatory eye movements were observed. Fixation was momentary at best because of an inability to dampen the spontaneous eye movements. Electrooculography (EOG) showed bilateral vertical/rotatory sinusoidal eye movements of 2.5 Hz frequency and 10- to 35-degree amplitude. Both vertical and horizontal optokinetic nystagmus were absent. Caloric stimulation did not evoke any responses bilaterally. There were no rhythmical movements at similar frequencies in other parts of the body such as palatal myoclonus. MRI revealed not only hematoma mainly at the dorsal pontine tegmentum but also hypertrophy of the inferior olive nucleus, suggesting disruption of the central tegmental tract. Lesions of this tract may be one cause of pendular nystagmus. Several drug therapies were investigated for the nystagmus. There was no response to baclofen 15 mg. Trihexyphenidyl 4 mg was discontinued because of drug-induced hallucinations. Tiapride 600 mg and phenobarbital 90 mg were each slightly effective in reducing both frequency and amplitude of nystagmus. Treatment with clonazepam 1 mg resulted in the striking disappearance of nystagmus. She was aware of this and no longer experienced oscillopsia. Despite the visual benefit, however, the patient did not wish to continue this drug because of drowsiness and muscle relaxation. The potential long-term therapeutic application of clonazepam should be further investigated. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of successful treatment in acquired pendular nystagmus with clonazepam. Therefore, based on this favorable experience, it is suggested that clonazepam should be added to the list of potential therapies for pendular nystagmus. PMID:10654302

  14. Reprogramming of plants during systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Katrin; Griebel, Thomas; Návarová, Hana; Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that during biological activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis, the transcript levels of several hundred plant genes were consistently up- (SAR+ genes) or down-regulated (SAR? genes) in systemic, non-inoculated leaf tissue. This transcriptional reprogramming fully depended on the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1). Functional gene categorization showed that genes associated with salicylic acid (SA)-associated defenses, signal transduction, transport, and the secretory machinery are overrepresented in the group of SAR+ genes, and that the group of SAR? genes is enriched in genes activated via the jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET)-defense pathway, as well as in genes associated with cell wall remodeling and biosynthesis of constitutively produced secondary metabolites. This suggests that SAR-induced plants reallocate part of their physiological activity from vegetative growth towards SA-related defense activation. Alignment of the SAR expression data with other microarray information allowed us to define three clusters of SAR+ genes. Cluster I consists of genes tightly regulated by SA. Cluster II genes can be expressed independently of SA, and this group is moderately enriched in H2O2- and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. The expression of the cluster III SAR+ genes is partly SA-dependent. We propose that SA-independent signaling events in early stages of SAR activation enable the biosynthesis of SA and thus initiate SA-dependent SAR signaling. Both SA-independent and SA-dependent events tightly co-operate to realize SAR. SAR+ genes function in the establishment of diverse resistance layers, in the direct execution of resistance against different (hemi-)biotrophic pathogen types, in suppression of the JA- and ABA-signaling pathways, in redox homeostasis, and in the containment of defense response activation. Our data further indicated that SAR-associated defense priming can be realized by partial pre-activation of particular defense pathways. PMID:23874348

  15. Chapter 22: Hereditary and acquired angioedema.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Mary S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by a deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Acquired angioedema (AAE) is caused by either consumption (type 1) or inactivation (type 2) of CI-INH. Both HAE and AAE can be life-threatening. The screening test for both conditions is complement component C4, which is low to absent at times of angioedema or during quiescent periods. A useful test to differentiate HAE from AAE is C1q protein, which is normal in HAE and low in AAE. There are three types of HAE: type 1 HAE is most common, occurring in ?85% of patients and characterized by decreased production of C1-INH, resulting in reduced functional activity to 5-30% of normal. In type 2, which occurs in 15% of cases, C1-INH is detectable in normal or elevated quantities but is dysfunctional. Finally, type 3, which is rare and almost exclusively occurs in women, is estrogen dependent and associated with normal CI-INH and C4 levels. One-third of these patients have a gain-of-function mutation in clotting factor XII leading to kallikrein-driven bradykinin production. Although the anabolic steroid, danazol, is useful in increasing the concentration of C4 and reducing the episodes of angioedema in HAE and AAE, it has expected adverse effects. Fortunately, disease-specific therapies are available and include C1-INH enzyme for i.v. infusion either acutely or empirically, ecallantide, an inhibitor of kallikrein, and icatibant, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, both approved for acute angioedema and administered, subcutaneously. PMID:22794695

  16. Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap

    E-print Network

    Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap Farrokh Najmabadi Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Director, Center for Energy Research UC San Diego International Fusion Road of emerging nations, energy use is expected to grow ~ 4 fold in this century (average 1.6% annual growth rate

  17. Culham Centre for Fusion Energy Fusion -A clean future

    E-print Network

    supplies of fossil fuels mean that we need to find new, cleaner ways of powering the planet. Nuclear fusion sources will not be enough by themselves to meet the demand. Nuclear fusion can be an important long from fossil fuels or nuclear fission. Why we need fusion energy The amount of lithium contained

  18. Osteoclast fusion is based on heterogeneity between fusion partners.

    PubMed

    Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2014-07-01

    Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed through fusion of mononucleated precursors. Their choice of partners during the fusion process remains unclear. We hypothesized that osteoclasts are selective in their choice of fusion partner and that this selectivity is based on heterogeneity among the cells with respect to their maturation stage and their expression and cellular organization of fusion factors. Support for this hypothesis was found from immunofluorescence staining of the osteoclast fusion factors CD47, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and syncytin-1. These stainings revealed heterogeneous localization patterns of all three factors within a given culture of osteoclasts. CD47 was found to be localized primarily in small osteoclasts and preosteoclasts, which were also positive for DC-STAMP but negative for cathepsin K expression. A role of CD47 in the early osteoclast fusion steps was also suggested from experiments with a CD47 blocking antibody, which resulted in an inhibition of the fusion of small osteoclasts. Conversely, blocking of connexin 43 affected the fusion of larger osteoclasts with four or more nuclei. The suggestion that different fusion factors function at different stages of osteoclast fusion supports the idea of heterogeneity in the osteoclast population; our results suggest that osteoclast fusion is indeed based on heterogeneity. Considering the in vivo environment in which osteoclasts develop and fuse, our findings seem very applicable and provide novel, important insight into key issues in bone and fusion research. PMID:24862648

  19. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Chris Holland

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  20. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Chris (UC San Diego) [UC San Diego

    2008-12-17

    The upcoming ITER experiment represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the 'burning plasma' regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  1. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Holland

    2008-12-17

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  2. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at.

  3. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  4. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  5. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...than May 1, 1973. (ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...than May 1, 1973. (ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...than May 1, 1973. (ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...than May 1, 1973. (ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...i) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...fenders. All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured...than May 1, 1973. (ii) Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not...

  11. Developing a Motor Management Policy at BASF

    E-print Network

    Zickefoose, B.; Theising, T. R.

    In early 1998 Thomas R. Theising, BASF Corporate Engineering initiated the formation of a motor management team. The goal of the team was to develop a Motor Management Guideline to better manage the purchase and repair of motors used throughout...

  12. Workmanship standards for fusion welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. D.

    1967-01-01

    Workmanship standards manual defines practices, that adhere to rigid codes and specifications, for fusion welding of component piping, assemblies, and systems. With written and pictorial presentations, it is part of the operating procedure for fusion welding.

  13. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  14. Artificial neural network based fault identification scheme implementation for a three-phase induction motor.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Sri R; Altman, Shawn D

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents results from the implementation and testing of a PC based monitoring and fault identification scheme for a three-phase induction motor using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To accomplish the task, a hardware system is designed and built to acquire three-phase voltages and currents from a 1/3 HP squirrel-cage, three-phase induction motor. A software program is written to read the voltages and currents, which are first used to train a feed-forward neural network structure using the JavaNNS program. The trained network is placed in a LabVIEW based program formula node that monitors the voltages and currents online and displays the fault conditions and turns the motor off. The complete system is successfully tested in real time by creating different faults on the motor. PMID:17336306

  15. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei (Los Angeles, CA); Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Nowak, Michael P. (Menomonee Falls, WI); Dimino, Steven A. (Wauwatosa, WI)

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  16. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and engineering capabilities have been demonstrated for a fusion reactor gain (Q) of the order of unity (TFTR: 0.25, JET: 0.65, JT-60: Q(sub eq) approx. 1.25). These technological advances made it compelling for considering fusion for propulsion.

  17. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  18. Verification of Motor Repair Quality

    E-print Network

    Butler, K.

    Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

  19. Energy-saving asynchronous motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Chuvashev; S. S. Nalivaiko; A. V. Shishov; D. V. Tsvetaev; Yu. N. Papazov

    2009-01-01

    The results of activities on creating asynchronous motors with rotor cast copper windings in Ukraine, the United States, France,\\u000a Italy, Germany, Poland, Brazil, and India are analyzed. Tests have shown that motors have higher efficiency and higher useful\\u000a power than analogs.

  20. Advanced solid propellant motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

  1. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  2. Power electronics and motor control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Shepherd; L. N. Hulley

    1987-01-01

    Offering an introduction to power electronics, this text considers the topics of analogue electronics, electric motor control, and adjustable speed electrical drives, both a.c. and d.c. Up-to-date in its coverage of this rapidly developing field, the book examines such topics as controlled bridge rectifiers and speed control of induction motors by variable voltage-variable frequency inverters.

  3. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  4. Fusion reactors as a future energy source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Seifritz

    1975-01-01

    A detailed update of fusion research concepts is given. Discussions are given for the following areas: (1) the magnetic confinement principle, (2) UWMAK I: conceptual design for a fusion reactor, (3) the inertial confinement principle, (4) the laser fusion power plant, (5) electron-induced fusion, (6) the long-term development potential of fusion reactors, (7) the symbiosis between fusion and fission reactors,

  5. Cell Fusion and Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Silk; Anne E. Powell; Paige S. Davies; Melissa H. Wong

    \\u000a Differentiation, self-renewal and the ability to readily undergo cell fusion are properties of adult and embryonic stem cells.\\u000a Spontaneous fusion between stem cells, and fusion of stem cells with various differentiated cell types, has been observed\\u000a in many in vitro and in vivo contexts. Stem cell fusion is implicated in many crucial functions during normal development\\u000a and is increasingly being

  6. Closed-Loop Motor-Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew A.; Delcher, Ray C.; Huston, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic motor-speed control circuit designed to operate in electrically noisy environment. Includes optoelectronic pick-up device, placed inside motor housing to provide speed feedback signal. Automatically maintains speed motor at commanded value. Measures speed of motor in terms of frequency of pulses of infrared light chopped by fan blades of motor. Difference between measured and commanded speeds serves as control signal for external amplifier driving motor. Major advantage of circuit is low cost.

  7. Local Vote Decision Fusion for Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Michailidis, George

    1 Local Vote Decision Fusion for Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Natallia Katenka by a wireless sensor network. Sensors acquire measurements emitted from the target that are corrupted by noise Wireless sensor networks are widely used for monitoring natural phenomena in space and over time, as well

  8. Chemoreceptors and Flagellar Motors Are Subterminally Located in Close Proximity at the Two Cell Poles in Spirochetes ? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongbin; Raddi, Gianmarco; Liu, Jun; Charon, Nyles W.; Li, Chunhao

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions, immunofluorescence microscopy, and cryo-electron tomography revealed that the chemoreceptors of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi form long, thin arrays near both cell poles. These arrays are in close proximity to the flagellar motors. This information provides a basis for further understanding motility, chemotaxis, and protein localization in spirochetes. PMID:21441520

  9. Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.

    2007-05-01

    Individual molecular motors, or motor proteins, are enzymatic molecules that convert chemical energy, typically obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), into mechanical work and motion. Processive motor proteins, such as kinesin, dynein, and certain myosins, step unidirectionally along linear tracks, specifically microtubules and actin filaments, and play a crucial role in cellular transport processes, organization, and function. In this review some theoretical aspects of motor-protein dynamics are presented in the light of current experimental methods that enable the measurement of the biochemical and biomechanical properties on a single-molecule basis. After a brief discussion of continuum ratchet concepts, we focus on discrete kinetic and stochastic models that yield predictions for the mean velocity, V(F, [ATP], …), and other observables as a function of an imposed load force F, the ATP concentration, and other variables. The combination of appropriate theory with single-molecule observations should help uncover the mechanisms underlying motor-protein function.

  10. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  11. Laser Inertial Fusion-based

    E-print Network

    pure fusion system #12;5 #12;6 #12;Moses, 24th Annual ASPE Meeting 7 Laser diodes and He gas cooling have been developed as part of the Mercury Project and allows ultra-compact laser architectures HighLIFE: Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy Presented by Jeff Latkowski LIFE Chief Engineer Fusion

  12. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Emrich

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust

  13. The fusion applications study - FAME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Schultz; B. A. Engholm; R. F. Bourque; E. T. Cheng; M. J. Schaffer; C. P. C. Wong

    1986-01-01

    The Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (''FAME'') study, being conducted by GA Technologies for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, (US DOE) is described. This two-year program has a FY86 objective of Evaluating Alternative Applications of Fusion, and a FY87 goal of Exploring Innovative Applications. Applications are being reviewed and categorized into

  14. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission

    E-print Network

    research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed of energy is released. Fusion science research is organized around the two leading methods of confining the ongoing negotiations to construct the international burning plasma experiment, ITER. The National Research

  15. Cell fusion: an EFFicient sculptor.

    PubMed

    Witze, Eric; Rothman, Joel H

    2002-07-01

    Mutations in the eff-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which prevent all cell-cell fusions in the nematode's epidermis, have revealed developmental roles for cell fusion. An extracellular fusogen-like domain in EFF-1 suggests it might direct the fusion of lipid bilayers. PMID:12121640

  16. ASRM subscale plume deflector testing. [advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

  17. Familial, demyelinating sensory and motor polyneuropathy with conduction block.

    PubMed

    Scelsa, Stephen N

    2010-04-01

    Both multifocal, demyelinating features and prednisone responsiveness are rare in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. We report a mother and son with a prednisone-responsive, multifocal, demyelinating, predominantly sensory polyneuropathy that was associated with an isoleucine92valine polymorphism of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF). The mother had a multifocal, acquired, demyelinating sensory and motor polyneuropathy (MADSAM)-like presentation. The son developed left peroneal neuropathy during acute Lyme disease with a subsequent relapsing, MADSAM-like illness, despite antibiotic treatment. Both shared prednisone responsiveness and multifocal, demyelinating features electrophysiologically. MADSAM may be familial (FaDSAM) and respond to prednisone. PMID:19941344

  18. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saara Salmenlinna; Outi Lyytikäinen; Jaana Vuopio-Varkila

    2002-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is no longer only hospital acquired. MRSA is defined as community acquired if the MRSA-positive specimen was obtained outside hospital settings or within 2 days of hospital admission, and if it was from a person who had not been hospitalized within 2 years before the date of MRSA isolation. To estimate the proportion of community-acquired MRSA,

  19. An electrophysiological follow-up study on acquired unilateral nyctalopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Murayama; Hidehiko Kawabata; Emiko Adachi-Usami

    1999-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical picture and electrophysiological findings in acquired unilateral nyctalopia.Methods A patient who had acquired unilateral visual loss with normal fundus was followed for a period of 2.5 years with basic ophthalmological examinations including standard electroretinogram and photopic on and off responses.Results A 46-year-old woman suffered from acquired unilateral nyctalopia. She complained of photopsia and blurred vision

  20. Community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Falagas; A. C. Kastoris; E. K. Vouloumanou; G. Dimopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a pathogen that causes infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, community-acquired S. maltophilia infections have been occasionally reported. The objective of this paper was to collect and evaluate the available published\\u000a data referring to community-acquired S. maltophilia infections. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus for articles providing data for patients with community-acquired\\u000a S. maltophilia infections.

  1. Acquired ichthyosis associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Hatice; Sen, Bilge Bulbul; Kocak, Aslihan Yonca; Emral, Rifat; Bostanci, Seher

    2009-01-01

    Acquired ichthyosis is an uncommon disease which is characterized by symmetric scaling of the skin. Acquired ichthyosis has been described in association with a variety of underlying causes, including malignancies, drugs, infections, endocrine, metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Acquired ichthyosis associated with diabetes mellitus has been reported only in one case. We report the case of a new-onset diabetes mellitus with a one-month history of generalized acquired ichthyosis and palmoplantar keratoderma corroborated with skin biopsy, which completely disappeared after regulation of blood glucose levels with insulin therapy. PMID:20046586

  2. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  3. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  4. V-fusion: a convenient, nontoxic method for cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Amy; Milazzo, Joseph; Lazebnik, Yuri

    2010-10-01

    Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety of cellular mechanisms, including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with desired properties, such as hybridomas and reprogrammed progenitors. However, current methods of cell fusion are not satisfactory because of their toxicity, inefficiency, or lack of flexibility. We describe a simple, versatile, scalable, and nontoxic approach that we call V-fusion, as it is based on the ability of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a viral fusogen of broad tropism, to become rapidly and reversibly activated. We suggest that this approach will benefit a broad array of studies that investigate consequences of cell fusion or use cell fusion as an experimental tool. PMID:20964635

  5. Fusion power Bouillabaisse sushi

    E-print Network

    to be joining America, China, Russia and South Korea in a project called , which aims to build a fusion reactor and Rokkasho in Japan. America is siding with Japan, while the French have the backing of the Chinese on Iraq. America is commonly thought to be supporting Rokkasho in return for Japan's support in Iraq

  6. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  7. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

  8. Interference in ballistic motor learning: specificity and role of sensory error signals.

    PubMed

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  9. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A division of the Princeton Plasma Research Laboratory (described in the July 1, 1994 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) aims "to attain, explore, understand and optimize alpha-dominated plasmas to provide knowledge for the design of attractive Magnetic Fusion systems." Up-to-date, downloadable reports (.pdf and MS Word formats) contain background information and reviews of US fusion policy, Snowmass Fusion Summer Study working group summaries, FIRE reports on physics and engineering design considerations, and an engineering appendix. Clearly displayed, this site harbors a wealth of dense information for researchers interested in the design of magnetic fusion systems.

  10. Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion

    E-print Network

    K. Hamaguchi; T. Hatsuda; T. T. Yanagida

    2006-10-06

    We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present technology of producing stau.

  11. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  12. Community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and healthcare-associated pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Ayumi; Seki, Masafumi; Higashiguchi, Masachika; Tachibana, Isao; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    We describe three types of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Case 1. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the blood and sputum of a 29-year-old male non-smoker who developed severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Piperacillin was initially effective, but fever and lobular pneumonia with cavities developed seven days after discharge. Intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam and tobramycin were administered for four weeks, followed by oral ciprofloxacin for two weeks. He finally recovered, but developed recurrent CAP due to P. aeruginosa despite appropriate antibiotic therapy and immunocompetent status. Case 2. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the blood and sputum of a 57-year-old woman with renal cancer who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) after surgical treatment. She recovered after meropenem administration for four weeks. Case 3. A 67-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis and malignant lymphoma who was followed up on an outpatient basis underwent immunosuppressive therapy. Thereafter, she developed pneumonia and was admitted to our institution where P aeruginosa was isolated from blood and sputum samples. Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) was diagnosed and effectively treated with tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. P. aeruginosa is not only a causative pathogen of HAP and HCAP, but possibly also of CAP.

  13. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  14. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  15. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  16. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  17. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  18. Range and Panoramic Image Fusion Into a Textured Range Image for Culture Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bila, Z.; Reznicek, J.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with a fusion of range and panoramic images, where the range image is acquired by a 3D laser scanner and the panoramic image is acquired with a digital still camera mounted on a panoramic head and tripod. The fused resulting dataset, called "textured range image", provides more reliable information about the investigated object for conservators and historians, than using both datasets separately. A simple example of fusion of a range and panoramic images, both obtained in St. Francis Xavier Church in town Opa?any, is given here. Firstly, we describe the process of data acquisition, then the processing of both datasets into a proper format for following fusion and the process of fusion. The process of fusion can be divided into a two main parts: transformation and remapping. In the first, transformation, part, both images are related by matching similar features detected on both images with a proper detector, which results in transformation matrix enabling transformation of the range image onto a panoramic image. Then, the range data are remapped from the range image space into a panoramic image space and stored as an additional "range" channel. The process of image fusion is validated by comparing similar features extracted on both datasets.

  19. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  20. Motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ondo, William G

    2011-01-01

    Management of motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) can be challenging. The main complications are inadequate dopaminergic tone ("off" time and dose failures) and excess dopaminergic tone (dyskinesia). These motor complications increase as PD progresses. Changing the dose and timing of L-dopa is the main strategy for both scenarios. Reducing "off" time can also be achieved by the addition of adjunctive therapies (dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors). Dyskinesia can improve with amantadine and possibly several other medications. Surgical interventions such as lesioning and deep brain stimulation are considered when pharmacological strategies for motor complications are not satisfactory. PMID:22035028

  1. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  2. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  3. Noninvasive brain stimulation: the potential for use in the rehabilitation of pediatric acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chung, Melissa G; Lo, Warren D

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) offers the potential to modulate neural activity and recovery after acquired brain injury. There are few studies of NIBS in children, but a survey of those studies might provide insight into the potential for NIBS to modulate motor rehabilitation, seizures, and behavior in children. We surveyed the published literature prior to July 2014 for articles pertaining to children and NIBS with a focus on case series or trials. We also reviewed selected articles involving adults to illustrate specific points where the literature in children is lacking. A limited number of articles suggest that NIBS can transiently improve motor function. The evidence for an effect on seizures is mixed. Two open-label studies reported improvement of mood in adolescents with depression. NIBS may serve as a tool for pediatric neurorehabilitation, but many gaps in our knowledge must be filled before NIBS can be adopted as a clinical intervention. To move forward, the field needs adequately powered trials that can answer these questions. Such trials will be challenging to perform, will likely require multicenter collaboration, and may need to adopt novel trial designs that have been used with rare disorders. PMID:25448248

  4. A hospital study of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Venkatesan; J Gladman; J T Macfarlane; D Barer; P Berman; W Kinnear; R G Finch

    1990-01-01

    Studies on community acquired pneumonia in the United States in patients over the age of 65 years have shown that Gram negative bacilli account for an appreciable proportion of cases, in addition to usual pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. There have been no reports of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly in the United Kingdom. We undertook

  5. Torticollis acquired in late infancy due to a cerebellar gangliocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Caress; Virinder Nohria; Herbert Fuchs; Rose-Mary Boustany

    1996-01-01

    Torticollis in infancy is a common disorder and is typically benign and self-limiting. However, in some instances it is the presentation of serious disease. A critical distinction is whether the condition is congenital or acquired. We present a case of acquired late infantile torticollis caused by a cerebellar gangliocytoma that underscores the importance of making this determination prior to initiating

  6. Acquired limb deficiencies. 3. Prosthetic components, prescriptions, and indications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Huang; Charles E. Levy; Joseph B. Webster

    2001-01-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights indications for prosthetic components and prescription formulation for adults with acquired limb deficiency. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatrie Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Advantages and disadvantages of specific components of upper and lower limb prostheses are discussed, and a sample

  7. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  8. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section...for Returning Residents § 148.33 Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption...United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  9. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section...for Returning Residents § 148.33 Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption...United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  10. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  11. Primary face motor area as the motor representation of articulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Terao; Yoshikazu Ugawa; Tomotaka Yamamoto; Yasuhisa Sakurai; Tomohiko Masumoto; Osamu Abe; Yoshitaka Masutani; Shigeki Aoki; Shoji Tsuji

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   No clinical data have yet been presented to show that a lesion localized to the primary motor area (M1) can cause severe transient\\u000a impairment of articulation, although a motor representation for articulation has been suggested to exist within M1. Here we\\u000a describe three cases of patients who developed severe dysarthria, temporarily mimicking speech arrest or aphemia, due to a

  12. Brushless DC Motor Propulsion Using Synchronous Motors for Transit Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. PEARSONAND; Paresh C. Sen

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a brushless dc motor propulsion system using synchronous motors is described which is suitable for transit applications. The propulsion system consists of two-quadrant transistorized front-end chopper and a three-phase transistorized inverter (forming the electronic commutator for the synchronous machine phase currents) to provide both controlled propulsion and regenerative braking. The control scheme makes the system operate stably

  13. Motor Development: From Classroom to Playground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Gerald S., Ed.; Burkhart, Ernie, Ed.

    Intended for the educator and recreator working with normal and exceptional children, the book provides an overview of perceptual motor terminology, development, and resources in addition to a state of the art paper. Presented are definitions of such terms as motor development, sensory motor development, and perceptual motor development.…

  14. Biologia molecular nas doenças do neurônio motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmar Zanoteli; Ana Beatriz; Alvarêz Peres; Acary Souza; Bulle Oliveira; Alberto Alain Gabbai

    SUMMARY The motor neuron diseases are a group of diseases characterized by upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron or both involvement. The most common form of motor neuron disease in the infancy is the spinal muscular atrophy associated with mutations on SMN gene in more than 90% of cases. In adult patients less than 15% of cases are familial. In

  15. Modeling and identification of an electrostatic motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Yamamoto; Toshiki Niino; Toshiro Higuchi

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes modeling and parameter identification for a high-power electrostatic motor. The motor is a synchronous motor with six phases that is modeled by a six-terminal capacitance network. A method to measure the capacitance coefficient matrix of a network using an LCR tester is proposed and demonstrated. The thrust force of the motor is shown analytically using the

  16. CFD modeling for motor fan system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Chi Chen; Chung-Lung Chen; Qimin Dong

    2003-01-01

    For fan-cooled motors, the fan performance directly influences the thermal performance of the motor and so its lifetime. A 10-degree temperature reduction could extend the motor electrical insulation lifetime twofold. The purpose of this study is to apply computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques to a motor fan system and use the validated CFD model to analyze key design parameters.

  17. Study of the modular organization of motor

    E-print Network

    Schenato, Luca

    Study of the modular organization of motor control: experimental and modeling approaches Dr. Enrico. #12;Redundancy in motor control 5/9/2011 2Enrico Chiovetto A large number of joints implies a high level of redundancy #12;5/9/2011 3Enrico Chiovetto Motor primitives (MPs) M MP1 MP2 MPN 1C Motor Output

  18. Harmonic Electromagnetic Forces in Induction Motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuminori Ishibashi; Makoto Matsushita; Shinichi Noda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing demand for quiet motors, and the same trend has been observed in the case of induction motors. In induction motors, electromagnetic noise is sometimes the predominant acoustic noise. In small motors, the major cause of vibration and noise is electromagnetic forces resulting from the combination of harmonic fluxes in the air gap. In this study,

  19. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  20. Useful signals from motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the motor cortical function has been explained as a funnel to muscle activation. This invokes the idea that motor cortical neurons, or ‘upper motoneurons’, directly cause muscle contraction just like spinal motoneurons. Thus, the motor cortex and muscle activity are inextricably entwined like a puppet master and his marionette. Recently, this concept has been challenged by current experimentation showing that many behavioural aspects of action are represented in motor cortical activity. Although this activity may still be related to muscle activation, the relation between the two is likely to be indirect and complex, whereas the relation between cortical activity and kinematic parameters is simple and robust. These findings show how to extract useful signals that help explain the underlying process that generates behaviour and to harness these signals for potentially therapeutic applications. PMID:17255162

  1. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  2. Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors

    E-print Network

    Brennan, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Anywhere liquid pressure is reduced across a throttling device, there is a potential application for a hydraulic power recovery motor (HPRM). Cost of power makes HPRM's attractive with recoveries as small as 25 hp on a continuous basis. When...

  3. Supplementary motor area (SMA) volume is associated with psychotic aberrant motor behaviour of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Bracht, Tobias; Laimböck, Karin; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2014-07-30

    We aimed to investigate whether aberrant motor behavior in schizophrenia was associated with structural alterations in the motor system. Whole brain voxel based morphometry of patients with different severity of motor symptoms identified altered gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a key region of the motor system. PMID:24853647

  4. The Infant Motor Profile: A Standardized and Qualitative Method to Assess Motor Behaviour in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and valid instrument to assess neuromotor condition in infancy is a prerequisite for early detection of developmental motor disorders. We developed a video-based assessment of motor behaviour, the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), to evaluate motor abilities, movement variability, ability to select motor strategies, movement symmetry, and…

  5. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Spectral label fusion.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina

    2012-01-01

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers advantages for datasets with high variability, making the segmentation less prone to registration errors. We achieve the integration by letting the weights of the graph Laplacian depend on image data, as well as atlas-based label priors. The extracted contours are converted to regions, arranged in a hierarchy depending on the strength of the separating boundary. Finally, we construct the segmentation by a region-wise, instead of voxel-wise, voting, increasing the robustness. Our experiments on cardiac MRI show a clear improvement over majority voting and intensity-weighted label fusion. PMID:23286157

  7. ProFusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Originally developed by the University of Kansas Information Telecommunication and Technology Center, and School of Engineering DesignLab (see the July 25, 1997 Scout Report), ProFusion is a meta-search and "deep Web" search engine. Purchased by Intelliseek and fitted with a new interface, ProFusion allows users to search over 1,000 search sites, "including search engines, Web directories, discussion groups, news sources, online publications, and archives." Visitors can also perform targeted searches of vertical search sources, selecting which databases to query. Two other new features include an alert service that tracks changes to selected pages and notifies users by email and a Search Assistant that suggests results from search engine groups relevant to a query in addition to the general Web results. Worth a spin around the block.

  8. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  9. Motor evoked potential polyphasia

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A.; Ceronie, Bryan; Nashef, Lina; Elwes, Robert D.C.; Richardson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We compared the motor evoked potential (MEP) phases using transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), their relatives, and healthy controls, hypothesizing that patients and their unaffected relatives may share a subtle pathophysiologic abnormality. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 23 patients with IGE, 34 first-degree relatives, and 30 matched healthy controls. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed to produce a series of suprathreshold single-pulse MEPs. A semiautomated method was used to count phases. We compared between groups the mean number of MEP phases, the stimulus-to-stimulus variability in MEP phases, and the proportion of polyphasic MEPs within subjects. Results: Patients with IGE and their relatives had a significantly increased number of MEP phases (median for patients 2.24, relatives 2.17, controls 2.01) and a significantly higher proportion of MEPs with more than 2 phases than controls (median for patients 0.118, relatives 0.088, controls 0.013). Patients had a greater stimulus-to-stimulus variability in number of MEP phases than controls. There were no differences between patients and relatives. Conclusion: Increased MEP polyphasia in patients with IGE and their first-degree relatives may reflect transient abnormal evoked oscillations. The presence of polyphasic MEPs in relatives as well as patients suggests that MEP polyphasia is not related to treatment, and is in isolation insufficient to predispose to epilepsy. Polyphasic MEP may be a novel endophenotype in IGE. PMID:25740859

  10. Mechanical thermal motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for converting thermal energy such as solar energy into mechanical motion for driving fluid pumps and similar equipment. The thermal motor comprises an inner concentric cylinder carried by a stationary core member. The core member has a cylindrical disc plate fixed adjacent to a lower portion and extending radially from it. An outer concentric cylinder rotatably carried on the disc plate defining a space between the inner and outer concentric cylinders. A spiral tubular member encircles the inner concentric cylinder and is contained within the space between the inner and outer cylinders. One portion is connected to the inner concentric cylinder and a second portion connected to the outer concentric cylinder. A heated fluid is conveyed through the tubular member and is periodically cooled causing the tubular member to expand and contract. This causes the outer concentric cylinder to reciprocally rotate on the base plate accordingly. The reciprocating motion of the outer concentric cylinder is then utilized to drive a pump member in a pump chamber.

  11. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  12. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  13. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  14. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  15. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  16. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  17. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  18. Sensorless vector control of induction motors at very low speed using a nonlinear inverter model and parameter identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Holtz; Juntao Quan

    2002-01-01

    The performance of vector-controlled induction motor drives without a speed sensor is generally poor at very low speed. The reasons are offset and drift components in the acquired feedback signals, voltage distortions caused by the nonlinear behavior of the switching converter, and the increased sensitivity against model parameter mismatch. New modeling and identification techniques are proposed to overcome these problems.

  19. Sensorless vector control of induction motors at very low speed using a nonlinear inverter model and parameter identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Holtz; Juntao Quan

    2001-01-01

    The performance of vector controlled induction motor drives without speed sensor is generally poor at very low speed. The reasons are offset and drift components in the acquired feedback signals, voltage distortions caused by the nonlinear behavior of the switching converter, and the increased sensitivity against model parameter mismatch. New modeling and identification techniques are proposed to overcome these problems.

  20. Laser fusion program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Stark; F. Skoberne

    1977-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO2 laser systems for fusion research is reported. The single beam system was used for target experimentation, and its optical train was improved. The initiation of two-beam target experiments on the two-beam system is described. Progress in construction checkout of the eight-beam system is continuing. The prototype program and HEGLF system design are

  1. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  2. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  3. Europe: tilting toward fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reactor technology, which has been developing in Europe since World War II, has progressed to the breeder, and is now developing fusion programs. In spite of some safety concerns, Britain is likely to shift its next nuclear effort to the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) after a period of emphasizing the advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs). France began in 1959 with gas-cooled

  4. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  5. Kinesin motors and primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Kristen J; Dishinger, John; Kee, Hooi Lynn

    2011-10-01

    Cilia and flagella play important roles in human health by contributing to cellular motility as well as sensing and responding to environmental cues. Defects in ciliary assembly and/or function can lead to a range of human diseases, collectively known as the ciliopathies, including polycystic kidney, liver and pancreatic diseases, sterility, obesity, situs inversus, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. A basic understanding of how cilia form and function is essential for deciphering ciliopathies and generating therapeutic treatments. The cilium is a unique compartment that contains a distinct complement of protein and lipid. However, the molecular mechanisms by which soluble and membrane protein components are targeted to and trafficked into the cilium are not well understood. Cilia are generated and maintained by IFT (intraflagellar transport) in which IFT cargoes are transported along axonemal microtubules by kinesin and dynein motors. A variety of genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches has established the heterotrimeric kinesin-2 motor as the 'core' IFT motor, whereas other members of the kinesin-2, kinesin-3 and kinesin-4 families function as 'accessory' motors for the transport of specific cargoes in diverse cell types. Motors of the kinesin-9 and kinesin-13 families play a non-IFT role in regulating ciliary beating or axonemal length, respectively. Entry of kinesin motors and their cargoes into the ciliary compartment requires components of the nuclear import machinery, specifically importin-?2 (transportin-1) and Ran-GTP (Ran bound to GTP), suggesting that similar mechanisms may regulate entry into the nuclear and ciliary compartments. PMID:21936775

  6. Adaptive motor control in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Cattaert, D; Le Ray, D

    2001-02-01

    This article reviews the principles that rule the organization of motor commands that have been described over the past five decades in crayfish. The adaptation of motor behaviors requires the integration of sensory cues into the motor command. The respective roles of central neural networks and sensory feedback are presented in the order of increasing complexity. The simplest circuits described are those involved in the control of a single joint during posture (negative feedback-resistance reflex) and movement (modulation of sensory feedback and reversal of the reflex into an assistance reflex). More complex integration is required to solve problems of coordination of joint movements in a pluri-segmental appendage, and coordination of different limbs and different motor systems. In addition, beyond the question of mechanical fitting, the motor command must be appropriate to the behavioral context. Therefore, sensory information is used also to select adequate motor programs. A last aspect of adaptability concerns the possibility of neural networks to change their properties either temporarily (such on-line modulation exerted, for example, by presynaptic mechanisms) or more permanently (such as plastic changes that modify the synaptic efficacy). Finally, the question of how "automatic" local component networks are controlled by descending pathways, in order to achieve behaviors, is discussed. PMID:11124446

  7. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  8. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  9. Ready, Set, Fuse! The Coronavirus Spike Protein and Acquisition of Fusion Competence

    PubMed Central

    Heald-Sargent, Taylor; Gallagher, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these entry triggers. We focus on receptors and proteases in prompting entry and highlight the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) known to activate several virus fusion proteins. These and other proteases are essential cofactors permitting coronavirus infection, conceivably being in proximity to cell-surface receptors and thus poised to split entering spike proteins into the fragments that refold to mediate membrane fusion. The review concludes by noting how understanding of coronavirus entry informs antiviral therapies. PMID:22590686

  10. Fusion of declassified airphotos and Landsat MSS data for old landslides detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Aristides D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study eight commercial available fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, High Pass Filter, HCS (Hyperspherical Color Space), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, Pansharp2, PCA, and Wavelet were used for the fusion of a Declassified KH-7 airphoto and a Landsat1 MSS image. Both images were acquired on 1972. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 8m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 80m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q, entropy were examined and the results are presented. As the ultimate purpose of the data fusion is to help in the detection of old landslides, two small areas where historical landslides have been occurred were selected for the evaluation of the fusion algorithms. Both areas are located in western Peloponnese in Achaia Prefecture.

  11. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: Punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  12. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization.

  13. The human chromokinesin Kid is a plus end-directed microtubule-based motor

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Junichiro; Edamatsu, Masaki; Watai-Nishii, Junko; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.

    2003-01-01

    Kid is a kinesin-like DNA-binding protein known to be involved in chromosome movement during mitosis, although its actual motor function has not been demonstrated. Here, we describe the initial characterization of Kid as a microtubule-based motor using optical trapping microscopy. A bacterially expressed fusion protein consisting of a truncated Kid fragment (amino acids 1–388 or 1–439) is indeed an active microtubule motor with an average speed of ?160 nm/s, and the polarity of movement is plus end directed. We could not detect processive movement of either monomeric Kid or dimerizing chimeric Kid; however, low levels of processivity (a few steps) cannot be detected with our method. These results are consistent with Kid having a role in chromosome congression in vivo, where it would be responsible for the polar ejection forces acting on the chromosome arms. PMID:12606572

  14. The human chromokinesin Kid is a plus end-directed microtubule-based motor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Junichiro; Edamatsu, Masaki; Watai-Nishii, Junko; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Toyoshima, Yoko Y

    2003-03-01

    Kid is a kinesin-like DNA-binding protein known to be involved in chromosome movement during mitosis, although its actual motor function has not been demonstrated. Here, we describe the initial characterization of Kid as a microtubule-based motor using optical trapping microscopy. A bacterially expressed fusion protein consisting of a truncated Kid fragment (amino acids 1-388 or 1-439) is indeed an active microtubule motor with an average speed of approximately 160 nm/s, and the polarity of movement is plus end directed. We could not detect processive movement of either monomeric Kid or dimerizing chimeric Kid; however, low levels of processivity (a few steps) cannot be detected with our method. These results are consistent with Kid having a role in chromosome congression in vivo, where it would be responsible for the polar ejection forces acting on the chromosome arms. PMID:12606572

  15. Acquired factor VII deficiency associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Anoun, Soumaya; Lamchahab, Mouna; Oukkache, Bouchra; Qachouh, Maryam; Benchekroun, Said; Quessar, Asmaa

    2015-04-01

    Isolated acquired factor VII deficiency is a rare coagulopathy. It has been reported in 31 patients with malignancy, sepsis, postoperatively, aplastic anemia, and during bone marrow transplantation. We discuss, through a new case of acquired factor VII deficiency, the characteristics of this disease when it is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Acquired factor VII deficiency in hematological diseases can be caused by intensive chemotherapy, infections, or hepatic dysfunction. The best treatment in developing countries remains corticosteroids associated with plasma exchange, frozen plasma, and antibiotics. PMID:24991944

  16. Registration and Fusion of Multiple Source Remotely Sensed Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth and Space Science often involve the comparison, fusion, and integration of multiple types of remotely sensed data at various temporal, radiometric, and spatial resolutions. Results of this integration may be utilized for global change analysis, global coverage of an area at multiple resolutions, map updating or validation of new instruments, as well as integration of data provided by multiple instruments carried on multiple platforms, e.g. in spacecraft constellations or fleets of planetary rovers. Our focus is on developing methods to perform fast, accurate and automatic image registration and fusion. General methods for automatic image registration are being reviewed and evaluated. Various choices for feature extraction, feature matching and similarity measurements are being compared, including wavelet-based algorithms, mutual information and statistically robust techniques. Our work also involves studies related to image fusion and investigates dimension reduction and co-kriging for application-dependent fusion. All methods are being tested using several multi-sensor datasets, acquired at EOS Core Sites, and including multiple sensors such as IKONOS, Landsat-7/ETM+, EO1/ALI and Hyperion, MODIS, and SeaWIFS instruments. Issues related to the coregistration of data from the same platform (i.e., AIRS and MODIS from Aqua) or from several platforms of the A-train (i.e., MLS, HIRDLS, OMI from Aura with AIRS and MODIS from Terra and Aqua) will also be considered.

  17. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ?4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ?25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  18. Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Vincent Chi-Kwan

    The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable ...

  19. Lower Motor Neuron Findings after Upper Motor Neuron Injury: Insights from Postoperative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Florman, Jeffrey E.; Duffau, Hugues; Rughani, Anand I.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertonia and hyperreflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hyperreflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexia motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock. PMID:23508473

  20. Changes of motor-cortical oscillations associated with motor learning.

    PubMed

    Pollok, B; Latz, D; Krause, V; Butz, M; Schnitzler, A

    2014-09-01

    Motor learning results from practice but also between practice sessions. After skill acquisition early consolidation results in less interference with other motor tasks and even improved performance of the newly learned skill. A specific significance of the primary motor cortex (M1) for early consolidation has been suggested. Since synchronized oscillatory activity is assumed to facilitate neuronal plasticity, we here investigate alterations of motor-cortical oscillations by means of event-related desynchronization (ERD) at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies in healthy humans. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded using a 306-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. ERD was investigated in 15 subjects during training on a serial reaction time task and 10 min after initial training. The data were compared with performance during a randomly varying sequence serving as control condition. The data reveal a stepwise decline of alpha-band ERD associated with faster reaction times replicating previous findings. The amount of beta-band suppression was significantly correlated with reduction of reaction times. While changes of alpha power have been related to lower cognitive control after initial skill acquisition, the present data suggest that the amount of beta suppression represents a neurophysiological marker of early cortical reorganization associated with motor learning. PMID:24931763

  1. Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Y?d?r?m; ?eker, Serhat

    2012-09-01

    Nonlinear systems like electrical circuits and systems, mechanics, optics and even incidents in nature may pass through various bifurcations and steady states like equilibrium point, periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic states. Although chaotic phenomena are widely observed in physical systems, it can not be predicted because of the nature of the system. On the other hand, it is known that, chaos is strictly dependent on initial conditions of the system [1-3]. There are several methods in order to define the chaos. Phase portraits, Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents are the most common techniques. Lyapunov Exponents are the theoretical indicator of the chaos, named after the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918). Lyapunov Exponents stand for the average exponential divergence or convergence of nearby system states, meaning estimating the quantitive measure of the chaotic attractor. Negative numbers of the exponents stand for a stable system whereas zero stands for quasi-periodic systems. On the other hand, at least if one of the exponents is positive, this situation is an indicator of the chaos. For estimating the exponents, the system should be modeled by differential equation but even in that case mathematical calculation of Lyapunov Exponents are not very practical and evaluation of these values requires a long signal duration [4-7]. For experimental data sets, it is not always possible to acquire the differential equations. There are several different methods in literature for determining the Lyapunov Exponents of the system [4, 5]. Induction motors are the most important tools for many industrial processes because they are cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. In order to have healthy processes in industrial applications, the conditions of the machines should be monitored and the different working conditions should be addressed correctly. To the best of our knowledge, researches related to Lyapunov exponents and electrical motors are mostly focused on the controlling the mechanical parameters of the electrical machines. Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the other general purpose permanent magnet (PM) motors are the most widely examined motors [1, 8, 9]. But the researches, about Lyapunov Exponent, subjected to the induction motors are mostly focused on the control theory of the motors. Flux estimation of rotor, external load disturbances and speed tracking and vector control position system are the main research areas for induction motors [10, 11, 12-14]. For all the data sets which can be collected from an induction motor, vibration data have the key role for understanding the mechanical behaviours like aging, bearing damage and stator insulation damage [15-18]. In this paper aging of an induction motor is investigated by using the vibration signals. The signals consist of new and aged motor data. These data are examined by their 2 dimensional phase portraits and the geometric interpretation is applied for detecting the Lyapunov Exponents. These values are compared in order to define the character and state estimation of the aging processes.

  2. Stockpile tritium production from fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

    1986-03-21

    A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century.

  3. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  4. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16?MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  5. Emergence of motor circuit activity.

    PubMed

    Law, Chris; Paquet, Michel; Kania, Artur

    2014-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, ordered neuronal activity patterns can occur even in the absence of sensory input and to investigate how these arise, we have used the model system of the embryonic chicken spinal motor circuit, focusing on motor neurons of the lateral motor column (LMC). At the earliest stages of their molecular differentiation, we can detect differences between medial and lateral LMC neurons in terms of expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, including CHRNA5, CHRNA7, GRIN2A, GRIK1, HTR1A and HTR1B, as well as the KCC2 transporter. Using patch-clamp recordings we also demonstrate that medial and lateral LMC motor neurons have subtly different activity patterns that reflect the differential expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. Using a combination of patch-clamp recordings in single neurons and calcium-imaging of motor neuron populations, we demonstrate that inhibition of nicotinic, muscarinic or GABA-ergic activity, has profound effects of motor circuit activity during the initial stages of neuromuscular junction formation. Finally, by analysing the activity of large populations of motor neurons at different developmental stages, we show that the asynchronous, disordered neuronal activity that occurs at early stages of circuit formation develops into organised, synchronous activity evident at the stage of LMC neuron muscle innervation. In light of the considerable diversity of neurotransmitter receptor expression, activity patterns in the LMC are surprisingly similar between neuronal types, however the emergence of patterned activity, in conjunction with the differential expression of transmitter systems likely leads to the development of near-mature patterns of locomotor activity by perinatal ages. PMID:24722186

  6. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  7. Rehabilitation with Poststroke Motor Recovery: A Review with a Focus on Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Motor recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neuronal interconnections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairment. However, neural plasticity is impaired in the stroke-affected hemisphere. Therefore, it is important that motor recovery therapies facilitate neural plasticity to compensate for functional loss. Stroke rehabilitation programs should include meaningful, repetitive, intensive, and task-specific movement training in an enriched environment to promote neural plasticity and motor recovery. Various novel stroke rehabilitation techniques for motor recovery have been developed based on basic science and clinical studies of neural plasticity. However, the effectiveness of rehabilitative interventions among patients with stroke varies widely because the mechanisms underlying motor recovery are heterogeneous. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have been developed to evaluate the heterogeneity of mechanisms underlying motor recovery for effective rehabilitation interventions after stroke. Here, we review novel stroke rehabilitation techniques associated with neural plasticity and discuss individualized strategies to identify appropriate therapeutic goals, prevent maladaptive plasticity, and maximize functional gain in patients with stroke. PMID:23738231

  8. Global Control of Motor Neuron Topography Mediated by the Repressive Actions of a Single Hox Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heekyung; Lacombe, Julie; Mazzoni, Esteban O.; Liem, Karel F.; Grinstein, Jonathan; Mahony, Shaun; Mukhopadhyay, Debnath; Gifford, David K.; Young, Richard A.; Anderson, Kathryn V.; Wichterle, Hynek; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the developing spinal cord, regional and combinatorial activities of Hox transcription factors are critical in controlling motor neuron fates along the rostrocaudal axis, exemplified by the precise pattern of limb innervation by more than fifty Hox-dependent motor pools. The mechanisms by which motor neuron diversity is constrained to limb-levels are however not well understood. We show that a single Hox gene, Hoxc9, has an essential role in organizing the motor system through global repressive activities. Hoxc9 is required for the generation of thoracic motor columns and in its absence neurons acquire the fates of limb-innervating populations. Unexpectedly, multiple Hox genes are derepressed in Hoxc9 mutants, leading to motor pool disorganization and alterations in the connections by thoracic and forelimb-level subtypes. Genome-wide analysis of Hoxc9 binding suggests this mode of repression is mediated by direct interactions with Hox regulatory elements, independent of chromatin marks typically associated with repressed Hox genes. PMID:20826310

  9. A research-inspired laboratory sequence investigating acquired drug resistance

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug ...

  10. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Authority to acquire real estate. 211.2 Section 211.2...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS...CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2...

  11. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Authority to acquire real estate. 211.2 Section 211.2...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS...CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2...

  12. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Authority to acquire real estate. 211.2 Section 211.2...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS...CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2...

  13. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Authority to acquire real estate. 211.2 Section 211.2...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS...CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2...

  14. Defining the Good Life Following Acquired Physical Disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana S. Dunn; Clint Brody

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide empirical and theoretical perspective on what attitudes and behaviors could constitute living a good life following acquired physical disability. We define the term \\

  15. Predictors of suicide attempt status: acquired capability, ideation, and reasons.

    PubMed

    Kene, Prachi; Hovey, Joseph D

    2014-12-01

    The present study compared Non-Attempters, Recent Attempters, and Distant Attempters on the following three constructs: Acquired capability for suicide, reasons for attempting suicide (internal perturbation based reasons vs. extrapunitive/manipulative reasons), and suicidal ideation. Participants were 40 Non-Attempters, 28 Recent Attempters, and 32 Distant Attempters at three state psychiatric hospitals. The sample consisted of 63 males and 37 females ranging in age from 18 to 63 years (M = 35.84, SD = 11.44). All patients completed the self-report measures. There were significant differences between the groups on suicidal ideation and acquired capability for suicide. The results of the present study indicate that acquired capability and reasons for attempting suicide have considerable importance for understanding suicide risk. Integration of acquired capability for suicide and reasons for attempting suicide into assessment and treatment is warranted. PMID:24942907

  16. Differential cargo mobilisation within Weibel-Palade bodies after transient fusion with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Kiskin, Nikolai I; Babich, Victor; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (? 2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis. PMID:25233365

  17. Differential Cargo Mobilisation within Weibel-Palade Bodies after Transient Fusion with the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kiskin, Nikolai I.; Babich, Victor; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J.; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (?2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis. PMID:25233365

  18. Competition of hospital-acquired and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in hospitals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn F. Webb; Mary Ann Horn; Erika M. C. DAgata; Robert C. Moellering Jr; Shigui Ruan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we [E.M.C. D'Agata, G.F. Webb, M.A. Horn, R.C. Moellering Jr., and S. Ruan, Modelling the invasion of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into the hospital setting, Clin. Infect. Dis. 48 (2009), pp. 274–284] proposed a deterministic mathematical model to characterize the factors contributing to the replacement of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) with the community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and to quantify

  19. Motor influences on judgment: Motor and cognitive integration.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Etienne; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Performing motor behaviours (arm flexion vs. extension) that correspond also to lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance have been previously shown to impact cognitive performance and judgment. Three experiments are reported that examined the combined effect of these variables, as a kind of motor integration, on the implementation of information integration rules in various judgment tasks: judging of a person's attractiveness from personality information, judging of the severity of health risk from alcohol and tobacco intake, and attributing blame to a perpetrator from information as to intent and severity of harm done. It was found that the congruence between these motivational activations consistently influenced the use of interactive information integration rules, compared to additive ones. This set of findings showed that cognitive rules might also be embodied. Motor integration affects cognitive integration in judgment. PMID:24387097

  20. Acquired hemophilia due to factor VIII inhibitors in 34 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Bossi; Jean Cabane; Jacques Ninet; Robin Dhote; Thomas Hanslik; Olivier Chosidow; Chrystel Jouan-Flahault; Marie-Hélène Horellou; Francisque Leynadier; Eric Liozon; Jacques Pouchot; Jean Pierre Robin; Frédéric Sanderson; Annette Schaeffer; Didier Sicard; Frédérik Staikowsky; Bertrand Wechsler; Robert Zittoun

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acquired hemophilia is a rare disease caused by the development of auto-antibodies against factor VIII.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the characteristics and outcomes of 34 patients (19 women and 15 men) with acquired hemophilia from 1980 to 1997.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61 years (range, 22–93 years). An underlying disease was observed in 18 (53%) patients: