Science.gov

Sample records for acrb crystallisation highlighted

  1. Perspectives on protein crystallisation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochi, T.; Stojanoff, V.; Bolanos-Garcia, V.M.; Moreno, A.

    2009-12-11

    This final part on 'perspectives' is focused on new strategies that can be used to crystallise proteins and improve the crystal quality of macromolecular complexes using any of the methods reviewed in this focused issue. Some advantages and disadvantages, limitations, and plausible applications to high-resolution X-ray crystallography are discussed.

  2. Substrate path in the AcrB multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fasahath; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, AcrAB-TolC, confers resistance to a wide variety of compounds. The drug molecule is captured by AcrB probably from the periplasm or the periplasm/inner membrane interface, and is passed through AcrB and then TolC to the medium. Currently there exist numerous crystallographic and mutation data concerning the regions of AcrB and its homologs that may interact with substrates. Starting with these data, we devised fluorescence assays in whole cells to determine the entire substrate path through AcrB. We tested 48 residues in AcrB along the predicted substrate path and 25 gave positive results, based on the covalent labeling of cysteine residues by a lipophilic dye-maleimide and the blocking of Nile Red efflux by covalent labeling with bulky maleimide reagents. These residues are all located in the periplasmic domain, in regions we designate as the lower part of the large external cleft, the cleft itself, the crystallographically defined binding pocket, and the gate between the pocket and the funnel. Our observations suggest that the substrate is captured in the lower cleft region of AcrB, then transported through the binding pocket, the gate, and finally to the AcrB funnel that connects AcrB to TolC. PMID:20804453

  3. Crystallisation driven by sedimentation: a particle resolved study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turci, Francesco; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effects of the reversal of the gravitational field onto a sedimented and partially crystallised suspension of nearly-hard sphere colloids. We analyse the structural changes that take place during the melting of the crystalline regions and the reorganisation and assembly of the sedimenting particles. Through a comparison with numerical simulation, we access the single-particle kinetics and identify the key structural mechanism in the competition between five-fold symmetric and cubic crystalline structures. With the use of a coarse-grained, discrete model, we reproduce the kinetic network of reactions underpinning crystallisation and highlight the main microscopic transitions.

  4. Detergents in Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Detergents play a significant role in structural and functional characterisation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). IMPs reside in the biological membranes and exhibit a great variation in their structural and physical properties. For in vitro biophysical studies, structural and functional analyses, IMPs need to be extracted from the membrane lipid bilayer environment in which they are found and purified to homogeneity while maintaining a folded and functionally active state. Detergents are capable of successfully solubilising and extracting the IMPs from the membrane bilayers. A number of detergents with varying structure and physicochemical properties are commercially available and can be applied for this purpose. Nevertheless, it is important to choose a detergent that is not only able to extract the membrane protein but also provide an optimal environment while retaining the correct structural and physical properties of the protein molecule. Choosing the best detergent for this task can be made possible by understanding the physical and chemical properties of the different detergents and their interaction with the IMPs. In addition, understanding the mechanism of membrane solubilisation and protein extraction along with crystallisation requirements, if crystallographic studies are going to be undertaken, can help in choosing the best detergent for the purpose. This chapter aims to present the fundamental properties of detergents and highlight information relevant to IMP crystallisation. The first section of the chapter reviews the physicochemical properties of detergents and parameters essential for predicting their behaviour in solution. The second section covers the interaction of detergents with the biologic membranes and proteins followed by their role in membrane protein crystallisation. The last section will briefly cover the types of detergent and their properties focusing on custom designed detergents for membrane protein studies. PMID:27553232

  5. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states [access (A), binding (B) and extrusion (E)] support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE to BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB. PMID:25918513

  6. Structures of Gate Loop Variants of the AcrB Drug Efflux Pump Bound by Erythromycin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli use tripartite efflux pumps such as AcrAB-TolC to expel antibiotics and noxious compounds. A key feature of the inner membrane transporter component, AcrB, is a short stretch of residues known as the gate/switch loop that divides the proximal and distal substrate binding pockets. Amino acid substitutions of the gate loop are known to decrease antibiotic resistance conferred by AcrB. Here we present two new AcrB gate loop variants, the first stripped of its bulky side chains, and a second in which the gate loop is removed entirely. By determining the crystal structures of the variant AcrB proteins in the presence and absence of erythromycin and assessing their ability to confer erythromycin tolerance, we demonstrate that the gate loop is important for AcrB export activity but is not required for erythromycin binding. PMID:27403665

  7. The degassing and crystallisation behaviour of basaltic lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegarth, L. J.; Tuffen, H.; Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Degassing is a fundamental volcanic process that can play a major role in controlling eruptive styles. Volatile loss during magma ascent and decompression increases the liquidus temperature of the residual melt, resulting in undercooling that can trigger crystallisation (1,2). Late-stage crystallisation and vesiculation are significant factors in controlling the eruptive behaviour of volcanoes of intermediate composition (2), but their effects on basaltic volcanic activity have yet to be fully investigated. We present the results of experiments designed to measure the degassing and crystallisation behaviour of volcanic rocks at temperatures up to 1250°C, using thermo-gravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry (TGA-DSC-MS). During TGA-DSC-MS analysis, volatiles released from a sample under a controlled heating programme are identified in a mass spectrometer whilst changes to the sample weight and heat flow are simultaneously recorded. By subjecting samples of basaltic lava and bombs to two heating cycles, we have shown that the onset of degassing (mass loss) is systematically followed by crystallisation (exothermic events) on the first heating cycle. During the second cycle, when the sample has been fully degassed, no mass loss or crystallisation are recorded. Our results also highlight complexities in the processes; in some cases up to four pulses of degassing and crystallisation have been identified during a single heating cycle. Our results allow us to measure the total volatile content of samples, the onset temperatures of degassing and crystallisation and the time lag between the two processes, and the enthalpy, hence percentage, of crystallisation taking place. These results have important implications for our understanding of basaltic volcanic eruptions. During effusive basaltic eruptions, lava can travel many kilometres, threatening property and infrastructure. The final areal flow extent is partly dependent on

  8. Crystallising Experiences among Young Elite Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Angela; Bailey, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Crystallising experiences are defined as memorable reactions an individual has to some quality or feature of an activity or domain that yields a long-term change in the individual performance and their view of themselves (Walters & Gardner, 1986; Freeman, 1999). This paper explores the nature and consequences of crystallising experiences from…

  9. Molecular Mechanism of MBX2319 Inhibition of Escherichia coli AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump and Comparison with Other Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Attilio V.; Ruggerone, Paolo; Opperman, Timothy J.; Nguyen, Son T.

    2014-01-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily, such as AcrB, make a major contribution to multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The development of inhibitors of the RND pumps would improve the efficacy of current and next-generation antibiotics. To date, however, only one inhibitor has been cocrystallized with AcrB. Thus, in silico structure-based analysis is essential for elucidating the interaction between other inhibitors and the efflux pumps. In this work, we used computer docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction between AcrB and the compound MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine efflux pump inhibitor with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of Enterobacteriaceae species, as well as other known inhibitors (D13-9001, 1-[1-naphthylmethyl]-piperazine, and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide) and the binding of doxorubicin to the efflux-defective F610A variant of AcrB. We also analyzed the binding of a substrate, minocycline, for comparison. Our results show that MBX2319 binds very tightly to the lower part of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB, strongly interacting with the phenylalanines lining the hydrophobic trap, where the hydrophobic portion of D13-9001 was found to bind by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, MBX2319 binds to AcrB in a manner that is similar to the way in which doxorubicin binds to the F610A variant of AcrB. In contrast, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide appear to bind to somewhat different areas of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB than does MBX2319. However, all inhibitors (except D13-9001) appear to distort the structure of the distal pocket, impairing the proper binding of substrates. PMID:25114133

  10. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call "transporter exchange." This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  11. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call “transporter exchange.” This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  12. Molecular basis for inhibition of AcrB multidrug efflux pump by novel and powerful pyranopyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sjuts, Hanno; Vargiu, Attilio V; Kwasny, Steven M; Nguyen, Son T; Kim, Hong-Suk; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Ornik, Alina R; Ruggerone, Paolo; Bowlin, Terry L; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pos, Klaas M; Opperman, Timothy J

    2016-03-29

    TheEscherichia coliAcrAB-TolC efflux pump is the archetype of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) exporters from Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of RND-type efflux pumps is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR), which makes these pumps important antibacterial drug discovery targets. We have recently developed novel pyranopyridine-based inhibitors of AcrB, which are orders of magnitude more powerful than the previously known inhibitors. However, further development of such inhibitors has been hindered by the lack of structural information for rational drug design. Although only the soluble, periplasmic part of AcrB binds and exports the ligands, the presence of the membrane-embedded domain in AcrB and its polyspecific binding behavior have made cocrystallization with drugs challenging. To overcome this obstacle, we have engineered and produced a soluble version of AcrB [AcrB periplasmic domain (AcrBper)], which is highly congruent in structure with the periplasmic part of the full-length protein, and is capable of binding substrates and potent inhibitors. Here, we describe the molecular basis for pyranopyridine-based inhibition of AcrB using a combination of cellular, X-ray crystallographic, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studies. The pyranopyridines bind within a phenylalanine-rich cage that branches from the deep binding pocket of AcrB, where they form extensive hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the increasing potency of improved inhibitors correlates with the formation of a delicate protein- and water-mediated hydrogen bond network. These detailed insights provide a molecular platform for the development of novel combinational therapies using efflux pump inhibitors for combating multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:26976576

  13. Correlation between AcrB trimer association affinity and efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cui; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lu, Wei; Zhong, Meng; Chai, Qian; Wei, Yinan

    2014-06-17

    The majority of membrane proteins function as oligomers. However, it remains largely unclear how the oligomer stability of protein complexes correlates with their function. Understanding the relationship between oligomer stability and activity is essential to protein research and to virtually all cellular processes that depend on the function of protein complexes. Proteins make lasting or transient interactions as they perform their functions. Obligate oligomeric proteins exist and function exclusively at a specific oligomeric state. Although oligomerization is clearly critical for such proteins to function, a direct correlation between oligomer affinity and biological activity has not yet been reported. Here, we used an obligate trimeric membrane transporter protein, AcrB, as a model to investigate the correlation between its relative trimer affinity and efflux activity. AcrB is a component of the major multidrug efflux system in Escherichia coli. We created six AcrB constructs with mutations at the transmembrane intersubunit interface, and we determined their activities using both a drug susceptibility assay and an ethidium bromide accumulation assay. The relative trimer affinities of these mutants in detergent micelles were obtained using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A correlation between the relative trimer affinity and substrate efflux activity was observed, in which a threshold trimer stability was required to maintain efflux activity. The trimer affinity of the wild-type protein was approximately 3 kcal/mol more stable than the threshold value. Once the threshold was reached, an additional increase of stability in the range observed had no observable effect on protein activity. PMID:24854514

  14. Microgravity protein crystallisation aboard the photon satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, Naomi E.

    1995-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase was used as a sample protein to determine whether the optimum conditions for crystallisation in microgravity were identical to those on Earth. The degree of reproducibility of the results in microgravity was also tested. The results showed that, comparing experiments performed in identical apparatus, the conditions for obtaining the largest crystals in microgravity were different from the optimal conditions on Earth. Crystal form, size, visual quality and the reproducibility of the results were no different from those on Earth. Crystallisation took place in the vapour diffusion set-up of the Russian Kashtan apparatus which flew on a Photon satellite (4-20 October 1991).

  15. On the reaction coordinate for seeded crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Small pre-structured seeds introduced into an undercooled fluid are known to increase the crystal nucleation rate by some orders of magnitude, if the structure of the seeds is commensurate with the bulk crystalline phase. The presence of such seeds also alters the crystallisation mechanism by favouring particular structures at the early stages of the nucleation process. Here, we study with computer simulations the effect of small face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic seeds on the crystallisation of a Lennard-Jones liquid in the strongly undercooled regime. We find that seeds with body-centred cubic structure lead to a larger enhancement of the crystallisation rate than face-centred cubic seeds. An analysis of recurrence times reveals that the size of the largest crystalline cluster used as reaction coordinate is affected by pronounced memory effects, which depend on the particular seed structure and point to the importance of structural information in the definition of a good reaction coordinate for crystallisation.

  16. Salt and ice crystallisation in porous sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedrich, Joerg; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2007-03-01

    Salt and ice crystallisation in the pore spaces causes major physical damage to natural building stones. The damaging effect of these processes can be traced back to physically induced stress inside of the rock while crystallizing. The increasing scientific research done during the past century has shown that there are numerous parameters that have an influence on the weathering resulting from these processes. However, the working mechanisms of the stress development within the rock and its material dependency are still subject to discussion. This article gives an overview of salt and ice weathering. Additionally, laboratory results of various sandstones examined are presented. Salt crystallisation tests and freeze/thaw tests were done to obtain information about how crystallisation weathering depends on material characteristics such as pore space, water transportation, and mechanical features. Simultaneous measuring of the length alternating during the salt and ice crystallisation has revealed detailed information on the development of crystal in the pore spaces as well as the development of stress. These findings can help to understand the damaging mechanisms.

  17. Stepwise substrate translocation mechanism revealed by free energy calculations of doxorubicin in the multidrug transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhicheng; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2015-01-01

    AcrB is the inner membrane transporter of the tripartite multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC in E. coli, which poses a major obstacle to the treatment of bacterial infections. X-ray structures have identified two types of substrate-binding pockets in the porter domains of AcrB trimer: the proximal binding pocket (PBP) and the distal binding pocket (DBP), and suggest a functional rotating mechanism in which each protomer cycles consecutively through three distinct conformational states (access, binding and extrusion). However, the details of substrate binding and translocation between the binding pockets remain elusive. In this work, we performed atomic simulations to obtain the free energy profile of the translocation of an antibiotic drug doxorubicin (DOX) inside AcrB. Our simulation indicates that DOX binds at the PBP and DBP with comparable affinities in the binding state protomer, and overcomes a 3 kcal/mol energy barrier to transit between them. Obvious conformational changes including closing of the PC1/PC2 cleft and shrinking of the DBP were observed upon DOX binding in the PBP, resulting in an intermediate state between the access and binding states. Taken together, the simulation results reveal a detailed stepwise substrate binding and translocation process in the framework of functional rotating mechanism. PMID:26365278

  18. The influence of cooling, crystallisation and re-melting on the interpretation of geodetic signals in volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, Luca; Biggs, Juliet; Annen, Catherine; Ebmeier, Susanna

    2014-02-01

    Deformation of volcanic edifices is typically attributed to the movement of magma within the volcanic plumbing system, but a wide range of magmatic processes are capable of producing significant volume variations and may also produce deformation. In order to understand the evolution of magmatic systems prior to eruption and correctly interpret monitoring signals, it is necessary to quantify the patterns and timescales of surface deformation that processes such as crystallisation, degassing and expansion of the hydrothermal system can produce. We show how the combination of petrology and thermal modelling can be applied to geodetic observations to identify the processes occurring in a magmatic reservoir during volcanic unrest. Thermal modelling and petrology were used to determine the timescales and volumetric variations associated with cooling, crystallisation and gas exsolution. These calculations can be performed rapidly and highlight the most likely processes responsible for the variation of a set of monitoring parameters. We then consider the magnitude and timescales of deformation produced by other processes occurring within the vicinity of an active magma system. We apply these models to a time series of geodetic data spanning the period between the 1997 and 2008 eruptions of Okmok volcano, Aleutians, examining scenarios involving crystallisation, degassing and remelting of the crystallising shallow magmatic body and including a viscoelastic shell or hydrothermal system. The geodetic observations are consistent with the injection of a water-saturated basalt, followed by minor crystallisation and degassing. Other scenarios are not compatible either with the magnitude or rate of the deformation signals.

  19. G-SIMS of crystallisable organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, I. S.; Seah, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the gentle SIMS (G-SIMS) concept has been applied to the crystallisable organic materials of Irganox 1010, caffeine, cholesterol, glucose, poly- L-lysine and bovine serum albumin. These are chosen to represent as wide a range of material types as possible. For each case, the G-SIMS spectra are considerably simpler than the static SIMS, enabling direct interpretation and identification. It is demonstrated that the amount of fragmentation in the mass spectrum may be controlled numerically and this information can be used to re-assemble the parent molecule. Wherever possible, the use of dual column ion beams is recommended to eliminate alignment requirements. Additionally, the total electron beam fluence should be kept below 6×10 18 electrons/m 2 to prevent electron damage.

  20. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for productionmore » in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.« less

  1. Promoting crystallisation of the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 pilin SefD using deuterium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Garnett, James A.; Lee, Wei-chao; Lin, Jing; Salgado, Paula; Taylor, Jonathan; Xu, Yingqi; Lambert, Sebastian; Cota, Ernesto; Matthews, Steve

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of D{sub 2}O in screening for crystallisation was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structures of the SefD pilin in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O reveal differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallisation improvements are explained by altered interactions in D{sub 2}O crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D{sub 2}O is useful additive in sparse-matrix screening for crystallisation. -- Abstract: The use of heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as a solvent is commonplace in many spectroscopic techniques for the study of biological macromolecules. A significant deuterium isotope effect exists where hydrogen-bonding is important, such as in protein stability, dynamics and assembly. Here we illustrate the use of D{sub 2}O in additive screening for the production of reproducible diffraction-quality crystals for the Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae 14 (SEF14) putative tip adhesin, SefD.

  2. Phosphorus removal using novel crystallisation technology.

    PubMed

    Wood, K; Wood, G; Prokop, D; Lewyille, F

    2006-01-01

    A soy protein manufacturing facility was faced with the challenge of reducing its effluent phosphorus (P) content from 20-50 mg L(-1) down to <2 mg L(-1) total P without increasing soluble salt levels to comply with discharge and receiving water requirements. A number of biological and chemical P removal technologies previously evaluated either failed to achieve the new standards or would have produced prohibitive amounts of residual sludge and unacceptably high effluent salt concentrations. Lime precipitation, utilising a novel crystallisation technology, was demonstrated through on-site pilot testing to meet the process objectives. It is capable of achieving the required P removal at pH 10 while not increasing soluble salts and producing rapid settling and filterable particles. Also, minimal carbonate removal was observed with residual solids generation being only 40% of a complete lime softening reaction. This paper describes the technical evaluation that led to the full-scale treatment system that was put into operation in late 2005. PMID:16889253

  3. Coupling of remote alternating-access transport mechanisms for protons and substrates in the multidrug efflux pump AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, Thomas; Seeger, Markus A; Anselmi, Claudio; Zhou, Wenchang; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Verrey, François; Diederichs, Kay; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-01-01

    Membrane transporters of the RND superfamily confer multidrug resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and are essential for cholesterol metabolism and embryonic development in humans. We use high-resolution X-ray crystallography and computational methods to delineate the mechanism of the homotrimeric RND-type proton/drug antiporter AcrB, the active component of the major efflux system AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli, and one most complex and intriguing membrane transporters known to date. Analysis of wildtype AcrB and four functionally-inactive variants reveals an unprecedented mechanism that involves two remote alternating-access conformational cycles within each protomer, namely one for protons in the transmembrane region and another for drugs in the periplasmic domain, 50 Å apart. Each of these cycles entails two distinct types of collective motions of two structural repeats, coupled by flanking α-helices that project from the membrane. Moreover, we rationalize how the cross-talk among protomers across the trimerization interface might lead to a more kinetically efficient efflux system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03145.001 PMID:25248080

  4. Crystallisation of minerals from concentrated saline dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Weeks, M; Chen, G; Gras, S; Kentish, S

    2016-09-15

    An understanding of crystallisation within saline effluents is important for the design of both brine crystallisers and brine disposal ponds. In this work, crystallisation of a saline effluent concentrate from the Australian dairy industry has been examined at 22 wt% and 30 wt% total solids and at temperatures between 10 and 70 °C. The precipitation occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures. This trend is dictated by precipitation of calcium phosphate salts, albeit the major constituents of the mixture are NaCl and lactose. The crystallisation induction time can be shortened by introducing cavitation induced by ultrasound. In particular, the use of two short acoustic pulses between 3.7 J/g and 16 J/g at 20 kHz spaced ten minutes apart has maximum impact upon both induction time and crystal size. It is believed that the first ultrasound pulse either generates new nuclei or enhances the mass transfer of solute toward the surface of sub-micron growing crystals. Conversely, the second pulse disrupts the growing crystals and forms secondary nuclei. The ultrasound cannot shift the solution equilibrium and so is not able to improve the low crystal yield. To increase this total yield, further evaporation is necessary. The work provides direction to personnel in the dairy industry of the feasibility of brine crystallisation with respect to energy demand and solid recovery. PMID:27267478

  5. Membrane Protein Crystallisation: Current Trends and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joanne L; Newstead, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Alpha helical membrane proteins are the targets for many pharmaceutical drugs and play important roles in physiology and disease processes. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in determining their atomic structure using X-ray crystallography. However, a major bottleneck still remains; the identification of conditions that give crystals that are suitable for structure determination. Over the past 10 years we have been analysing the crystallisation conditions reported for alpha helical membrane proteins with the aim to facilitate a rational approach to the design and implementation of successful crystallisation screens. The result has been the development of MemGold, MemGold2 and the additive screen MemAdvantage. The associated analysis, summarised and updated in this chapter, has revealed a number of surprisingly successfully strategies for crystallisation and detergent selection. PMID:27553235

  6. Switch-Loop Flexibility Affects Transport of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well transported than other substrates. PMID:24914123

  7. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  8. Kinetics of the reversible reaction of struvite crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Crutchik, D; Garrido, J M

    2016-07-01

    The crystallisation of struvite could be a sustainable and economical alternative for recovering phosphorus from wastewater streams with high phosphate concentrations. Knowledge regarding the kinetics and thermodynamics that are involved in the crystallisation of struvite is the key to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining an efficient process. This study was conducted in a continuous stirred batch reactor. Different sets of experiments were performed in which struvite was either dissolved (undersaturated) or precipitated (oversaturated). These experiments were conducted at different temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C) and pH values (8.2, 8.5 and 8.8) to determine the kinetics of struvite precipitation and dissolution. Struvite crystallisation was modelled as a reversible reaction. The kinetic rate parameters of struvite precipitation were 1.03·10(-4), 1.25·10(-4) and 1.54·10(-4) mol m(-2) min(-1) at 25, 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Similar kinetic rate parameters were determined for struvite dissolution. Struvite heterogeneous crystallisation can be represented by a first-order kinetic model that fitted well the experimental data. PMID:27085317

  9. Evidence of a Substrate-Discriminating Entrance Channel in the Lower Porter Domain of the Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pump AcrB.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Kern, Winfried V

    2016-07-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) transporter family, such as AcrB of Escherichia coli, play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance, but the molecular basis for their substrate promiscuity is not yet completely understood. From a collection of highly clarithromycin-resistant AcrB periplasmic domain mutants derived from in vitro random mutagenesis, we identified variants with an unusually altered drug resistance pattern characterized by increased susceptibility to many drugs of lower molecular weight, including fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and oxazolidinones, but unchanged or increased resistance to drugs of higher molecular weight, including macrolides. Sequencing of 14 such "divergent resistance" phenotype mutants and 15 control mutants showed that this unusual phenotype was associated with mutations at residues I38 and I671 predominantly to phenylalanine and threonine, respectively, both conferring a similar susceptibility pattern. Reconstructed I38F and I671T single mutants as well as an engineered I38F I671T double mutant with proved efflux competence revealed an equivalent phenotype with enhanced or unchanged resistance to many large AcrB substrates but increased susceptibility to several lower-molecular-weight drugs known to bind within the distal binding pocket. The two isoleucines located in close vicinity to each other in the lower porter domain of AcrB beneath the bottom of the proximal binding pocket may be part of a preferential small-drug entrance pathway that is compromised by the mutations. This finding supports recent indications of distinct entrance channels used by compounds with different physicochemical properties, of which molecular size appears to play a prominent role. PMID:27161641

  10. Enhancing tolerance to short-chain alcohols by engineering the Escherichia coli AcrB efflux pump to secrete the non-native substrate n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael A; Boyarskiy, Sergey; Yamada, Masaki R; Kong, Niwen; Bauer, Stefan; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2014-01-17

    The microbial conversion of sugars to fuels is a promising technology, but the byproducts of biomass pretreatment processes and the fuels themselves are often toxic at industrially relevant levels. One promising solution to these problems is to engineer efflux pumps to secrete fuels and inhibitory chemicals from the cell, increasing microbial tolerance and enabling higher fuel titer. Toward that end, we used a directed evolution strategy to generate variants of the Escherichia coli AcrB efflux pump that act on the non-native substrate n-butanol, enhancing growth rates of E. coli in the presence of this biofuel by up to 25%. Furthermore, these variants confer improved tolerance to isobutanol and straight-chain alcohols up to n-heptanol. Single amino acid changes in AcrB responsible for this phenotype were identified. We have also shown that both the chemical and genetic inactivation of pump activity eliminate the tolerance conferred by AcrB pump variants, supporting our assertion that the variants secrete the non-native substrates. This strategy can be applied to create an array of efflux pumps that modulate the intracellular concentrations of small molecules of interest to microbial fuel and chemical production. PMID:23991711

  11. Crystallisation of Ge nanoclusters in SiO 2 caused by electron irradiation in TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenkov, M.; Matz, W.; Nepijko, S. A.; Lehmann, M.

    2001-07-01

    Ge nanoparticles fabricated by ion implantation technique in SiO 2 thin film crystallise after irradiation with a high-energy electron beam. The crystallisation process depends on the irradiation fluence and flux. Irradiation with a fluence above 6×10 3 C/ cm2 results in cluster growth and above 4×10 4 C/ cm2 in crystallisation. An irradiation with flux below 150 A/cm 2 leads to the crystallisation of Ge nanoparticles in the form of single crystals. For irradiation flux above this value the formation of twinned and multiply twinned particles (MTP) was observed.

  12. An investigation of the effects of self-assembled monolayers on protein crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen-Yan; Shen, He-Fang; Wang, Qian-Jin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; He, Jin; Cao, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yong-Ming; Shang, Peng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Most protein crystallisation begins from heterogeneous nucleation; in practice, crystallisation typically occurs in the presence of a solid surface in the solution. The solid surface provides a nucleation site such that the energy barrier for nucleation is lower on the surface than in the bulk solution. Different types of solid surfaces exhibit different surface energies, and the nucleation barriers depend on the characteristics of the solid surfaces. Therefore, treatment of the solid surface may alter the surface properties to increase the chance to obtain protein crystals. In this paper, we propose a method to modify the glass cover slip using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of functional groups (methyl, sulfydryl and amino), and we investigated the effect of each SAM on protein crystallisation. The results indicated that both crystallisation success rate in a reproducibility study, and crystallisation hits in a crystallisation screening study, were increased using the SAMs, among which, the methyl-modified SAM demonstrated the most significant improvement. These results illustrated that directly modifying the crystallisation plates or glass cover slips to create surfaces that favour heterogeneous nucleation can be potentially useful in practical protein crystallisation, and the utilisation of a SAM containing a functional group can be considered a promising technique for the treatment of the surfaces that will directly contact the crystallisation solution. PMID:23749116

  13. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    SciTech Connect

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for production in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.

  14. Phosphorus removal from soy protein wastewater using novel crystallisation technology.

    PubMed

    Wood, K; Wood, G; Prokop, D; Lewyllie, F

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and implement a treatment method that would reduce the phosphorus (P) content of soy protein isolate manufacturing wastewater to an average of 2 mg L(-1) total P without increasing soluble salts in order to comply with discharge and receiving-water requirements. A novel crystallisation technology was evaluated through pilot studies that demonstrated these objectives could be met. Rapid settling (3.6 cm min(-1)) and filterable particles (65% filter cake dry solids content) were produced with lime precipitation at 10.0-10.2 pH in the high-aspect ratio, draft tube crystalliser (HARDTAC). Crystal growth in the full-scale system has yielded mean particle sizes of >60 microm. Also, minimal carbonate removal resulted in residual sludge generation of 0.6-0.8 g and lime consumption of 0.40-0.75 g per litre treated, which is substantially less than with a complete softening reaction. This paper describes the technical evaluation and full-scale treatment system that has been in operation since late 2005. PMID:17564367

  15. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is an annual publication documenting developments in the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)'s research programs for the previous year. The 2004 edition highlights research on the following themes: (1) Helping international schools measure achievement; (2) Evaluating Australian teachers; (3) Tests of reading…

  16. Coalescence-induced crystallisation wave in Pd nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Cassidy, Cathal; Singh, Vidyadhar; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2014-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles offer an attractive alternative to bulk palladium for catalysis, hydrogen storage and gas sensing applications. Their performance depends strongly on surface structure; therefore, nanoparticle coalescence can play an important role, as it determines the resultant structure of the active sites where reactions (e.g. catalysis) actually take place, i.e. facets, edges, vertices or protrusions. With this in mind, we performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and magnetron-sputtering inert gas condensation depositions of palladium nanoparticles, supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), to study the mechanisms that govern their coalescence. Surface energy minimisation drove the interactions initially, leading to the formation of an interface/neck, as expected. Intriguingly, at a later stage, atomic rearrangements triggered a crystallisation wave propagating through the amorphous nanoparticles, leading to mono- or polycrystalline fcc structures. In the case of crystalline nanoparticles, almost-epitaxial alignment occurred and the formation of twins and surface protrusions were observed. PMID:25047807

  17. An X-ray diffraction analysis of crystallised whey and whey-permeate powders.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, Justin; Ibach, Alexander; Eichhorn, Klaus; Kind, Matthias

    2007-11-26

    Amorphous whey, whey-permeate and lactose powders have been crystallised at various air temperatures and humidities, and these crystallised powders have been examined using X-ray diffraction. The most stable lactose crystal under normal storage conditions, alpha-lactose monohydrate, forms preferentially in whey and whey-permeate powders at 50 degrees C, provided sufficient moisture is available, whereas anhydrous beta-lactose and mixed anhydrous lactose crystals, which are unstable under normal storage conditions, form preferentially at 90 degrees C. Thus, faster crystallisation at higher temperatures is offset by the formation of lactose-crystal forms that are less stable under normal storage conditions. Very little alpha-lactose monohydrate crystallised in the pure lactose powders over the range of temperatures and humidities tested, because the crystallisation of alpha- and beta-lactose is considerably more rapid than the mutarotation of beta- to alpha-lactose in the amorphous phase and the hydration of alpha-lactose during crystallisation. Protein and salts hinder the crystallisation process, which provides more time for mutarotation and crystal hydration in the whey and whey-permeate powders. PMID:17719020

  18. Three ways in, one way out: water dynamics in the trans-membrane domains of the inner membrane translocase AcrB.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nadine; Kandt, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Powered by proton-motive force, the inner membrane translocase AcrB is the engine of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in Escherichia coli. As proton conduction in proteins occurs along hydrogen-bonded networks of polar residues and water molecules, knowledge of the protein-internal water distribution and water-interacting residues allows drawing conclusions to possible pathways of proton conduction. Here, we report a series of 6× 50 ns independent molecular dynamics simulations of asymmetric AcrB embedded in a phospholipid/water environment. Simulating each monomer in its proposed protonation state, we calculated for each trans-membrane domain the average water distribution, identified residues interacting with these waters and quantified each residue's frequency of water hydrogen bond contact. Combining this information we find three possible routes of proton transfer connecting a continuously hydrated region of known key residues in the TMD interior to bulk water by one cytoplasmic and up to three periplasm water channels in monomer B and A. We find that water access of the trans-membrane domains is regulated by four groups of residues in a combination of side chain re-orientations and shifts of trans-membrane helices. Our findings support a proton release event via Arg971 during the C intermediate or in the transition to A, and proton uptake occurring in the A or B state or during a so far unknown intermediate in between B and C where cytoplasmic water access is still possible. Our simulations suggest experimentally testable hypotheses, which have not been investigated so far. PMID:21905112

  19. Brilliant crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space following adjunctive intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine; Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Ho, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    To report a unique case of crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space in a Malay lady following inadvertent subretinal injection of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23093508

  20. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 μm). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy. PMID:24128537

  1. Brilliant crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space following adjunctive intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine; Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Ho, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    To report a unique case of crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space in a Malay lady following inadvertent subretinal injection of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23093508

  2. Isotopic composition of water of crystallisation of sulfates of Permian-Triassic age, Eastern Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bojar, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The investigated sulfates as gypsum and polyhalite were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Central Alpine Mesozoic. The two units of the Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of Permian-Triassic evaporitic deposits. Crystallisation water of mineral phases was extracted by heating the samples under vacuum. The cryogenically trapped water was subsequently analysed for delta 18O and delta D on a Picarro L2120-i Analyzer. The isotopic compositions were synchronously measured, with a standard deviation better than 0.1 permil. The fractionation factors for both oxygen and hydrogen between brine where the sulfates formed and crystallisation water of sulfates are not temperature dependent. Using the appropriate relationships, we conclude from the calculations that, for gypsum, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of fluid in equilibrium with crystallisation water varied between -16 to -6 permil and between -90 to -25 permil, respectively. The crystallization water of gypsum associated with halite type deposits has heavier isotopic compositions. The isotopic composition of crystallisation water of gypsum points towards reequilibration with a younger meteoric fluid. In contrast, polyhalite crystallisation water show much heavier values between +10 to +11 permil for oxygen and +16 to +19 permil for hydrogen. These values suggest the fact that this water of crystallisation indicates the isotopic composition of brines. The origin of these brines, diagenetic versus later thermal overprint is subject of further investigations. All the measured values plot along a regression line.

  3. Target selection for structural genomics based on combining fold recognition and crystallisation prediction methods: application to the human proteome.

    PubMed

    Bray, James E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to automatically identify regions of the human proteome that are suitable for 3D structure determination by X-ray crystallography and to annotate them according to their likelihood to produce diffraction quality crystals. The results provide a powerful tool for structural genomics laboratories who wish to select human proteins based on the statistical likelihood of crystallisation success. Combining fold recognition and crystallisation prediction algorithms enables the efficient calculation of the crystallisability of the entire human proteome. This novel study estimates that there are approximately 40,000 crystallisable regions in the human proteome. Currently, only 15% of these regions (approx. 6,000 sequences) have been solved to at least 95% sequence identity. The remaining unsolved regions have been categorised into 5 crystallisation classes and an integral membrane protein (IMP) class, based on established structure prediction, crystallisation prediction and transmembrane (TM) helix prediction algorithms. Approximately 750 unsolved regions (2% of the proteome) have been identified as having a PDB fold representative (template) and an 'optimal' likelihood of crystallisation. At the other end of the spectrum, more than 10,500 non-IMP regions with a PDB template are classified as 'very difficult' to crystallise (26%) and almost 2,500 regions (6%) were predicted to contain at least 3 TM helices. The 3D-SPECS (3D Structural Proteomics Explorer with Crystallisation Scores) website contains crystallisation predictions for the entire human proteome and can be found at http://www.bioinformaticsplus.org/3dspecs. PMID:22354707

  4. Geochemical variability in MORB controlled by concurrent mixing and crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorttle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    The isotopic and elemental diversity in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) traces the history of mantle differentiation, recycling and convective stirring. However, to interpret this record it is critical to account for the magma transport and storage processes modifying the primary geochemical variability of mantle derived melts. Magma mixing during low pressure differentiation is a key petrological process that controls the chemical variability of basalts throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system. Mixing occurs concurrent with crystallisation and must in general be dominant over any assimilatory processes in controlling the chemical evolution of basalts with MgO concentrations >5 wt% MgO. The effect of this mixing is to collapse the diversity of melt compositions leaving the mantle into the narrow range expressed in most mid-ocean ridge settings. In this context magma mixing can be viewed as contaminating the variance structure of primitive mantle melts, which leads to irreversible information loss on the sources and processes involved in melt generation unless primitive, unmixed, liquids and crystal phases are erupted. However, where we can track magma mixing, the homogenisation itself offers the potential to be an important petrological tool, which constrains the storage and transport processes magma experiences during its ascent through the mantle and crust. In the global dataset interrogated here systematic mixing trends are visible up to the length scales of first order ridge segmentation (∼300 km), indicating the possible links between surface tectonics and the record of mantle heterogeneity in basalts. The importance of magma mixing at mid-ocean ridges hints at the need to reevaluate the MORB-ocean island basalt chemical dichotomy, given the poorly understood mixing processes operating during intraplate magma transport from mantle to surface.

  5. Infrared thermography monitoring of the NaCl crystallisation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Patricia; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Fronteau, Gilles; Gommeaux, Maxime; Benavente, David; Barbin, Vincent; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we describe the growth of NaCl crystals by evaporating droplets of aqueous solution while monitoring them with infrared thermography. Over the course of the evaporation experiments, variations in the recorded signal were observed and interpreted as being the result of evaporation and crystallisation. In particular, we observed sharp and transient decreases in the thermosignal during the later stages of high-concentration drop evaporation. The number of such events per experiment, referred to as "pop-cold events", varied from 1 to over 100 and had durations from 1 to 15 s. These events are interpreted as a consequence from the top-supplied creeping (TSC) of the solution feeding the growth of efflorescence-like crystals. This phenomenon occurred when the solution was no longer macroscopically visible. In this case, efflorescence-like crystals with a spherulite shape grew around previously formed cubic crystals. Other crystal morphologies were also observed but were likely fed by mass diffusion or bottom-supplied creeping (BSC) and were not associated with "pop-cold events"; these morphologies included the cubic crystals at the centre, ring-shaped at the edge of droplets and fan-shaped crystals. After complete evaporation, an analysis of the numbers and sizes of the different types of crystals was performed using image processing. Clear differences in their sizes and distribution were observed in relation to the salt concentration. Infrared thermography permitted a level of quantification that previously was only possible using other techniques. As example, the intermittent efflorescence growth process was clearly observed and measured for the first time using infrared thermography.

  6. Development of a solvate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient: Developability, crystallisation and isolation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, Julien; Stevenson, Neil; Lee, Mei; Mallet, Franck; Ward, Richard; Aspin, Peter; Dennehy, Daniel Robert; Camus, Laure

    2012-03-01

    The preclinical development of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) begins with the selection of a solid state form. A solvate may be selected for development if it is sufficiently stable and if the solvent quantity administered to the patient is lower than the tolerated potential daily exposure (PDE). The selection and process development of a solvate is presented here. The initial crystallisation process gave poor control over the particle size distribution (PSD) and inclusion of additional crystallisation solvent in the crystal lattice. These two API attributes were controlled using micronised seeds and optimising the crystallisation conditions. After filtration, slurry washing with a second solvent was used to replace the high boiling point crystallisation solvent to improve the drying efficiency. The slurry washing was modelled and studied in the laboratory to control the level of unbound crystallisation solvent in the API. The API desolvation during slurry washing was studied by considering thermodynamics, by construction of the ternary phase diagram, and kinetics aspects. This work provides useful approaches and considerations to assess the risks specific to the controlled production of a solvate that are rarely presented in the literature.

  7. Micro-sphere model for strain-induced crystallisation and three-dimensional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilié, J.; Le, Thien-Nga; Le Tallec, P.

    2015-08-01

    Strain-crystallising rubber exhibits interesting properties: for instance, fatigue lifetime is known to be modified by this microstructural evolution which dissipates energy and creates a strong anisotropic reinforcement. We develop herein a micro-sphere 3D constitutive model for such strain-crystallising rubber. It is based on a simplified 1D micromechanical model that we extend with a micro-sphere approach to a full thermodynamically consistent evolutive anisotropic model. A specific numerical strategy is then proposed. The model is assessed on several significative configurations and reproduces the main experimental features while predicting the evolution of anisotropy as a function of the loading history. We finally show that it can also predict the crystallised zone in front of a mode I crack.

  8. Utilisation of adsorption and desorption for simultaneously improving protein crystallisation success rate and crystal quality.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Sun, Li-Hua; Oberthuer, Dominik; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Shi, Jian-Yu; Di, Jiang-Lei; Zhang, Bao-Liang; Cao, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Jian; Wang, Qian; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Jun; Schulz, Jan-Mirco; Zhang, Qiu-Yu; Zhao, Jian-Lin; Betzel, Christian; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    High-quality protein crystals of suitable size are an important prerequisite for applying X-ray crystallography to determine the 3-dimensional structure of proteins. However, it is often difficult to obtain protein crystals of appropriate size and quality because nucleation and growth processes can be unsuccessful. Here, we show that by adsorbing proteins onto porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene microspheres (SDB) floating on the surface of the crystallisation solution, a localised high supersaturation region at the surface of the microspheres and a low supersaturation region below the microspheres can coexist in a single solution. The crystals will easily nucleate in the region of high supersaturation, but when they grow to a certain size, they will sediment to the region of low supersaturation and continue to grow. In this way, the probability of crystallisation and crystal quality can be simultaneously increased in a single solution without changing other crystallisation parameters. PMID:25471817

  9. Expression of homologous RND efflux pump genes is dependent upon AcrB expression: implications for efflux and virulence inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.; Smith, Helen E.; Ricci, Vito; Lawler, Amelia J.; Thompson, Louisa J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterobacteriaceae have multiple efflux pumps that confer intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. AcrB mediates clinically relevant multidrug resistance and is required for virulence and biofilm formation, making it an attractive target for the design of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of single transporters as a target for efflux inhibition using Salmonella Typhimurium as the model pathogen. Methods The expression of resistance–nodulation–division (RND) efflux pump genes in response to the inactivation of single or multiple homologues was measured using real-time RT–PCR. Phenotypes of mutants were characterized by measuring antimicrobial susceptibility, dye accumulation and the ability to cause infection in vitro. Results The expression of all RND efflux pump genes was increased when single or multiple acr genes were inactivated, suggesting a feedback mechanism that activates the transcription of homologous efflux pump genes. When two or three acr genes were inactivated, the mutants had further reduced efflux, altered susceptibility to antimicrobials (including increased susceptibility to some, but conversely and counterintuitively, decreased susceptibility to some others) and were more attenuated in the tissue culture model than mutants lacking single pumps were. Conclusions These data indicate that it is critical to understand which pumps an inhibitor is active against and the effect of this on the expression of homologous systems. For some antimicrobials, an inhibitor with activity against multiple pumps will have a greater impact on susceptibility, but an unintended consequence of this may be decreased susceptibility to other drugs, such as aminoglycosides. PMID:25288678

  10. ESA's Research on Growing from Solutions in Microgravity: The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility and Future Prospects with the Solution Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, V.; Mazzoni, S.; Minster, O.; Potthast, L.

    The Protein Crystallization Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) is an instrument developed by Astrium under an ESA contract to observe and study nucleation and crystallisation processes of molecules from solutions in long duration microgravity experiments on board the International Space Station using advanced diagnostics. The experiment PROTEIN, performed with PCDF, aimed at unravelling physical processes and relating the formation of defects in crystals to their growth conditions. This PCDF experiment was performed on the ISS in 2009, integrated in the European Drawer Rack. The PCDF mission was an important milestone and a basis for future experiments. On the occasion of the 2004 Announcement of Opportunity, new proposals in crystallisation and growth have been selected, which targeted a broader range of systems like synthetic zeolites and model colloidal systems. The preparatory activities within the relevant Topical Teams identified a common need for scattering techniques, ranging from traditional state of the art dynamic and static light scattering to sophisticated multi-speckle techniques based on multipixel sensors. This led to the idea of upgrading the process unit of PCDF with a set of diagnostic techniques and interfaces adapted to investigations on zeolites, and to study the possibility of developing a new instrument for studying colloidal structures. The feasibility study of these instruments, called respectively Solution Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility (SCDF) for zeolites and for colloids, has been recently completed, aiming at a consolidated instrument design and development with a plan to upload it in ISS tentatively in 2013. A general overview of present and future activities in aggregation and crystallisation are presented. Starting with the first results from the PCDF mission, the planned future experiments in SCDF will be discussed along with a detailed description of the instrument capabilities.

  11. Image analysis of palm oil crystallisation as observed by hot stage microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Peter D.; Smith, Kevin W.; Bhaggan, Krishnadath; Stapley, Andrew G. F.

    2016-06-01

    An image processing algorithm previously used to analyse the crystallisation of a pure fat (tripalmitin) has been applied to the crystallisation of a multicomponent natural fat (palm oil). In contrast to tripalmitin, which produced circular crystals with a constant growth rate, palm oil produced speckled crystals caused by the inclusion of entrapped liquid, and growth rates gradually decreased with time. This can be explained by the depletion of crystallisable material in the liquid phase, whereas direct impingement of crystals (the basis of the Avrami equation) was less common. A theoretical analysis combining this depletion with assuming that the growth rate is proportional to the supersaturation of a crystallisable pseudo-component predicted a tanh function variation of radius with time. This was generally able to provide good fits to the growth curves. It was found that growth rate was a relatively mild function of temperature but also varied from crystal to crystal and even between different sides of the same crystal, which may be due to variations in composition within the liquid phase. Nucleation rates were confirmed to vary approximately exponentially with decreasing temperature, resulting in much greater numbers of crystals and a smaller final average crystal size at lower temperatures.

  12. Use of extension-deformation-based crystallisation of silk fibres to differentiate their functions in nature.

    PubMed

    Numata, Keiji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Sasaki, Sono; Sekiyama, Kazuhide; Takata, Masaki

    2015-08-21

    β-Sheet crystals play an important role in determining the stiffness, strength, and optical properties of silk and in the exhibition of silk-type-specific functions. It is important to elucidate the structural changes that occur during the stretching of silk fibres to understand the functions of different types of fibres. Herein, we elucidate the initial crystallisation behaviour of silk molecules during the stretching of three types of silk fibres using synchrotron radiation X-ray analysis. When spider dragline silk was stretched, it underwent crystallisation and the alignment of the β-sheet crystals became disordered initially but was later recovered. On the other hand, silkworm cocoon silk did not exhibit further crystallisation, whereas capture spiral silk was predominantly amorphous. Structural analyses showed that the crystallisation of silks following extension deformation has a critical effect on their mechanical and optical properties. These findings should aid the production of artificial silk fibres and facilitate the development of silk-inspired functional materials. PMID:26166211

  13. Timing of Crystallisation of the Lunar Magma Ocean Constrained by the Oldest Zircon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A.; Timms, N.; Pidgeon, R.; Geisler, T.; Reddy, S.; Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The presently favoured concept for the early evolution of the Moon involves consolidation of debris from a giant impact of a Mars sized body with Earth forming a primitive Moon with a thick global layer of melt referred to as the Lunar Magma Ocean1 . It is widely accepted that many significant features observed on the Moon today are the result of crystallisation of this magma ocean. However, controversy exists over the precise timing and duration of the crystallisation process. Resolution of this problem depends on the establishment of precise and robust key crystallisation time points. We report a 4417 6 Myr old zircon in lunar breccia sample 72215,195, which provides a precisely determined younger limit for the solidification of the Lunar Magma Ocean. A model based on these data, together with the age of the Moon forming giant impact, defines an exponential time frame for crystallisation and suggests formation of anorthositic crust after about 80-85% of the magma ocean was solidified. In combination with other zircon ages the 4417 +/- 6 Myr age also suggests that the very small (less than a few per cent) residual portion of the magma ocean continued to solidify during the following 300-500 m.y.

  14. Studies of isothermal crystallisation kinetics of sunflower hard stearin-based confectionery fats.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Levin, Madeline; Martínez-Blanes, Jose M; Real, Concepción; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2013-08-15

    The crystallisation and polymorphic properties of three sunflower hard stearins (SHSs) and cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) formulated by blending SHSs and palm mid fraction (PMF) were studied and compared with those from cocoa butter (CB), to explore their possibilities as confectionery fats. The isothermal crystallisation kinetics of these fats were examined by pNMR and DSC at three different temperatures. All samples studied displayed a two-step crystallisation profile that could be fitted to an exponential-Gompertz equation. Stop-and-return DSC studies showed that SHSs and CBEs exhibited different crystallisation mechanisms according to their triacylglycerol composition, with a quick formation of metastable crystals, followed by a polymorphic transition to the more stable β or β' forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the polymorphic forms of tempered SHSs and CBEs in the long term. In all cases the resulting fats displayed short spacing patterns associated with β polymorphism. These formulations based on SHSs and PMF met all the requirements to be considered as CBEs; therefore they could be used as an alternative to traditional confectionery fats. PMID:23561095

  15. Cation effects during aggregation and agglomeration of gibbsite particles under synthetic Bayer crystallisation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestidge, Clive A.; Ametov, Igor

    2000-02-01

    Rheological methods have been used to study the influence of the liquor cation (sodium versus potassium) on the time-dependent gibbsite particle interactions that occur during Bayer process crystallisation. The temperature, supersaturation and seeding levels investigated simulate those experienced in industrial crystallisers. Gibbsite agglomeration was shown to occur by reversible aggregation followed by irreversible cementation. These two sub-steps were individually characterised by careful choice of seed surface area and liquor supersaturation during batch crystallisation. At seed loading levels less than 10% w/w aggregates are rapidly cemented into agglomerates, this is more pronounced in sodium- than potassium-based liquors. These suspensions were Newtonian and the extent of agglomeration correlated with their viscosity. At seed loading levels greater than 20% w/w particle aggregation resulted in extensively time-dependent and non-Newtonian rheology. However, the aggregates did not undergo cementation into agglomerates and no irreversible size enlargement was evident. Yield stress development with time was used to probe the kinetics of aggregation and quantify the particle interaction behaviour. The rate and extent of the particle network formation is more pronounced in sodium rather than potassium-based liquors, supersaturation dependent, alkali concentration dependent, but only weakly temperature dependent. These findings are discussed with respect to the chemical and physical mechanisms of agglomeration in Bayer crystallisation and the role of cation.

  16. Thermodynamic modelling of a membrane distillation crystallisation process for the treatment of mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Jeeten; Randall, Dyllon Garth

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) could be applicable in zero liquid discharge applications. This is due to the fact that MD is applicable at high salinity ranges which are generally outside the scope of reverse osmosis (RO) applications, although this requires proper management of precipitating salts to avoid membrane fouling. One way of managing these salts is with MD crystallisation (MDC). This paper focuses on the applicability of MDC for the treatment of mining wastewater by thermodynamically modelling the aqueous chemistry of the process at different temperatures. The paper is based on the typical brine generated from an RO process in the South African coal mining industry and investigates the effect water recovery and operating temperature have on the salts that are predicted to crystallise out, the sequence in which they will crystallise out and purities as a function of the water recovery. The study confirmed the efficacy of using thermodynamic modelling as a tool for investigating and predicting the crystallisation aspects of the MDC process. The key finding from this work was that, for an MDC process, a purer product can be obtained at higher operating temperatures and recoveries because of the inverse solubility of calcium sulphate. PMID:26877038

  17. Strong Isotope Effects on Melting Dynamics and Ice Crystallisation Processes in Cryo Vitrification Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kirichek, Oleg; Soper, Alan; Dzyuba, Boris; Callear, Sam; Fuller, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of crystalline ice during cooling, and further crystallization processes during re-warming are considered to be key processes determining the success of low temperature storage of biological objects, as used in medical, agricultural and nature conservation applications. To avoid these problems a method, termed vitrification, is being developed to inhibit ice formation by use of high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling, but this is only successful across a limited number of biological objects and in small volume applications. This study explores physical processes of ice crystal formation in a model cryoprotective solution used previously in trials on vitrification of complex biological systems, to improve our understanding of the process and identify limiting biophysical factors. Here we present results of neutron scattering experiments which show that even if ice crystal formation has been suppressed during quench cooling, the water molecules, mobilised during warming, can crystallise as detectable ice. The crystallisation happens right after melting of the glass phase formed during quench cooling, whilst the sample is still transiting deep cryogenic temperatures. We also observe strong water isotope effects on ice crystallisation processes in the cryoprotectant mixture. In the neutron scattering experiment with a fully protiated water component, we observe ready crystallisation occurring just after the glass melting transition. On the contrary with a fully deuteriated water component, the process of crystallisation is either completely or substantially supressed. This behaviour might be explained by nuclear quantum effects in water. The strong isotope effect, observed here, may play an important role in development of new cryopreservation strategies. PMID:25815751

  18. Hen egg-white lysozyme crystallisation: protein stacking and structure stability enhanced by a Tellurium(VI)-centred polyoxotungstate.

    PubMed

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan G; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-19

    As synchrotron radiation becomes more intense, detectors become faster and structure-solving software becomes more elaborate, obtaining single crystals suitable for data collection is now the bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. Hence, there is a need for novel and advanced crystallisation agents with the ability to crystallise proteins that are otherwise challenging. Here, an Anderson-Evans-type polyoxometalate (POM), specifically Na6 [TeW6 O24 ]⋅22 H2 O (TEW), is employed as a crystallisation additive. Its effects on protein crystallisation are demonstrated with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL), which co-crystallises with TEW in the vicinity (or within) the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) region. The X-ray structure (PDB ID: 4PHI) determination revealed that TEW molecules are part of the crystal lattice, thus demonstrating specific binding to HEWL with electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The negatively charged TEW polyoxotungstate binds to sites with a positive electrostatic potential located between two (or more) symmetry-related protein chains. Thus, TEW facilitates the formation of protein-protein interfaces of otherwise repulsive surfaces, and thereby the realisation of a stable crystal lattice. In addition to retaining the isomorphicity of the protein structure, the anomalous scattering of the POMs was used for macromolecular phasing. The results suggest that hexatungstotellurate(VI) has great potential as a crystallisation additive to promote both protein crystallisation and structure elucidation. PMID:25521080

  19. Mechanism and modelling of aluminium nanoparticle oxidation coupled with crystallisation of amorphous Al2O3 shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chengdong; Yu, Dan; Li, Shuiqing; Yao, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of aluminium nanoparticles coupled with crystallisation of amorphous alumina shell is investigated through the thermogravimetric analyser and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermogravimetric (TG) curves show stepwise shapes with temperature increase and could be divided into four stages. The reaction at the second stage is complex, including the simultaneous crystallisation of amorphous alumina (am-Al2O3) and Al oxidation. The crystallisation of am-Al2O3 promotes the reaction through generating fast diffusion channels, like micro-cracks and grain boundaries in the oxide shell to accelerate the ionic diffusion. An enhancement factor (freact), which follows a power-law formula with the crystallisation rate, is introduced to quantify the impact of crystallisation on reaction. With heating rate increase, the second stage of TG curves shifts to the high temperature regime and the total weight gain at the second stage decreases slowly. A crystallisation-reaction model is constructed to fit and predict the weight gain after derivation of diffusivities and crystallisation kinetics. Modelling indicates that with heating rate rise, the mass increment at the second stage of TG curves decreases owing to the reduced reaction time, although the reaction is accelerated. The shift of TG curve to higher temperature is due to the polymorphic phase transition. Actually the derived kinetics of the crystallisation of amorphous alumina indicates that the polymorphic phase transformation mechanism works mainly below the heating rate of 3 K s-1. At higher heating rate, the melting of Al takes place firstly and the crystallisation of am-Al2O3 follows to enhance the ionic diffusion. Therefore, when the heating rate is fast during ignition or combustion, the Al nanoparticles undergo both the melting of Al and the polymorphic phase transition of am-Al2O3 to accelerate the reaction.

  20. Approaches to determine the enthalpy of crystallisation, and amorphous content, of lactose from isothermal calorimetric data.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Sarah E; Buckton, Graham; Gaisford, Simon; Ramos, Rita

    2004-10-13

    Amorphous lactose will crystallise rapidly if its glass transition temperature is reduced below its storage temperature. This is readily achieved by storing samples at ambient temperature and a relative humidity (RH) of greater than 50%. If the sample is monitored in an isothermal microcalorimeter as it crystallises, the heat changes associated with the event can be measured; indeed this is one of the methods used to quantify the amorphous content of powders and formulations. However, variations in the calculation methods used to determine these heat changes have led to discrepancies in the values reported in the literature and frequently make comparison of data from different sources difficult. Data analysis and peak integration software allow the selection and integration of specific areas of complex traces with great reproducibility; this has led to the observation that previously ignored artefacts are in fact of sufficient magnitude to affect calculated enthalpies. In this work a number of integration methodologies have been applied to the analysis of amorphous spray-dried lactose, crystallised under 53 or 75% RH at 25 degrees C. The data allowed the selection of a standard methodology from which reproducible heat changes could be determined. The method was subsequently applied to the analysis of partially amorphous lactose samples (containing 1-100% (w/w) amorphous content) allowing the quantification limit of the technique to be established. It was found that the best approach for obtaining reproducible results was (i) to crystallise under an RH of 53%, because this slowed the crystallisation response allowing better experimental measurement and (ii) to integrate all the events occurring in the ampoule, rather than trying to select only that region corresponding to crystallisation, since it became clear that the processes occurring in the cell overlapped and could not be deconvoluted. The technique was able to detect amorphous contents as low as 1% (w

  1. The Rustenburg Layered Suite (Bushveld Complex) crystallised in less than 1.5 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, Armin; Ovtcharova, Maria; Wilson, Allan; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    The timing and crystallisation of the ca. 2.055 Ga old Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) of the Bushveld Complex is the subject of ongoing debate. The RLS represents one of the Earth's oldest large igneous provinces, and contains the world's largest reserves of PGE, chromium and vanadium. Previous high-precision U-Pb zircon dating indicated periodic crystallisation over an interval of 5.2 ± 0.79 Ma, with zircon crystallisation events at 2060.5 Ma, below the UG2 chromitite, and at 2055.3 Ma from the Merensky Reef (MR) upwards in the succession (Scoates & Friedman, 2008; Scoates et. al., 2012). Such a prolonged and periodic crystallisation history, however, contradicts field observations and petrological data, which rather require a relatively fast and continuous crystallisation process, periodically interrupted by new magma replenishment (Eales & Cawthorn, 1996; Cawthorn & Walraven, 1998). Here, we present new data from high-precision U-Pb dating, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and mineral inclusion studies that support this latter interpretation. Our data indicate that zircon crystallised from highly fractionated, silica-saturated intercumulus melts at temperatures between 890 and 700°C most likely continuously from the base of the RLS (Marginal Zone) to the top (Upper Zone), within 0.92 ± 0.57 Ma, between 2055.81 ± 0.20 and 2054.89 ± 0.37 Ma. References Eales, H. V. & Cawthorn, R. G. (1996). The Bushveld Complex, in Layered Intrusions (ed. Cawthorn, R. G.) 181-229 (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam). Cawthorn, R. G. & Walraven, F. (1998). Emplacement and crystallization time for the Bushveld Complex. J. Petrol. 39, 1669-1687. Scoates, J. S. & Friedman, R. M. (2008). Precise age of the platiniferous Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, by the U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion ID-TIMS technique. Econ. Geol. 103, 465-471. Scoates, J. S., Wall, C. J., Friedman, R. M., VanTongeren, J. A. & Mathez, E. A (2012). Age of the Bushveld Complex. Abstr. Goldschmidt Conference

  2. Computer simulations suggest direct and stable tip to tip interaction between the outer membrane channel TolC and the isolated docking domain of the multidrug RND efflux transporter AcrB.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas H; Raunest, Martin; Fischer, Nadine; Reith, Dirk; Kandt, Christian

    2016-07-01

    One way by which bacteria achieve antibiotics resistance is preventing drug access to its target molecule for example through an overproduction of multi-drug efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) protein super family of which AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli is a prominent example. Although representing one of the best studied efflux systems, the question of how AcrB and TolC interact is still unclear as the available experimental data suggest that either both proteins interact in a tip to tip manner or do not interact at all but are instead connected by a hexamer of AcrA molecules. Addressing the question of TolC-AcrB interaction, we performed a series of 100 ns - 1 µs-molecular dynamics simulations of membrane-embedded TolC in presence of the isolated AcrB docking domain (AcrB(DD)). In 5/6 simulations we observe direct TolC-AcrB(DD) interaction that is only stable on the simulated time scale when both proteins engage in a tip to tip manner. At the same time we find TolC opening and closing freely on extracellular side while remaining closed at the inner periplasmic bottleneck region, suggesting that either the simulated time is too short or additional components are required to unlock TolC. PMID:27045078

  3. Use of RNA tertiary interaction modules for the crystallisation of the spliceosomal snRNP core domain.

    PubMed

    Leung, Adelaine K W; Kambach, Christian; Kondo, Yasushi; Kampmann, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-10

    RNA is known to perform diverse roles in the cell, often as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. While the crystal structure of these RNP particles could provide crucial insights into their functions, crystallographic work on RNP complexes is often hampered by difficulties in obtaining well-diffracting crystals. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) core domain, acting as an assembly nucleus for the maturation of snRNPs, plays a crucial role in the biogenesis of four of the spliceosomal snRNPs. We have succeeded in crystallising the human U4 snRNP core domain containing seven Sm proteins and a truncated U4 snRNA variant. The most critical factor in our success in the crystallisation was the introduction of various tertiary interaction modules into the RNA that could promote crystal packing without altering the core structure. Here, we describe various strategies employed in our crystallisation effort that could be applied to crystallisation of other RNP particles. PMID:20643141

  4. Crystallisation in apatite-mullite glass-ceramics as a function of fluorine content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Kenneth T.; Hill, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    Apatite-mullite glass-ceramics are materials prepared by the controlled heat-induced devitrification of glasses of suitable composition and are under investigation for applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. The glasses used here are based on a system with the composition 1.5(5- x)SiO 2·(5- x)Al 2O 3·1.5P 2O 5·(5- x)CaO· xCaF 2. The amount of fluorine in the glasses was varied to investigate the crystallisation behaviour as a function of both fluorine content and temperature. The resultant crystalline phases are fluorapatite [Ca 10(PO 4) 6F 2], mullite [Al 6Si 2O 13] and in some cases, anorthite [CaAl 2Si 2O 8]. Crystal phases were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) from both the surface and the bulk of heat-treated monolithic samples and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image the crystal phase morphologies. Crystallisation characteristics varied widely in terms of apparent nucleation mechanism, crystal phases formed and microstructure. In general, glasses with higher fluorine content devitrified more readily to fluorapatite (FAp) with a higher nucleation density and for glasses with an intermediate to low fluorine content there tended to be an interdependence between FAp and mullite crystallisation. A greater tendency towards anorthite formation, especially at surfaces, was observed for glasses with lower fluorine contents. Furthermore, on decreasing the fluorine content, glasses tended to crystallise by formation of FAp spherulites with increasing diameter and with greater crystal aspect ratio.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of perovskites and pyrochlores: crystallisation of functional oxides under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Modeshia, Deena R; Walton, Richard I

    2010-11-01

    In this critical review we consider the large literature that has accumulated in the past 5-10 years concerning solution-mediated crystallisation of complex oxide materials using hydrothermal, or more generally solvothermal, reaction conditions. The aim is to show how the synthesis of dense, mixed-metal oxide materials, usually prepared using the high temperatures associated with solid-chemistry, is perfectly feasible from solution in one step reactions, typically at temperatures as low as 200 °C, and that important families of oxide materials have now been reported to crystallise using such synthetic approaches. We will focus on two common structures seen in oxide chemistry, ABO(3) perovskites and A(2)B(2)O(6)O' pyrochlores, and include a systematic survey of the variety of chemical elements now included in these two prototypical structure types, from transition metals, in families of materials that include titanates, niobates, manganites and ferrites, to main-group elements in stannates, plumbates and bismuthates. The significant advantages of solution-mediated crystallisation are well illustrated by the recent literature: examples are provided of elegant control of crystal form from the nanometre to the micron length scale to give thin films, anisotropic crystal morphologies, or hierarchical structures of materials with properties desirable for many important contemporary applications. In addition, new metastable materials have been reported, not stable once high temperatures and pressures are applied and hence not amenable using conventional synthesis. We critically discuss the possible control offered by solvothermal synthesis from crystal chemistry to crystal form and how the discovery of new materials may be achieved. Computer simulation, combinatorial synthesis approaches and in situ methods to follow crystallisation will be vital in providing the predictability in synthesis that is needed for rational design of new materials (232 references). PMID

  6. Crystallisation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the presence of structurally related substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriksen, Barry A.; Grant, David J. W.; Meenan, Paul; Green, Daniel A.

    1998-02-01

    Paracetamol was crystallised from aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of structurally related compounds. Crystal shape was characterised by image analysis and the additive concentration incorporated into the crystals determined by HPLC. The crystal structure of pure acetaminophen displays a hydrogen bonded network, from which is derived a mechanistic interpretation of the abilities of additive molecules to influence crystal growth. This structural approach was used to explain the observed additive uptake, the morphological changes, and the previously reported inhibition of nucleation.

  7. Effect of crystallisation conditions and feedstock morphology on the aerosolization performance of micronised salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P

    2011-08-30

    Salbutamol sulphate (SS) used in dry powder inhalers requires drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-5 μm to achieve a suitable therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was therefore to determine strategies for controlling drug substance characteristics pre and post-crystallisation to facilitate the production of micronised SS with desirable particle attributes for optimal delivery as an inhaled aerosol. SS batches were crystallised using an antisolvent method to produce a range of crystal morphologies. Air jet milling was then used to reduce the size of crystallised SS particles. Starting materials and micronised batches of SS were characterised in the solid state using a range of techniques with subsequent assessment of aerosol properties. Assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of micronised SS delivered by DPI (without any carrier) indicated that fine particle fraction and emitted dose as a percentage of the total recovered dose were dependent on the quality attributes of the micronised SS, which were directly linked to the degree of imperfections and the morphology of the crystalline feedstock used in micronisation. Aerosolization performance of micronised SS can be optimised by manipulation of feedstock characteristics through crystal engineering and through definition of optimal processing conditions for micronisation. PMID:21683128

  8. Cell-free Expression and In Meso Crystallisation of an Integral Membrane Kinase for Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Tasadaque Ali; Haberstock, Stefan; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key elements in cell physiology and drug targeting, but getting a high-resolution structure by crystallographic means is still enormously challenging. Novel strategies are in big demand to facilitate the structure determination process that will ultimately hasten the day when sequence information alone can provide a 3-dimensional model. Cell-free or in vitro expression enables rapid access to large quantities of high quality membrane proteins suitable for an array of applications. Despite its impressive efficiency, to date only two membrane proteins produced by the in vitro approach have yielded crystal structures. Here, we have analysed synergies of cell-free expression and crystallisation in lipidic mesophases for generating an X-ray structure of the integral membrane enzyme diacylglycerol kinase to 2.28 Å resolution. The quality of cellular and cell-free expressed kinase samples have been evaluated systematically by comparing i) spectroscopic properties, ii) purity and oligomer formation, iii) lipid content and iv) functionality. DgkA is the first membrane enzyme crystallised based on cell-free expression. The study provides a basic standard for the crystallisation of cell-free expressed membrane proteins and the methods detailed here should prove generally useful and contribute to accelerating the pace at which membrane protein structures are solved. PMID:25012698

  9. Cell-free expression and in meso crystallisation of an integral membrane kinase for structure determination.

    PubMed

    Boland, Coilín; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed Tasadaque Ali; Haberstock, Stefan; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Membrane proteins are key elements in cell physiology and drug targeting, but getting a high-resolution structure by crystallographic means is still enormously challenging. Novel strategies are in big demand to facilitate the structure determination process that will ultimately hasten the day when sequence information alone can provide a three-dimensional model. Cell-free or in vitro expression enables rapid access to large quantities of high-quality membrane proteins suitable for an array of applications. Despite its impressive efficiency, to date only two membrane proteins produced by the in vitro approach have yielded crystal structures. Here, we have analysed synergies of cell-free expression and crystallisation in lipid mesophases for generating an X-ray structure of the integral membrane enzyme diacylglycerol kinase to 2.28-Å resolution. The quality of cellular and cell-free-expressed kinase samples has been evaluated systematically by comparing (1) spectroscopic properties, (2) purity and oligomer formation, (3) lipid content and (4) functionality. DgkA is the first membrane enzyme crystallised based on cell-free expression. The study provides a basic standard for the crystallisation of cell-free-expressed membrane proteins and the methods detailed here should prove generally useful and contribute to accelerating the pace at which membrane protein structures are solved. PMID:25012698

  10. The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 μm) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

  11. Diatom-inspired skeletonisation of insulin - Mechanistic insights into crystallisation and extracellular bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Nietzel, Thiago; Wyborski, Rebecca; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo; Alam, Parvez

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we encage insulin within calcium carbonate by means of a biomineralisation process. We find that both dogbone and crossbone morphologies develop during the crystallisation process. The crystals break down into small nanocrystals after prolonged immersion in phosphate buffer solution, which adhere extracellularly to mammalian cells without causing any observable damage or early cell-death. The mechanisms behind calcium carbonate encaging of single insulin monomers are detailed. This communication elucidates a novel, diatom-inspired approach to the mineral skeletonisation of insulin. PMID:26094146

  12. Coarse-grained modelling of triglyceride crystallisation: a molecular insight into tripalmitin tristearin binary mixtures by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzirusso, Antonio; Brasiello, Antonio; De Nicola, Antonio; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Milano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The first simulation study of the crystallisation of a binary mixture of triglycerides using molecular dynamics simulations is reported. Coarse-grained models of tristearin (SSS) and tripalmitin (PPP) molecules have been considered. The models have been preliminarily tested in the crystallisation of pure SSS and PPP systems. Two different quenching procedures have been tested and their performances have been analysed. The structures obtained from the crystallisation procedures show a high orientation order and a high content of molecules in the tuning fork conformation, comparable with the crystalline α phase. The behaviour of melting temperatures for the α phase of the mixture SSS/PPP obtained from the simulations is in qualitative agreement with the behaviour that was experimentally determined.

  13. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  14. Influence of environment and grinding on the crystallisation mechanism of ZrO2 gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, J. M.; González, M.; Diánez, M. J.; Pérez-Maqueda, L. A.; Málek, Jiri

    2007-05-01

    The influence of grinding and surrounding atmosphere on the thermal transformations of zirconia gel has been studied. The XRD analysis of the products obtained by thermal decomposition of zirconia gel has shown that pure tetragonal phase is obtained if the gel decomposition is carried out under high vacuum or dry inert atmosphere, while monoclinic zirconia results from the decomposition of the zirconia gel under air or inert gas saturated with water vapour. A mechanism for the thermal crystallisation of zirconia gel has been proposed from the study of the variation of the crystal size of the monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia phases formed as a function of the temperature and the surrounding atmosphere. The thermal decomposition of ground zirconia leads to the formation of ZrO2 with a percentage of tetragonal phase closed to 90% irrespectively of the surrounding atmosphere. The stabilisation of the tetragonal phase by grinding seems to be connected with the formation of tetragonal zirconia nuclei that cannot be observed by XRD. The crystallisation enthalpy measurements carried out by DSC support this conclusion.

  15. A zero density change phase change memory material: GeTe-O structural characteristics upon crystallisation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xilin; Dong, Weiling; Zhang, Hao; Simpson, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen-doped germanium telluride phase change materials are proposed for high temperature applications. Up to 8 at.% oxygen is readily incorporated into GeTe, causing an increased crystallisation temperature and activation energy. The rhombohedral structure of the GeTe crystal is preserved in the oxygen doped films. For higher oxygen concentrations the material is found to phase separate into GeO2 and TeO2, which inhibits the technologically useful abrupt change in properties. Increasing the oxygen content in GeTe-O reduces the difference in film thickness and mass density between the amorphous and crystalline states. For oxygen concentrations between 5 and 6 at.%, the amorphous material and the crystalline material have the same density. Above 6 at.% O doping, crystallisation exhibits an anomalous density change, where the volume of the crystalline state is larger than that of the amorphous. The high thermal stability and zero-density change characteristic of Oxygen-incorporated GeTe, is recommended for efficient and low stress phase change memory devices that may operate at elevated temperatures. PMID:26068587

  16. One plate, two plates, a thousand plates. How crystallisation changes with large numbers of samples.

    PubMed

    Newman, Janet

    2011-09-01

    Turning commercial lab automation into a high-throughput centre requires an underlying process, and implementing checks to ensure that the process is working as it should. At the Collaborative Crystallisation Centre (C3), protein samples from local, national and international groups are set up in crystallisation screening and optimisation experiments with two thousand 96 well plates being set up each year. During its five years of operation, the C3 has implemented a series of enabling protocols - from simple 'reality checks' to determine if a screen has evaporated during storage to more sophisticated systems such as a sample labelling and tracking system. The most important - and perhaps surprising - lesson has been how much effort is required to effectively communicate between the centre and its clients, as well as between the centre's staff members. It is easy to confuse the concept of 'high throughput' in any field with the idea of setting up an experiment quickly. Although automation can be used to set up a single experiment more rapidly than can be done by hand, the distinguishing feature of a high throughput technology is the sustainability of the increased rate. PMID:21571072

  17. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by an extract of Bergenia ciliata

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sarmistha; Verma, Ramtej J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an extract obtained from the rhizomes of Bergenia ciliata (Saxifragaceae) on the inhibition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallisation in vitro. Materials and methods A hydro-alcoholic extract (30:70, v/v) of rhizomes of B. ciliata was prepared at different concentrations (1–10 mg/mL). The crystallisation of CaOx monohydrate (COM) was induced in a synthetic urine system. The nucleation and aggregation of COM crystals were measured using spectrophotometric methods. The rates of nucleation and aggregation were evaluated by comparing the slope of the turbidity of a control system with that of one exposed to the extract. The results were compared with a parallel study conducted with a marketed poly-herbal combination, Cystone, under identical concentrations. Crystals generated in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Statistical differences and percentage inhibitions were calculated and assessed. Results The extract of B. ciliata was significantly more effective in inhibiting the nucleation and aggregation of COM crystals in a dose-dependent manner than was Cystone. Moreover, the extract induced more CaOx dihydrate crystals, with a significant reduction in the number and size of COM crystals. Conclusion An extract of the traditional herb B. ciliata has an excellent inhibitory activity on crystalluria and therefore might be beneficial in dissolving urinary stones. However, further study in animal models of urolithiasis is needed to evaluate its potential anti-urolithiatic activity. PMID:26558080

  18. Research Highlights, 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACER Press (Australian Council for Educational Research), 2003

    2003-01-01

    "Research Highlights" is an annual publication documenting developments in the Australian Council for Educational Research's (ACER's) research programs for the previous year. The 2003 edition highlights research on the following themes: (1) Australian students excel in international study; (2) Assessing the moral and ethical outcomes of schooling;…

  19. APPA 2011 Conference Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facilities Manager, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents highlights of APPA conference that was held on July 16-18, 2011. The highlights feature photos of 2011-2012 board of directors, outgoing senior regional representatives to the board, meritorious service award, APPA fellow, president's recognition and gavel exchange, and diamond business partner award.

  20. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  1. Highlights from Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    DISCUSSION by CHAIRMAN: P.J. ODDONE, Scientific Secretaries: W. Fisher, A. Holzner Note from Publisher: The Slides of the Lecture: "Highlights from Fermilab" can be found at http://www.ccsem.infn.it/issp2007/

  2. Langley test highlights, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Significant aircraft tests which were performed are highlighted. The broad range of the research and technology activities. The conributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  3. Highlights from Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    In these two lectures I will chose some highlights from the Tevatron experiments (CDF/D0) and the Neutrino experiments and then discuss the future direction of physics at Fermilab after the Tevatron collider era.

  4. NSI organization and highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, Fred

    1991-01-01

    The agenda of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) Users Working Group is given. The NSI project organization is laid out in view graph format. Also given are NSI highlights which are divided into three areas: administration, engineering, and operations.

  5. Over 50% reduction in the formation energy of Co-based Heusler alloy films by two-dimensional crystallisation

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, James; Fleet, Luke R.; Walsh, Michael; Whear, Oliver; Huminiuc, Teodor; Lari, Leonardo; Boyes, Edward D.; Vick, Andrew; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2014-07-21

    Crystalline formation of high magnetic-moment thin films through low-temperature annealing processes compatible with current semiconductor technologies is crucial for the development of next generation devices, which can utilise the spin degree of freedom. Utilising in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy, we report a 235 °C crystallisation process for a Co-based ternary Heusler-alloy film whose initial nucleation is initiated by as few as 27 unit cells. The crystallisation occurs preferentially in the 〈111〉 crystalline directions via a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode; resulting in grains with [110] surface normal and [111] plane facets. This growth process was found to reduce the crystallisation energy by more than 50% when compared to bulk samples whilst still leading to the growth of highly ordered grains expected to give a high degree of spin-polarisation. Our findings suggest that the 2D layer-by-layer growth minimises the crystallisation energy allowing for the possible implementation of highly spin-polarised alloy films into current chip and memory technologies.

  6. Over 50% reduction in the formation energy of Co-based Heusler alloy films by two-dimensional crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, James; Fleet, Luke R.; Walsh, Michael; Lari, Leonardo; Boyes, Edward D.; Whear, Oliver; Huminiuc, Teodor; Vick, Andrew; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline formation of high magnetic-moment thin films through low-temperature annealing processes compatible with current semiconductor technologies is crucial for the development of next generation devices, which can utilise the spin degree of freedom. Utilising in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy, we report a 235 °C crystallisation process for a Co-based ternary Heusler-alloy film whose initial nucleation is initiated by as few as 27 unit cells. The crystallisation occurs preferentially in the ⟨111⟩ crystalline directions via a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode; resulting in grains with [110] surface normal and [111] plane facets. This growth process was found to reduce the crystallisation energy by more than 50% when compared to bulk samples whilst still leading to the growth of highly ordered grains expected to give a high degree of spin-polarisation. Our findings suggest that the 2D layer-by-layer growth minimises the crystallisation energy allowing for the possible implementation of highly spin-polarised alloy films into current chip and memory technologies.

  7. Selective preparation of elusive and alternative single component polymorphic solid forms through multi-component crystallisation routes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynne H; Wales, Craig; Wilson, Chick C

    2016-05-31

    A transferable, simple, method for producing previously elusive and novel polymorphic forms of important active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs; paracetamol (acetaminophen), piroxicam and piracetam) is demonstrated. Nitrogen heterocyclic co-molecules are employed to influence the self-assembly crystallisation process in a multi-component environment. Previously unknown solvates have also been synthesised by this method. PMID:27079688

  8. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures

  9. Crystallisation of alpha-crustacyanin, the lobster carapace astaxanthin-protein: results from EURECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagalsky, P. F.; Wright, C. E.; Parsons, M.

    1995-08-01

    Crystallisation of alpha-crustacyanin, the lobster carapace astaxanthin-protein was attempted under microgravity conditions in EURECA satellite using liquid-liquid diffusion with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) as precipitant; in a second reaction chamber phenol and dioxan were used as additives to prevent composite crystal growth. Crystals of alpha-crustacyanin grown under microgravity from PEG were larger than those grown terrestrially in the same apparatus under otherwise identical conditions. On retrieval, the crystals from PEG were shown to be composite and gave a powder diffraction pattern. The second reaction chamber showed leakage on retrieval and had also been subjected to rapid temperature variation during flight. Crystal fragments were nevertheless recovered but showed a powder diffraction pattern. It is concluded, certainly for liquid-liquid diffusion using PEG alone, that, for crustacyanin, although microgravity conditions resulted in an increase in dimensions of crystals, a measurable improvement in molecular ordering was not achieved.

  10. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-12-21

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism. PMID:25362999

  11. Groundmass crystallisation and cooling rates of lava-like ignimbrites: the Grey's Landing ignimbrite, southern Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. S.; Cordonnier, B.; Rowe, M. C.; Szymanowski, D.; Bachmann, O.; Andrews, G. D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Constraining magmatic and eruptive processes is key to understanding how volcanoes operate. However, reconstructing eruptive and pre-eruptive processes requires the ability to see through any post-eruptive modification of the deposit. The well-preserved Grey's Landing ignimbrite from the central Snake River Plain provides an opportunity to systematically investigate the post-eruptive processes occurring through a single deposit sheet. Despite overall compositional homogeneity in both bulk and glass compositions, the Grey's Landing ignimbrite does preserve differences in the abundance of Li in plagioclase crystals which are strongly associated with the host lithology. Li abundances in plagioclase from the quickly cooled upper and basal vitrophyres are typically low (average 5 ppm, n = 262) while plagioclase from the microcrystalline interior of the deposit has higher Li contents (average 33 ppm, n = 773). Given that no other trace elemental parameter in plagioclase varies, we interpret the variability in Li to reflect a post-depositional process. Groundmass crystallisation of a rhyolite like Grey's Landing requires ˜50 % crystallisation of sanidine and variable amounts of a silica-rich phase (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite) and plagioclase to satisfy mass balance. We suggest the low affinity of Li for sanidine causes migration of groundmass Li into plagioclase during crystallisation. Even within the microcrystalline interior of the deposit, the morphology of the groundmass varies. The more marginal, finer-grained regions are dominated by cristobalite as the SiO2-rich phase while tridymite and quartz are additionally found in the more slowly cooled, coarser-grained portions of thick sections of the ignimbrite. Numerical models of cooling and crystallisation tested against field observations indicate that the groundmass crystallisation occurred relatively rapidly following emplacement (a maximum of a few years where the ignimbrite is thickest). These numerical

  12. NASA Langley Highlights, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  13. E News: Report highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Three technologies are highlighted in this issue: a rooftop ice storage system for small commercial loads; chlorofluorocarbon-free electric chillers and their expected market; and the FlashBake oven, a commercial-sized oven that uses high intensity quartz lamps to cook food quickly. Regular columns on Member News and Work in Progress are included.

  14. Recent Highlights from VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakely, Scott

    VERITAS, an array of atmospheric Cherenkov TeV gamma-ray telescopes, has been in opera-tion since 2007. We will present some highlights from the first few years of observations, with an emphasis on those results most relevant to galactic cosmic-ray astrophysics.

  15. Highlights of 1976 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1976-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's 1976 activities are summarized. Sixteen successful launches were made. Two landings of Viking spacecraft on Mars and rollout of the space shuttle orbiter are reviewed. Applications of aerospace science to education, health care, and community services are also discussed.

  16. NASA highlights, 1986 - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA research from 1986 to 1988 are discussed. Topics covered include Space Shuttle flights, understanding the Universe and its origins, understanding the Earth and its environment, air and space transportation, using space to make America more competitive, using space technology an Earth, strengthening America's education in science and technology, the space station, and human exploration of the solar system.

  17. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  18. Collegiate Athletics Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…

  19. NASA Langley Highlights, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research. A color electronic version of this report is available at URL http://larcpubs.larc.nasa.gov/randt/1998/.

  20. 1999 Digital Avionics Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, and similar sources.

  1. Crystallisation kinetics of some archetypal ionic liquids: isothermal and non-isothermal determination of the Avrami exponent.

    PubMed

    Pas, Steven J; Dargusch, Matthew S; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    The properties of ionic liquids give rise to applications in diverse technology areas including mechanical engineering, mining, aerospace and defence. The arbitrary physical property that defines an ionic liquid is a melting point below 100 °C, and as such, an understanding of crystallisation phenomena is extremely important. This is the first report dealing with the mechanism of crystallisation in ionic liquids. Assuming crystallisation of the ionic liquids is a thermal or mass diffusion-controlled process, the values of the isothermal Avrami exponent obtained from three different ionic liquids with three different anions and cations all indicate that growth occurs with a decreasing nucleation rate (n=1.8-2.2). For one of the ionic liquids it was possible to avoid crystallisation by fast cooling and then observe a devitrification upon heating through the glass transition. The isothermal Avrami exponent of devitrification suggested growth with an increasing nucleating rate (n=4.1), compared to a decreasing nucleation rate when crystallisation occurs on cooling from the melt (n=2.0). Two non-isothermal methods were employed to determine the Avrami exponent of devitrification. Both non-isothermal Avrami exponents were in agreement with the isothermal case (n=4.0-4.15). The applicability of JMAK theory suggests that the nucleation event in the ionic liquids selected is a random stochastic process in the volume of the material. Agreement between the isothermal and non-isothermal techniques for determining the Avrami exponent of devitrification suggests that the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy are independent of thermal history. The heating rate dependence of the glass transition enabled the calculation of the fragility index, which suggests that the ionic liquid is a "strong" glass former. This suggests that the temperature dependence of the rate constant could be close to Arrhenius, as assumed by JMAK theory. More generally, therefore, it can be

  2. Petrology of the freetown layered complex, Sierra Leone: part II. Magma evolution and crystallisation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalokwu, C. I.

    2001-04-01

    The Freetown Layered Complex, Sierra Leone, is a 65 km long, 14 km wide and 7 km thick tholeiitic intrusion, which had been intruded in the West African Craton during the Jurassic (˜ 190 Ma) opening of the middle Atlantic Ocean. The complex consists of four zones of rhythmically layered sequences of Pl+Ol+Aug±Tmt-Ol+Opx+Pgt+Ol-Pgt. Cumulus inverted pigeonite first appeared at the bottom of Zone 2 before disappearing in the middle of Zone 3 only to reappear at the top of Zone 4 with cumulus titanomagnetite. Calculated emplacement pressures, based on the compositions of coexisting plagioclase-pyroxene and the CaTs reaction, range from 2.8 to 5.1 kbar. Two-pyroxene geothermometer gives crystallisation temperatures of 972-1305 ± 70°C, which compare favourably with temperatures estimated from O isotope thermometers (1040-1290 ± 60°C) and plagioclase-liquid thermometers (1045-1381°C) applied to the Freetown bulk composition and obtained by geochemical summation for each zone. Fe-Ti oxides have all re-equilibrated during subsolidus cooling of the complex, but yield fO 2 between quartz-fayalite-magnetite and wüstite-magnetite buffers at high pressure. Silica activity, based on the En = Fo + SiO 2 equilibrium, has been calculated for the entire stratigraphic section. Instead of a progressive increase from the bottom to the top of the complex, values of silica activity fluctuate within the zones, with major decreases corresponding to levels of new magma additions or the arrival of cumulus titanomagnetite. Stratigraphic summation of whole rock chemical composition of cumulates for zones 2-4, weighted according to the average density of the zones, indicates the zones were produced by multiple injection of high alumina (18.38-20.47 wt%) low Ti (0.46-0.70 wt%) hypersthene-normative tholeiites with moderately high activities of silica. Numerical simulation using the COMAGMAT computer algorithm indicates zone 4 bulk composition, interpreted as approximating the parental

  3. Cold crystallisation behaviour of water molecules in ionic liquids as a screening method to evaluate biocompatibility of the hydrated ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kyoko; Nikawa, Yohsuke; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-21

    Hydrated ionic liquids, exhibiting cold crystallisation behaviour of water molecules in a certain range of water contents, successfully dissolved cytochrome c maintaining the original spin state of heme. PMID:23486783

  4. Carbon isotope fractionation during experimental crystallisation of diamond from carbonate fluid at mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutsky, Vadim; Borzdov, Yuri; Palyanov, Yuri; Sokol, Alexander; Izokh, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We report first results of a systematic study of carbon isotope fractionation in a carbonate fluid system under mantle PT conditions. The system models a diamond-forming alkaline carbonate fluid using pure sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) as the starting material, which decomposes to carbonate, CO2 and elementary carbon (graphite and diamond) involving a single source of carbon following the reaction 2Na2C2O4 → 2Na2CO3 + CO2 + C. Near-liquidus behaviour of carbonate was observed at 1300 °C and 6.3 GPa. The experimentally determined isotope fractionation between the components of the system in the temperature range from 1300 to 1700 °C at 6.3 and 7.5 GPa fit the theoretical expectations well. Carbon isotope fractionation associated with diamond crystallisation from the carbonate fluid at 7.5 GPa decreases with an increase in temperature from 2.7 to 1.6 ‰. This trend corresponds to the function ΔCarbonate fluid-Diamond = 7.38 × 106 T-2.

  5. Direct measurement of molecular mobility and crystallisation of amorphous pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sibik, Juraj; Zeitler, J Axel

    2016-05-01

    Despite much effort in the area, no comprehensive understanding of the formation and behaviour of amorphous solids has yet been achieved. This severely limits the industrial application of such materials, including drug delivery where, in principle, amorphous solids have demonstrated their great usefulness in increasing the bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is a relatively novel analytical technique that can be used to measure the fast molecular dynamics of molecules with high accuracy in a non-contact and non-destructive fashion. Over the past decade a number of applications for the characterisation of amorphous drug molecules and formulations have been developed and it has been demonstrated how this technique can be used to determine the onset and strength in molecular mobility that underpins the crystallisation of amorphous drugs. In this review we provide an overview of the history, fundamentals and future perspective of pharmaceutical applications related to the terahertz dynamics of amorphous systems. PMID:26772139

  6. In Situ Thermal Characterization of Cooling/Crystallising Lavas During Rheology Measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Giordano, D.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Transport properties of silicate melts at super-liquidus temperatures are reasonably well understood. Migration and transport of silicate melts in the earth's crust and at its surface generally occur at sub-liquidus temperature regimes where they are subject to non-isothermal and non-equilibrium crystallization. To date, rheological data at sub-liquidus temperatures are scarce. In such dynamic situations heat capacities, latent heats of phase changes, viscous heating, thermal advection and thermal inertia of the apparatus are all potential factors in determining the thermal regime. Yet thermal characterisation of non- equilibrium conditions are absent, hampered by the inconvenience of recording in situ sample temperature during dynamic rheological measurements. Here we present a new experimental setup for in situ sample temperature monitoring in high temperature rheometry. We overcome the limitation of hardwired thermocouples during sample deformation by employing wireless data transmitters directly mounted onto the rotating spindle, immersed in the sample. This adaptation enables in situ, real-time, observations of the thermal regime of crystallising, deforming lava samples under the transient and non-equilibrium crystallization conditions expected in lava flows in nature. We present the apparatus calibration procedure, assess the experimental uncertainty in viscosity measurements and discuss experimental data investigating the dynamic, rheologic and thermal evolution of lavas in both temperature step and continuous cooling experiments.

  7. Estimation of the growth kinetics for the cooling crystallisation of paracetamol and ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Niall A.; Ó'Ciardhá, Clifford T.; Frawley, Patrick J.

    2011-08-01

    This work details the estimation of the growth kinetics of paracetamol in ethanol solutions for cooling crystallisation processes, by means of isothermal seeded batch experiments. The growth kinetics of paracetamol crystals were evaluated in isolation, with the growth rate assumed to be size independent. Prior knowledge of the Metastable Zone Width (MSZW) was required, so that supersaturation ratios of 1.7-1.1 could be induced in solution without the occurrence of nucleation. The technique involved the utilisation of two in-situ Process Analytical Techniques (PATs), with a Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM ®) utilised to ensure that negligible nucleation occurred and an Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) probe employed for online monitoring of solute concentration. Initial Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) were used in conjunction with desupersaturation profiles to determine the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation. Furthermore, the effects of seed loading and size on the crystal growth rate were investigated. A numerical model, incorporating the population balance equation and the method of moments, was utilised to describe the crystal growth process. Experimental parameters were compared to the model simulation, with the accuracy of the model validated by means of the final product PSDs and solute concentration.

  8. The potential energy landscape for crystallisation of a Lennard-Jones fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Vanessa K.; Wales, David J.

    2016-07-01

    Crystallisation pathways are explored by direct analysis of the potential energy landscape for a system of Lennard-Jones particles with periodic boundary conditions. A database of minima and transition states linking liquid and crystalline states is constructed using discrete path sampling and the entire potential energy landscape from liquid to crystal is visualised. We demonstrate that there is a strong negative correlation between the number of atoms in the largest crystalline cluster and the potential energy. In common with previous results we find a strong bias towards the growth of FCC rather than HCP clusters, despite a very small potential energy difference. We characterise three types of perfect crystals with very similar energies: pure FCC, pure HCP, and combinations of FCC and HCP layers. There are also many slightly defective crystalline structures. The effect of the simulation box is analysed for a supercell containing 864 atoms. There are low barriers between some of the different crystalline structures via pathways involving sliding layers, and many different defective structures with FCC layers stacked at an angle to the periodic box. Finally, we compare a binary Lennard-Jones system and visualise the potential energy landscape from supercooled liquid to crystal.

  9. Analysis and statistics of crystallisation success increase by composition modification of protein and precipitant mixing ratio.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen-Yan; Mazumdar, Mausumi; Zhu, Dao-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    The nucleation zone has to be reached for any crystal to grow, and the search for crystallization conditions of new proteins is a trial and error process. Here a convenient screening strategy is studied in detail that varies the volume ratio of protein sample to the reservoir solution in the drop to initiate crystallization that is named "composition modification". It is applied after the first screen and has been studied with twelve proteins. Statistical analysis shows a significant improvement in screening using this strategy. The average improvement of "hits" at different temperatures is between 32 and 42%, for examples, 41.8% ± 14.0% and 35.7% ± 12.4% (± standard deviation) at 288 K and 300 K, respectively. Remarkably, some new crystals were found by composition modification which increased the probability of reaching the nucleation zone to initiate crystallization. This was confirmed by a phase diagram study. It is also demonstrated that composition modification can further increase crystallisation success significantly (1.3 times) after the improvement of "hits" by temperature screening. The trajectories of different composition modifications during vapour diffusion were plotted, further demonstrating that protein crystallizability can be increased by hitting more parts of the nucleation zone. It was also found to facilitate the finding of initial crystals for proteins of low solubility. These proteins gradually become more concentrated during the vapour diffusion process starting from a larger protein solution ratio in the initial mixture. PMID:21592082

  10. Effect of annealing treatment on the crystallisation and leaching of dumped base metal smelter slags.

    PubMed

    Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mbaya, Richard K; Mochubele, Emela A

    2010-11-15

    Leaching tests of base metals contained in two smelter slags were undertaken in ammonia and nitric acid solutions aiming to recover Co, Cu and Zn. Leaching tests were conducted at 25 and 60°C at pH=0 and 3 in HNO(3) and pH=12 in NH(4)OH media. XRD analysis revealed that the dumped slags were amorphous. Annealing these slags at 1180°C produced crystalline phases comprising diopside, magnetite and fayalite. SEM and EDS analysis revealed that Cu and Pb compounds have concentrated in the magnetite phase, whereas another phase rich in Zn and Cu was located in the diopside matrix. ICP-OES analysis of the pregnant leaching solutions (PLS) showed that 30-60% of Co, Cu and Zn were released from the amorphous slags treated in HNO(3) at pH=0, and lesser in ammonia. However, the contamination by Fe and Pb was higher at pH=0. The contamination of the PLS obtained by leaching of the crystallised slags remained low. The low Fe and Pb contamination was attributed in this case to the chemical stability of the crystalline phases formed upon annealing treatment. The higher solubilisation of metals contained in amorphous slags was attributed to the collapse of silicate structures during nitric acid leaching at pH∼0. PMID:20674164

  11. FY 1986 budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    The FY 1986 budget request for DOE supports the energy, general science and defense missions of the Department in a comprehensive manner, while being responsive to the President's directive to all Federal agencies to freeze or reduce Government spending wherever possible to reduce the Federal deficit. The discussion displays the budget in a format designed to emphasize the varied activities of DOE. ''Research and Development'' describes the nature of the scientific and technical effort which underlies the Department's programs in a number of areas, such as energy, general science, and weapons research, which previously appeared in three distinct sections of our budget presentation. ''Defense Production and Support'' highlights a significant element of our defense activities which have production, whether of weapons or materials, as a common thread. ''Waste Activities'' combines programs from the civilian and defense areas to bring attention to a major effort of DOE ''Business Enterprises'' focuses attention on the fact that a number of the Department's activities are operated like businesses, marketing products and generating revenues. ''Grants and Other Energy Functions'' is how we group non-research and development grant programs and such essential activities as energy information and regulation. Finally, ''Department Management'' includes the various ''overhead'' organizations which keep the Department functioning at headquarters and in the field.

  12. 1999 NCCS Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jerome (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) is a high-performance scientific computing facility operated, maintained and managed by the Earth and Space Data Computing Division (ESDCD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Earth Sciences Directorate. The mission of the NCCS is to advance leading-edge science by providing the best people, computers, and data storage systems to NASA's Earth and space sciences programs and those of other U.S. Government agencies, universities, and private institutions. Among the many computationally demanding Earth science research efforts supported by the NCCS in Fiscal Year 1999 (FY99) are the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission, Earth gravitational model development efforts, the National Weather Service's North American Observing System program, Data Assimilation Office studies, a NASA-sponsored project at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, a NASA-sponsored microgravity project conducted by researchers at the City University of New York and the University of Pennsylvania, the completion of a satellite-derived global climate data set, simulations of a new geodynamo model, and studies of Earth's torque. This document presents highlights of these research efforts and an overview of the NCCS, its facilities, and its people.

  13. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  14. STS-70 mission highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    The highlights of the STS-70 mission are presented in this video. The flight crew consisted of Cmdr. John Hendricks, Pilot Kevin Kregel, Flight Engineer Nancy Curie, and Mission Specialists Dr. Don Thomas and Dr. Mary Ellen Weber. The mission's primary objective was the deployment of the 7th Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS), which will provide a communication, tracking, telemetry, data acquisition, and command services space-based network system essential to low Earth orbital spacecraft. Secondary mission objectives included activating and studying the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R), The Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) studies, the Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4), the Hand-Held, Earth Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES), the Microcapsules in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment, the Windows Experiment (WINDEX), the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment. There was an in-orbit dedication ceremony by the spacecrew and the newly Integrated Mission Control Center to commemorate the Center's integration. The STS-70 mission was the first mission monitored by this new control center. Earth views included the Earth's atmosphere, a sunrise over the Earth's horizon, several views of various land masses, some B/W lightning shots, some cloud cover, and a tropical storm.

  15. Cloning, expression and crystallisation of SGT1 co-chaperone protein from Glaciozyma antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Nur Athirah; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Beddoe, Travis; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Studies on psycrophiles are now in the limelight of today's post genomic era as they fascinate the research and development industries. The discovery from Glaciozyma antarctica, an extreme cold adapted yeast from Antarctica shows promising future to provide cost effective natural sustainable energy and create wider understanding of the property that permits this organisms to adapt to extreme temperature downshift. In plants and yeast, studies show the interaction between SGT1 and HSP90 are essential for disease resistance and heat stress by activating a number of resistance proteins. Here we report for the first time cloning, expression and crystallization of the recombinant SGT1 protein of G. antarctica (rGa_SGT1), a highly conserved eukaryotic protein that interacts with the molecular chaperones HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) apparently associated in a role of co-chaperone that may play important role in cold adaptation. The sequence analysis of rGa_SGT1 revealed the presence of all the characteristic features of SGT1 protein. In this study, we present the outlines and results of protein structural study of G. antarctica SGT1 protein. We validate this approach by starting with cloning the target insert into Ligation Independent Cloning system proceeded with expression using E. coli system, and crystallisation of the target rGA_SGT1 protein. The work is still on going with the target subunit of the complex proteins yielded crystals. These results, still ongoing, open a platform for better understanding of the uniqueness of this crucial molecular machine function in cold adaptation.

  16. Splice Variants of Perlucin from Haliotis laevigata Modulate the Crystallisation of CaCO3

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation. PMID:24824517

  17. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    PubMed

    Dodenhof, Tanja; Dietz, Frank; Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation. PMID:24824517

  18. Laser crystallisation during pulsed laser deposition of barium titanate thin films at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottmann, J.; Vosseler, B.; Kreutz, E. W.

    2002-09-01

    Using a high dielectric material as substitute for SiO xN y in dielectric film capacitors of dynamic memories (DRAM) allows a significantly higher integration density and a reduction of the die size, even with planar capacitors. BaTiO 3 is such a material. A dielectric constant of ɛr>1000 has been achieved in thin films, made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). For applications in microelectronic memories it is necessary to produce crystalline, defect-free and oriented BaTiO 3 thin films at substrate temperatures, TS<450 °C. Sintered targets of BaTiO 3 are ablated by KrF excimer laser radiation. The processing gas atmosphere consists of O 2 at pressures of 0.1-50 Pa. The substrate is resitively heated to 360-440 °C and annealed after or during PLD on Pt/Ti/Si multilayer substrates using KrF excimer laser radiation with fluences up to 120 mJ/cm 2. The temperature distribution in the BaTiO 3/Pt/Ti/Si multilayers during laser annealing is dynamically modelled and related to the resulting crystal quality and the dielectric properties of the films. With PLD a minimum substrate temperature of 500 °C is necessary to deposit crystalline BaTiO 3 films. Using in situ laser crystallisation crystalline BaTiO 3 films can be deposited at substrate temperatures of TS=360-440 °C showing a dielectric constant of up to ɛr=1200. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films are determined by C- V and P- V impedance measurements and correlated to the chemical and structural properties, as determined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Highlights of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  20. ESO Highlights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  1. ESO Highlights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  2. Antisolvent crystallisation is a potential technique to prepare engineered lactose with promising aerosolisation properties: effect of saturation degree.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Engineered lactose particles were prepared by anti-solvent crystallisation technique using lactose solutions with different saturation degrees. In comparison to commercial lactose, engineered lactose particles exhibited less elongated and more irregular shape (large aggregates composed of smaller sub-units), rougher surface texture, higher specific surface area, and different anomer form. Engineered lactose powders demonstrated smaller bulk density, smaller tap density, and higher porosity than commercial lactose powder. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing engineered lactose and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug demonstrated improved drug content homogeneity and higher amounts of drug delivered to lower airway regions. Higher fine particle fraction of drug was obtained in the case of lactose powders with higher porosity, higher specific surface area and higher fine particle content (<5 μm). The results indicated that the higher the saturation degree of lactose solution used during crystallisation the smaller the specific surface area, the higher the amorphous lactose content, and the higher the β-lactose content of engineered lactose particles. Also, lactose powders obtained from lactose solution with higher degree of saturation showed higher bulk and tap densities and smaller porosity. Engineered lactose powders crystallized from lower saturation degree (20% and 30% w/v) deposited higher amounts of drug on lower airway regions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is possible to prepare engineered lactose particles with favourable properties (e.g. higher fine particle fraction and better drug content homogeneity) for DPI formulations by using lactose solutions with lower degree of saturation during crystallisation process. PMID:22884837

  3. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0≤x≤1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 °C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. • XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. • The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. • The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  4. Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematical Gazette, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted are "The Teaching of Euclid" by Bertrand Russell, an article on integrals by G. H. Hardy, "An Address on Relativity" by A. S. Eddington, "The Food of the Gods" by Prof. E. H. Neville, and "Simplicity and Truthfulness in Arithmetic" by W. Hope-Jones. (CT)

  5. Extreme chemical conditions of crystallisation of Umbrian Melilitolites and wealth of rare, late stage/hydrothermal minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Schiazza, M.

    2014-12-01

    Melilitolites of the Umbria Latium Ultra-alkaline District display a complete crystallisation sequence of peculiar, late-stage mineral phases and hydrothermal/cement minerals, analogous to fractionated mineral associations from the Kola Peninsula. This paper summarises 20 years of research which has resulted in the identification of a large number of mineral species, some very rare or completely new and some not yet classified. The progressive increasing alkalinity of the residual liquid allowed the formation of Zr-Ti phases and further delhayelitemacdonaldite mineral crystallisation in the groundmass. The presence of leucite and kalsilite in the igneous assemblage is unusual and gives a kamafugitic nature to the rocks. Passage to non-igneous temperatures (T<600 °C) is marked by the metastable reaction and formation of a rare and complex zeolite association (T<300 °C). Circulation of low-temperature (T<100 °C) K-Ca-Ba-CO2-SO2-fluids led to the precipitation of sulphates and hydrated and/or hydroxylated silicate-sulphate-carbonates. As a whole, this mineral assemblage can be considered typical of ultra-alkaline carbonatitic rocks.

  6. Estimation of the nucleation kinetics for the anti-solvent crystallisation of paracetamol in methanol/water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ó'Ciardhá, Clifford T.; Frawley, Patrick J.; Mitchell, Niall A.

    2011-08-01

    In this work the primary nucleation kinetics have been estimated for the anti-solvent crystallisation of paracetamol in methanol-water solutions from metastable zone widths (MSZW) and induction times at 25 °C. Laser back-scattering via a focused beam reflectance Measurement (FBRM ®) is utilised to detect the onset of nucleation. The theoretical approach of Kubota was employed to estimate the nucleation kinetics, which accounts for the sensitivity of the nucleation detection technique. This approach is expanded in this work to analyse the induction time for an anti-solvent crystallisation process. Solvent composition is known to have a significant impact on the measured induction times and MSZW. The induction time in this paper was measured from 40% to 70% mass water and the MSZW is measured from 40% to 60% mass water. The primary focus of the paper was to gauge the extent of how solvent composition affects nucleation kinetics so that this effect may be incorporated into a population balance model. Furthermore, the effects of solvent composition on the estimated nucleation rates are investigated. The primary nucleation rates were found to decrease with dynamic solvent composition, with the extent of their reduction linked to the gradient of the solubility curve. Finally, both MSZW and induction time methods have been found to produce similar estimates for the nucleation parameters.

  7. Electrochemical effects of magmatic crystallisation: cyclic units of the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Reid, David L.; Dulski, Peter; Keiding, Jakob K.; Trumbull, Robert B.

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Critical Zone (UCZ) of the Bushveld Igneous Complex displays spectacular layering in the form of cyclic units comprising a basal chromitite layer overlain by a sequence of silicate cumulates in the order, from the bottom to the top, pyroxentite-norite-anorthosite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of chromite and silicate cumulate minerals in the cyclic units between the UG2 chromitite and the Merensky reef revealed variations in major and trace element compositions that are difficult to reconcile with existing models of cumulate mineral-melt evolution. The anomalies in mineral chemistry are best developed at sharp contacts of chromitites with adjacent anorthosite and pyroxenitic cumulates. At the contacts, major element characteristics of chromite composition change abruptly from high and stable Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and Fe2+/Fe3+ typical for cumulus chromitites to variable and generally low values in chromite crystals disseminated in silicate cumulates. Chromites from different types of cumulates also differ in Sc, V, Ni and Zn contents. The abrupt changes in chromite composition mark the contacts regardless of the thickness of the chromitite layer and estimated mass proportions of chromite to intercumulus liquid. Chemical variations, which defy a simple explanation, are also observed in plagioclase. In addition to previously revealed inconsistency between chemical trends of cumulus plagioclase and orthopyroxene in the UCZ cyclic units our study demonstrates that intercumulus, poikilitic plagioclase cementing chromitite layers has anomalously low Li, K, Rb concentrations and K/La values. Summarising previous studies and the new trace element data we propose a model of post-cumulus re-crystallisation leading to consolidation of a modally layered crystal-liquid mush into a sequence of nearly monomineral layers of chromitites, pyroxenites and anorthosites, which defines the cyclic units. The crucial element of the model is the establishment of

  8. Copper stable isotopes as tracers of metal-sulphide segregation and fractional crystallisation processes on iron meteorite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Helen M.; Archer, Corey

    2011-06-01

    lowest Δ 65Cu M-FeS values, whereas the converse is observed in the irons with large values D Cu that deviate most from Cu concentration equilibrium. The magnitudes of Cu and Fe isotope fractionation between metal and FeS in the most equilibrated samples are similar: 0.25 and 0.32‰/amu, respectively. As proposed in an earlier study ( Williams et al., 2006) the range in Δ 57Fe M-FeS values can be explained by incomplete Fe isotope equilibrium between metal and sulphide during cooling, where the most rapidly-cooled samples are furthest from isotopic equilibrium and display the smallest Δ 57Fe M-FeS and largest D Cu values. The range in Δ 65Cu M-FeS, however, reflects the combined effects of partial isotopic equilibrium overprinting an initial kinetic signature produced by the diffusion of Cu from metal into exsolving sulphides and the faster diffusion of the lighter isotope. In this scenario, newly-exsolved sulphides initially have low Cu contents (i.e. high D Cu) and extremely light δ 65Cu FeS values; with progressive equilibrium and fractional crystallisation the Cu contents of the sulphides increase as their isotopic composition becomes less extreme and closer to the metal value. The correlation between Δ 65Cu M-FeS and Δ 57Fe M-FeS is therefore a product of the superimposed effects of kinetic fractionation of Cu and incomplete equilibrium between metal and sulphide for both isotope systems during cooling. The correlations between Δ 65Cu M-FeS and Δ 57Fe M-FeS are defined by both magmatic and non-magmatic irons record fractional crystallisation and cooling of metallic melts on their respective parent bodies as sulphur and chalcophile elements become excluded from crystallised solid iron and concentrated in the residual melt. Fractional crystallisation processes at shallow levels have been implicated in the two main classes of models for the origin of the non-magmatic iron meteorites; at (i) shallow levels in impact melt models and (ii) at much deeper levels

  9. Atmospheric Research 2011 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of Atmospheric Research. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  10. An in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction investigation of lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite-seeded Al(OH) 3 crystallisation from supersaturated sodium aluminate liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Loan, Melissa J.; Madsen, Ian C.; Knott, Robert B.; Brodie, Greta M.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2012-02-01

    Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite-seeded Al(OH) 3 crystallisation from supersaturated sodium aluminate liquor at 70 °C was investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The presence of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides in the Bayer process has implications for the nucleation and growth of scale on process equipment, and a greater understanding of the effect they have on Al(OH) 3 crystallisation may allow for development of methods for Al(OH) 3 scale prevention. The early stages of both crystallisation reactions were characterised by nucleation of gibbsite on the seed material. This was followed by a rapid increase in gibbsite concentration, which coincided with the appearance of the bayerite and nordstrandite polymorphs of Al(OH) 3. The lepidocrocite-seeded reaction then proceeded via a mechanism similar to that which has been observed previously for goethite, hematite and magnetite-seeded Al(OH) 3 crystallisation. Different behaviour was observed in the ferrihydrite-seeded experiment, with nucleation as well as growth occurring during the period of rapid increase in gibbsite concentration, followed by a period of diffusion controlled growth.

  11. LAMA Preconference and Program Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Administration & Management, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Highlights events of the Library Administration and Management Association 1988 conference, including presentation of awards and programs on: (1) transfer of training; (2) hiring; (3) mentoring; (4) acquisitions automation; (5) library building consultation; and (6) managing shared systems. (MES)

  12. Johnson Space Center 2012 Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    The year has seen many highlights at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, Houston in the realm of human spaceflight exploration, international and commercial partnerships, and research and technology dev...

  13. Research and technology highlights, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities supported by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. This report also describes some of the Center's most important research and testing facilities.

  14. ASTD's 1974 Conference--Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training and Development Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Highlights of speeches presented at the 30th ASTD National Conference in San Francisco are given: S.I. Hayakawa outlined developments in higher education during the 1970's; Joe Batten called for life enrichment, not just job enrichment; and Dorothy Jongeward discussed transactional analysis as a tool for more effective interpersonal relationships.…

  15. Pre- and syn-eruptive degassing and crystallisation processes of the 2010 and 2006 eruptions of Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Katie; Gertisser, Ralf; Barclay, Jenni; Berlo, Kim; Herd, Richard A.

    2014-10-01

    The 2010 eruption of Merapi (VEI 4) was the volcano's largest since 1872. In contrast to the prolonged and effusive dome-forming eruptions typical of Merapi's recent activity, the 2010 eruption began explosively, before a new dome was rapidly emplaced. This new dome was subsequently destroyed by explosions, generating pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), predominantly consisting of dark coloured, dense blocks of basaltic andesite dome lava. A shift towards open-vent conditions in the later stages of the eruption culminated in multiple explosions and the generation of PDCs with conspicuous grey scoria and white pumice clasts resulting from sub-plinian convective column collapse. This paper presents geochemical data for melt inclusions and their clinopyroxene hosts extracted from dense dome lava, grey scoria and white pumice generated during the peak of the 2010 eruption. These are compared with clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from scoriaceous dome fragments from the prolonged dome-forming 2006 eruption, to elucidate any relationship between pre-eruptive degassing and crystallisation processes and eruptive style. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles (H2O, CO2) and light lithophile elements (Li, B, Be) is augmented by electron microprobe analysis of major elements and volatiles (Cl, S, F) in melt inclusions and groundmass glass. Geobarometric analysis shows that the clinopyroxene phenocrysts crystallised at depths of up to 20 km, with the greatest calculated depths associated with phenocrysts from the white pumice. Based on their volatile contents, melt inclusions have re-equilibrated during shallower storage and/or ascent, at depths of ~0.6-9.7 km, where the Merapi magma system is interpreted to be highly interconnected and not formed of discrete magma reservoirs. Melt inclusions enriched in Li show uniform "buffered" Cl concentrations, indicating the presence of an exsolved brine phase. Boron-enriched inclusions also support the presence of a

  16. Research and technology highlights, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission will be accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, and other NASA centers. Highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year are presented. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of research and technology (R&T) activities supported by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. Some of the Center's most important research and testing facilities are also described.

  17. Langley aerospace test highlights, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The role of NASA-Langley is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and spaceflight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests are highlighted which were performed during 1990 in the NASA-Langley test facilities, a number of which are unique in the world. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at NASA-Langley and the contributions of this work toward maintaining U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated. Other highlights of Langley research and technology for 1990 are described in Research and Technology 1990 Langley Research Center.

  18. CEAS-ASC highlights 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on a European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on some highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2006, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2006, numerous research programmes were funded by the European Union. Some of the contributions submitted to the editor summarize selected findings from these programmes, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of Jet Noise" held in Dublin in September is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  19. Langley aerospace test highlights, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1985 in Langley test facilities, are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research, are illustrated. Other highlights of Langley research and technology for 1985 are described in Research and Technology-1985 Annual Report of the Langley Research Center.

  20. Langley aerospace test highlights, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The role of the NASA Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and spaceflight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests that were performed during calendar year 1989 in the NASA Langley Research Center test facilities are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the NASA Langley Research Center are illustrated along with the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. Other highlights of Langley research and technology for 1989 are described in Research and Technology 1989 - Langley Research Center.

  1. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Cheryl A.; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS. PMID:27429744

  2. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, J. C.; Lara, L. M.; Quilis, V.; Gorgas, J.

    2013-05-01

    "Highlights of Astronomy and Astrophysics VII" contains the Proceedings of the biannual meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society held in Valencia from July 9 to 13, 2012. Over 300 astronomer, both national and international researchers, attended to the conference covering a wide variety of astrophysical topics: Galaxies and Cosmology, The Milky Way and Its Components, Planetary Sciences, Solar Physics, Instrumentation and Computation, and Teaching and Outreach of Astronomy.

  3. Ba4Ru3O10.2(OH)1.8: a new member of the layered hexagonal perovskite family crystallised from water.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Craig I; Lees, Martin R; Hammond, David L; Kashtiban, Reza J; Sloan, Jeremy; Smith, Ronald I; Walton, Richard I

    2016-05-11

    A new barium ruthenium oxyhydroxide Ba4Ru3O10.2(OH)1.8 crystallises under hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C: powder neutron diffraction data show it adopts an 8H hexagonal perovskite structure with a new stacking sequence, while high resolution electron microscopy reveals regions of ordered layers of vacant Ru sites, and magnetometry shows antiferromagnetism with TN = 200(5) K. PMID:27074292

  4. Research and Technology Highlights 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of research and technology (R&T) activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. An electronic version of the report is available at URL http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/RandT95. This color version allows viewing, retrieving, and printing of the highlights, searching and browsing through the sections, and access to an on-line directory of Langley researchers.

  5. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Correia, Ana Filipa; Pascual, Maria J; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO-(19.24-x) MgO-x ZnO-5.61 P2O5-38.49 SiO2-0.59 CaF2 (x=2-10) have been synthesised by melt-quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content >4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO. PMID:26042713

  6. Nature of mantle source contributions and the role of contamination and in situ crystallisation in the petrogenesis of Proterozoic mafic dykes and flood basalts Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, A. C.; Tarney, J.; Baragar, W. R. A.

    1995-12-01

    Proterozoic tholeiitic dyke swarms share many compositional features with, and pose similar petrogenetic problems to, Phanerozoic continental flood basalts, but there are few extrusive equivalents of such swarms. The Mesoproterozoic (1.27 Ga) Harp dyke swarm in Labrador is one where possible extrusive equivalents exist in the Seal Lake group, but are slightly displaced in space and time, and can probably be related by models of progressive crustal extension. Here we try to evaluate the roles of crystal differentiation, in situ crystallisation, crustal assimilation and the relative contributions of asthenosphere- and lithosphere-derived melts in the petrogenesis of the mafic magmas. Modelling of the major and trace element variations both within individual dykes and between dykes, and within the lava sequence, does not suggest an important role for continental crust involvement. While in situ crystallisation processes could account for some of the compositional variations, the most successful models invoke mixing or contamination of asthenospheric magmas with/by veined material in the lower lithosphere / upper asthenosphere which carries the ‘continental’ characteristics. The results imply an important role for hydrous phases such as phlogopite and hornblende in the sub-lithosphere mantle. Much of the low-MgO character of mafic dykes may result from significant removal of mafic phases during in situ crystallisation within the lithosphere.

  7. Methyl tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranuronate: crystal structure and influence on the crystallisation of the β anomer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John A; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; Moynihan, Humphrey A

    2016-04-29

    Methyl tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranuronate (1) and methyl tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranuronate (3) were isolated as crystalline solids and their crystal structures were obtained. That of the β anomer (1) was the same as that reported by Root et al., while anomer (3) was found to crystallise in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. No other crystal forms were found for either compound upon recrystallisation from a range of solvents. The α anomer (3) was found to be an impurity in initially precipitated batches of β-anomer (1) in quantities <3%; however, it was possible to remove the α impurity either by recrystallisation or by efficient washing, i.e. the α anomer is not incorporated inside the β anomer crystals. The β anomer (1) was found to grow as prisms or needles elongated in the a crystallographic direction in the absence of the α impurity, while the presence of the α anomer (3) enhanced this elongation. PMID:27031190

  8. Tail proteins of phage T5: investigation of the effect of the His6-tag position, from expression to crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Flayhan, Ali; Pereira, Cindy; Gallet, Benoit; Gans, Pierre; Ebel, Christine; Breyton, Cécile

    2015-05-01

    Upon binding to its bacterial host receptor, the tail tip of phage T5 perforates, by an unknown mechanism, the heavily armoured cell wall of the host. This allows the injection of phage DNA into the cytoplasm to hijack the cell machinery and enable the production of new virions. In the perspective of a structural study of the phage tail, we have systematically overproduced eight of the eleven T5 tail proteins, with or without a N- or a C-terminal His6-tag. The widely used Hi6-tag is very convenient to purify recombinant proteins using immobilised-metal affinity chromatography. The presence of a tag however is not always innocuous. We combined automated gene cloning and expression tests to rapidly identify the most promising constructs for proteins of phage T5 tail, and performed biochemical and biophysical characterisation and crystallisation screening on available proteins. Automated small-scale purification was adapted for two highly expressed proteins. We obtained structural information for three of the proteins. We showed that the presence of a His6-tag can have drastic effect on protein expression, solubility, oligomerisation propensity and crystal quality. PMID:25676818

  9. ESO PR Highlights in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Among the many astronomical highlights of 2003, the Transit of Mercury certainly attracted great attention as shown by the record number of hits the ESO web page received on that day. But this was a mere rehearsal of an even bigger event we will enjoy in 2004: the Venus Transit. ESO, in partnership with several institutions, is organising a major educational event in connection with it. During 2003, the ESO Educational Office was also involved in various other programmes. They included the web-based "Catch a Star!" and the "Physics and Life" projects, organised with EC sponsorship in connection with the 2003 European Science and Technology Week. The ALMA project, an European-North American collaboration to build an array of 64 12-m submillimetre antennas, moved forward with the signature of the agreement between ESO and the NSF and with the Ground-breaking at Chajnantor. Conceptual studies of a 100-m optical/infrared telescope (OWL) also proceeded well. Several new instruments were installed at ESO telescopes, e.g. HARPS . And the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) received a powerful Adaptive Optics System and made the first detection through infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object. A rapidly increasing number of new scientific results were obtained on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. A number of beautiful images were published. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2003 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  10. Recent Highlights of ATVB Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mechanistic studies over the past decades using in vitro systems, animal models, and human tissues have highlighted the complexity of pathophysiological processes of atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, is still the focus of many mechanistic studies and the major therapeutic target of atherosclerosis. Although there is a dire need to validate many experimental findings in humans, there is a large number of approaches that have been showing promise for contributing to future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25717174

  11. Cluster highlights in magnetospheric physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri; Taylor, Matthew; Goldstein, Mevlyn; Hapgood, Mike; Masson, Arnaud; Volpp, Juergen; Sieg, Detlef

    The Cluster mission has been operated successfully for 14 years. As the first science mission comprising four identical spacecraft, Cluster has faced many challenges during its lifetime: its long selection process together with SOHO, the failure of the first Ariane V launch, its fast rebuilt, and the launch on two Soyuz rockets in 2000. The separation of the Cluster spacecraft was changed more than 25 times from a few kilometers up to 36000 km to address the various scientific objectives; the smallest distance achieved between two Cluster spacecraft was 4 km, about 50 times smaller than planned at the beginning of the mission. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study in three dimensions small-scale plasma structures in key plasma regions of Earth’s geospace environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, plasmasphere and auroral zone. We will present science highlights obtained such as ripples on the bow shock, 3D current measurements and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at the magnetopause, bifurcated current sheet in the magnetotail, and first measurement of the electron pressure tensor near a site of magnetic reconnection. In addition, we highlight Cluster results on understanding the impact of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) on the Earth's environment. We will also present the distribution of data through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS), and the Cluster Archive. Those systems were implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a permanent and public archive of all the high resolution data from all instruments.

  12. CP VIOLATION HIGHLIGHTS: CIRCA 2005

    SciTech Connect

    SONI A.

    2005-02-27

    Recent highlights in CP violation phenomena, are reviewed. B-factory results imply that, CP-violation phase in the CKM matrix is the dominant contributor to the observed CP violation in K and B-physics. Deviations from the predictions of the CKM-paradigm due to beyond the Standard Model CP-odd phase are likely to be a small perturbation. Therefore, large data sample of clean B's will be needed. Precise determination of the unitarity triangle, along with time dependent CP in penguin dominated hadronic and radiative modes are discussed. Null tests in B, K and top-physics and separate determination of the K-unitarity triangle are also emphasized.

  13. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ghada F; Gomaa, Amal Ha; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-03-16

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune hypothesis, followed by the reactive oxygen species model, zinc-α2-glycoprotein deficiency hypothesis, viral theory, intrinsic theory and biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations accounting for loss of functioning melanocytes in vitiligo. Many theories were elaborated to clarify vitiligo pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease involving the interplay of several factors. Future research is needed to clarify the interaction of these factors for better understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and subsequent successful treatment. PMID:25789295

  14. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  15. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ghada F; Gomaa, Amal HA; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune hypothesis, followed by the reactive oxygen species model, zinc-α2-glycoprotein deficiency hypothesis, viral theory, intrinsic theory and biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations accounting for loss of functioning melanocytes in vitiligo. Many theories were elaborated to clarify vitiligo pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease involving the interplay of several factors. Future research is needed to clarify the interaction of these factors for better understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and subsequent successful treatment. PMID:25789295

  16. Langley aerospace test highlights, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1988 in Langley test facilities, a number of which are unique in the world are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  17. Langley aerospace test highlights - 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. This report highlights some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1986 in Langley test facilities, a number of which are unique in the world. The report illustrates both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  18. Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption.

    PubMed

    Robalds, Artis; Naja, Ghinwa Melodie; Klavins, Maris

    2016-03-01

    Thousands of articles have been devoted to examine different types of biosorbents and their use in cleaning polluted waters. An important objective of some studies has been the identification of the biosorption mechanisms. This type of investigation is not always performed, as it can only be done if scientists are aware of all mechanisms that, at least theoretically, control the removal of the target substances. Mistakes are often made, even in highly cited review articles, where biosorption mechanisms are named and/or grouped. The aim of this article is to highlight errors and inaccuracies as well as to discuss different classification systems of the biosorption mechanisms. This article serves as a guide, as well as a platform for discussion among researchers involved in the investigation of biosorbents, in an effort to avoid reproducing errors in subsequent articles. PMID:26607871

  19. Highlights of Coastal Waves 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David P.; Dorman, Clive E.; Edwards, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Ian M.; Melville, W. Kendall; Burk, Stephen D.; Thompson, William T.; Holt, Teddy; Ström, Linda M.; Tjernström, Michael; Grisogono, Branko; Bane, John M.; Nuss, Wendell A.; Morley, Bruce M.; Schanot, Allen J.

    1998-07-01

    Some of the highlights of an experiment designed to study coastal atmospheric phenomena along the California coast (Coastal Waves 1996 experiment) are described. This study was designed to address several problems, including the cross-shore variability and turbulent structure of the marine boundary layer, the influence of the coast on the development of the marine layer and clouds, the ageostrophy of the flow, the dynamics of trapped events, the parameterization of surface fluxes, and the supercriticality of the marine layer.Based in Monterey, California, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 Hercules and the University of North Carolina Piper Seneca obtained a comprehensive set of measurements on the structure of the marine layer. The study focused on the effects of prominent topographic features on the wind. Downstream of capes and points, narrow bands of high winds are frequently encountered. The NCAR-designed Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar (SABL) provided a unique opportunity to connect changes in the depth of the boundary layer with specific features in the dynamics of the flow field.An integral part of the experiment was the use of numerical models as forecast and diagnostic tools. The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model System (COAMPS) provided high-resolution forecasts of the wind field in the vicinity of capes and points, which aided the deployment of the aircraft. Subsequently, this model and the MIUU (University of Uppsala) numerical model were used to support the analysis of the field data.These are some of the most comprehensive measurements of the topographically forced marine layer that have been collected. SABL proved to be an exceptionally useful tool to resolve the small-scale structure of the boundary layer and, combined with in situ turbulence measurements, provides new insight into the structure of the marine atmosphere. Measurements were made sufficiently far offshore to distinguish between the

  20. ESO PR Highlights in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, ESO and its staff are facing the future with confidence. The four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) are in great shape and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) will soon have "first fringes". The intercontinental ALMA project is progressing well and concepts for extremely large optical/infrared telescopes are being studied. They can also look back at a fruitful and rewarding past year. Perhaps the most important, single development has been the rapid transition of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). From being a "high-tech project under construction" it has now become a highly proficient, world-class astronomical observatory. This trend is clearly reflected in ESO's Press Releases , as more and more front-line scientific results emerge from rich data obtained at this very efficient facility. There were also exciting news from several of the instruments at La Silla. At the same time, the ESO community may soon grow, as steps towards membership are being taken by various European countries. Throughout 2000, a total of 54 PR communications were made, with a large number of Press Photos and Video Clips, cf. the 2000 PR Index. Some of the ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image on the present page. ESO PR Photo 01/01 is also available in a larger (non-clickable) version [ JPEG: 566 x 566 pix - 112k]. It may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  1. ESO PR Highlights in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    new interesting scientific results on the basis of data from ESO telescopes, including several results from the unmatched interferometer mode of the VLT, the VLTI, some of which were highlighted in ESO Press Releases. Certainly worth noting is the possible first ever bona-fide image of an exoplanet and the discovery of the lightest known exoplanet . At the beginning of the year, Paranal welcomed the first Auxiliary Telescope, while on the instrument side as well, 2004 was a good year: we saw the arrival of SINFONI on the VLT, of AMBER on the VLTI, and the installation at the NACO Adaptive Optics instrument of the " Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI)" to detect exoplanets. And the first prototype of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory was able to provide unprecedented results on the existence of Type-2 quasars by discovering an entire population of obscured, powerful supermassive black holes. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases, most with Press Photos, cf. the 2004 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image above.

  2. Highlighting Your Science to NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, C.

    2003-12-01

    An effort is underway to provide greater visibility within NASA headquarters, and to those who provide funding to NASA, of the outstanding work that is being performed by scientists involved in the Solar System Exploration Research and Analysis Programs, most of whom are DPS members. In support of this effort, a new feature has been developed for the NASA Headquarters Solar System Exploration Division web site whereby researchers can provide a synopsis of their current research results. The site (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/spotlight/ - Username: your email address Password: sse) is an online submission area where NASA-funded scientists can upload the results of their research. There they provide their contact information, briefly describe their research, and upload any associated images or graphics. The information is available to a limited number of reviewers and writers at JPL. Each month, one researcher's work will be chosen as a science spotlight. After a writer interviews the scientist, a brief Power Point presentation that encapsulates their work will be given to Dr. Colleen Hartman at NASA headquarters. She will then present the exciting findings to Associate Administrator for Space Science, Dr. Ed Weiler. The information from some of these highlights can serve as a basis to bring Principal Investigators to NASA Headquarters for exposure to media through Space Science Updates on NASA television. In addition, the science results may also be incorporated into briefing material for the Office of Management and Budget and congressional staffers. Some spotlights will also be converted into feature stories for the Solar System Exploration website so the public, too, can learn about exciting new research. The site, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/, is one of NASA's most visited. Over the past decade, there has been a trend of flat budgets for Research and Analysis activities. By giving more visibility to results of Solar System research, our goal is to encourage

  3. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  4. Compare and contrast the effects of surfactants (PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL) and sugars (β-cyclodextrin and inulin) on properties of spray dried and crystallised lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita Rochdy; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Chaw, Cheng Shu; Moore, Adrian

    2013-07-16

    The stabilisation of proteins using different excipients in dried forms for possible therapeutic use is extensively studied. However, the effects of excipients on proteins in crystallised forms are sparsely documented. Therefore, the influences of PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL (as surfactants) and β-cyclodextrin and inulin (as sugars) on stability and biological activity of lysozyme, a model protein, in spray dried and crystallised forms were investigated. Spray dried and crystallised lysozyme were prepared in absence and presence of the mentioned excipients in a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The protein formulations were characterised in both solution state (using biological assay, particle size analysis and protein concentration determination) and solid state (employing yield determination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for secondary structure analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for thermal study). Also, protein samples were assayed for their biological activities after exposing to storage stability study for 20 weeks in solid states at 24 °C/76% relative humidity (RH) and in aqueous states at 24 °C. The results showed that lysozyme crystals with CremophorEL, PluronicF-127, β-cyclodextrin and inulin maintained protein thermal stability (as indicated by DSC) to greater extent compared with spray dried protein formulations. Also, PluronicF-127 was competent to recover 100% lysozyme from crystallisation protein solutions (as confirmed by yield determination); this surfactant was able to prevent aggregate formation within spray dried lysozyme (as demonstrated by particle size analysis). The presence of PluronicF-127, β-cyclodextrin and inulin preserved the protein biological activity in freshly prepared spray dried and crystallised samples. PluronicF-127 was competent to protect lysozyme in both spray dried and crystallised forms after storage. PluronicF-127 has proved to be a

  5. ESO PR Highlights in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    great research possibilities at these sites. And this year will also see further development of Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, a most powerful research tool of the future. Many of these developments are described in ESO's Press Releases , most with Press Photos and several also with PR Video Clips , cf. the 2001 PR Index. Some of last year's ESO PR highlights may be accessed directly via the clickable image on the present page.

  6. Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2007-08-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  7. A Dual-Porosity, In Situ Crystallisation Model For Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge Magma Chambers Based Upon Direct Observation From Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Lissenberg, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a revised magma chamber model for fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges based upon a synthesis of new data from a complete section of lower crust from the East Pacific Rise, reconstructed from samples collected from the Hess Deep rift valley during cruise JC21. Our investigation includes detailed sampling across critical transitions in the upper part of the plutonic section, including the inferred axial melt lens (AML) within the dyke-gabbro transition. We find that an overall petrological progression, from troctolite and primitive gabbro at the base up into evolved (oxide) gabbro and gabbronorite at the top of the lower crustal section, is mirrored by a progressive upward chemical fractionation as recorded in bulk rock and mineral compositions. Crystallographic preferred orientations measured using EBSD show that the downward increase in deformation of mush required in crystal subsidence models is not observed. Together these observations are consistent only with a model in which crystallisation of upward migrating evolving melts occurs in situ in the lower crust. Over-enrichment in incompatible trace element concentrations and ratios above that possible by fractional crystallisation is ubiquitous. This implies redistribution of incompatible trace elements in the lower crust by low porosity, near-pervasive reactive porous flow of interstitial melt moving continuously upward through the mush pile. Mass balance calculations reveal a significant proportion of this trace element enriched melt is trapped at mid-crustal levels. Mineral compositions in the upper third to half of the plutonic section are too evolved to represent the crystal residues of MORB. Erupted MORB therefore must be fed from melts sourced in the deeper part of the crystal mush pile, and which must ascend rapidly without significant modification in the upper plutonics or AML. From physical models of mush processes we posit that primitive melts are transported through transient, high porosity

  8. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Earth Sciences Division in atmospheric science research. Figure 1.1 shows the 20-year record of peer-reviewed publications and proposals among the various Laboratories. This data shows that the scientific work being conducted in the Laboratories is competitive with the work being done elsewhere in universities and other government agencies. The office of Deputy Director for Atmospheric Research will strive to maintain this record by rigorously monitoring and promoting quality while emphasizing coordination and integration among atmospheric disciplines. Also, an appropriate balance will be maintained between the scientists' responsibility for large collaborative projects and missions and their need to carry out active science research as a principal investigator. This balance allows members of the Laboratories to improve their scientific credentials, and develop leadership potentials. Interdisciplinary research is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other government agencies. Members of the Laboratories interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratories raise the public's awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Atmosphere Laboratories make substantial efforts to attract and recruit new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA's mission, provides highlights of our research scope and activities, and summarizes our scientists' major

  9. Laboratory studies on recovery of N and P from human urine through struvite crystallisation and zeolite adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bán, Zs; Dave, G

    2004-01-01

    Struvite [Mg (K, NH4)(PO4) x 6H2O] crystallisation and adsorption to zeolite have been proposed as a method for nutrient recovery from human urine collected with urine separating toilets. The aim of the present study was to optimise the use of MgO (to precipitate struvite) and zeolite (to adsorb ammonia) in this process. The experiments were performed with fresh urine, to which various amounts of MgO and zeolite were added. After repeated stirring and settling for 3 days the supernatant was analysed for pH, total-N, total-P and acute toxicity for Daphnia magna (24- and 48-h EC50). The results show that addition of MgO reduced P and addition of zeolite reduced N in the supernatant, as expected. The required concentration of MgO added was less than expected from the stoichiometric Mg-P-ratio for struvite. In combination with zeolite the requirement for MgO was reduced even further. Zeolite was effective in reducing total-N, but because of its interaction with MgO the effect of zeolite on N as well as P reduction was rather complicated. The optimal combination of MgO and zeolite for combined N and P recovery was found to be around 0.5 MgO per litre urine and 15 g zeolite per litre urine. These additions reduced supernatant P from about 1300 mg l(-1) to 10 mg l(-1) and N from 8000 mg l(-1) to 1000 mg l(-1). The 24-h EC50 for D. magna was not significantly affected by these additions. The expected recovery potentials for P and N by addition of MgO and zeolite are, thus, about 99% for P and 90% for N. However, these figures need to be verified, and pilot plant experiments at a science centre with urine separation wastewater treatment (www.universeum.se) are in progress. PMID:15027655

  10. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  11. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  12. Fractional Crystallisation of Archaean Trondhjemite Magma at 12-7 Kbar: Constraints on Rheology of Archaean Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Saha, Lopamudra; Satyanarayan, Manavalan; Pati, Jayanta

    2015-04-01

    Fractional Crystallisation of Archaean Trondhjemite Magma at 12-7 Kbar: Constraints on Rheology of Archaean Continental Crust Sarkar, S.1, Saha, L.1, Satyanarayan, M2. and Pati, J.K.3 1. Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, Haridwar, India, 2. HR-ICPMS Lab, Geochemistry Group, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-50007, India. 3. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India. Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTGs) group of rocks, that mostly constitute the Archaean continental crusts, evolved through a time period of ~3.8 Ga-2.7 Ga with major episodes of juvenile magma generations at ~3.6 Ga and ~2.7 Ga. Geochemical signatures, especially HREE depletions of most TTGs conform to formation of this type of magma by partial melting of amphibolites or eclogites at 15-20 kbar pressure. While TTGs (mostly sodic in compositions) dominates the Eoarchaean (~3.8-3.6 Ga) to Mesoarchaean (~3.2-3.0 Ga) domains, granitic rocks (with significantly high potassium contents) became more dominant in the Neoarchaean period. The most commonly accepted model proposed for the formation of the potassic granite in the Neoarchaean time is by partial melting of TTGs along subduction zones. However Archaean granite intrusive into the gabbro-ultramafic complex from Scourie, NW Scotland has been interpreted to have formed by fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase from co-existing trondhjemitic gneiss. In this study we have studied fractional crystallization paths from a Mesoarchaean trondhjemite from the central Bundelkhand craton, India using MELTS algorithm. Fractional crystallization modeling has been performed at pressure ranges of 20 kbar to 7 kbar. Calculations have shown crystallization of garnet-clinopyroxene bearing assemblages with progressive cooling of the magma at 20 kbar. At pressure ranges 19-16 kbar, solid phases

  13. Using an Electronic Highlighter to Eliminate the Negative Effects of Pre-Existing, Inappropriate Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gier, Vicki; Kreiner, David; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Herring, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether using an active learning technique, electronic highlighting, can eliminate the negative effects of pre-existing, poor highlighting on reading comprehension. Participants read passages containing no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, or inappropriate highlighting. We hypothesized…

  14. Primary welding and crystallisation textures preserved in the intra-caldera ignimbrites of the Permian Ora Formation, northern Italy: implications for deposit thermal state and cooling history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Cas, R. A. F.

    2014-06-01

    Exceptional exposure through a Permian intra-caldera ignimbrite fill within the 42 × 40 km Ora caldera (>1,290 km3 erupted volume) provides an opportunity to study welding textures in a thick intra-caldera ignimbrite succession. The ignimbrite succession records primary dense welding, a simple cooling unit structure, common crystallisation zones, and remarkably preserves fresh to slightly hydrated glass in local vitrophyre zones. Evidence for primary syn- and post-emplacement welding consists of (a) viscously deformed and sintered juvenile glass and relict shard textures; (b) complete deposit welding; (c) subtle internal welding intensity variations; (d) vitrophyre preserved locally at the base of the ignimbrite succession; (e) persistent fiamme juvenile clast shapes throughout the succession at the macroscopic and microscopic scales, defining a moderate to well-developed eutaxitic texture; (f) common undulating juvenile clast (pumice) margins and feathery terminations; (g) a general loss of deposit porosity; and (h) perlitic fracturing. A low collapsing or fountaining explosive eruption column model is proposed to have facilitated the ubiquitous welding of the deposit, which in turn helped preserve original textures. The ignimbrite succession preserves no evidence of a time break through the sequence and columnar joints cross-gradational ignimbrite lithofacies boundaries, so the ignimbrite is interpreted to represent a simple cooling unit. Aspect ratio and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses through stratigraphic sections within the thick intra-caldera succession and at the caldera margin reveal variable welding compaction and strain profiles. Significantly, these data show that welding degree/intensity may vary in an apparently simple cooling unit because of variations in eruption process recorded in differing lithofacies. These data imply complex eruption, emplacement, and cooling processes. Three main crystallisation textural zones are

  15. Crystallisation of magmatic topaz and implications for Nb-Ta-W mineralisation in F-rich silicic melts - The Ary-Bulak ongonite massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agangi, Andrea; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Hofmann, Axel; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Vladykin, Nikolay V.

    2014-08-01

    Textural, mineralogical and geochemical data on F-rich rhyolite (ongonite) from the Ary-Bulak massif of eastern Transbaikalia help constrain the formation of magmatic topaz. In these rocks, topaz occurs as phenocrysts, thus providing compelling evidence for crystallisation at the orthomagmatic stage. Cathodoluminescence images of topaz and quartz reveal growth textures with multiple truncation events in single grains, indicative of a dynamic system that shifted from saturated to undersaturated conditions with respect to topaz and quartz. Electron microprobe and Raman analyses of topaz indicate near-pure F composition [Al2SiO4F2], with very limited OH replacement. Laser ablation ICP-MS traverses revealed the presence of a large number of trace elements present at sub-ppm to hundreds of ppm levels. The chemical zoning of topaz records trace element fluctuations in the coexisting melt. Concentrations of some trace elements (Li, Ga, Nb, Ta and W) are correlated with cathodoluminescence intensity, thus suggesting that some of these elements act as CL activators in topaz. The study of melt inclusions indicates that melts with different F contents were trapped at different stages during formation of quartz and topaz phenocrysts, respectively. Electron microprobe analyses of glass in subhedral quartz-hosted melt inclusions indicate F ≤ 1.2 wt.%, whereas irregular-shaped melt inclusions hosted in both topaz and quartz have F ≤ 9 wt.%. Cryolithionite [Na3Li3Al2F12] coexists with glass in irregular inclusions, implying high Li contents in the melt. The very high F contents would have increased the solubility of Nb, Ta and W in the melt, thus allowing progressive concentration of these elements during magma evolution. Crystallisation of Nb-Ta-W-oxides (W-ixiolite and tantalite-columbite) may have been triggered by separation of cryolithionite, which would have caused F and Li depletion and consequent drop in the solubility of these elements.

  16. The pharmacological effects of the thermostabilising (m23) mutations and intra and extracellular (β36) deletions essential for crystallisation of the turkey β-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G; Proudman, Richard G W; Tate, Christopher G

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the turkey β-adrenoceptor has recently been determined. However, mutations were introduced into the native receptor that was essential for structure determination. These may cause alterations to the receptor pharmacology. It is therefore essential to understand the effects of these mutations on the pharmacological characteristics of the receptor. This study examined the pharmacological effects of both the m23 mutations and the β36 deletions, both alone and then in combination in the β36-m23 mutant used in the crystallisation and structure determination of the turkey β-adrenoceptor. Stable CHO-K1 cell lines were made of each of the receptor mutants and the affinity and efficacy of ligands assessed by (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell ligand binding, (3)H-cAMP accumulation, and CRE-SPAP gene transcription assays. The m23 mutations reduced affinity for agonists, partial agonists and neutral antagonists by about tenfold whilst the β36 deletions alone had no effect on ligand affinity. Both sets of changes appeared to reduce the agonist activation of the receptor. Both the m23 and the β36 receptors retained two active agonist-induced receptor conformations similar to that of the original tβtrunc receptor. The combined β36-m23 receptor bound ligands with similar affinity to the m23 receptor; however, agonist activation was only observed with a few agonists including the catecholamines. Although the combination of mutations severely reduced the activation ability, the final crystallised receptor (β36-m23) was still a fully functional receptor capable of binding agonist and antagonist ligands and activating intracellular agonist responses. PMID:21547538

  17. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2007 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  18. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2010 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  19. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2009 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  20. Laboratory for Atmospheres: 2006 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, are highlighted in this report.

  1. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2005 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Technical highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  2. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  3. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  4. Highlight area inpainting guided by illumination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Zhiguo; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a two-step algorithm based on the combination of the exemplar-based algorithm and the illumination model to deal with specular images, especially those contain saturated pixels in the highlight areas. First the proposed modified exemplar-based algorithm is employed to process the unsaturated specular pixels under the supervision of illumination model. Then we inpaint the rest regions in which the pixels are saturated with original exemplar-based algorithm to obtain the final result. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better on the images with saturated pixels in the highlight areas compared with classical highlight removal and image inpainting algorithms.

  5. Highlights from NNSA's Decade of Success

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    On April 28, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration celebrated its 10-year anniversary with a series of events aimed at highlighting a decade of success across the nuclear security enterprise. This slideshow features images from the past 10 years.

  6. Highlights of the 2009 Hurricane Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Picture yourself sitting in space watching the highlights of the 2009's Atlantic Ocean hurricane season in fast-forward. This latest animation from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adm...

  7. Highlights from NNSA's Decade of Success

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-28

    On April 28, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration celebrated its 10-year anniversary with a series of events aimed at highlighting a decade of success across the nuclear security enterprise. This slideshow features images from the past 10 years.

  8. EuroEcho-Imaging 2015: highlights.

    PubMed

    Magne, Julien; Popescu, Bogdan A; Cosyns, Bernard; Donal, Erwan; Miller, Owen; Neglia, Danilo; Plein, Sven; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    The annual meeting of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, EuroEcho-Imaging, was held in Seville, Spain, in December 2015. In the present paper, we present a summary of the 'Highlights' session. PMID:27099280

  9. Crystallisation ages in coeval silicic magma bodies: 238U-230Th disequilibrium evidence from the Rotoiti and earthquake flat eruption deposits, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charlier, B.L.A.; Peate, D.W.; Wilson, C.J.N.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Storey, M.; Brown, S.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The timescales over which moderate to large bodies of silicic magma are generated and stored are addressed here by studies of two geographically adjacent, successive eruption deposits in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. The earlier, caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption (>100 km3 magma) at Okataina volcano was followed, within months at most, by the Earthquake Flat eruption (??? 10 km3 magma) from nearby Kapenga volcano; both generated nonwelded ignimbrite and coeval widespread fall deposits. The Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat deposits are both crystal-rich high-silica rhyolites, with sparse glass-bearing granitoid fragments also occurring in Rotoiti lag breccias generated during caldera collapse. Here we report 238U-230Th disequilibrium data on whole rocks and mineral separates from representative Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat pumices and the co-eruptive Rotoiti granitoid fragments using TIMS and in situ zircon analyses by SIMS. Multiple-grain zircon-controlled crystallisation ages measured by TIMS from the Rotoiti pumice range from 69??3 ka ( 350 ka, with a pronounced peak at 70-90 ka. The weighted mean of isochrons is 83??14 ka, in accord with the TIMS data. One glass-bearing Rotoiti granitoid clast yielded an age of 57??8 ka by TIMS (controlled by Th-rich phases that, however, are not apparently present in the juvenile pumices). Another glass-bearing Rotoiti granitoid yielded SIMS zircon model ages peaking at 60-90 ka, having a similar age distribution to the pumice. Age data from pumices are consistent with a published 64??4 ka eruptive age (now modified to 62??2 ka), but chemical and/or mineralogical data imply that the granitoid lithics are not largely crystalline Rotoiti rhyolite, but instead represent contemporaneous partly molten intrusions reflecting different sources in their chemistries and mineralogies. Similarly, although the Earthquake Flat eruption immediately followed (and probably was triggered by) the Rotoiti event, age data from juvenile material

  10. Display format, highlight validity, and highlight method: Their effects on search performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donner, Kimberly A.; Mckay, Tim D.; Obrien, Kevin M.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    Display format and highlight validity were shown to affect visual display search performance; however, these studies were conducted on small, artificial displays of alphanumeric stimuli. A study manipulating these variables was conducted using realistic, complex Space Shuttle information displays. A 2x2x3 within-subjects analysis of variance found that search times were faster for items in reformatted displays than for current displays. Responses to valid applications of highlight were significantly faster than responses to non or invalidly highlighted applications. The significant format by highlight validity interaction showed that there was little difference in response time to both current and reformatted displays when the highlight validity was applied; however, under the non or invalid highlight conditions, search times were faster with reformatted displays. A separate within-subject analysis of variance of display format, highlight validity, and several highlight methods did not reveal a main effect of highlight method. In addition, observed display search times were compared to search time predicted by Tullis' Display Analysis Program. Benefits of highlighting and reformatting displays to enhance search and the necessity to consider highlight validity and format characteristics in tandem for predicting search performance are discussed.

  11. Are arc-type rocks the products of magma crystallisation? Observations from a simple oceanic arc volcano: Raoul Island, Kermadec Arc, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ian E. M.; Stewart, Robert B.; Price, Richard C.; Worthington, Timothy J.

    2010-02-01

    Raoul Island is the emergent summit of a large intra-oceanic strato-volcano in what is globally one of the simplest of subduction settings. In this simple setting erupted magmas span the compositional range from basalt to dacite but none have the high Mg-numbers and high Ni and Cr expected of primitive mantle-derived melts. The lavas range from aphyric to highly porphyritic and are characterised by phenocryst assemblages dominated by plagioclase accompanied by clinopyroxene, olivine, orthopyroxene and spinel. Phenocryst core compositions and zoning profiles are remarkably uniform irrespective of total phenocryst content or geochemical composition, indicating a decoupling of melt and crystal components in the system. A consistent model for the Raoul magmatic system is that primitive high-Mg magma generated in a melt column within the underlying mantle wedge is transformed into a series of derivative low-Mg magmas by fractional crystallisation within the lower crust. Low-Mg magma accumulates variable quantities of crystal cargo as it ascends toward the surface through a crystal mush zone. These processes are essentially those that characterise continental subduction-related magmatic systems but differ only in the absence of an evolved crustal component.

  12. Physicochemical properties and crystallisation behaviour of bakery shortening produced from stearin fraction of palm-based diacyglycerol blended with various vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Latip, Razam Ab; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-12-15

    The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in β'+β polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in β polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening. PMID:23993569

  13. Brookhaven highlights, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Highlights are given for the research areas of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These areas include high energy physics, physics and chemistry, life sciences, applied energy science (energy and environment, and nuclear energy), and support activities (including mathematics, instrumentation, reactors, and safety). (GHT)

  14. Highlights from Education at a Glance 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Highlights from Education at a Glance 2010" is a companion publication to the OECD's flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including: education levels and student numbers, economic and social benefits of education, education spending, the school…

  15. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  16. The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics Highlights, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This issue of The Nation's Report Card highlights mathematics in 2003. It includes sections on Average Scale Scores, Students Reaching NAEP Achievement Levels, Percentile Results, 2003 Assessment Design, State Results, Subgroup Results, Sample Mathematics Questions, Technical Notes, Additional Data Tables, and NAEP on the Web. (AMT)

  17. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: FINE PARTICLE SCRUBBER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of fine particle scrubber research performed by, or under the direction of, EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL-RTP) at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The U.S. EPA has been actively involved in research and development in ...

  18. LibTech Highlights from ALA Midwinter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hane, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite lower attendance than in the past and blustery, cold weather, the American Library Association's Midwinter Meeting in Denver in January offered lots of news from industry vendors and lots of opportunities to discuss important issues and trends. In this report, the author highlights some of the most important product announcements with a…

  19. The Nation's Report Card: Science Highlights 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Statistics Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents highlights from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2000 Science Assessment, including average scores and achievement-level performance at the national and state levels. Results show no change in national average scores at grades 4 and 8 and a decline at grade 12, with few changes overall in students' 2000 achievement…

  20. Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.

  1. Highlights from AQMEII Phase 2 & Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present highlights of the results obtained in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) that was completed in May 2014. Activities in this phase were focused on the application and evaluation of coupled meteorology-chemistry models ...

  2. Education at a Glance 2011: Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Education at a Glance 2011: Highlights" offers a reader-friendly introduction to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD's) collection of internationally comparable data on education. As the name suggests, it is derived from "Education at a Glance 2011", the OECD's flagship compendium of education statistics. However, it…

  3. Education at a Glance 2012: Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Education at a Glance 2012: Highlights" offers a reader-friendly introduction to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD's) collection of internationally comparable data on education. As the name suggests, it is derived from "Education at a Glance 2012", the OECD's flagship compendium of education statistics. However, it…

  4. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  5. Highlighting relatedness promotes prosocial motives and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Louisa; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sparks, Paul

    2011-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, people have three basic psychological needs: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Of these, the authors reasoned that relatedness need satisfaction is particularly important for promoting prosocial behavior because of the increased sense of connectedness to others that this engenders. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated relatedness, autonomy, competence, or gave participants a neutral task, and found that highlighting relatedness led to higher interest in volunteering and intentions to volunteer relative to the other conditions. Experiment 2 found that writing about relatedness experiences promoted feelings of connectedness to others, which in turn predicted greater prosocial intentions. Experiment 3 found that relatedness manipulation participants donated significantly more money to charity than did participants given a neutral task. The results suggest that highlighting relatedness increases engagement in prosocial activities and are discussed in relation to the conflict and compatibility between individual and social outcomes. PMID:21521720

  6. 1999 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  7. 2000 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  8. Science Highlights from the Cassini magnetometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini dual technique magnetometer instrument has been taking data in the Saturn system for the last 10 years. Science highlights encompass topics including the magnetosphere and its aurora, the internal dynamo magnetic field of Saturn, the icy satellites and Enceladus in particular, as well as the large moon Titan. The science discoveries will be described as well as important science observations yet to be made in the remaining 4 years of the mission.

  9. Recent Highlights from the ISOLDE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K.

    2015-11-01

    The ISOLDE facility is CERN's longest running experiment. In its 45 years of operation it has become the world's most comprehensive radioactive-isotope factory. Now capable of delivering more than 1000 isotopes from 70 chemical elements, ISOLDE supports a wide and diverse physics programme. This short article summarizes some of the recent highlights from this programme in the areas of nuclear physics, medicine and biology.

  10. STS-111 Flight Day 10 Highlights Replay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The most important highlight of flight day 10 of STS-111 was the undocking of the Leonardo Multi Purpose Logistical Module (MPLM) from the Unity module of the International Space Station (ISS). The undocking is shown, as is Leonardo resting in Endeavour's payload bay. The video also includes an interview, and footage of the West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean, Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea, Italy, Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, Hispanola, an unknown land mass, and unknown mountains.

  11. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 3 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 6 and 7. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). Flight day 6 features a very complicated EVA (extravehicular activity) to service the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Astronauts Grunsfeld and Linnehan replace the HST's power control unit, disconnecting and reconnecting 36 tiny connectors. The procedure includes the HST's first ever power down. The cleanup of spilled water from the coollant system in Grunsfeld's suit is shown. The pistol grip tool, and two other space tools are also shown. On flight day 7, Newman and Massimino conduct an EVA. They replace the HST's FOC (Faint Object Camera) with the ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys). The video ends with crew members playing in the shuttle's cabin with a model of the HST.

  12. STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    This video, Part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-111 crew (Kenneth Cockrell, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Franklin Chang-Diaz, Phillipe Perrin, Mission Specialists) during flight days 1 through 4. Also shown are the incoming Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, NASA ISS Science Officer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and outgoing Expedition 4 (Yuri Onufriyenko, Commander; Carl Walz, Daniel Bursch, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002139469), 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139468), and 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002139474). The primary activity of flight day 1 is the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew is seen before the launch at a meal and suit-up, and some pre-flight procedures are shown. Perrin holds a sign with a personalized message. The astronauts communicate with Mission Control extensively after launch, and an inside view of the shuttle cabin is shown. The replays of the launch include close-ups of the nozzles at liftoff, and the fall of the solid rocket boosters and the external fuel tank. Flight day 2 shows footage of mainland Asia at night, and daytime views of the eastern United States and Lake Michigan. Flight day three shows the Endeavour orbiter approaching and docking with the ISS. After the night docking, the crews exchange greetings, and a view of the Nile river and Egypt at night is shown. On flight day 4, the MPLM (Multi-Purpose Logistics Module) Leonardo was temporarily transferred from Endeavour's payload bay to the ISS.

  13. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 4 of 4, shows footage of crew activities from flight days 8 through 12 of STS-109. The crew included: Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, Richard Linnehan, James Newman, Michael Massimino, Mission Speicalists. The activities from other flights days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139476). The primary activity on flight day 8 was an EVA (extravehicular activity) by Grunsfeld and Linnehan to install a cryocooler and radiator for the NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) on the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Before returning to Columbia's airlock, the astronauts, with a cloudy background, hold onto the orbiter and offer their thoughts on the significance of their mission, the HST, and spaceflight. Footage from flight day 9 includes the grappling, unbearthing, and deployment of the HST from Columbia, and the crew coordinating and videotaping Columbia's departure. Flight day 10 was a relatively inactive day, and flight day 11 includes a checkout of Columbia's aerodynamic surfaces. Columbia landed on flight day 12, which is covered by footage of the crew members speaking during reentry, and their night landing, primarily shown through the orbiter's head-up display. The video includes numerous views of the HST, as well as views of the the Galapagos Islands, Madagascar, and Southern Africa with parts of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and part of the coast of Chile. The pistol grip space tool is shown in use, and the crew answers two messages from the public, including a message to Massimino from the Fire Department of New York.

  14. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 2 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 4 and 5. The activities from other flights days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139476), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). The primary activities during these days were EVAs (extravehicular activities) to replace two solar arrays on the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Footage from flight day 4 records an EVA by Grunsfeld and Linnehan, including their exit from Columbia's payload bay airlock, their stowing of the old HST starboard rigid array on the rigid array carrier in Columbia's payload bay, their attachment of the new array on HST, the installation of a new starboard diode box, and the unfolding of the new array. The pistol grip space tool used to fasten the old array in its new location is shown in use. The video also includes several shots of the HST with Earth in the background. On flight day 5 Newman and Massimino conduct an EVA to change the port side array and diode box on HST. This EVA is very similar to the one on flight day 4, and is covered similarly in the video. A hand operated ratchet is shown in use. In addition to a repeat of the previous tasks, the astronauts change HST's reaction wheel assembly, and because they are ahead of schedule, install installation and lubricate an instrument door on the telescope. The Earth views include a view of Egypt and Israel, with the Nile River, Red Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.

  15. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 1 through 3. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). The main activity recorded during flight day 1 is the liftoff of Columbia. Attention is given to suit-up, boarding, and pre-flight procedures. The pre-launch crew meal has no sound. The crew members often wave to the camera before liftoff. The jettisoning of the solid rocket boosters is shown, and the External Tank is seen as it falls to Earth, moving over African dunes in the background. There are liftoff replays, including one from inside the cockpit. The opening of the payload bay doors is seen from the rear of the shuttle's cockpit. The footage from flight day 2 shows the Flight Support System for bearthing the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Crew preparations for the bearthing are shown. Flight day 3 shows the tracking of and approach to the HST by Columbia, including orbital maneuvers, the capture of the HST, and its lowering onto the Flight Support System. Many views of the HST are shown, including one which reveals an ocean and cloud background as the HST retracts a solar array.

  16. Fermi GBM: Highlights from the First Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma ray Burst Monitor is an all-sky instrument sensitive to photons from about 8 keV to 40 MeV. I will summarize highlights from the first year, including triggered observations of gamma ray bursts, soft gamma ray repeaters, and terrestrial gamma flashes, and observations in the continuous data of X-ray binaries and accreting X-ray pulsars. GBM provides complementary observations to Swift/BAT, observing many of the same sources, but over a wider energy range.

  17. Langley aeronautics and space test highlights, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1984 in Langley test facilities are highlighted. The broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  18. Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S

    2014-09-18

    Exoplanets are now being discovered in profusion. To understand their character, however, we require spectral models and data. These elements of remote sensing can yield temperatures, compositions and even weather patterns, but only if significant improvements in both the parameter retrieval process and measurements are made. Despite heroic efforts to garner constraining data on exoplanet atmospheres and dynamics, reliable interpretation has frequently lagged behind ambition. I summarize the most productive, and at times novel, methods used to probe exoplanet atmospheres; highlight some of the most interesting results obtained; and suggest various broad theoretical topics in which further work could pay significant dividends. PMID:25230656

  19. Highlights in Astronomy Education, Outreach, and Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Short talks and a panel discussion by members of the leadership of Division C will highlight important work that has occurred since the last General Assembly. Although a small portion of the session will cover administrative matters of the Division, Commissions, and Working Groups, the focus will be on accomplishments in the broad fields of education, outreach, and heritage. The purpose of the session is to not only inform the audience about a sample of cutting edge projects and methodologies in our fields, but to invite participants to become more involved.

  20. STS-111 Flight Day 4 Highlights Replay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The most significant highlights of flight day 4 of STS-111 are the lifting of the Leonardo Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) out of Endeavour's payload bay, and its temporary attachment to the Unity module of the International Space Station (ISS). The lifting and attachment are shown. Also shown is the testing of cameras on the CANADARM2 robotic arm on the ISS, an ISS extravehicular activity (EVA) suit, and an interview with the outgoing Expedition 4 crew of the ISS. Earth views include the ISS and Earth limb, and cloud formations.

  1. Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam S.

    2014-09-01

    Exoplanets are now being discovered in profusion. To understand their character, however, we require spectral models and data. These elements of remote sensing can yield temperatures, compositions and even weather patterns, but only if significant improvements in both the parameter retrieval process and measurements are made. Despite heroic efforts to garner constraining data on exoplanet atmospheres and dynamics, reliable interpretation has frequently lagged behind ambition. I summarize the most productive, and at times novel, methods used to probe exoplanet atmospheres; highlight some of the most interesting results obtained; and suggest various broad theoretical topics in which further work could pay significant dividends.

  2. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus. PMID:27400228

  3. STS-66 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  4. Langley aeronautics and space test highlights, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1983 in Langley test facilities, a number of which are unique in the world are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  5. Research highlights: impacts of microplastics on plankton.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2016-02-01

    Each year, millions of metric tons of the plastic produced for food packaging, personal care products, fishing gear, and other human activities end up in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The breakdown of these primary plastics in the environment results in microplastics, small fragments of plastic typically less than 1-5 mm in size. These synthetic particles have been detected in all of the world's oceans and also in many freshwater systems, accumulating in sediment, on shorelines, suspended in surface waters, and being ingested by plankton, fish, birds, and marine mammals. While the occurrence of plastics in surface waters has been surveyed in a number of studies, the impacts of microplastics on marine organisms are still being elucidated. This highlight features three recent publications that explore the interactions of microplastics with planktonic organisms to clarify the effects of these pollutants on some of the ocean's smallest and most important inhabitants. PMID:26829584

  6. STS-114 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Highlights of Day 5 of the STS-114 Return to Flight mission (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) include video coverage of an extravehiclular activity (EVA) by Noguchi and Robinson. The other crew members of Discovery are seen on the flight deck and mid-deck helping the astronauts to suit-up. The objectives of the EVA are to test repair techniques on sample tiles in the shuttle's payload bay, to repair electrical equipment for a gyroscope on the International Space Station (ISS), and to install a replacement GPS antenna on the ISS. Noguchi and Robinson use a caulk gun and a putty knife to repair the sample tiles. The video contains several Earth views, including one of Baja California.

  7. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  8. STS-114 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Video coverage of NASA's Return to Flight continues with highlights from Day 2 of STS-114. After a wake-up song from Mission Control Center, the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) inspects the orbiter for damage using a camera on the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). The SRMS, a robot arm, extends its length by grappling the new Orbiter Boom Sensor System, in order to image Discovery's wing leading edges and the underside of its nose. After the boom is stowed in the payload bay, the top and sides of the crew cabin are then imaged, including the Reaction Control System jets. The Shuttle's Ku-band antenna is then deployed. The video includes scenes of the payload bay contents, and crew members on the flight deck.

  9. STS-67 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Chuck

    1995-05-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission, STS-67, is highlighted in this video. Flight crew (Stephen S. Oswald (Commander), William G. Gregory (Pilot), Tamara E. Jernigan, Wendy B. Lawrence, John M. Grunfeld (Mission Specialists), Samuel T. Durrance, and Ronald A. Parise (Payload Specialists)) prelaunch and launch activities, EVA activities with payload deployment and retrieval (ASTRO-2 and WUPPE (Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment)), spaceborne experiments (astronomical observation and data collection, protein crystal growth, and human physiological processes), and pre-reentry activities are shown. There are astronomical telescopic observation from the two telescopes in the payload, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, of Io and of globular clusters, and their emission spectra is collected via a spectrometer. Earth view film and photography is shown, which includes lightning on terrestrial surfaces, cyclone activity, and cloud cover.

  10. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  11. Pulsars, PTAs, and PALFA: Highlights and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Paul A.

    2015-08-01

    The detection of gravitational waves with nanohertz frequencies from SMBHs in merging galaxies, either a single source or a background, is greatly aided by increasing the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). Increasing the number of millisecond pulsars in PTAs is one of the best ways to enhance their sensitivity. Therefore searches for new millisecond pulsars are absolutely essential to the detection of gravitational waves from merging galaxies. I will review the status of current pulsar search efforts and how they have contributed to PTAs. I will then present some of the recent highlights of the PALFA survey. Using the PALFA survey as a case study, I will outline the current challenges faced by pulsar searches, including RFI and a large number of false positives, and potential solutions to those issues.

  12. AGILE Data Center and AGILE science highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittori, C.

    2013-06-01

    AGILE is a scientific mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with INFN, INAF e CIFS participation, devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics. The satellite is in orbit since April 23rd, 2007. Gamma-ray astrophysics above 100 MeV is an exciting field of astronomical sciences that has received a strong impulse in recent years. Despite the small size and budget, AGILE produced several important scientific results, among which the unexpected discovery of strong and rapid gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula. This discovery won to the AGILE PI and the AGILE Team the prestigious Bruno Rossi Prize for 2012, an international recognition in the field of high energy astrophysics. We present here the AGILE data center main activities, and we give an overview of the AGILE scientific highlights after 5 years of operations.

  13. Country break-out session highlights.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Franz; Gehring, Klaus; Gallo, Paolo; Lebrun-Frénay, Christine; Moral, Ester; Myhr, Kjell-Morten

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity present a wide range of symptoms and disability levels that are frequently challenging to manage. At the MS Experts Summit 2015, five country breakout sessions were conducted in parallel, and mainly in the native language, to examine various aspects about the management of treatment-resistant MS spasticity. Topics covered included video documentation of MS spasticity management (Germany), use of cannabinoid medicines in daily practice (Italy), multidisciplinary approach to MS spasticity care (France), titration and adherence to treatments for MS spasticity (Spain) and management of MS symptoms (Norway/Rest of World). For the benefit of all attendees, session highlights were collated and presented in a Plenary Session which is summarized herein. PMID:26611270

  14. ISPAE Research Highlights 1995-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, Ken

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents ISPAE (Institute for Space Physics, Astrophysics and Education) research highlights from 1995-1997. The topics include: 1) High-Energy Astrophysics (Finding the smoking gun in gamma-ray bursts, Playing peekaboo with gamma ray bursts, and Spectral pulses muddle burst source study, Einstein was right: Black holes do spin, Astronomers find "one-man X-ray band", and Cosmic rays from the supernova next door?); 2) Solar Physics (Bright burst confirms solar storm model, Model predicts speed of solar wind in space, and Angry sunspots snap under the strain); 3) Gravitational Physics; 4) Tether Dynamics; and 5) Space Physics (Plasma winds blow form polar regions, De-SCIFERing thermal electrons, and UVI lets scientists see daytime aurora).

  15. Research highlights: microfluidics meets big data.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peter; Weaver, Westbrook M; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Owsley, Keegan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-03-01

    In this issue we highlight a collection of recent work in which microfluidic parallelization and automation have been employed to address the increasing need for large amounts of quantitative data concerning cellular function--from correlating microRNA levels to protein expression, increasing the throughput and reducing the noise when studying protein dynamics in single-cells, and understanding how signal dynamics encodes information. The painstaking dissection of cellular pathways one protein at a time appears to be coming to an end, leading to more rapid discoveries which will inevitably translate to better cellular control--in producing useful gene products and treating disease at the individual cell level. From these studies it is also clear that development of large scale mutant or fusion libraries, automation of microscopy, image analysis, and data extraction will be key components as microfluidics contributes its strengths to aid systems biology moving forward. PMID:24473594

  16. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-01

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis. PMID:25410901

  17. Highlights of Commission 37 Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; de Grijs, Richard; Elmegreen, Bruce; Stetson, Peter; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Goodwin, Simon; Geisler, Douglas; Minniti, Dante

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance (e.g., in mapping out the Milky Way) had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar nucleosynthesis continue to benefit and improve tremendously from the study of these systems. Additionally, fundamental quantities such as the initial mass function can be successfully derived from modelling either the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams or the integrated velocity structures of, respectively, resolved and unresolved clusters and cluster populations. Star cluster studies thus span the fields of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, while heavily affecting our detailed understanding of the process of star formation in dense environments. This report highlights science results of the last decade in the major fields covered by IAU Commission 37: Star clusters and associations. Instead of focusing on the business meeting - the out-going president presentation can be found here: http://www.sc.eso.org/gcarraro/splinter2015.pdf - this legacy report contains highlights of the most important scientific achievements in

  18. Biotransformation and bioactivation reactions - 2015 literature highlights.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Thomas A; Dalvie, Deepak; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Cyrus Khojasteh, S

    2016-05-01

    Since 1972, Drug Metabolism Reviews has been recognized as one of the principal resources for researchers in pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological fields to keep abreast of advances in drug metabolism science in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. With a distinguished list of authors and editors, the journal covers topics ranging from relatively mature fields, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, to a variety of emerging fields. We hope to continue this tradition with the current compendium of mini-reviews that highlight novel biotransformation processes that were published during the past year. Each review begins with a summary of the article followed by our comments on novel aspects of the research and their biological implications. This collection of highlights is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to be illustrative of recent research that provides new insights or approaches that advance the field of drug metabolism. Abbreviations NAPQI N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase AO aldehyde oxidase AKR aldo-keto reductase CES carboxylesterase CSB cystathionine β-synthase CSE cystathionine γ-lyase P450 cytochrome P450 DHPO 2,3-dihydropyridin-4-one ESI electrospray FMO flavin monooxygenase GSH glutathione GSSG glutathione disulfide ICPMS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry i.p. intraperitoneal MDR multidrug-resistant NNAL 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol NNK 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone oaTOF orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight PBK physiologically based kinetic PCP pentachlorophenol SDR short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SULT sulfotransferase TB tuberculosis. PMID:27362326

  19. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  20. STS-96 Mission Highlights. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this first part of a three-part video mission-highlights set, the flight of the STS-96 Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery is reviewed. The flight crew consists of Kent V. Rominger, Commander; Rick D. Husband, Pilot; and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette (Canadian), and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev (Russian). The primary goals of this mission were to work on logistics and resupply the International Space Station (ISS). This is the first flight to dock to the International Space Station. The primary payloads are the Russian cargo crane, known as STRELA, which the astronauts mount to the exterior of the Russian station segment, the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), and a U.S. built crane called the ORU Transfer Device (OTD). Other payloads include the Student Tracked Atmospheric Research Satellite for Heuristic International Networking Equipment (STARSHINE), the Shuttle Vibration Forces Experiment (SVF), and the Orbiter Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring - HEDS Technology Demonstration (IVHM HTD). The traditional pre-launch breakfast, being suited up, entry into the Shuttle, and views of the liftoff from several different vantage points are shown. In-flight footage includes views from the robot arm conducting a television survey of Discovery's payload bay and the flawless docking of the Unity module with the International Space Station. During the docking, camera views from both the ISS and Discovery are presented. These activities make up the first three Flight Days of STS-96.

  1. Recent highlights from ISOLDE@CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile, L. M.

    2005-09-01

    The ISOLDE online mass separator located at CERN provides a large variety of radioactive ion beams for research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interactions, atomic physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine, condensed matter science, life sciences and others. The recently operational REX-ISOLDE post-accelerator is capable of accelerating the isotopes produced at ISOLDE to energies of up to 3.0MeV/u by using an ion trap and charge breeder and a compact linear accelerator structure. The post-accelerator is complemented by a highly segmented Ge array in conjunction with a compact silicon strip detector at one of the secondary target positions, while a general spectroscopy setup occupies a second station. REX-ISOLDE has opened up the possibility of nuclear spectroscopy studies by means of transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation of exotic nuclei. The facility maintains an extensive physics-driven target and ion source development program, which has helped ISOLDE keep its international status for more than 35 years. Some recent experimental highlights and technical developments are discussed.

  2. STS-114 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Video coverage of Day 3 includes highlights of STS-114 during the approach and docking of Discovery with the International Space Station (ISS). The Return to Flight continues with space shuttle crew members (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) seen in onboard activities on the fore and aft portions of the flight deck during the orbiter's approach. Camarda sends a greeting to his family, and Collins maneuvers Discovery as the ISS appears steadily closer in sequential still video from the centerline camera of the Orbiter Docking System. The approach includes video of Discovery from the ISS during the orbiter's Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, giving the ISS a clear view of the thermal protection systems underneath the orbiter. Discovery docks with the Destiny Laboratory of the ISS, and the shuttle crew greets the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the ISS onboard the station. Finally, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System hands the Orbiter Boom Sensor System to its counterpart, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System.

  3. UKIDSS UDS Progress and Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, W. G.; Almaini, O.; Foucaud, S.

    In this contribution we provide a comprehensive update of the progress of the UDS survey and the science that has already been achieved through its use. In the context of this meeting (a look-back over the life of UKIRT to date) we begin with a retrospective of the original motivation for the UDS and how it remains well-placed to answer some of the biggest questions in extra-galactic astronomy. Following this is a progress report of the UDS data collection and a summary of the multi-wavelength data covering the field. We then detail a few of the science highlights that have resulted from the survey, concentrating on those which rely most heavily on the infrared data and are of greatest impact. With the survey now less than 3 years from completion, we end with a look forward to the final probable depths and the continuing data acquisition which will maintain the UDS as one of the most important surveys for several years to come.

  4. WFC3: In-Flight Performance Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new imager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was successfully installed in the telescope in May 2009 during the first dramatic spacewalk of space shuttle flight STS-125, also known as HST Servicing Mission 4. This new camera offers unique observing capabilities in two channels spanning a broad wavelength range from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared (200-1000nm in the UV/Visible [UVIS] channel; 850-1700nm in the IR channel). After an initial outgassing period, WFC3 was cooled to its observing configuration in June. In the following months, a highly successful Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4) program was executed, which has confirmed the exciting scientific potential of the instrument. Detailed performance results from the SMOV 4 program are presented in a number of papers in this session. In this paper, we highlight some top-level performance assessments (throughput, limiting magnitudes, survey speeds) for WFC3, which is now actively engaged in the execution of forefront astronomical observing programs.

  5. STS-114 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The highlight of Day 9 is the third extravehicular activity (EVA) of the STS-114 mission (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda). Astronauts Noguchi and Robinson are seen preparing for the EVA in the closed payload bay of Space Shuttle Discovery; on the EVA they install on the International Space Station (ISS) a Materials on the International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) unit, an External Stowage Platform (ESP-2), and a wireless antenna. The astronauts are seen working on the ISS under different lighting conditions, and use a pistol-grip tool to remove ESP-2 from the shuttle payload bay. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System then carries Robinson to the underside of the Discovery orbiter, where he communicates with Mission Control during the delicate and unprecedented removal of gap fillers from between the shuttle's tiles. Before and the after the EVA the video includes views of a damaged thermal blanket beneath the shuttle cockpit window. Other views of the shuttle include pans along the underside and topside by the Orbiter Boom Sensor System. The video also includes a view from orbit of Kazakhstan.

  6. STS-107 Crew Choice Television Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 flight day highlights begin with a shot inside the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia where Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, and Mission Specialists David Brown and Kalpana Chawla are seated. The actual liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia is shown with Mission Specialists Michael Anderson and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon seated on the middeck of the spacecraft. Mission Specialist David Brown exits his seat to take pictures of the external tank while Michael Anderson also prepares to take photographs. A beautiful shot of the orbiter flying over Egypt is presented. A view of the Spacehab Research Double Module is shown where crystals are growing in microgravity. Laurel Clark is also shown working on the Bioreactor experiment. Michael Anderson is shown performing various breathing experiments in space. This video shows the last flight of STS-107 during ascent as the crew is seated in the flight deck and middeck of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

  7. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  8. Cluster recent highlights in magnetospheric physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri; Goldstein, Mevlyn; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    After more than 15 years in space, the Cluster mission is continuing to deliver groundbreaking results, thanks to its ability to move the four spacecraft with respect to each other, according to the science topic to be studied. The main goal of the Cluster mission, made of four identical spacecraft carrying each 11 complementary instruments, is to study in three dimensions the key plasma processes at work in the main regions of the Earth's environment: solar wind and bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, and auroral zone. During the course of the mission, the relative distance between the four spacecraft has been varied more than 55 times from a few km up to 36000 km to address the various scientific objectives. The smallest distance achieved between two Cluster spacecraft was 3.1 km in December 2015, about 50 times smaller than planned at the beginning of the mission. The rate of change of separation distances has accelerated in the last few years with the Guest Investigator programme that allowed scientists in the community to propose special science programmes requiring a new spacecraft constellation. We will present recent science highlights obtained such as solar wind reconnection and bifurcated current sheet development, multi-altitude measurements of field aligned currents, reconnection efficiency in accelerating particles and effect of cold ions, motion of X-lines, speed and direction of tail reconnection events, flux transfer events evolution, new method to find magnetic nulls outside the Cluster tetrahedron, interplanetary shock waves very quick damping and origin of theta auroras. We will also present the distribution of data through the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS), and the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). CSA was implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a permanent and public archive of all the high-resolution data from all instruments.

  9. "Suzaku Highlight Results on Supernova Remnants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Highlights of the early Suzaku (formerly Astro-E2) observations of supernova remnants are presented. Suzaku offers unique capabilities for the study of supernova remnants. The unprecedented combination of imaging and spectral resolution below 1 keV in the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) makes possible mapping of C, N and O abundances in Galactic remnants of all ages. The first detection of carbon lines in the Cygnus Loop and mapping of the O VII to O VIII ratio in SN 1006 demonstrate this capability. The XIS sensitivity to soft, low surface brightness emission is exemplified by spectroscopy in the 0.3-1.0 keV band of the North Polar Spur and other Galactic ISM structures. Such observations make possible inferences about plasma conditions and abundances. The sensitivity above 6 keV via a combination of the XIS (below 10 keV) and the Hard X-ray Detector (above 10 keV) allows broad band (2-40 keV) spectroscopy and mapping of extended remnants with hard emission components. These components are generally associated with sites of particle acceleration, and measuring their spectral shape potentially provides information about the TeV electron population and its acceleration and energy loss mechanisms. Examples of such remnants observed by Suzaku are the non-thermal emission dominated remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, for which flux beyond 30 keV has been detected. The status of the mission and prospects for future groundbreaking observations of supernova remnants will be discussed.

  10. The 1990 annual statistics and highlights report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has archived over 6 terabytes of space and Earth science data accumulated over nearly 25 years. It now expects these holdings to nearly double every two years. The science user community needs rapid access to this archival data and information about data. The NSSDC has been set on course to provide just that. Five years ago the NSSDC came on line, becoming easily reachable for thousands of scientists around the world through electronic networks it managed and other international electronic networks to which it connected. Since that time, the data center has developed and implemented over 15 interactive systems, operational nearly 24 hours per day, and is reachable through DECnet, TCP/IP, X25, and BITnet communication protocols. The NSSDC is a clearinghouse for the science user to find data needed through the Master Directory system whether it is at the NSSDC or deposited in over 50 other archives and data management facilities around the world. Over 13,000 users accessed the NSSDC electronic systems, during the past year. Thousands of requests for data have been satisfied, resulting in the NSSDC's sending out a volume of data last year that nearly exceeded a quarter of its holdings. This document reports on some of the highlights and distribution statistics for most of the basic NSSDC operational services for fiscal year 1990. It is intended to be the first of a series of annual reports on how well NSSDC is doing in supporting the space and Earth science user communities.

  11. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  12. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  13. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    . References: [1] http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ and https://ildwg.wordpress.com/ [2] Foing B. Moon exploration highlights and Moon Village introduction. [3] Young Lunar Explorers Report ESTEC Moon village sessions with community and young professionals.

  14. SITE QUARTERLY REPORT HIGHLIGHTS (SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) PROGRAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Quarterly Report Highlights were designed to keep readers and stakeholders informed of recent developments in the SITE program. Pertinent items listed in the Highlights include (1) schedules for planned SITE Demonstrations, (2) SITE solicitation updates, (3) new developm...

  15. A script to highlight hydrophobicity and charge on protein surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Hagemans, Dominique; van Belzen, Ianthe A. E. M.; Morán Luengo, Tania; Rüdiger, Stefan G. D.

    2015-01-01

    The composition of protein surfaces determines both affinity and specificity of protein-protein interactions. Matching of hydrophobic contacts and charged groups on both sites of the interface are crucial to ensure specificity. Here, we propose a highlighting scheme, YRB, which highlights both hydrophobicity and charge in protein structures. YRB highlighting visualizes hydrophobicity by highlighting all carbon atoms that are not bound to nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The charged oxygens of glutamate and aspartate are highlighted red and the charged nitrogens of arginine and lysine are highlighted blue. For a set of representative examples, we demonstrate that YRB highlighting intuitively visualizes segments on protein surfaces that contribute to specificity in protein-protein interfaces, including Hsp90/co-chaperone complexes, the SNARE complex and a transmembrane domain. We provide YRB highlighting in form of a script that runs using the software PyMOL. PMID:26528483

  16. 7-(Pyrazol-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based derivatives for kinase inhibition: Co-crystallisation studies with Aurora-A reveal distinct differences in the orientation of the pyrazole N1-substituent.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Pérez-Fuertes, Yolanda; McIntyre, Patrick J; Atrash, Butrus; Kosmopoulou, Magda; O'Fee, Lisa; Burke, Rosemary; Sun, Chongbo; Faisal, Amir; Bush, Katherine; Avery, Sian; Henley, Alan; Raynaud, Florence I; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Bayliss, Richard; Blagg, Julian

    2015-10-01

    Introduction of a 1-benzyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl moiety at C7 of the imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine scaffold provided 7a which inhibited a range of kinases including Aurora-A. Modification of the benzyl group in 7a, and subsequent co-crystallisation of the resulting analogues with Aurora-A indicated distinct differences in binding mode dependent upon the pyrazole N-substituent. Compounds 7a and 14d interact with the P-loop whereas 14a and 14b engage with Thr217 in the post-hinge region. These crystallographic insights provide options for the design of compounds interacting with the DFG motif or with Thr217. PMID:26296477

  17. Effects of Specular Highlights on Perceived Surface Convexity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Elder, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Shading is known to produce vivid perceptions of depth. However, the influence of specular highlights on perceived shape is unclear: some studies have shown that highlights improve quantitative shape perception while others have shown no effect. Here we ask how specular highlights combine with Lambertian shading cues to determine perceived surface curvature, and to what degree this is based upon a coherent model of the scene geometry. Observers viewed ambiguous convex/concave shaded surfaces, with or without highlights. We show that the presence/absence of specular highlights has an effect on qualitative shape, their presence biasing perception toward convex interpretations of ambiguous shaded objects. We also find that the alignment of a highlight with the Lambertian shading modulates its effect on perceived shape; misaligned highlights are less likely to be perceived as specularities, and thus have less effect on shape perception. Increasing the depth of the surface or the slant of the illuminant also modulated the effect of the highlight, increasing the bias toward convexity. The effect of highlights on perceived shape can be understood probabilistically in terms of scene geometry: for deeper objects and/or highly slanted illuminants, highlights will occur on convex but not concave surfaces, due to occlusion of the illuminant. Given uncertainty about the exact object depth and illuminant direction, the presence of a highlight increases the probability that the surface is convex. PMID:24811069

  18. Guidelines for Effective Usage of Text Highlighting Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Oelke, Daniela; Kwon, Bum Chul; Schreck, Tobias; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Semi-automatic text analysis involves manual inspection of text. Often, different text annotations (like part-of-speech or named entities) are indicated by using distinctive text highlighting techniques. In typesetting there exist well-known formatting conventions, such as bold typeface, italics, or background coloring, that are useful for highlighting certain parts of a given text. Also, many advanced techniques for visualization and highlighting of text exist; yet, standard typesetting is common, and the effects of standard typesetting on the perception of text are not fully understood. As such, we surveyed and tested the effectiveness of common text highlighting techniques, both individually and in combination, to discover how to maximize pop-out effects while minimizing visual interference between techniques. To validate our findings, we conducted a series of crowdsourced experiments to determine: i) a ranking of nine commonly-used text highlighting techniques; ii) the degree of visual interference between pairs of text highlighting techniques; iii) the effectiveness of techniques for visual conjunctive search. Our results show that increasing font size works best as a single highlighting technique, and that there are significant visual interferences between some pairs of highlighting techniques. We discuss the pros and cons of different combinations as a design guideline to choose text highlighting techniques for text viewers. PMID:26529715

  19. Brookhaven highlights, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.; Kuper, J.B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Highlights from all the department are illustrated. The main topics are on accelerator development and applications. (LSP)

  20. Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook"> This Highlights document presents an overview of the information provided in the E...

  1. Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

    2009-05-06

    This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

  2. 9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE MAP HIGHLIGHTING SIGNIFICANT BUILDINGS AND SHOWING LOCATION LOCATION OF OUTPATIENT CLINIC ADDITION - U.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 600 South Seventieth Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County, NE

  3. Give-Backs Highlight Three Major Bargaining Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personnel Administrator, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Concessions or "give-backs" by unions highlighted three major bargaining agreements, covering nearly one million workers, concluded in the first months of 1982. The bargaining agreements reveal union willingness to make major pay concessions. (Author/MLF)

  4. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  5. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  6. Detail view highlighting the series of pointed arch windows along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view highlighting the series of pointed arch windows along the North Carrollton facade - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Streetscape view, looking from the north to highlight the threestory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Streetscape view, looking from the north to highlight the three-story, three chimney houses - Keasbey & Mattison Company, Three-story, three chimney gable front double house type, 84-90 Orange Avenue, Ambler, Montgomery County, PA

  8. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  9. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  10. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

  11. The Project Highlight of Japan's Lunar Explorer KAGUYA (SELENE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, S. S.; Sasaki, S.; Kato, M. K.; Maejima, H. M.; Minamino, H. M.; Nakazawa, S. N.; Ootake, H. O.; Konishi, H. K.; Tateno, N. T.; Yonekura, K. Y.; Hoshino, H. H.; Kimura, J. K.

    2009-03-01

    Kaguya (SELENE) was successful launched on September 14, 2007 at Tanegashima Space Center of JAXA. This paper describes the overview of Kaguya system, highlight of operation, public promotion result and future expected operation plan.

  12. Highlight summarization in golf videos using audio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Kim, Jin Young

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic summarization of highlights in golf videos based on audio information alone without video information. The proposed highlight summarization system is carried out based on semantic audio segmentation and detection on action units from audio signals. Studio speech, field speech, music, and applause are segmented by means of sound classification. Swing is detected by the methods of impulse onset detection. Sounds like swing and applause form a complete action unit, while studio speech and music parts are used to anchor the program structure. With the advantage of highly precise detection of applause, highlights are extracted effectively. Our experimental results obtain high classification precision on 18 golf games. It proves that the proposed system is very effective and computationally efficient to apply the technology to embedded consumer electronic devices.

  13. Liposuction-Assisted Short-Scar Brachioplasty: Technical Highlights.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sean; Small, Kevin H; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-09-01

    Upper arm contouring is based on the location and amount of excess skin and fat. The short-scar brachioplasty addresses minimal to moderate skin laxity and lipodystrophy in the proximal arm in patients with appropriate skin tone and quality. This article highlights technical refinements of the senior author's (R.J.R.) approach to short-scar medial liposuction-assisted brachioplasty to maximize results and minimize incision length. To highlight this simple and safe approach with high patient/surgeon satisfaction, the authors discuss the following in this Video Plus article: patient examination, preoperative assessment, surgical pearls, and postoperative outcomes. PMID:27556619

  14. The Morehouse College Glee Club: History and Recent Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, David

    1987-01-01

    The history of the Morehouse College Glee Club, founded around 1911 at the Black college, is highlighted by appearances before such notables as Franklin D. Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Jr., Haile Selassie, Jimmy Carter, and Benjamin E. Mays and performances with people such as Robert Shaw, Leontyne Price, Diahann Carroll, Maynard Jackson, Billy…

  15. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: FLUX FORCE/CONDENSATION WET SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of EPA's flux force/condensation (FF/C) program, a system that involves the use of water vapor condensation effects to enhance fine particle collection. FF/C scrubbing offers significant cost advantages over conventional control equipment for a large n...

  16. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. PMID:26866276

  17. Teaching as Highlighted by Mothering: A Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnegar, Stefinee; Lay, Celina Dulude; Bigham, Shauna; Dulude, Candace

    2005-01-01

    There is little research that investigates the relationship between mothering and teaching. Even less has been revealed about teaching and the mothering experience of women who are also teachers. Here we examine how the learning gained from teaching is highlighted and clarified by studying stories of mothering. By examining stories of motherhood,…

  18. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON FABRIC FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report highlights significant developments in fabric filtration technology. It reviews results of several field and laboratory studies performed over the last 10 years, by or under the sponsorship of the EPA, so that the reader may be better able to assess filtration equipmen...

  19. Highlighting Text as a Study Strategy: Beyond Attentional Focusing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Reinhard W.; And Others

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether the strategy of differentiating main and supporting ideas with different colored highlighter pens resulted in greater use of schema building and increased recall of information by students and whether the benefits of text marking come at the time of encoding or at the time of review. Sixty-six…

  20. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  1. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  2. Highlights of 10-Year Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A background and highlights of a 10 year remote sensing industry analysis are provided.Included are the following:Training, educational analysis, staff levels, and end-users analysis, market drivers, market segments,application areas, spatial resolution needs, use of image types.

  3. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH AT HIGH TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of EPA high-temperature and high-pressure programs aimed at demonstrating control technology to meet environmental standards for the ambient concentration of particles and the emission rate of particles from new sources. Among the control devices consi...

  4. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2009-12. Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Education and Technology provides strategic leadership for the development of the next generation economy in Alberta through the provision of accessible, affordable and quality learning opportunities for all Albertans and support for a dynamic and integrated innovation system. This paper provides the highlights of the business plan of the…

  5. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2010-13. Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology envisions Alberta's prosperity through innovation and lifelong learning. Advanced Education and Technology's mission is to lead the development of a knowledge-driven future through a dynamic and integrated advanced learning and innovation system. This paper presents the highlights of the business…

  6. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS IN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS: PARTICLE CHARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of an EPA research program aimed at developing and verifying an accurate theory of particle charging for conditions that are typically found in industrial electrostatic precipitators. A new theory was developed, in which the thermal motion of ions is a...

  7. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  8. The Shortcomings of Medical Education Highlighted through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Pranav

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this report are to highlight the shortcomings in medical education. To use a student made short film as an example of how issues that cause medical student distress can be displayed. To show that the process of film-making is a useful tool in reflection. To display that film is an effective device in raising awareness. (Contains 3…

  9. Highlights from Student Drug Use in America 1975-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This report presents findings from a national survey of the 1975-80 high school classes, focusing on drug use and related attitudes of American high school seniors. The materials highlight data on grade of first use, usage trends at earlier grade levels, intensity of drug use, attitudes and beliefs about various types of drug use, and students'…

  10. STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 2 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A continuation of 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape'. This video, Part 2 of 4, shows footage from flight days 3 through 5 of STS-110. The flight crew includes Michael J. Bloomfield, Commander; Stephen N. Frick, Pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist; Steven L. Smith, Mission Specialist; Ellen Ochoa, Mission Specialist; Lee M.E. Morin, Mission Specialist; Rex J. Walheim, Mission Specialist. The coverage from flight day 3 includes docking replays of Atlantis and the International Space Station (ISS), and postdocking procedures, as well as intermingling of the flight crew with the Expedition 4 crew (Yury I. Onufrienko, Commander; Daniel W. Bursch, Flight Engineer; Carl E. Walz, Flight Engineer) of the ISS. Flight day 4 includes an EVA (extravehicular activity) in which Walheim and Smith lift the S0 Truss from the payload bay, and temporarily clamp it onto the Destiny laboratory. On flight day 5 a suite of spaceborne experiments (not shown) arrives at Destiny, including protein crystal growth and wheat plant growth experiments. Notable footage includes Hawaii, New Zealand, and sunrise on Atlantis. An unknown object steaks across the field of view during the video, with the Earth in the background. The activities of the other flight days can be seen on 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1 of 4' (internal ID 2002137575), 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 3 of 4' (internal ID 2002137574), and 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 4 of 4' (internal ID 2002137517).

  11. STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A continuation of 'STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1 of 2', footage shows the activities of flight days 11 and 12. The retraction of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is seen, and the landing of Endeavour is seen from several vantage points.

  12. Research and technology highlights of the Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Highlights of research accomplishments of the Lewis Research Center for fiscal year 1984 are presented. The report is divided into four major sections covering aeronautics, space communications, space technology, and materials and structures. Six articles on energy are included in the space technology section.

  13. NCI intramural research highlighted at 2014 AACR meeting

    Cancer.gov

    This year’s American Association for Cancer Research meeting featured plenary talks by two NCI scientists, Steven Rosenberg, M.D., and Louis Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., that highlighted the challenges in developing varied and potentially synergistic treatments f

  14. Crystallisation of wild-type and variant forms of a recombinant plant enzyme β-D-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and preliminary X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Luang, Sukanya; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Streltsov, Victor A; Hrmova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Wild-type and variant crystals of a recombinant enzyme beta-d-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were obtained by macroseeding and cross-seeding with microcrystals obtained from native plant protein. Crystals grew to dimensions of up to 500 x 250 x 375 mum at 277 K in the hanging-drops by vapour-diffusion. Further, the conditions are described that yielded the wild-type crystals with dimensions of 80 x 40 x 60 mum by self-nucleation vapour-diffusion in sitting-drops at 281 K. The wild-type and recombinant crystals prepared by seeding techniques achived full size within 5-14 days, while the wild-type crystals grown by self-nucleation appeared after 30 days and reached their maximum size after another two months. Both the wild-type and recombinant variant crystals, the latter altered in the key catalytic and substrate-binding residues Glu220, Trp434 and Arg158/Glu161 belonged to the P4(3)2(1)2 tetragonal space group, i.e., the space group of the native microcrystals was retained in the newly grown recombinant crystals. The crystals diffracted beyond 1.57-1.95 A and the cell dimensions were between a = b = 99.2-100.8 A and c = 183.2-183.6 A. With one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated Matthews coefficients were between 3.4-3.5 A(3).Da(-1) and the solvent contents varied between 63.4% and 64.5%. The macroseeding and cross-seeding techniques are advantageous, where a limited amount of variant proteins precludes screening of crystallisation conditions, or where variant proteins could not be crystallized. PMID:20717535

  15. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more…

  16. Using Publication Metrics to Highlight Academic Productivity and Research Impact

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Cone, David C.; Sarli, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of widely available measures of academic productivity and impact using publication data and highlights uses of these metrics for various purposes. Metrics based on publication data include measures such as number of publications, number of citations, the journal impact factor score, and the h-index, as well as emerging metrics based on document-level metrics. Publication metrics can be used for a variety of purposes for tenure and promotion, grant applications and renewal reports, benchmarking, recruiting efforts, and administrative purposes for departmental or university performance reports. The authors also highlight practical applications of measuring and reporting academic productivity and impact to emphasize and promote individual investigators, grant applications, or department output. PMID:25308141

  17. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in guidance, navigation, and control in space, aircraft, and weapons. This article is about 3,600 words long. Information for the article was collected from other NASA Centers, DoD, and industry. All information was previously cleared by the originating organizations. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology, Space News, and similar sources.

  18. Fifteen Years of Chandra Operation: Scientific Highlights and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We will review some scientific highlights and present "lessons learned" from the experience of operating this great observatory.

  19. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca Matthews, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, NCI Center for Cancer Research; Lanessa Hill, public affairs specialist,

  20. The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS): Origins and Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Andy

    UKIDSS is now roughly half finished, covering several thousand square degrees, and expected to complete by the middle of 2012. So far 13.5 billion rows of data have been downloaded by several hundred users, resulting in 154 publications concerning high-z quasars, the nearest and coolest brown dwarfs, the evolution of galaxies, the sub-stellar mass function, and many other topics. I summarise the origins and status of UKIDSS, and briefly describe some scientific highlights.

  1. STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 4 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A continuation of 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape'. This video, Part 4 of 4, shows footage from flight days 10 through 12 of STS-110. The spacecrew includes Michael J. Bloomfield, Commander; Stephen N. Frick, Pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist; Steven L. Smith, Mission Specialist; Ellen Ochoa, Mission Specialist; Lee M.E. Morin, Mission Specialist; Rex J. Walheim, Mission Specialist. Flight day 10 includes an exchange of farewells with the Expedition 4 crew (Yury I. Onufrienko, Commander; Daniel W. Bursch, Flight Engineer; Carl E. Walz, Flight Engineer) of the International Space Station (ISS), and undocking. The video includes many views of the ISS as Atlantis departs, including cloud cover and the Earth's limb as backgrounds. There is also a view of Atlantis with its payload bay open. On flight day 11, in preparation for landing, the crew conducts a checkout of flight controls and a test firing. A spaceborne wheat plant experiment onboard the ISS is briefly shown. Flight day 12 includes closing the payload bay, suit-up, and landing. Kennedy Space Center is seen from the air, and the video shows landing replays, as well as a heads-up display view of the landing. Earth views include clear views of Western Sahara, Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria, with the Atlantic Ocean, a cloud obstructed view of Newfoundland and the Atlantic, Pacific Ocean sun glint, and an excellent view of the Chicago area and Lake Michigan at night. The activities from other flights days can be seen on "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002137575), "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137573), and "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002137574).

  2. Highlights of Transient Plume Impingement Model Validation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes highlights of an ongoing validation effort conducted to assess the viability of applying a set of analytic point source transient free molecule equations to model behavior ranging from molecular effusion to rocket plumes. The validation effort includes encouraging comparisons to both steady and transient studies involving experimental data and direct simulation Monte Carlo results. Finally, this model is applied to describe features of two exotic transient scenarios involving NASA Goddard Space Flight Center satellite programs.

  3. STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 3 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A continuation of 'STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape'. This video, Part 3 of 4, shows footage from flight days 6 through 9 of STS-110. The spacecrew includes Michael J. Bloomfield, Commander Stephen N. Frick, Pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist; Steven L. Smith, Mission Specialist; Ellen Ochoa, Mission Specialist; Lee M.E. Morin, Mission Specialist; Rex J. Walheim, Mission Specialist. On flight day 6, Ross and Morin conduct an EVA (extravehicular activity) to secure a tripod like strut to the S0 Truss of the International Space Station (ISS). They also move the drag link and keel pins from one face of the Truss to the other to free the rail on the truss for a railcar to move. Smith installs a camera onto the CANADARM robotic arm on flight day 7, and on flight day 8 the restraints are removed from the railcar connected to the S0 Truss in preparation for checkout. The checkout of the railcar is shown, including its inaugural run. Ross and Morin conduct another EVA on flight day 9 to complete the outfitting of the S0 Truss Structure. Notable footage includes views of Ross and Morin at work from the helmet-mounted camera on Ross' EVA suit, including close-ups of the pistol grip tool, CANADARM 2 onboard the ISS lit at sunrise, a 'diamond ring' effect formed by the Sun between the Earth's limb and the ISS, a brief shot of the Yucatan peninsula, and a end-to-end pan down the length of the ISS. The activities from other flights days can be seen on "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002137575), "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137573), and "STS 110 Mission Highlights Resource Tape" Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137517).

  4. From the Editor's Desk, Editor's Highlights, Letters to the Editor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This issue of Toxicological Sciences features several exciting changes: a redesigned cover, revised category subheadings, and this “Look Inside ToxSci” feature. Together with my esteemed colleagues in the field of green chemistry, we have outlined some exciting opportunities for the field of toxicology in the editorial on green chemistry and toxicology. There are insightful articles on the regulatory challenges regarding mixtures that are being addressed by the European Union and on risk assessment of carbon nanotubes. In the past, we have highlighted a single article from each issue. It has become increasingly difficult to select just one article from the volume of high quality work, so beginning this month we will highlight multiple articles in each issue here in “Look Inside ToxSci.” From solvents, pesticides, and nanoparticles to the microbiome, the highlighted articles span the breadth of our field. Of course, this issue contains something that will never change; our raison d'etre …the best original research in the field of toxicology. —Gary W. Miller PMID:25232149

  5. STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the STS-99 Endeavour mission is given through footage of each flight day. Scenes from flight days one through ten show activities such as astronaut prelaunch procedures (breakfast, suit-up, and boarding Endeavour), launch, and on-orbit activities such as the deployment of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument. Crewmembers are seeing during such everyday activities as brushing their teeth, exercising (bicycle), and emerging from their sleeping bunks. One of the crewmembers shows the contents of the onboard medical kit. See 'STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 2 of 2' for the activities of flight days 11-12 and the landing of Endeavour.

  6. Fifteen Years of Chandra Operation: Scientific Highlights and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Tucker, Wallace; Wilkes, Belinda; Baggett, Randy; Brissenden, Roger; Edmonds, Peter; Mattison, Edward

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We discuss the current technical status, review recent scientific highlights, indicate a few future directions, and present what we feel is the most important lesson learned from our experience of building and operating this great observatory.

  7. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2000-06-19

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

  8. Recent Tsunami Highlights Need for Awareness of Tsunami Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Annabel; Dengler, Lori A.; Uslu, Burak; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Yim, Solomon C.; Bergen, Kristian J.

    2006-12-01

    On Wednesday, 15 November 2006, Crescent City Harbor, in Del Norte County, Calif., was hit by surges resulting from the tsunami generated by the Mw=8.3 Kuril Islands earthquake. The strong currents caused an estimated US $700,000 to $1 million in losses to the small boat basin at Citizen's Dock, destroying or damaging three floating docks and causing minor damage to several boats (Figure 1). The event highlighted a persistent problem for tsunami hazard mitigation: Most people are still unaware that the first tsunami waves rarely are the largest and that the potential for damaging waves may last for many hours.

  9. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  10. 14th International Headache Congress: basic science highlights.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J; Goadsby, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    During the 14th International Headache Congress the results of several innovative studies that contribute to our understanding of headache pathophysiology and treatment were presented. Here we summarize work expected to contribute substantially to understanding headache mechanisms, while an accompanying manuscript summarizes presentations regarding the treatment of headache. This manuscript highlights research on mechanisms of photophobia and phonophobia, pharmacologic inhibition of cortical spreading depression, a proposed mechanism by which oxygen effectively treats cluster headache, identification of functional and structural aberrations in people with hypnic headache, and research on functional imaging markers of a migraine attack. PMID:20456146

  11. Fifteen years of Chandra operation: scientific highlights and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Tucker, Wallace; Wilkes, Belinda; Baggett, Randy; Brissenden, Roger; Edmonds, Peter; Mattison, Edward

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed for three years of operation with a goal of five years, is now entering its 15-th year of operation. Thanks to its superb angular resolution, the Observatory continues to yield new and exciting results, many of which were totally unanticipated prior to launch. We discuss the current technical status, review some recent scientific highlights, indicate a few future directions, and present what we are the most important lessons learned from our experience of building and operating this great observatory.

  12. Two interesting cases highlighting an oblivious specialty of psychoneuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Dhull, Pawan; Somasekharan, Manoj; Seshadri, K

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroendocrinology deals with the overlap disorders pertaining to three different specialties. Awareness about the somatic manifestations of psychiatric diseases and vice versa is a must for all the clinicians. The knowledge of this interlinked specialty is essential because of the obscure presentation of certain disorders. Our first case was treated as depressive disorder, whereas the diagnosis was hypogonadism with empty sella. Our second patient was managed as schizophrenia and the evaluation revealed bilateral basal ganglia calcification and a diagnosis of Fahr's disease. We report these cases for their unusual presentation and to highlight the importance of this emerging specialty. PMID:23806989

  13. Highlights of the 13 March 1992 Erzincan (Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1992-01-01

    The March 13, 1992 Ms = 6.8 Erzincan earthquake in Turkey is highlighted here. The epicenter of this earthquake was located 7.7 km from the eastern end of the North Anatolian fault. The strong motions recorded in Erzincan had peak ground accelerations of approximately 0.5 g, accompanied by a pulse of 2 seconds. The duration of the earthquake was 7 seconds. This earthquake caused collapse of about 150 buildings--mainly to 4-5-story reinforced, concrete-framed buildings with infill walls. This damage, which is discussed, can be attributed to non-compliance with seismic codes.

  14. Highlights from PHENIX-I: initial state and early times

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    We will review the latest physics developments from PHENIX concentrating on cold nuclear matter effects, the initial state for heavy-ion collisions, and probes of the earliest stages of the hot-dense medium created in those collisions. Recent physics results from p + p and d + Au collisions; and from direct photons, quarkonia and low-mass vector mesons in A+A collisions will be highlighted. Insights from these measurements into the characteristics of the initial state and about the earliest times in heavy-ion collisions will be discussed.

  15. The coordination chemistry of perfluorovinyl substituted phosphine ligands, a crystallographic and spectroscopic study. Co-crystallisation of both cis- and trans-isomers of [PtCl2{P(i)pr2(CF=CF2)}2] within the same unit cell.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicholas A; Brisdon, Alan K; Brown, F R William; Cross, Wendy I; Herbert, Christopher J; Pritchard, Robin G; Sadiq, Ghazala

    2008-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of the perfluorovinyl phosphines PEt2(CF=CF2), P(i)Pr2(CF=CF2), PCy,(CF=CF2) and PPh(CF=CF2)2 to rhodium(I), palladium(II), and platinum(II) centres has been investigated. The electronic properties of the ligands are estimated based on v(CO) and 1J(Rh-P) values. X-Ray diffraction data for the square-planar Pd(II) and Pt(II) perfluorovinyl-phosphine containing complexes allow estimates of the steric demand for the series of ligands PPh2(CF=CF2), PEt2(CF=CF2), P(i)Pr2(CF=CF2), PCy2(CF=CF2) and PPh(CF=CF2)2 to be determined. The (CF=CF2) fragment is found to be more electron withdrawing than (C6F5) yet sterically less demanding. These ligands therefore provide a range of electron-neutral to phosphite-like electronic properties combined with a range of steric demands. This study also reveals that short intramolecular interactions from the metal centre to the beta-fluorine atom cis to phosphorus of the CF=CF2 groups are observed in all-trans square planar complexes of the ligands. Unusually, the complex [PtCl2{P(i)Pr2(CF=CF2)}2] crystallises with both cis- and trans-isomers present in the unit cell. It appears that co-crystallisation of both isomers occurs in order to maximise fluorous regions in the crystal packing, and the extended structure displays short fluorine-fluorine contacts. The generation of mixed geometries seems to be a phenomenon of crystallisation, as solution phase NMR studies reveal the presence of only the trans-isomer. PMID:18399236

  16. STS-41D Post Flight Press Conference with Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew, Commander Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., Pilot Michael L. Coats, Mission Specialists Judith A. Resnik, Steven A. Hawley, and Richard M. Mullane, and Payload Specialist Charles D. Walker are seen participating a panel discussion. Live footage of the Press Conference begins with a brief introduction of all the crew, followed by highlights of the flight, a selection of slides and still pictures, and ends with a question and answer segment. The highlights consist of the astronauts walk out to the Astro-Van, panoramic views of the Discovery on the launch pad, main engine start, ignition of the solid rocket boosters, liftoff, and separation of the boosters. Images of the opening of the sun shield and the deployment of the three communication satellites (Satellite Business System (SBS-D), SYNCOM IV-2, and TELSTAR) are also seen. The crew is seen working on experiments, dumping the wastewater, eating supper, and sleeping. Concluding the live footage are slides, and stills of various areas around the world, including the Libyan Desert, Angola, Namibia, and Australia. The Press Conference ends with questions from Houston, NASA Headquarter, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 2 of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video is a continuation of 'STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Part 1 of 3' (Internal ID 2002049331). Flight day four footage continues with a video tour of the International Space Station (ISS). During flight day five, an exterior view of the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is seen, followed by the crew unloading the supplies and equipment from the MPLM. Commander Dominic Gorie and Mission Specialist Linda Godwin are seen making preparations for the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) scheduled for the following day. Footage of an exterior view of the ISS is also shown. Flight day six footage includes Godwin and Mission Specialist Daniel Tani suiting up for their EVA and the installation of thermal blankets around the solar array wings of the ISS. Expedition 3 Commander Frank Culbertson is seen working in the ISS laboratory during flight day seven. Views are shown of Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea, the western coast of Australia, Cuba and Florida, and Switzerland and Northern Italy. During flight day eight, the crew is seen stowing objects in the MPLM for return to earth. The video concludes with footage of the treadmill used by the astronauts for physical exercise. Flight days nine through twelve are included in 'STS-108 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Part 3 of 3' (Internal ID 2002049329).

  18. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  19. Coated Particle and Deep Burn Fuels Monthly Highlights December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for November 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/323, was distributed to program participants on December 9, 2010. The final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU (transuranic elements) Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing (ORNL); (4) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling (ORNL).

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: Carol A. Phillips; Anthony R. DeMeo

    2004-08-23

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights report provides a summary of the activities at the Laboratory for the fiscal year--1 October 2002 through 30 September 2003. The report includes the Laboratory's Mission and Vision Statements, a message ''From the Director,'' summaries of the research and engineering activities by project, and sections on Technology Transfer, the Graduate and Science Education Programs, Awards and Honors garnered by the Laboratory and the employees, and the Year in Pictures. There is also a listing of the Laboratory's publications for the year and a section of the abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols used throughout the report. In the PDF document, links have been created from the Table of Contents to each section. You can also return to the Table of Contents from the beginning page of each section. The PPPL Highlights for fiscal year 2003 is also available in hardcopy format. To obtain a copy e-mail Publications and Reports at: pub-reports@pppl.gov. Be sure to include your complete mailing address

  1. Highlights of Aeroacoustics Research in the U.S. 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; McLaughlin, Dennis K.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights of aeroacoustics research in the United States of America during 1998 are reported in a summary compiled from information provided by members of the Aeroacoustics Technical Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other leading research groups in industry, national laboratories, and academia. The past few years have seen significant progress in aeroacoustics. Research has steadily progressed toward enhanced safety, noise benefits, and lower costs. Since industrial progress is generally not published in the archival literature, it is particularly important to highlight these accomplishments. This year we chose to report on five topics of great interest to the aerospace industry including a synopsis of fundamental research at universities and national laboratories. The topics chosen are: (1) Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), (2) High Speed Research (HSR), (3) Rotorcraft, (4) Weapons bay aeroacoustics control and (5) Academic research including Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA). Although the information presented in this review is not all encompassing we hope that the topics covered will provide some insights into aeroacoustics activity in the U.S.

  2. Crystallisation of BaFe 12O 19 hexagonal ferrite with an aid of B 2O 3 and the effects on microstructure and magnetic properties useful for permanent magnets and magnetic recording devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Shanker

    1989-11-01

    Polycrystalline Ba-ferrite (BaFe 12O 19) using B 2O 3 (up to 1 mol) as a sintering aid has been prepared by the usual solid state reaction of BaCO 3 and Fe 2O 3. The B 2O 3, which exists in molten form during the reaction (operated at 1000-1400°C), dissolves the reactants in intimate contact. The dissolved solid and molten B 2O 3 both diffuse into the system to facilitate the reaction, BaCO3+6 Fe2O3 ⇋ BaFe12O19+ CO2, of ferrite formation. The reaction is very sensitive to B 2O 3 addition and temperature ( Ts) employed for the sintering. The distortion of Ba-ferrite lattice, that usually appeared due to sintering at higher temperature, Ts⩾1300° C, is considerably reduced by the use of B2O3( x) ⩽0.3 mol addition. The distortion however appears for the intermediate B 2O 3 content of 0.3 mol ⩽ x<0.7 mol. A model for the reaction based on the experimental results of X-ray diffractometry and microstructure of the samples is proposed. It accounts successfully for the crystallisation of magnetic particles and variation in the magnetic anisotropies. The effect of B 2O 3 additions to Ba-ferrite is reflected by the increase of magnetisation Ms (by ≈13%) and the decrease of coercivity Hc (to as small as 5 Oe), subjected to the sintering especially at higher Ts. The materials obtained with Ms as large as 79 emu/ gandHc=4-3 kOe ( at 25° C) are suitable for the use as permanent magnets, whereas those comprising small Hc of ≈1 kOe can be useful for magnetic recording applications. The increase of Ms is explained by invoking the fact that B 2O 3(B 3+) substitutes on Fe 3+ (tetrahedral) sites according to BaFe 12-yB yO 19, with y up to 0.4 (equivalent to x ≈ 0.2 mol). The substitution (B 3+→Fe 3+) causes distortion in the tetrahedral sites within the crystal unit cell as evidenced by the EPR spectroscopy. We also developed an empirical relation describing the EPR linewidth (Δ H) in Fe 3+ ferrimagnetic resonance at g ≈ 2.5 and the various magnetic anisotropy

  3. SOFIA: first science highlights and future science potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    2013-06-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Agency (DLR) to develop and operate a 2.5 m airborne telescope in a highly modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that can fly as high as 45 000 feet (13.7 km). This is above 99.8 % of the precipitable water vapor which blocks much of the mid- and far-infrared radiation from reaching ground-based telescopes. In this review, we briefly discuss the characteristics of the Observatory and present a number of early science highlights obtained with the FORCAST camera in 5-40 micron spectral region and with the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130-240 micron spectral region. The FORCAST images in Orion show the discovery of a new high-mass protostar (IRc4), while GREAT observations at 1 km s-1 velocity resolution detected velocity-resolved, redshifted ammonia spectra at 1.81 THz in absorption against several strong far-infrared dust continuum sources, clear evidence of substantial protostellar infall onto massive (non-ionizing) protostars. These powerful new data allow us to determine how massive stars form in our Galaxy. Another highlight is the stunning image taken by FORCAST that reveals the transient circumnuclear 1.5 pc radius (dust) ring around our Galactic center, heated by hundreds of massive stars in the young nuclear star cluster. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer also observed the circumnuclear ring in highly excited CO rotational lines, indicative of emission from warm dense molecular gas with broad velocity structure, perhaps due to local shock heating. GREAT also made superb mapping observations of the [C II] fine structure cooling line at 158 microns, for example in M17-SW molecular cloud-star cluster interface, observations which disprove the simple canonical photodissociation models. The much better baseline stability of the GREAT receivers (compared to Herschel HIFI) allows efficient on-the-fly mapping of extended [C II] emission in our

  4. Highlight on Advances in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Farshidpour, Maham; Allen, Mary Beth; Ebrahimi, Golnaz; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2014-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and exist as an important cause of pulmonary infections in humans. Pulmonary involvement is the most common disease manifestation of NTM and the incidence of NTM is growing in North America. Susceptibility to NTM infection is incompletely understood; therefore preventative tools are not well defined. Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is difficult and entails multiple antibiotics and an extended treatment course. Also, there is a considerable variation in treatment management that should be considered before initiating treatment. We highlight the new findings in the epidemiology diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infections. We debate new advances regarding NTM infection in cystic fibrosis patients and solid organ transplant recipients. Finally, we introduce a new epidemiologic model for NTM disease based on virulence-exposure-host factors. PMID:25574470

  5. Big data for ecologists: Highlighting the ORNL DAAC

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Alison G; Cook, Robert B; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Eby, Pete I; Thornton, Michele M; Thornton, Peter E; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Virdi, Makhan L; Wei, Yaxing

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly confronted by questions that can be addressed only by integrating data from numerous sources, often across large geographic areas and broad time periods. The supply of ecological big data is increasing at a rapid pace as researchers are publishing their data sets and large, public science and data infrastructures (such as NEON, DataONE, LTER, & NCEAS) are producing and curating extensive volumes of complex data and metadata. While supply of, and demand for, ecological data is on the rise, many ecologists now face a new challenge in locating and synthesizing the data relevant for their particular question. Here we highlight selected popular big data products applicable to ecological research available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  6. SOFIA - A Brief Overview of ISM Science Highlights to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    2016-05-01

    SOFIA is now close to finishing its Cycle 3 observing season. Despite a turbulent year (2014) including a NASA funding crisis and a heavy maintenance visit (down-time) at Lufthansa-Technik, SOFIA has successfully carried out many important observing programs, using the 4 instruments GREAT, FORCAST, FIFI-LS, and EXES. A second southern hemisphere multi-week deployment to New Zealand was completed in June/July 2015 with FORCAST and GREAT and has provided exciting new data. Here we present a brief overview of science highlights from Cycle 0, 1, 2, and 3 observations related to the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and star formation. Some of these results have been covered by more detailed individual accounts, but a summary and synopsis of SOFIA's major achievements to date seems worthwhile, also to indicate SOFIA's future potential for investigating key interstellar processes (collapse, disk formation, outflows, turbulence, heating and cooling, and magnetic field effects).

  7. Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, R.

    2009-05-01

    Two recent large-scale spills of coal combustion waste have highlighted the old problem of handling the enormous quantity of solid waste produced by coal. Both spills happened at power plants run by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). In December 2008 a holding pond for coal ash collapsed at a power plant in Kingstom, Tenn., releasing coal-ash sludge onto farmland and into rivers: in January 2009 a break in a pipe removing water from a holding pond for gypsum caused a spill at Widows Creek Fossil Plant in Stevenson, Ala. The article discusses the toxic outcome of such disasters on ecosystems, quoting work by Willaim Hopkins at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and recommendations and reports of the US EPA. 2 photos.

  8. FY 1995 research highlights: PNL accomplishments in OER programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducts fundamental and applied research in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) core missions in science and technology, environmental quality, energy resources, and national security. Much of this research is funded by the program offices of DOE`s Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER), primarily the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), and by PNL`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This document is a collection of research highlights that describe PNL`s accomplishments in DOE-ER funded programs during Fiscal Year 1995. Included are accomplishments in research funded by OHER`s Analytical Technologies, Environmental Research, Health Effects, General Life Sciences, and Carbon Dioxide Research programs; BES`s Materials Science, Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geoscience, and Applied Mathematical Sciences programs; and PNL`s LDRD Program. Summaries are given for 70 projects.

  9. Recent Highlights in Ring Structure, Dynamics, and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2006-01-01

    While the Cassini orbiter has been in a near-equatorial orbit for most of the time since the last DPS meeting, the science teams have turned to preliminary analysis of many aspects of data taken over the first year of the mission. New understanding has been gained of several different aspects of ring structure and dynamics - especially the small-scale ring vertical structure related to marginal gravitational instabilities, and the diverse roles played by small moonlets sprinkled around and within the rings. In addition, a closer look is being taken at how ring composition varies locally and regionally and how this variation compares with models of ring compositional evolution. Cassini will re-emerge from the equator plane in late July, and new ring observations will again be available. In this talk we will review progress over the last year, highlight key outstanding issues and problems, and provide a context for the new observations reported at this meeting.

  10. The 3D-HST Survey: First Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Survey Team

    2013-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit survey with the WFC3 G141 and ACS G800L grisms on board the Hubble Space Telescope, providing optical and near-IR slitless spectroscopic coverage of 75% of the CANDELS extragalactic survey fields. With data-taking due to be completed in early 2013, I will present some of the early science highlights already obtained from the survey. These include an H-alpha survey of a complete sample of massive galaxies and resolved H-alpha maps of star-forming galaxies at 1, detailed spectroscopic analysis of an extremely low-mass, low-metallicity starburst galaxy at z=1.85, and an unbiased census of Mg II absorbers along a QSO sightline at 1 < z < 2.

  11. Wildlife studies on the Hanford Site: 1993 Highlights report

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project was initiated by DOE to track the status of wildlife populations to determine whether Hanford operations affected them. The project continues to conduct a census of wildlife populations that are highly visible, economically or aesthetically important, and rare or otherwise considered sensitive. Examples of long-term data collected and maintained through the Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project include annual goose nesting surveys conducted on islands in the Hanford Reach, wintering bald eagle surveys, and fall Chinook salmon redd (nest) surveys. The report highlights activities related to salmon and mollusks on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River; describes efforts to map vegetation on the Site and efforts to survey species of concern; provides descriptions of shrub-steppe bird surveys, including bald eagles, Canada geese, and hawks; outlines efforts to monitor mule deer and elk populations on the Site; and describes development of a biological database management system.

  12. STS 63 flight day 4 highlights/MIR-Shuttle rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  13. TRMM: Status of Precipitation Estimates and Science Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Starr, David O'C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) seeks to understand the mechanisms through which changes in tropical rainfall influence global circulation. Over the past 3 years, TRMM has contributed significantly towards reducing uncertainty in satellite estimates of rainfall in the Tropics, where almost 67% of the Earth's rain falls. TRMM has provided knowledge related to the climatology, seasonality, and variation of tropical rainfall; the mesoscale structure of rain-producing systems; and the physics of precipitation. An overview of these results will be presented. Additionally, a summary of research highlights will be presented focusing on application of TRMM data to topics such as hurricane monitoring, climate analysis, forecasting, microphysics, environmental impacts, and El Nino/La Nina. Examples and plans for operational use of TRMM data in tropical cyclone monitoring and other applications will also be given.

  14. Highlight: Structural Insights into Nonribosomal Peptide Enzymatic Assembly Lines

    PubMed Central

    Koglin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptides have a variety of medicinal activities including activity as antibiotics, antitumor drugs, immunosuppressives, and toxins. Their biosynthesis on multimodular assembly lines as a series of covalently tethered thioesters, in turn covalently attached on pantetheinyl arms on carrier protein way stations, reflects similar chemical logic and protein machinery to fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. While structural information on excised or isolated catalytic adenylation (A), condensation (C), peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) and thioesterase (TE) domains had been gathered over the past decade, little was known about how the NRPS catalytic and carrier domains interact with each other both within and across elongation or termination modules. This highlight reviews recent breakthrough achievements in both X-ray and NMR spectroscopic studies that illuminate the architecture of NRPS PCP domains, PCP-containing didomain-fragments and of a full termination module (C-A-PCP-TE). PMID:19636447

  15. Ancient hyaenas highlight the old problem of estimating evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Beth; Ho, Simon Y W

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA data can provide a timeline for evolutionary change even in the absence of fossils. The power to infer the evolutionary rate is, however, highly dependent on the number and age of samples, the information content of the sequence data and the demographic history of the sampled population. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sheng et al. (2014) analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from a combination of ancient and present-day hyaenas, including three Pleistocene samples from China. Using an evolutionary rate inferred from the ages of the ancient sequences, they recalibrated the timing of hyaena diversification and suggest a much more recent evolutionary history than was believed previously. Their results highlight the importance of accurately estimating the evolutionary rate when inferring timescales of geographical and evolutionary diversification. PMID:24450980

  16. Management of children after renal transplantation: highlights for general pediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Giglia, Lucy; Chan, Howard; Chan, Anthony K.

    2012-01-01

    The number of children undergoing successful renal transplantations has been increasing steadily and as a result; general pediatricians are now more likely to encounter children with a kidney allograft in their practice. Although the medical care immediately after transplantation is mostly provided by transplant teams, more and more outpatient care will eventually be performed at the patient’s local community. Medical care from general pediatricians is particularly important, especially for children who are residing far from transplant centers. As these children require prolong immunosuppressive therapies and are susceptible to various specific clinical problems, it is imperative for their primary care providers and pediatricians to be knowledgeable about their specific needs and be competent in providing care. This article highlights the roles and common practice related issues that pertain to general pediatricians in the care of pediatric renal allograft recipients. PMID:26835261

  17. Highlights of contractor initiatives in quality enhancement and productivity improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Contractor Team efforts are presented as part of NASA's continuing effort to facilitate the sharing of quality and productivity improvement ideas among its contractors. This complilation is not meant to be a comprehensive review of contractor initiative nor does it necessarily express NASA's views. The submissions represent samples from a general survey, and were not edited by NASA. The efforts are examples of quality and productivity programs in private industry, and as such, highlight company efforts in individual areas. Topics range from modernization of equipment, hardware, and technology to management of human resources. Of particular interest are contractor initiatives which deal with measurement and evaluation data pertaining to quality and productivity performance.

  18. Women in evolution - highlighting the changing face of evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Otto, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The face of science has changed. Women now feature alongside men at the forefront of many fields, and this is particularly true in evolutionary biology. This special issue celebrates the outstanding achievements and contributions of women in evolutionary biology, by highlighting a sample of their research and accomplishments. In addition to original research contributions, this collection of articles contains personal reflections to provide perspective and advice on succeeding as a woman in science. By showcasing the diversity and research excellence of women and drawing on their experiences, we wish to enhance the visibility of female scientists and provide inspiration as well as role models. These are exciting times for evolutionary biology, and the field is richer and stronger for the diversity of voices contributing to the field. PMID:27087836

  19. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Resistance Phenotypes and Phenotypic Highlighting Methods

    PubMed Central

    BĂLĂŞOIU, MARIA; BĂLĂŞOIU, A.T.; MĂNESCU, RODICA; AVRAMESCU, CARMEN; IONETE, OANA

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa genus bacteria are well known for their increased drug resistance (phenotypic ang genotypic resistance). The most important resistance mechanisms are: enzyme production, reduction of pore expression, reduction of the external membrane proteins expression, efflux systems, topoisomerase mutations. These mechanisms often accumulate and lead to multidrug ressitance strains emergence. The most frequent acquired resistance mechanisms are betalactamase-type enzyme production (ESBLs, AmpC, carbapenemases), which determine variable phenotypes of betalactamines resistance, phenotypes which are associated with aminoglycosides and quinolones resistance. The nonenzymatic drug resistance mechanisms are caused by efflux systems, pore reduction and penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) modification, which are often associated to other resistance mechanisms. Phenotypic methods used for testing these mechanisms are based on highlighting these phenotypes using Kirby Bauer antibiogram, clinical breakpoints, and “cut off” values recommended by EUCAST 2013 standard, version 3.1. PMID:25729587

  20. Implantable Intrathecal Pumps for Chronic Pain: Highlights and Updates

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Karen H.; Brand, Frances M.; Mchaourab, Ali S.; Veneziano, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Management of chronic pain by intrathecal delivery is gaining increasing use. The aim of this article is to review the literature pertinent to implantable devices used for treatment of chronic pain, and to highlight what is known. Articles were obtained from Medline database and reviewed. Practical patient selection criteria, trial management, and surgical technique are described. Expert consensus guidelines for intrathecal medication use are also reviewed. Finally, an exhaustive description of known complications and future implications is discussed. We concluded that intrathecal pump seems to be overused, while there is still weak evidence to support its outcome. It is also recommended that future research focus on the outcome, measured by functional parameters rather than commonly used pain scores. PMID:17309136

  1. STS-88 Mission Highlights Resources Tape. Tape A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-88 flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev present a video overview of their space flight. This is the first of three videos which show the highlights of the Endeavour mission. Important visual images include pre-launch activities such as the eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Once on-orbit crew members are seen delivering and connecting the UNITY Connecting Module to the ZARYA Control Module.

  2. Integrative Data Mining Highlights Candidate Genes for Monogenic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Osorio Abath; Tassy, Olivier; Biancalana, Valérie; Zanoteli, Edmar; Pourquié, Olivier; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Inherited myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disabling disorders with still barely understood pathological mechanisms. Around 40% of afflicted patients remain without a molecular diagnosis after exclusion of known genes. The advent of high-throughput sequencing has opened avenues to the discovery of new implicated genes, but a working list of prioritized candidate genes is necessary to deal with the complexity of analyzing large-scale sequencing data. Here we used an integrative data mining strategy to analyze the genetic network linked to myopathies, derive specific signatures for inherited myopathy and related disorders, and identify and rank candidate genes for these groups. Training sets of genes were selected after literature review and used in Manteia, a public web-based data mining system, to extract disease group signatures in the form of enriched descriptor terms, which include functional annotation, human and mouse phenotypes, as well as biological pathways and protein interactions. These specific signatures were then used as an input to mine and rank candidate genes, followed by filtration against skeletal muscle expression and association with known diseases. Signatures and identified candidate genes highlight both potential common pathological mechanisms and allelic disease groups. Recent discoveries of gene associations to diseases, like B3GALNT2, GMPPB and B3GNT1 to congenital muscular dystrophies, were prioritized in the ranked lists, suggesting a posteriori validation of our approach and predictions. We show an example of how the ranked lists can be used to help analyze high-throughput sequencing data to identify candidate genes, and highlight the best candidate genes matching genomic regions linked to myopathies without known causative genes. This strategy can be automatized to generate fresh candidate gene lists, which help cope with database annotation updates as new knowledge is incorporated. PMID:25353622

  3. Proofreading as an Index of Crystallised Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on four studies that were all concerned with cognitive and non-cognitive correlates of proofreading (PR) ability. A new, five-minute PR test was devised and piloted. In the first pilot study (N = 191) it was correlated with a verbal reasoning test. In the second study (N = 103) PR scores were regressed onto measures of…

  4. History highlights and future trends of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Infrared (IR) technologies (materials, devices and systems) represent an area of excellence in science and technology and, even if they have been generally confined to a selected scientific community, they have achieved technological and scientific highlights constituting 'innovation drivers' for neighbouring disciplines, especially in the sensors field. The development of IR sensors, initially linked to astronomical observations, since World War II and for many years has been fostered essentially by defence applications, particularly thermo-vision and, later on, smart vision and detection, for surveillance and warning. Only in the last few decades, the impact of silicon technology has changed the development of IR detectors dramatically, with the advent of integrated signal read-outs and the opening of civilian markets (EO communications, biomedical, environmental, transport and energy applications). The history of infrared sensors contains examples of real breakthroughs, particularly true in the case of focal plane arrays that first appeared in the late 1970s, when the superiority of bi-dimensional arrays for most applications pushed the development of technologies providing the highest number of pixels. An impressive impulse was given to the development of FPA arrays by integration with charge coupled devices (CCD), with strong competition from different technologies (high-efficiency photon sensors, Schottky diodes, multi-quantum wells and, later on, room temperature microbolometers/cantilevers). This breakthrough allowed the development of high performance IR systems of small size, light weight and low cost - and therefore suitable for civil applications - thanks to the elimination of the mechanical scanning system and the progressive reduction of cooling requirements (up to the advent of microbolometers, capable of working at room temperature). In particular, the elimination of cryogenic cooling allowed the development and commercialisation of IR Smart Sensors

  5. Highlights lecture EANM 2015: the search for nuclear medicine's superheroes.

    PubMed

    Buck, Andreas; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    contributions focused on cardiac inflammation, cardiac sarcoidosis, and specific imaging of large vessel vasculitis. The physics and instrumentation track included many highlights such as novel, high resolution scanners. The most noteworthy news and developments of this meeting were summarized in the highlights lecture. Only 55 scientific contributions were mentioned, and hence they represent only a brief summary, which is outlined in this article. For a more detailed view, all presentations can be accessed by the online version of the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (Volume 42, Supplement 1). PMID:27229941

  6. Research highlights: microfluidic-enabled single-cell epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Manjima; Khojah, Reem; Tay, Andy; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-11-01

    Individual cells are the fundamental unit of life with diverse functions from metabolism to motility. In multicellular organisms, a single genome can give rise to tremendous variability across tissues at the single-cell level due to epigenetic differences in the genes that are expressed. Signals from the local environment or a history of signals can drive these variations, and tissues have many cell types that play separate roles. This epigenetic heterogeneity is of biological importance in normal functions such as tissue morphogenesis and can contribute to development or resistance of cancer, or other disease states. Therefore, an improved understanding of variations at the single cell level are fundamental to understanding biology and developing new approaches to combating disease. Traditional approaches to characterize epigenetic modifications of chromatin or the transcriptome of cells have often focused on blended responses of many cells in a tissue; however, such bulk measures lose spatial and temporal differences that occur from cell to cell, and cannot uncover novel or rare populations of cells. Here we highlight a flurry of recent activity to identify the mRNA profiles from thousands of single-cells as well as chromatin accessibility and histone marks on single to few hundreds of cells. Microfluidics and microfabrication have played a central role in the range of new techniques, and will likely continue to impact their further development towards routine single-cell epigenetic analysis. PMID:26405849

  7. Advances and highlights in mechanisms of allergic disease in 2015.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Akdis, Cezmi A; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported. PMID:27090934

  8. STS-44 mission highlights resource tape. Part 1 of 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    The STS-44 mission is highlighted in this first part of a two part video set. The flight crew consisted of: Cmdr. Fred Gregory; Pilot Tom Hendricks; Payload Specialist Tom Hennen; and Mission Specialists Story Musgrave, Jim Voss, and Mario Runco. The primary space shuttle mission objective was the deployment of the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite. Secondary payload and spaceborne experiments consisted of a microbial air sampler, the Terra Scout PADVOS system, an M88-1 camera demonstration, a lower body negative pressure test, the Visual Function Tester, and a bioreactor demonstration. A tour of the flight deck, mid-deck, bathroom, and flight compartments with explanations of the equipment found in each area was conducted, a trash compactor was demonstrated, and footage of the crew together for their Thanksgiving dinner was shown. Earth views include several oceans, cloud cover, typhoon Yuri, northeast Australia, and the Barrier Reef Islands. The actor John Patrick Stewart (Commander Pickard of the show 'Star Trek: The Next Generation') performed the wake-up call for the astronauts. This flight was shortened due to an inertial measurement unit failure on the sixth day of the mission.

  9. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Progress Report and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 13 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ability to provide high resolution X-ray images and spectra have established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the hot, high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes spanning more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the X-ray brightest, Sco X-1, to the faintest sources in the Chandra Deep Field South survey. Thanks to its continuing operational life, the Chandra mission now also provides a long observing baseline which, in and of itself, is opening new research opportunities. Observations in the past few years alone have deepened our understanding of the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, the details of black hole accretion, the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the details of supernovae and their progenitors, the interiors of neutron stars, the evolution of massive stars, and the high-energy environment of protoplanetary nebulae and the interaction of an exo-planet with its star. Here we update the technical status, highlight some of the scientific results, and very briefly discuss future prospects. We fully expect that the Observatory will continue to provide outstanding scientific results for many years to come.

  10. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013. PMID:24098338

  11. Recent highlights from the PHENIX heavy ion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that a QGP can be formed in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei (A+A). Recently long-range correlations have been observed in p+A collisions at the LHC in high multiplicity events. PHENIX has carried out a series of studies of d+Au collisions at 200 GeV to see if such correlations persist at lower energies compared to those at the LHC. Results of a study of long-range correlations and flow are presented for d+Au collisions. Data from Au+Au collisions collected during the beam energy scan (BES) was used to determine both quark and nucleon number scaling. The HBT method was used to determine radii of the fireball at kinetic freezeout. Implications for the nuclear EOS are discussed. Also results of a search for "dark photons" are presented. Recent PHENIX highlights on heavy flavor, electromagnetic probes, spin and plans for PHENIX upgrades were presented in other talks at this conference.

  12. Science Highlights from the BARREL Antarctic Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, R. M.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) is an Antarctic balloon investigation designed to study electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. Two BARREL balloon campaigns were carried out from Antarctic Research Stations SANAE IV and Halley VI in January-February 2013 and 2014. During each campaign, 20 small (~20 kg) balloon payloads were launched to an altitude of 38 km to maintain an array of payloads distributed in L-value and magnetic local time. Each balloon carried a NaI scintillator to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in Earth's atmosphere, and a DC magnetometer to explore the nature of Ultra Low Frequency temporal modulations of precipitation. We present several science highlights from BARREL. Precipitation was observed over a range of energies with temporal and spatial structure at a variety of scales. The combination of BARREL with in situ (e.g. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS) and ground-based (e.g. riometer, VLF) measurements provides a unique opportunity to study wave-particle interactions, and to quantify the spatial scale of energetic precipitation.

  13. Science Highlights from the 3D-HST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; 3D-HST Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit spectroscopic survey with the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study galaxy evolution at z>1. Providing the critical third dimension - redshift - via slitless optical and near-IR grism spectra, 3D-HST opens new possibilities for science and discovery in the deep extragalactic fields AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S and UKIDSS-UDS. With observations now completed, I will review the status of the survey and the plans of the team to make data products available to the community. We have combined the grism observations with archival data to create an unique dataset which incorporates > 1000 HST orbits. I will also present some science highlights from the survey. These include tracing the growth of Milky Way-like galaxies since 2.5, investigating the star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at 0.3 < z < 2.5, a detailed analysis of resolved stellar populations patterns of galaxies and studying the properties of dust in star-forming galaxies at 1.

  14. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    PubMed

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 < E < 10 keV, locating x-ray sources to high precision, detecting extremely faint sources, and obtaining high-resolution spectra of selected cosmic phenomena. The extended Chandra mission provides a long observing baseline with stable and well-calibrated instruments, enabling temporal studies over timescales from milliseconds to years. In this report we present a selection of highlights that illustrate how observations using Chandra, sometimes alone, but often in conjunction with other telescopes, have deepened, and in some instances revolutionized, our understanding of topics as diverse as protoplanetary nebulae; massive stars; supernova explosions; pulsar wind nebulae; the superfluid interior of neutron stars; accretion flows around black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:24913425

  15. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research. PMID:27317253

  16. Satellite Tracking of Manta Rays Highlights Challenges to Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel T.; Witt, Matthew J.; Castellanos, Dan W.; Remolina, Francisco; Maxwell, Sara; Godley, Brendan J.; Hawkes, Lucy A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the real-time movements of the last of the marine mega-vertebrate taxa to be satellite tracked – the giant manta ray (or devil fish, Manta birostris), the world's largest ray at over 6 m disc width. Almost nothing is known about manta ray movements and their environmental preferences, making them one of the least understood of the marine mega-vertebrates. Red listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as ‘Vulnerable’ to extinction, manta rays are known to be subject to direct and incidental capture and some populations are declining. Satellite-tracked manta rays associated with seasonal upwelling events and thermal fronts off the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and made short-range shuttling movements, foraging along and between them. The majority of locations were received from waters shallower than 50 m deep, representing thermally dynamic and productive waters. Manta rays remained in the Mexican Exclusive Economic Zone for the duration of tracking but only 12% of tracking locations were received from within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Our results on the spatio-temporal distribution of these enigmatic rays highlight opportunities and challenges to management efforts. PMID:22590622

  17. Wildlife studies on the Hanford site: 1994 Highlights report

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    The purposes of the project are to monitor and report trends in wildlife populations; conduct surveys to identify, record, and map populations of threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species; and cooperate with Washington State and federal and private agencies to help ensure the protection afforded by law to native species and their habitats. Census data and results of surveys and special study topics are shared freely among cooperating agencies. Special studies are also conducted as needed to provide additional information that may be required to assess, protect, or manage wildlife resources at Hanford. This report describes highlights of wildlife studies on the Site in 1994. Redd counts of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach suggest that harvest restrictions directed at protecting Snake River salmon may have helped Columbia River stocks as well. The 1994 count (5619) was nearly double that of 1993 and about 63% of the 1989 high of approximately 9000. A habitat map showing major vegetation and land use cover types for the Hanford Site was completed in 1993. During 1994, stochastic simulation was used to estimate shrub characteristics (height, density, and canopy cover) across the previously mapped Hanford landscape. The information provided will be available for use in determining habitat quality for sensitive wildlife species. Mapping Site locations of plant species of concern continued during 1994. Additional sensitive plant species data from surveys conducted by TNC were archived. The 10 nesting pairs of ferruginous hawks that used the Hanford Site in 1993 represented approximately 25% of the Washington State population.

  18. Engineering and Science Highlights of the KAT-7 Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-05-01

    The construction of the KAT-7 array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scientific highlights from this effort, and discusses their applicability to both MeerKAT and other next-generation radio telescopes. In particular we found that the composite dish surface works well, but it becomes complicated to fabricate for a dish lacking circular symmetry; the Stirling cycle cryogenic system with ion pump to achieve vacuum works but demands much higher maintenance than an equivalent Gifford-McMahon cycle system; the ROACH (Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware)-based correlator with SPEAD (Streaming Protocol for Exchanging Astronomical Data) protocol data transfer works very well and KATCP (Karoo Array Telescope Control Protocol) control protocol has proven very flexible and convenient. KAT-7 has also been used for scientific observations where it has a niche in mapping low surface-brightness continuum sources, some extended HI halos and OH masers in star-forming regions. It can also be used to monitor continuum source variability, observe pulsars, and make VLBI observations.

  19. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N.; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Su Hao, LO; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Bruneval, Patrick; Norris, Russell A.; Milan, David J.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Levine, Robert A.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown aetiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death1. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance2–5. We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 1,442 cases and 2,439 controls. We identified and replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls six loci and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 encoding a transcription factor6, for which morpholino knockdown in zebrafish results in atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained for tensin1 (TNS1), a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also show the expression of tensin1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1−/− mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair7. PMID:26301497

  20. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center project accomplishments: highlights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holl, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) has invested more than $20M since 2008 to put cutting-edge climate science research in the hands of resource managers across the Nation. With NCCWSC support, more than 25 cooperative research initiatives led by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and technical staff are advancing our understanding of habitats and species to provide guidance to managers in the face of a changing climate. Projects focus on quantifying and predicting interactions between climate, habitats, species, and other natural resources such as water. Spatial scales of the projects range from the continent of North America, to a regional scale such as the Pacific Northwest United States, to a landscape scale such as the Florida Everglades. Time scales range from the outset of the 20th century to the end of the 21st century. Projects often lead to workshops, presentations, publications and the creation of new websites, computer models, and data visualization tools. Partnership-building is also a key focus of the NCCWSC-supported projects. New and on-going cooperative partnerships have been forged and strengthened with resource managers and scientists at Federal, tribal, state, local, academic, and non-governmental organizations. USGS scientists work closely with resource managers to produce timely and relevant results that can assist managers and policy makers in current resource management decisions. This fact sheet highlights accomplishments of five NCCWSC projects.

  1. Highlights from the VERITAS Active Galactic Nuclei Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The VERITAS Observatory, located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Tucson, Arizona is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of very-high-energy (VHE; E>100GeV) gamma rays. With an array of four 12-m telescopes, VERITAS detects the Cherenkov light emitted from air showers initiated by astrophysical gamma rays. A sequence of upgrades completed in 2012 aimed at lowering the energy threshold resulted in the instrument being sensitive to gamma rays between 85 GeV and 30 TeV. Fully operational since 2007, VERITAS has so far detected 54 VHE gamma-ray objects in eight different source classes. The active galactic nuclei (AGN) class comprises the majority of these detections, with 34 sources that include several radio galaxies but are predominantly blazars (AGN with relativistic jets pointing towards Earth). The scientific importance of VHE detections of AGN includes studying the details of emission mechanisms in blazars and elucidating whether they are sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos. Additionally VHE gamma-ray observations can be used to gain cosmological insights such as placing limits on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) and the extragalactic background light (EBL), which comprises all the diffuse starlight in the universe. This presentation will summarize the VERITAS AGN observing program and highlight a few recent results.

  2. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-08-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scientific highlights from this effort, and discusses their applicability to both MeerKAT and other next-generation radio telescopes. In particular, we found that the composite dish surface works well, but it becomes complicated to fabricate for a dish lacking circular symmetry; the Stirling cycle cryogenic system with ion pump to achieve vacuum works but demands much higher maintenance than an equivalent Gifford-McMahon cycle system; the ROACH (Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware)-based correlator with SPEAD (Streaming Protocol for Exchanging Astronomical Data) protocol data transfer works very well and KATCP (Karoo Array Telescope Control Protocol) control protocol has proven very flexible and convenient. KAT-7 has also been used for scientific observations where it has a niche in mapping low surface-brightness continuum sources, some extended H I haloes and OH masers in star-forming regions. It can also be used to monitor continuum source variability, observe pulsars, and make Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations.

  3. Latest Highlights from our Direct Measurement Video Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonk, M.; Bohacek, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in technology have made videos much easier to produce, edit, store, transfer, and view. This has spawned an explosion in a production of a wide variety of different types of pedagogical videos. But with the exception of student-made videos (which are often of poor quality) almost all of the educational videos being produced are passive. No matter how compelling the content, students are expected to simply sit and watch them. Because we feel that being engaged and active are necessary components of student learning, we have been working to create a free online library of Direct Measurement Videos (DMV's). These videos are short high-quality videos of real events, shot in a way that allows students to make measurements directly from the video. Instead of handing students a word problem about a car skidding on ice, we actually show them the car skidding on ice. We then ask them to measure the important quantities, make calculations based on those measurements and solve for unknowns. DMV's are more interesting than their word problem equivalents and frequently inspire further questions about the physics of the situation or about the uncertainty of the measurement in ways that word problems almost never do. We feel that it is simply impossible to a video of a roller coaster or a rocket and then argue that word problems are better. In this talk I will highlight some new additions to our DMV collection. This work is supported by NSF TUES award #1245268

  4. Research highlights: natural passive samplers--plants as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, interest in boosting the collection of data on environmental pollutants while reducing costs has spurred intensive research into passive samplers, instruments that monitor the environment through the free flow of chemical species. These devices, although relatively inexpensive compared to active sampling technologies, are often tailored for collection of specific contaminants or monitoring of a single phase, typically water or air. Plants as versatile, natural passive samplers have gained increased attention in recent years due to their ability to absorb a diverse range of chemicals from the air, water, and soil. Trees, lichens, and other flora have evolved exquisite biological features to facilitate uptake of nutrients and water from the ground and conduct gas exchange on an extraordinary scale, making them excellent monitors of their surroundings. Sampling established plant specimens in a region also provides both historical and spatial data on environmental contaminants at relatively low cost in a non-invasive manner. This Highlight presents several recent publications that demonstrate how plant biomonitoring can be used to map the distribution of a variety of pollutants and identify their sources. PMID:25980391

  5. Can chimpanzee biology highlight human origin and evolution?

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-07-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily "Homininae". This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human-chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine's subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  6. Highlights of the EANM Congress 2011: Birmingham, UK.

    PubMed

    de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Zerizer, Imene; Uebleis, Christopher; Al-Nahhas, Adil

    2012-02-01

    The EANM Congress 2011 took place in Birmingham between the 15th and 19th October 2011 under the presidency of Professor Werner Langsteger. The attendance was reassuringly high, in line with other EANM congresses, despite the current 'Eurozone Crisis'. Participants from 87 countries came along, met old friends and made new ones. They were presented with a massive programme of 1,480 abstracts, symposia, and CME, scientific, plenary and featured sessions. The industry made a substantial contribution to the success of the congress with 109 hardware, software and radiopharmaceutical companies demonstrating the latest technology and innovations in the field. A feature in this year's congress was the emphasis on the role of the young generation. The highlight lecture was presented and this article was compiled by three young EANM members chosen from the young investigator project of the EANM. They review the most highly rated presentations in clinical and preclinical imaging in oncology, neuroendocrine tumours, cardiology, paediatrics and neurology, and provide an update on radionuclide therapy, physics, instrumentation, innovative tracers and techniques. PMID:22237847

  7. Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338

  8. STS-103 Flight Day 5 Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Highlights of the fifth day of the STS-103 mission on board the space shuttle Discovery are shown in this videotape. The mission was led by Commander Curtis L. Brown, with Pilot Scott J Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Francois Clervoy, John M. Grunsfeld, Michael Foale, and Claude Nicollier. The main purpose of the mission was to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The primary objective of the mission was to replace all six of the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. In addition the Astronauts installed a new computer. During the 5th day Michael Foale and Claude Nicollier performed the servicing of the HST in an 8 hour 10 minute Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The servicing included the removal of the old computer and the installation of a new, faster computer with more memory. They also installed a new outer thermal layer to protect the computer. After this was finished the astronauts replaced one of the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS), an optical sensor which allows NASA to point the telescope in the desired direction. The video includes actual live views of the HST in the shuttle's service bay, and footage of the repair and servicing EVA.

  9. STS-103 Flight Day 3 Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Highlights of the third day of the STS-103 mission on board the space shuttle Discovery are shown in this videotape. The mission was led by Commander Curtis L. Brown, with Pilot Scott J Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Francois Clervoy, John M. Grunsfeld, Michael Foale, and Claude Nicollier. The main purpose of the mission was to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The primary objective of the mission was to replace all six of the gyroscopes that make up the three Rate Sensor Units. In addition the Astronauts installed a new computer. During the third day when Discovery reached a point about 35 feet from Hubble, astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy used the robot arm to capture the telescope's grapple fixture located midway up the HST structure. The approach to the HST is described and the actual maneuver aimed at retrieving the telescope is also described. The video includes actual live views of the HST in the shuttle's service bay, the shuttle, and shots of Johnson mission control. .

  10. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan) sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. PMID:23908781

  11. Highlights of the advances in basic immunology in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Shuxun; Cao, Xuetao

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the major fundamental advances in immunological research reported in 2011. The highlights focus on the improved understanding of key questions in basic immunology, including the initiation and activation of innate responses as well as mechanisms for the development and function of various T-cell subsets. The research includes the identification of novel cytosolic RNA and DNA sensors as well as the identification of the novel regulators of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway. Moreover, remarkable advances have been made in the developmental and functional properties of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Helper T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells play indispensable roles in orchestrating adaptive immunity. There have been exciting discoveries regarding the regulatory mechanisms of the development of distinct T-cell subsets, particularly Th17 cells and Treg cells. The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in T cell immunity are discussed, as is the recent identification of a novel T-cell subset referred to as follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells. PMID:22522654

  12. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative - past, present, future, and highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Mendez, Mariano; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Santolik, Ondrej; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Smith, Randall

    At the time of the COSPAR General Assembly in Moscow, the 21st workshop of the Programme for Capacity Building will have taken place. We have started in 2001 with the aim of: i) increasing the knowledge and use of public archives of space data in developing countries, ii) providing highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software, and iii) fostering personal links between participants and the experienced scientists who lecture during the workshops and supervise the projects carried on by the students. Workshops in many space disciplines have been successfully held so far (X-ray, Gamma-ray and Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Magnetospheric Physics, Space Oceanography, Remote Sensing and Planetary Science) in thirteen countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay). An associated Fellowship Programme is helping former participants of these workshops to build on skills gained at them. We will summarize the past and discuss the present and future of the Programme, including highlights like the most recent one: the identification of a transient magnetar (the 9th object of this class so far discovered) in the vicinity of a supernova by one of our students, during the CB workshop on high-energy Astrophysics in Xuyi, China, in September 2013.

  13. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lo, Su Hao; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Bruneval, Patrick; Markwald, Roger R; Norris, Russell A; Milan, David J; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Levine, Robert A; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Nonsyndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown etiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies in 1,412 MVP cases and 2,439 controls. We identified 6 loci, which we replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls, and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1), which encodes a transcription factor and for which morpholino knockdown of the ortholog in zebrafish resulted in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained with knockdown of the ortholog of TNS1, which encodes tensin 1, a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also showed expression of tensin 1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1(-/-) mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair. PMID:26301497

  14. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  15. Process highlights to enhance DSA contact patterning performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharbi, A.; Tiron, R.; Argoud, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Fouquet, A.; Lapeyre, C.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Sarrazin, A.; Servin, I.; Delachat, F.; Bos, S.; Bérard-Bergery, S.; Hazart, J.; Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Navarro, C.; Cayrefourcq, I.; Bouanani, S.; Monget, C.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we focus on the directed-self-assembly (DSA) application for contact hole (CH) patterning using polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymers (BCPs). By employing the DSA planarization process, we highlight the DSA advantages for CH shrink, repair and multiplication which are extremely needed to push forward the limits of currently used lithography. Meanwhile, we overcome the issue of pattern densityrelated- defects that are encountered with the commonly-used graphoepitaxy process flow. Our study also aims to evaluate DSA performances as function of material properties and process conditions by monitoring main key manufacturing process parameters: CD uniformity (CDU), placement error (PE) and defectivity (Hole Open Yield = HOY). Concerning process, it is shown that the control of surface affinity and the optimization of self-assembly annealing conditions enable to significantly enhance CDU and PE. Regarding materials properties, we show that the best BCP composition for CH patterning should be set at 70/30 of PS/PMMA total weight ratio. Moreover, it is found that increasing the PS homopolymer content from 0.2% to 1% has no impact on DSA performances. Using a C35 BCP (cylinder-forming BCP of natural period L0 = 35nm), high DSA performances are achieved: CDU-3σ = 1.2nm, PE-3σ = 1.2nm and HOY = 100%. The stability of DSA process is also demonstrated through the process follow-up on both patterned and unpatterned surfaces over several weeks. Finally, simulation results, using a phase field model based on Ohta-Kawasaki energy functional are presented and discussed with regards to experiments.

  16. Science Highlights from Ground-Based O/IR Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Harold A.; Akeson, R.; Armstrong, T.; Bakker, E.; Boden, A.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Hutter, D.

    2007-05-01

    Ground-based optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry has come of age in the U.S. where several existing or planned facilities have produced remarkable scientific results demonstrating the power of the technique within a broad range of scientific applications. This paper presents brief overviews of the following facilities: the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) on Mt. Palomar, CA; the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) located on Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, AZ; the Keck Interferometer (KI) on Mauna Kea, HI; and the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. Also described is the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) to be built at the highest elevation of the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico. Example scientific highlights to date include: The first measurement of stellar rotational oblateness (Altair), the detection of Cepheid pulsations, and ultra-precise astrometry of binaries with PTI; the first six-telescope images (the triple system eta Virginis) and constraints on disk parameters of Be stars with NPOI; resolving the nucleus of NGC 4151 and probing the inner disk regions of YSOs with KI; and, the first direct detection of gravity darkening in single stars (Regulus), calibration of the Baade-Wesselink method for Cepheids, and the first direct measurement of the diameter of an exoplanet (the transit system HD 189733) using the CHARA Array. While the great majority of results to date have focused on stellar astrophysics, the MROI strives to have sensitivity sufficient to access a number of AGN. Research with these independently operated facilities is sponsored by the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for PTI; the U.S. Naval Observatory and the Naval Research Laboratory for NPOI; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for KI; and, the National Science Foundation and Georgia State University for the CHARA Array. Funding for MROI is administered through the Office of Naval Research.

  17. STS-107 Mission Highlights Resource, Part 4 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, Part 4 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-107 crew during flight days 13 through 15 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The crew consists of Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. The highlight of flight day 13 is Kalpana Chawla conversing with Mission Control Center in Houston during troubleshooting of the Combustion Module in a recovery procedure to get the MIST fire suppression experiment back online. Chawla is shown replacing an atomizer head. At Mission Control Center a vase of flowers commemorating the astronauts who died on board Space Shuttle Challenger's final flight is shown and explained. The footage of flight day 14 consists of a tour of Columbia's flight deck, middeck, and Spacehab research module. Rick Husband narrates the tour, which features Kalpana Chawla, Laurel Clark, and himself. The astronauts demonstrate hygene, a dining tray, the orbiter's toilet, and a space iron, which is a rack for strapping down shirts. The Earth limb is shown with the Spacehab module in the foreground. Clark exercises on a bicycle for a respiration experiment, and demonstrates how a compact disk player gyrates in microgravity. On flight day 15, the combustion module is running again, and footage is shown of the Water Mist Fire-Suppression Experiment (Mist) in operation. Laurel Clark narrates a segment of the video in which Ilan Ramon exercises on a bicycle, Rick Husband, Kalpana Chawla, and Ramon demonstrate spinning and push-ups in the Spacehab module, and Clark demonstrates eating from a couple of food packets. The video ends with a shot of the Earth limb reflected on the radiator on the inside of Columbia's open payload bay door with the Earth in the background.

  18. Recent Science Highlights from the Robotic Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert; Marchant, J.; Moss, C.; Steele, I.

    2008-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully-robotic 2-metre astronomical telescope owned and operated on La Palma by the Astrophysics Research Institute of Liverpool John Moores University (UK) with the financial support of the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). A range of instruments are permanently mounted at the Cassegrain focus providing optical imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry and near-IR imaging with instrument changes in less than one minute. Though a very broad range of observational projects run on the telescope, the instrumentation and infrastructure have been designed specifically to exploit the robotic observatory's fully automated capabilities by focusing on the demands of time-domain astrophysics. Targets may be monitored on any time scale from hours to months and rapid response observations made in response to events such as GRBs, novae and supernovae or newly discovered solar system objects. In this poster we present a few recent highlights from the range of greater than 40 observational programs running now or over the past year, many of which are specifically enabled by the robotic nature of the telescope. In the case of results that have not been already published in refereed journals, the authors have kindly given permission for the inclusion of their data in this paper. * An exceptionally early measurement of GRB optical polarization, only 203 seconds after the burst itself (Mundell et al., 2007, Science, 315, 1822) * The first detection of the YORP effect in an asteroid's spin period (Lowry et al., 2007, Science, 316, 272) * Milli-magnitude photometry of several extra-solar planetary transits (Pollaco et al, in prep.). For more details of the telescope and the time allocation procedures please see http://telescope.livjm.ac.uk/

  19. Cassini Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s exploration of the Saturn system has generated a treasure trove of scientific data on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, and other diverse icy satellites, the rings, and magnetosphere. After eight years of close study of this exceptionally complex and dynamic environment, Cassini is still unveiling new scientific discoveries that continue to amaze us. Standout recent highlights include aftereffects from Saturn’s huge storm, a possible subsurface ocean on Titan, close flybys of icy satellites, migrating ring “propellers”, and unexpected variations in Saturn kilometric radiation periodicities. Current observations show seasonal changes including the formation of a polar vortex at Titan’s south pole. To date, Cassini has observed Saturn from just after northern winter solstice through northern spring equinox and now is observing the Saturn system in the previously unobserved period leading up to northern summer solstice. In the remaining five years of the on-going Solstice Mission, Cassini will continue to study seasonally and temporally dependent processes. Given the long Saturnian year ( 30 years) the longevity of Cassini is essential for elucidating seasonal change in the Saturn system. The grand finale of the mission occurs in 2017, when a series of inclined orbits brings Cassini between the innermost D ring and the upper regions of Saturn’s atmosphere. This geometry will offer unique opportunities for new discoveries and ground-breaking science, including Saturn interior structure science from otherwise unobtainable gravity and magnetic field measurements and unprecedented determination of the ring mass, currently uncertain by an order of magnitude. This Proximal orbit phase is similar to Juno’s mission at Jupiter. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn is the first step toward the next great leap in solar system origins research. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA

  20. BRITICE-CHRONO: The project and highlights so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabel, D.; Clark, C.; Chiverrell, R. C.; O'Cofaigh, C.; Scourse, J. D.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.

    2015-12-01

    BRITICE-CHRONO is a five-year Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded consortium of more than 40 researchers comprising glaciologists, marine and terrestrial Quaternary scientists and ice sheet-modellers, with the specific aim to systematically collect and date material to constrain the timing and rates of change of the marine-influenced sectors of the collapsing British Irish Ice Sheet (http://britice-chrono.org/). At the halfway point of the project we have completed two 40-day research cruises circumnavigating the British Isles and Ireland, and over 300 person-days of terrestrial fieldwork, yieldeding around 15 tonnes of samples for dating by optically stimulated luminescence-, surface exposure-, and radiocarbon methods. By March 2016 we expect to have generated about 850 new dates from landforms associated with the deglaciation of the last British and Irish ice-sheet. The success of the project will in part depend on the team being able to provide ice-sheet modellers with robust chronological markers against which the ice-sheet models can be tested. The decision-making process in deciding robustness of ages derived from multiple samples and different Quaternary geochronological methods will be discussed. Some geochronological highlights thus far are that deglaciation of the northwest sector of the ice-sheet was in progress at 28ka, well before the global LGM, and the northern tip of mainland Scotland was ice free by 25ka. At the same time the Irish Sea ice stream in the south appears to have been advancing towards its maximum extend. Although deglaciation in the south commences much later, both the main southern and northern ice streams appear to have persisted for at least 10ka with final retreat onto the mainland occurring at approximately the same time (16ka).

  1. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  2. Cassini-Huygens Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Altobelli, Nicolas; Edgington, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has greatly enhanced our understanding of the Saturn system. Fundamental discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, its retinue of icy moons including Titan, the dynamic rings, and the system's complex magnetosphere. Launched in 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft spent seven years traveling to Saturn, arriving in July 2004, roughly two years after the northern winter solstice. Cassini has orbited Saturn for 9.5 years, delivering the Huygens probe to its Titan landing in 2005, crossing northern equinox in August 2009, and completing its Prime and Equinox Missions. It is now three years into its 7-year Solstice mission, returning science in a previously unobserved seasonal phase between equinox and solstice. As it watches the approach of northern summer, long-dark regions throughout the system become sunlit, allowing Cassini's science instruments to probe as-yet unsolved mysteries. Key Cassini-Huygens discoveries include icy jets of material streaming from tiny Enceladus' south pole, lakes of liquid hydrocarbons and methane rain on giant Titan, three-dimensional structures in Saturn's rings, and curtain-like aurorae flickering over Saturn's poles. The Huygens probe sent back amazing images of Titan's surface, and made detailed measurements of the atmospheric composition, structure and winds. Key Cassini-Huygens science highlights will be presented. The Solstice Mission continues to provide new science. First, the Cassini spacecraft observes seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere. Second, it addresses new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus and Titan that could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases. Third, it will conduct a close-in mission at Saturn yielding fundamental knowledge about the interior of Saturn. This grand finale of the

  3. Diviner Lunar Radiometer Science Highlights and Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2013-04-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is the first infrared instrument to globally map the thermal emission from the moon's surface and its diurnal and seasonal variability. After over three and a half years in operation, analysis of Diviner's unprecedented dataset has revealed the extreme nature of the Moon's thermal environment, its thermophysical properties, and surface composition. This presentation will highlight contributions from many members of the Diviner Science Team addressing a diverse range of scientific questions with a focus on investigations of the lunar thermal environment and surface composition. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is a nine-channel, pushbroom mapping radiometer that has operated nearly continuously onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter since July, 2009. Diviner measures broadband reflected solar radiation with two channels, and emitted thermal infrared radiation with seven infrared channels. The two solar channels, which both span 0.3 to 3 µm, are used to characterize the photometric properties of the lunar surface. The three shortest wavelength thermal infrared channels near 8 µm were specifically designed to characterize the mid-infrared "Christiansen Feature" emissivity maximum, which is sensitive to silicate composition. Diviner's longer wavelength thermal infrared channels span the mid- to far-infrared between 13 and 400 µm and are used to characterize the lunar thermal environment and thermophysical properties. Diviner has now acquired observations over six complete diurnal cycles and three complete seasonal cycles. Diviner daytime and nighttime observations (12 hour time bins) have essentially global coverage, and more than 75% of the surface has been measured with at least 6 different local times. During the LRO circular mapping orbit, Diviner's spatial resolution was ~200m. During the LRO elliptical extended mission orbit, Diviner's resolution varies between 150 m to 1300 m. Updated calibrated Diviner data are released to the PDS

  4. A highlight of data products from IRIS Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutko, A. R.; Bahavar, M.; Trabant, C. M.; Van Fossen, M.; Weekly, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2009 the IRIS Data Management Center has served the seismology community in a variety of ways by offering higher order data products generated internally or by the research community in addition to raw times series data traditionally managed at the DMC. These products are intended to facilitate research as baseline standards, tools for data visualization or characterization, and teaching & outreach material. We currently serve 25 data products of which 7 are event-based that provide quick looks at many aspects of interest to researchers, often within a few hours of real-time. Among our new offerings is an expansion of the visualization capabilities of the Earth Model Collaboration, a repository of author contributed tomography and other Earth models. Currently EMC tools allow users to make 2D plots slicing through models. New 3D visualization tools being developed will bridge the gap between 2D slices and advanced and sometimes complicated 3D visualization packages with common 3D capabilities that can be set up and learned within minutes. The newly released Global Stacks is a project that stacks up to a million seismograms to illuminate the global seismic wavefield. Seismograms are processed and stacked for three component data across many frequency bands. The resulting stacks lead to high-fidelity wavefield images that clearly highlight characteristics such as dispersion in surface waves and many phases not commonly observed such as P'P'P'P'. Another recent addition is the Automated Surface Wave Phase Velocity Measuring System, which is an automated do-it-yourself surface wave tomography package requiring minimal user input and produces research quality tomography results. To further enhance our effort to support the research community, we invite proposals for collaborative data product development. This is an excellent opportunity for researchers to put forward unique and useful data product ideas and collaborate with the DMC in the development of the

  5. Hurricane Debby and the Appalachians Highlight New MISR Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MISR team has developed new methods for retrieving information about clouds, airborne particles, and surface properties that capitalize on the instrument's unique, multi-angle imaging approach. This illustration, based upon results contained in sample products that have just been publicly released at the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC), highlights some of these new capabilities. The ASDC, located at NASA's Langley Research Center, is the primary processing and archive center for MISR data (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/).

    On August 21, 2000, during Terra orbit 3600, MISR imaged Hurricane Debby in the Atlantic Ocean. The first panel on the left is the MISR downward-looking (nadir) view of the storm's eastern edge. The next two panels show the results of a new approach that uses MISR's stereoscopic observations to retrieve cloud heights and winds. In the middle panel of this set, gradations from low to high cloud are depicted in shades ranging from blue to red. Since it takes seven minutes for all nine MISR cameras to view any location on Earth, and the clouds moved during this time, the data also contain information about wind speed and direction. Derived wind vectors, shown in the third panel, reveal Hurricane Debby's cyclonic motion. The highest wind speed measured is nearly 100 kilometers/hour. MISR obtains this type of information on a global basis, which will help scientists study the relationship between climate change and the three-dimensional characteristics of clouds.

    MISR imaged the eastern United States on March 6, 2000, during Terra orbit 1155. The first panel in the righthand set is the downward-looking (nadir) view, covering the region from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The middle panel is the image taken by the forward-viewing 70.5-degree camera. At this increased slant angle, the line-of-sight through the atmosphere is three times longer, and a thin haze over the Appalachians is

  6. Highlighting and Its Relation to Distributed Study and Students' Metacognitive Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Storm, Benjamin C.; Kornell, Nate; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Use of highlighting is a prevalent study strategy among students, but evidence regarding its benefit for learning is mixed. We examined highlighting in relation to distributed study and students' attitudes about highlighting as a study strategy. Participants read a text passage twice while highlighting or not, with their readings either…

  7. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  8. Landes Highlights

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Promoterless transcription of DNA coligo templates by RNA polymerase III Epigenetic loss of the PIWI/piRNA machinery in testicular tumorigenesis A common exon is important for IRES activity in different HIV-1 transcripts Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways

  9. Highlights 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Current research programs at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are presented. The topics include: the genetic basis for breast cancer, the Advanced Light Source, selenium characterization in soils via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, automated colony sorting in efforts of map the human genome, cancer drugs, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), atomic force microscopes (AFM), mapping the radon risk in homes, ketene research, tracking B mesons and the search for the top quark, computerized scientific visualization, technology transfer efforts, and astronomy in the classroom.

  10. MAGIC highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The present generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) has greatly improved our knowledge on the Very High Energy (VHE) side of our Universe. The MAGIC IACTs operate since 2004 with one telescope and since 2009 as a two telescope stereoscopic system. I will outline a few of our latest and most relevant results: the discovery of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at VHE, recently found to extend up to 400 GeV and along the "bridge" of the light curve, the measurement of the Crab nebula spectrum over three decades of energy, the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN 3C 58, the very rapid emission of IC 310, in addition to dark matter studies. The results that will be described here and the planned deep observations in the next years will pave the path for the future generation of IACTs.

  11. Brookhaven highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides a broad overview of the research programs and efforts being conducted, built, designed, and planned at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work covers a broad range of scientific disciplines. Major facilities include the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), with its newly completed booster, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and the RHIC, which is under construction. Departments within the laboratory include the AGS department, accelerator development, physics, chemistry, biology, NSLS, medical, nuclear energy, and interdepartmental research efforts. Research ranges from the pure sciences, in nuclear physics and high energy physics as one example, to environmental work in applied science to study climatic effects, from efforts in biology which are a component of the human genome project to the study, production, and characterization of new materials. The paper provides an overview of the laboratory operations during 1992, including staffing, research, honors, funding, and general laboratory plans for the future.

  12. Research Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metal Nanoparticle Blended Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Performance Enhancement or Degeneration? Watching atoms and electrons move: freeze-frame snapshots of ultrafast phenomena Nanoelectronics: High performance nano-switches Nanomaterials: "Superheated" Water that can Corrode Diamonds An Emerging New Age in Biological Microscopy

  13. JPL highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deep-space exploration; information systems and space technology development; technology applications; energy and energy conversion technology; and earth observational systems and orbital applications are discussed.

  14. Huygens highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Niemann, Hasso; GCMS Team; Israel, Guy; ACP Team; Bird, Michael; DWE Team; Fulchignoni, Marcello; HASI Team; Tomasko, Marty; DISR Team; Zarnecki, John; SSP Team; Gautier, Daniel; Lunine, Jonathan; Owen, Tobias; Raulin, François; Strobel, Darrell; Matson, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    The Huygens Titan probe was carried by Cassini to Saturn and delivered towards Titan on December 25th, 2004. 21 days later, on January 14th 2005, Huygens entered in Titan's atmosphere and descended under parachute for about 2,5 hours. It safely landed and continued to operate on the surface for more than 3 hours. During the descent, and for about 70 minutes from the surface, Huygens transmitted its data stream to the Cassini orbiter for later relay to the Earth. Doppler and VLBI data were also acquired through a network of ground-based radio telescopes that had been set up in support of the mission. An overview of the Huygens mission is provided and a selected set of science results are presented. Key science questions raised by Cassini/Huygens that can be addressed by future in situ exploration of Titan are discussed. The Cassini/Huygens is a joint undertaking between NASA, ESA and ASI. It was launched on 15 October 1997 and placed in orbit around Saturn on 1st July 2004. (*) deceased in July 2013

  15. Display format and highlight validity effects on search performance using complex visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donner, Kimberly A.; Mckay, Tim; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    Display format and highlight validity were shown to affect visual display search performance; however, these studies were conducted on small, artificial displays of alphanumeric stimuli. A study manipulating these variables was conducted using realistic, complex Space Shuttle information displays. A 2x2x3 within-subjects analysis of variance found that search times were faster for items in reformatted displays than for current displays. The significant format by highlight validity interaction showed that there was little difference in response time to both current and reformatted displays when the highlight validity was applied; however, under the non or invalid highlight conditions, search times were faster with reformatted displays. Benefits of highlighting and reformatting displays to enhance search and the necessity to consider highlight validity and format characteristics in tandem for predicting search performance are discussed.

  16. PNL-BMI patenting and licensing highlights since Bayh-Dole

    SciTech Connect

    Eschbach, E.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report highlights the patenting and licensing experiences at the Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Procedural devices that are being considered and concerns of the program management are also included.

  17. 76 FR 68183 - Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Update Release of Final Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... behavioral factors commonly used in assessing exposure to environmental chemicals. The Highlights of the... parties as a source of data and/or U.S. EPA recommendations on numeric estimates for behavioral...

  18. Highlights from U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Recovery Act Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    2012-05-01

    This fact sheets highlights U.S. Department of Energy fuel cell projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). More than 1,000 fuel cell systems have been deployed through Recovery Act funding.

  19. 10 New NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Research Update 10 New NIH Research Highlights Spring 2016 Table of Contents ... Tumor Test May Help Women Avoid Chemotherapy A new test may help some women diagnosed with early- ...

  20. The Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect: Conference Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.

  1. PHOTOGRAPHY BY KSC SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE STANDS ON KSC'S PAD 39A HIGHLIGHTED AGAINST THE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPHY BY KSC SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE STANDS ON KSC'S PAD 39A HIGHLIGHTED AGAINST THE DARKENED FLORIDA SKY DURING TESTING OF THE HIGH-INTENSITY LIGHTING SYSTMES. THE BANKS OF XENON LIGHTS ARE USED DURING LAUCH PREPARATIONS.

  2. PNNL Highlights for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (July 2013-July 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin; Warren, Pamela M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2014-08-13

    This report includes research highlights of work funded in part or whole by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as well as selected leadership accomplishments.

  3. Technical Highlight: NREL Improves Building Energy Simulation Programs Through Diagnostic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.

    2012-01-09

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX) to increase the quality and accuracy of energy analysis tools for the building retrofit market.

  4. Fermi Gamma-Ray Observatory-Science Highlights for the First 8 Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the science highlights for the first 8 months of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Observatory. Results from pulsars, flaring AGN, gamma ray bursts, diffuse radiation, LMC and electron spectrum are also presented.

  5. Technical Highlight: Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types in the hot-humid climate zone, and examine the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls.

  6. 10 New NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Research Update 10 New NIH Research Highlights Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... Tumor Test May Help Women Avoid Chemotherapy A new test may help some women diagnosed with early- ...

  7. Fiber-optic system for monitoring fast photoactivation dynamics of optical highlighter fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhiguo; Qin, Lingsong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Huang, Zhen-Li

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the photoactivation performance of optical highlighter fluorescent proteins is crucial to the realization of photoactivation localization microscopy. In contrast to those fluorescence-based approaches that require complex data processing and calibration procedures, here we report a simple and quantitative alternative, which relies on the measurement of small absorption spectra changes over time with a fiber-optic system. Using Dronpa as a representative highlighter protein, we have investigated the capacity of this system in monitoring the fast photoactivation process. PMID:21833352

  8. Chlorophyll b degradation by chlorophyll b reductase under high-light conditions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Rei; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2015-12-01

    The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the main antenna complex of photosystem II (PSII). Plants change their LHCII content depending on the light environment. Under high-light conditions, the content of LHCII should decrease because over-excitation damages the photosystem. Chlorophyll b is indispensable for accumulating LHCII, and chlorophyll b degradation induces LHCII degradation. Chlorophyll b degradation is initiated by chlorophyll b reductase (CBR). In land plants, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) and NYC1-Like (NOL) are isozymes of CBR. We analyzed these mutants to determine their functions under high-light conditions. During high-light treatment, the chlorophyll a/b ratio was stable in the wild-type (WT) and nol plants, and the LHCII content decreased in WT plants. The chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased in the nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants, and a substantial degree of LHCII was retained in nyc1/nol plants after the high-light treatment. These results demonstrate that NYC1 degrades the chlorophyll b on LHCII under high-light conditions, thus decreasing the LHCII content. After the high-light treatment, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry was lower in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants than in WT and nol plants. A larger light-harvesting system would damage PSII in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the leaves indicated that photosystem I was also damaged by the excess LHCII in nyc1/nol plants. These observations suggest that chlorophyll b degradation by NYC1 is the initial reaction for the optimization of the light-harvesting capacity under high-light conditions. PMID:25896488

  9. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2013 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. J.; Kennedy, J.; Meskell, C.; Carley, M.; Jordan, P.; Rice, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2013, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2013, a number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights from other programmes funded by national programmes or by industry. Furthermore, a concise summary of the CEAS-ASC workshop "Atmospheric and Ground Effects on Aircraft Noise" held in Seville, Spain in September 2013 is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection. This issue of the "highlights" paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. John A. Fitzpatrick, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, and a valued member of the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee. John passed away in September 2012 and is fondly missed across the globe by the friends he made in the Aeroacoustics Community. This paper is edited by PhD graduates and colleagues of John's who conduct research in aeroacoustics, inspired by his thirst for knowledge.

  10. Institutional supporting research highlights in physics and mathematics, fiscal year 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, J. C.

    1984-03-01

    Highlights of FY 1983 Institutional Supporting Research and Development activities within the six Physics and Mathematics divisions and the Center for Nonlinear Studies are presented. The highlights are but a fraction of the ISRD activities in the Directorate and are intended to be a representative sample of progress in the various research areas. FY 1983 ISRD activities within the Physics and Mathematics divisions included both basic and applied research and were divided into 11 research areas: mathematics and numerical methods, low-energy nuclear physics, medium- and high-energy nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, solid-state physics and materials science, fluid dynamics, plasma physics and intense particle beam theory, astrophysics and space physics, particle transport methods, accelerator and fusion technology, and biophysics. Highlights from each of these areas are presented.

  11. Science Highlights from the First Year of Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, M.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Hartig, G.; Ardila, D. R.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Bouwens, R. J.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a deep imaging camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the fourth HST servicing mission. ACS recently entered its second year of science operations and continues to perform beyond pre-launch expectations. We present science highlights from the ACS Science Team's GTO program. These highlights include the evolution of Z approx. 6 galaxies from deep imaging observations; deep imaging of strongly lensed clusters which have been used to determine cluster mass, and independently constraint the geometry of the Universe; and coronagraphic observations of debris disks.

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. Conference Papers: Invited Rapporteur, Highlight, Miscellaneous, Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Invited talks, rapporteur talks, and highlight talks are included. Topics of the invited and highlight talks include astrophysical jets, gamma-ray line astronomy, cosmic rays and gamma rays in astrophysics, the early universe, elementary particle physics, solar flares and acceleration of energetic particles, cosmogenic nuclei, extragalactic astronomy, composition of solar flare particles, very high energy gamma ray sources, gamma-ray bursts, shock acceleration in the solar wind, cosmic rays in deep underground detectors, spectrum of cosmic rays at 10 to the 19th power eV, and nucleus-nucleus interactions.

  13. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detandt, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  14. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 1, April 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Family Research Project, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Research Update synthesizes findings from the profiles of 15 research and evaluation reports added to the Out-of-School Time Program Research and Evaluation Database in December 2006. It highlights strategies for assessing program processes as well as key outcomes and features of programs that promote positive outcomes. The Harvard Family…

  15. A Catholic Campus in Reflective Action: A Co-Curricular Event Highlighting Identity and Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vinne, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A campus-wide program to highlight Catholic identity and mission, Community Day has been celebrated at Notre Dame of Maryland University every year since 1993. Featuring a keynote speaker, followed by an array of thematic workshops led by faculty, staff, and students, the event invites participants to reflect on Catholic Social Teaching, embedded…

  16. Frontiers: Research Highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1996-01-01

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  17. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  18. Labor Markets for New Science and Engineering Graduates in Private Industry. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data are presented on labor market conditions for science and engineering graduates based on responses of 255 firms to mail and telephone surveys conducted in late fall of 1981. Highlights presented in table, chart, and text indicate: (1) definite and likely shortages were concentrated in the computer and engineering fields; (2) chemical,…

  19. Variety and Service Highlight the 2010 Effective and Innovative Practices Award Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facilities Manager, 2010

    2010-01-01

    APPA's Effective & Innovative Practices Award continues to highlight the best of the most creative and practical programs and processes that enhance and transform service delivery, lower costs, increase productivity, improve customer service, generate revenue, or otherwise benefit an educational institution. This article features five 2010…

  20. Making the Connection: Some People, Programs and Ideas Highlighted by Adult Learners Week 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John; Della, Jennie

    This document profiles selected people, programs, and ideas highlighted by Australia's Adult Learners Week 2001 and begins with these papers: "Adult Learners Week: A National Celebration" (Ned Dennis); "A Message from the Adult Learners Week Patron" (Peter Hollingworth); "A Message of Support from the Prime Minister of Australia" (John Howard);…

  1. Eye Gaze and Individual Differences Consistent with Learned Attention in Associative Blocking and Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruschke, John K.; Kappenman, Emily S.; Hetrick, William P.

    2005-01-01

    The associative learning effects called blocking and highlighting have previously been explained by covert learned attention, but evidence for learned attention has been indirect, via models of response choice. The present research reports results from eye tracking consistent with the attentional hypothesis: Gaze duration is diminished for blocked…

  2. Highlights from Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Responsible Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Anne; Beaumont, Elizabeth; Ehrlich, Thomas; Corngold, Josh

    2007-01-01

    This paper, highlights the forthcoming book "Educating for Democracy." The book articulates the conditions under which political teaching and learning in college is and is not legitimate, making the case that education for political development can and should be conducted in a manner that is consistent with the core values of higher education…

  3. Growth in Neuroscience May Be Leveling Off. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Major findings of a survey of 188 universities and colleges that constitute the universe of higher education institutions with doctoral-level programs in neuroscience are highlighted and discussed in this brief report. Areas considered included graduate students, doctoral recipients, postdoctoral trainees, principal areas of concentration,…

  4. Real Growth in Industrial R&D Performance Continues into 1979. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Highlights of "Research and Development in Industry, 1979" are presented in this report, including summaries on total research and development (R&D) funds, federal and industrial funds, funding for applied and basic R&D, energy R&D, and R&D scientists and engineers. (SK)

  5. Americans and the Arts 1984: Highlights from a Nationwide Survey of Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    Highlights of a nationwide public opinion survey concerning the interest and involvement of Americans in the arts are summarized. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1,504 adults. Results showed that the arts are indisputably a part of the mainstream of American life. Because Americans have limited leisure time, the arts must increasingly…

  6. Teaching World Geography to Late-Arrival Immigrant Students: Highlighting Practice and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Cinthia; Franquiz, Maria E.; Reidel, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    In this case study, the work of an exemplary high school social studies teacher is highlighted. In her class, late-arrival immigrant students participated in oral, writing, and demonstration activities as they learned the physical, cultural, and historical traditions of geography education. As newcomers to the English language, the students'…

  7. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Selected examples of research accomplishments related to remote sensing are compiled. A brief statement is given to highlight the significant results of each research project. A list of 1981 publication and location contacts is given also. The projects cover emission and reflectance analysis, identification of crop and soil parameters, and the utilization of remote sensing data.

  8. Latino Families, Poverty, and Welfare Reform. Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Family Impact Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Figueroa, Iris

    Presentations of panelists at one in a series of monthly seminars on Family Centered Social Policy are summarized. The first panelist, Maria E. Enchautegui, began with a statistical overview of Latino poverty and then highlighted data for subgroups. Mirien Uriarte presented findings from her study on the experiences of Latinas in the Massachusetts…

  9. Twentieth international symposium on electro- and liquid-phase separation techniques (ITP2013): highlights.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Alejandro; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The 20th edition of the International Symposium on Electro- and Liquid-Phase Separation Techniques (ITP2013) took place on October 6-9, 2013, at Puerto de la Cruz in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). This article reviews the highlights of this new edition of the symposia, also including the different activities that took place as well as the awards presented. PMID:24339404

  10. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  11. [Four Short Papers Highlighting Aspects of a Study of Citizens' Organizations: Citizen Participation in Educational Decisionmaking].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Responsive Education, Boston, MA.

    Each of these four papers highlights findings of a National Institute of Education-sponsored project entitled "Citizen Organizations: A Study of Citizen Participation in Educational Decisionmaking." The first paper, "Class, Power, and Networking: Implications of Existing Network Patterns Among Groups," discusses the effect of inter-organizational…

  12. Ethical Challenges in a Complex World: Highlights of the 2005 ACA Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocet, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Being an effective counselor includes having knowledge of and the ability to integrate a code of ethics into one's professional practice. This article addresses some of the highlights of the changes in the 2005 ACA [American Counseling Association] Code of Ethics such as end-of-life issues, boundaries and relationships, and multicultural and…

  13. The Probability Evaluation Game: An Instrument to Highlight the Skill of Reflexive Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Probability Evaluation Game (PEG): an innovative teaching instrument that emphasises the sophistication of listening and highlights listening as a key skill for accounting practitioners. Whilst in a roundtable format, playing PEG involves participants individually evaluating a series of probability terms…

  14. Highlights of papers presented at the workshop on cold fusion phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This report contains highlights of formal oral papers presented at the Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena, hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and held May 23--25, 1989, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. General topics covered are: physics of fusion reactions; neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy; colorimetry; and applicable condensed-matter physics, electrochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

  15. The Effects of Highlight Color on Immediate Recall on Subjects of Different Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)

  16. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This "Research Update" synthesizes findings from the profiles of 13 research and evaluation reports added to the Out-of-School Time Program Research and Evaluation Database in August 2007. It highlights innovations and developments in the out-of-school time field and looks at the important benefits out-of-school time programs can provide to youth,…

  17. News and Views: Plain English? Government report highlights management and communication failures at STFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    The report of the Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Select Committee sets out in robust, plain language, a damning summary of the Science and Technology Facilities Council's handling of its funding problems over the past few months, highlighting ``a poorly conceived delivery plan, lamentable communication and poor leadership, as well as major senior management misjudgements''.

  18. Pharmacotherapy and pregnancy: highlights from the Second International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haas, David M; Hebert, Mary F; Soldin, Offie P; Flockhart, David A; Madadi, Parvaz; Nocon, James J; Chambers, Christina D; Hankins, Gary D; Clark, Shannon; Wisner, Katherine L; Li, Lang; Renbarger, Jamie L; Learman, Lee A

    2009-12-01

    To address provider struggles to provide evidence-based, rational drug therapy to pregnant women, a second conference was convened to highlight the current research in the field. Speakers from academic centers and institutions spoke about: the unique physiology and pathology of pregnancy; pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy; thyroid disorders in pregnancy; pharmacogenetics in pregnancy; the role of CYP2D6 in pregnancy; treating addiction in pregnancy; the power of teratology networks to inform clinical decisions; the use of anti-depressants in pregnancy; and how to utilize computer-based modeling to aid with individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. The Conference highlighted several areas of collaboration with the current Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Units Network (OPRU) and hoped to stimulate further collaboration and knowledge in the area with the common goal to improve the ability to safely and effectively use individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. PMID:20443937

  19. Science Highlights from the SDSS DR7 Spectroscopic M Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Pineda, J.; Dhital, S.; Savcheva, A.; Jones, D.; Schluns, K.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a series of science highlights that have resulted from the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic M dwarf catalog. These highlights include (but are not limited to) a detailed magnetic activity analysis of M dwarfs as a function of their location in the Galaxy (both Galactic height and Galactocentric radius), a kinematic analysis of the local Milky Way, a study of how the time variability of M dwarfs correlates with spectral properties, an age-activity relation (using Galactic stratigraphy), a spectral catalog of wide binary pairs, a catalog of low-mass subdwarfs, a statistical parallax analysis of the M dwarfs and subdwarfs, and a technique for determining the interstellar dust content using M dwarfs. All of the SDSS and value added data are accessible for public download and reprints will be made available on site. AAW acknowledges the support of NSF grant AST-1109273

  20. The impact of specular highlights on 3D-2D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christlein, Vincent; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    2013-05-01

    One of the most popular form of biometrics is face recognition. Face recognition techniques typically assume that a face exhibits Lambertian reectance. However, a face often exhibits prominent specularities, especially in outdoor environments. These specular highlights can compromise an identity authentication. In this work, we analyze the impact of such highlights on a 3D-2D face recognition system. First, we investigate three different specularity removal methods as preprocessing steps for face recognition. Then, we explicitly model facial specularities within the face detection system with the Cook-Torrance reflectance model. In our experiments, specularity removal increases the recognition rate on an outdoor face database by about 5% at a false alarm rate of 10-3. The integration of the Cook-Torrance model further improves these results, increasing the verification rate by 19% at a FAR of 10-3.

  1. Brookhaven highlights for fiscal year 1991, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.; Kuper, J.B.H.

    1991-12-31

    This report highlights Brookhaven National Laboratory`s activities for fiscal year 1991. Topics from the four research divisions: Computing and Communications, Instrumentation, Reactors, and Safety and Environmental Protection are presented. The research programs at Brookhaven are diverse, as is reflected by the nine different scientific departments: Accelerator Development, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Applied Science, Biology, Chemistry, Medical, National Synchrotron Light Source, Nuclear Energy, and Physics. Administrative and managerial information about Brookhaven are also disclosed. (GHH)

  2. Brookhaven highlights for fiscal year 1991, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.; Kuper, J.B.H.

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights Brookhaven National Laboratory's activities for fiscal year 1991. Topics from the four research divisions: Computing and Communications, Instrumentation, Reactors, and Safety and Environmental Protection are presented. The research programs at Brookhaven are diverse, as is reflected by the nine different scientific departments: Accelerator Development, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Applied Science, Biology, Chemistry, Medical, National Synchrotron Light Source, Nuclear Energy, and Physics. Administrative and managerial information about Brookhaven are also disclosed. (GHH)

  3. Research highlights: modelling to assess climate change impacts and promote development.

    PubMed

    Luxem, Katja E; Lin, Vivian S

    2015-08-01

    We highlight four recent articles on biophysical modelling for the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta system. These publications are part of a themed collection in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts and contribute to a larger body of collaborative work that aims to assess the impacts of changing climate, policy, and development efforts on vulnerable populations in the GBM delta. PMID:26186156

  4. Some highlights of the recent Fermilab Fixed Target Program of interest to the nuclear physics community

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, J.; Papavassiliou, V.; Zielinski, M.

    1995-02-01

    Many of the high energy physics questions addressed by the Fermilab Fixed Target Experiments are also of interest to the members of the nuclear community. Some recent highlights of the program, including studies of A-dependence of cross sections, evidence for parton rescattering in nuclear media, studies of heavy quark production, evidence for color transparency, and insights into QCD from meson systems, are discussed.

  5. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and highlight some of the results from the first three years of the mission.

  6. Brookhaven highlights. Report on research, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Belford, M.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report highlights the research activities of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period dating from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. There are contributions to the report from different programs and departments within the laboratory. These include technology transfer, RHIC, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, physics, biology, national synchrotron light source, applied science, medical science, advanced technology, chemistry, reactor physics, safety and environmental protection, instrumentation, and computing and communications.

  7. Research highlights of the global modeling and simulation branch for 1986-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Wayman (Editor); Susskind, Joel (Editor); Pfaendtner, James (Editor); Randall, David (Editor); Atlas, Robert (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the research conducted in the Global Modeling and Simulation Branch and highlights the most significant accomplishments in 1986 to 1987. The Branch has been the focal point for global weather and climate prediction research in the Laboratory for Atmospheres through the retrieval and use of satellite data, the development of global models and data assimilation techniques, the simulation of future observing systems, and the performance of atmospheric diagnostic studies.

  8. Highlights of the 16th annual scientific sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 16th Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) took place in San Francisco, USA at the end of January 2013. With a faculty of experts from across the world, this congress provided a wealth of insight into cutting-edge research and technological development. This review article intends to provide a highlight of what represented the most significant advances in the field of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during this year’s meeting. PMID:23870663

  9. Human Hemochromatosis Protein (HFE) Immunoperoxidase Stain Highlights Choriocarcinoma within Mixed Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jesse L; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Koepsell, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Identification of choriocarcinoma within a germ cell tumor can have major implications for the subsequent staging and treatment of testicular neoplasms. Immunoperoxidase staining greatly enhances the speed and sensitivity of identifying occult, though clinically significant, tumor components. In mixed germ cell tumors, staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been historically used to assess for the presence and burden of choriocarcinoma. However, current β-hCG stains produce variable, intense staining of trophoblastic elements and surrounding tissues, clouding the assessment of true-positive staining. Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE) is a membrane bound mediator of iron transport expressed at high levels within placenta. Additionally, previous reports have demonstrated that choriocarcinoma cell lines express HFE, although in vivo expression had not been examined. To address whether HFE can stain trophoblastic elements, HFE immunohistochemistry was conducted in choriocarcinoma (n = 4), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 11), seminoma (n = 4), and placenta (n = 11). HFE consistently demonstrated cytoplasmic and membranous staining, highlighting both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts within choriocarcinoma and placenta. Staining of intratumoral white blood cells was observed within seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors, corroborating prior reports stating that HFE highlights monocytes and macrophages. Taken together, HFE may serve as an alternative target from β-hCG for immunoperoxidase studies when highlighting choriocarcinoma. PMID:27034532

  10. Human Hemochromatosis Protein (HFE) Immunoperoxidase Stain Highlights Choriocarcinoma within Mixed Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Talmon, Geoffrey A.; Koepsell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of choriocarcinoma within a germ cell tumor can have major implications for the subsequent staging and treatment of testicular neoplasms. Immunoperoxidase staining greatly enhances the speed and sensitivity of identifying occult, though clinically significant, tumor components. In mixed germ cell tumors, staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been historically used to assess for the presence and burden of choriocarcinoma. However, current β-hCG stains produce variable, intense staining of trophoblastic elements and surrounding tissues, clouding the assessment of true-positive staining. Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE) is a membrane bound mediator of iron transport expressed at high levels within placenta. Additionally, previous reports have demonstrated that choriocarcinoma cell lines express HFE, although in vivo expression had not been examined. To address whether HFE can stain trophoblastic elements, HFE immunohistochemistry was conducted in choriocarcinoma (n = 4), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 11), seminoma (n = 4), and placenta (n = 11). HFE consistently demonstrated cytoplasmic and membranous staining, highlighting both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts within choriocarcinoma and placenta. Staining of intratumoral white blood cells was observed within seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors, corroborating prior reports stating that HFE highlights monocytes and macrophages. Taken together, HFE may serve as an alternative target from β-hCG for immunoperoxidase studies when highlighting choriocarcinoma. PMID:27034532

  11. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 3 of 4; Flight Days 6 & 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video, Part 3 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 6 and 7. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). Flight day 6 features a very complicated EVA (extravehicular activity) to service the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Astronauts Grunsfeld and Linnehan replace the HST's power control unit, disconnecting and reconnecting 36 tiny connectors. The procedure includes the HST's first ever power down. The cleanup of spilled water from the coollant system in Grunsfeld's suit is shown. The pistol grip tool, and two other space tools are also shown. On flight day 7, Newman and Massimino conduct an EVA. They replace the HST's FOC (Faint Object Camera) with the ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys). The video ends with crew members playing in the shuttle's cabin with a model of the HST.

  12. STS-105 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Flight Days 1-3. Part 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the STS-105 mission is given through footage of each flight day. Scenes from flight days one through three show activities such as astronaut prelaunch procedures (breakfast, suit-up, and boarding Discovery), the launch from multiple vantage points, and various on-orbit activities. Expedition 3 (E3) Commander Frank Culbertson, Jr. and Flight Engineer Mikhail Turin perform the H-Reflex Experiment, an experiment to test the effects of microgravity on the human spinal cord. As Discovery approaches the International Space Station (ISS), the Expedition 2 (E2) crew, Commander Yuriy Usachev and Flight Engineers James Voss and Susan Helms, are seen working in the Destiny Laboratory Module aboard ISS. Discovery docks to the space station and the three crews (STS-105, E2, and E3) greet each other after the hatches between the orbiter and ISS are opened. As Discovery passes over the United States, Utah, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota are seen through patchy clouds. Footage from flight days 4-13 can be found on 'STS-105 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Flight Days 4-6' (internal ID 2002046549), 'STS-105 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Flight Days 7-9' (internal ID 2002046552), and 'STS-105 Mission Highlights Resource Tape: Flight Days 10-13' (internal ID 2002046551).

  13. Thermal Evolution and Crystallisation Regimes of the Martian Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. J.; Pommier, A.

    2015-12-01

    Though it is accepted that Mars has a sulfur-rich metallic core, its chemical and physical state as well as its time-evolution are still unconstrained and debated. Several lines of evidence indicate that an internal magnetic field was once generated on Mars and that this field decayed around 3.7-4.0 Gyrs ago. The standard model assumes that this field was produced by a thermal (and perhaps chemical) dynamo operating in the Martian core. We use this information to construct parameterized models of the Martian dynamo in order to place constraints on the thermochemical evolution of the Martian core, with particular focus on its crystallization regime. Considered compositions are in the FeS system, with S content ranging from ~10 and 16 wt%. Core radius, density and CMB pressure are varied within the errors provided by recent internal structure models that satisfy the available geodetic constraints (planetary mass, moment of inertia and tidal Love number). We also vary the melting curve and adiabat, CMB heat flow and thermal conductivity. Successful models are those that match the dynamo cessation time and fall within the bounds on present-day CMB temperature. The resulting suite of over 500 models suggest three possible crystallization regimes: growth of a solid inner core starting at the center of the planet; freezing and precipitation of solid iron (Fe- snow) from the core-mantle boundary (CMB); and freezing that begins midway through the core. Our analysis focuses on the effects of core properties that are expected to be constrained during the forthcoming Insight mission.

  14. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    α-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  15. Slow crystallisation of a monodisperse foam stabilised against coarsening.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Aaron J; Whyte, David; Banhart, John; Hutzler, Stefan; Weaire, Denis; García-Moreno, Francisco

    2015-06-21

    The evolution of a three-dimensional monodisperse foam was investigated using X-ray tomography over the course of seven days. The coarsening of the sample was inhibited through the use of perfluorohexane gas. The internal configuration of bubbles is seen to change markedly, evolving from a disordered arrangement towards a more ordered state. We chart this ordering process through the use of the coordination number, the bond orientational order parameter (BOOP) and the translational order parameter. PMID:25973572

  16. Multimodal Highlighting of Structural Abnormalities in Diabetic Rat and Human Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Savoldelli, Michèle; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Plamann, Karsten; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to highlight structural corneal changes in a model of type 2 diabetes, using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The abnormalities were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in rat and human corneas. Methods Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were observed at age 12 weeks (n = 3) and 1 year (n = 6), and compared to age-matched controls. After in vivo CCM examination, TEM and SHG microscopy were used to characterize the ultrastructure and the three-dimensional organization of the abnormalities. Human corneas from diabetic (n = 3) and nondiabetic (n = 3) patients were also included in the study. Results In the basal epithelium of GK rats, CCM revealed focal hyper-reflective areas, and histology showed proliferative cells with irregular basement membrane. In the anterior stroma, extracellular matrix modifications were detected by CCM and confirmed in histology. In the Descemet's membrane periphery of all the diabetic corneas, hyper-reflective deposits were highlighted using CCM and characterized as long-spacing collagen fibrils by TEM. SHG microscopy revealed these deposits with high contrast, allowing specific detection in diabetic human and rat corneas without preparation and characterization of their three-dimensional organization. Conclusion Pathologic findings were observed early in the development of diabetes in GK rats. Similar abnormalities have been found in corneas from diabetic patients. Translational Relevance This multidisciplinary study highlights diabetes-induced corneal abnormalities in an animal model, but also in diabetic donors. This could constitute a potential early marker for diagnosis of hyperglycemia-induced tissue changes. PMID:24049714

  17. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Phillips, Flip; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Thomason, Kelsey E; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped "glaven") for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object's shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions-e.g., the participants' performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  18. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 1 of 4; Flight Days 1 - 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video, Part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 1 through 3. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), 'STS 109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). The main activity recorded during flight day 1 is the liftoff of Columbia. Attention is given to suit-up, boarding, and pre-flight procedures. The pre-launch crew meal has no sound. The crew members often wave to the camera before liftoff. The jettisoning of the solid rocket boosters is shown, and the External Tank is seen as it falls to Earth, moving over African dunes in the background. There are liftoff replays, including one from inside the cockpit. The opening of the payload bay doors is seen from the rear of the shuttle's cockpit. The footage from flight day 2 shows the Flight Support System for bearthing the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Crew preparations for the bearthing are shown. Flight day 3 shows the tracking of and approach to the HST by Columbia, including orbital maneuvers, the capture of the HST, and its lowering onto the Flight Support System. Many views of the HST are shown, including one which reveals an ocean and cloud background as the HST retracts a solar array.

  19. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 4 of 4; Flight Days 8 - 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video, Part 4 of 4, shows footage of crew activities from flight days 8 through 12 of STS-109. The crew included: Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, Richard Linnehan, James Newman, Michael Massimino, Mission Speicalists. The activities from other flights days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139476). The primary activity on flight day 8 was an EVA (extravehicular activity) by Grunsfeld and Linnehan to install a cryocooler and radiator for the NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) on the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Before returning to Columbia's airlock, the astronauts, with a cloudy background, hold onto the orbiter and offer their thoughts on the significance of their mission, the HST, and spaceflight. Footage from flight day 9 includes the grappling, unbearthing, and deployment of the HST from Columbia, and the crew coordinating and videotaping Columbia's departure. Flight day 10 was a relatively inactive day, and flight day 11 includes a checkout of Columbia's aerodynamic surfaces. Columbia landed on flight day 12, which is covered by footage of the crew members speaking during reentry, and their night landing, primarily shown through the orbiter's head-up display. The video includes numerous views of the HST, as well as views of the the Galapagos Islands, Madagascar, and Southern Africa with parts of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and part of the coast of Chile. The pistol grip space tool is shown in use, and the crew answers two messages from the public, including a message to Massimino from the Fire Department of New York.

  20. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 2 of 4; Flight Days 4 & 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video, Part 2 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 4 and 5. The activities from other flights days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 3 of 4 (internal ID 2002139476), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). The primary activities during these days were EVAs (extravehicular activities) to replace two solar arrays on the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Footage from flight day 4 records an EVA by Grunsfeld and Linnehan, including their exit from Columbia's payload bay airlock, their stowing of the old HST starboard rigid array on the rigid array carrier in Columbia's payload bay, their attachment of the new array on HST, the installation of a new starboard diode box, and the unfolding of the new array. The pistol grip space tool used to fasten the old array in its new location is shown in use. The video also includes several shots of the HST with Earth in the background. On flight day 5 Newman and Massimino conduct an EVA to change the port side array and diode box on HST. This EVA is very similar to the one on flight day 4, and is covered similarly in the video. A hand operated ratchet is shown in use. In addition to a repeat of the previous tasks, the astronauts change HST's reaction wheel assembly, and because they are ahead of schedule, install installation and lubricate an instrument door on the telescope. The Earth views include a view of Egypt and Israel, with the Nile River, Red Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped “glaven”) for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object’s shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions–e.g., the participants’ performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  2. Properties of VIP+ synapses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus highlight their role in circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Achilly, Nathan P

    2016-06-01

    Circadian rhythms coordinate cyclical behavioral and physiological changes in most organisms. In humans, this biological clock is located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and consists of a heterogeneous neuron population characterized by their enriched expression of various neuropeptides. As highlighted here, Fan et al. (J Neurosci 35: 1905-1029, 2015) developed an elegant experimental system to investigate the synaptic properties of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons between day and night, and further delineate their broader architecture and function within the SCN. PMID:26581865

  3. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  4. Highlights from the 2016 Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, April 2-6, 2016.

    PubMed

    Solis, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) Conference, held in Florence, Italy, attracted approximately 1,800 attendees from over 54 countries to the stately Firenze Fiera Conference Center from April 2-6, 2016. Providing plenary sessions, special sessions, symposia, workshops, oral presentations and poster presentations, this 5th Biennial SIRS Conference focused on "Deconstructing Schizophrenia towards Targeted Treatment." In conjunction with the Schizophrenia Research Forum, a Web project of the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, and with our thanks to the SIRS organizers and staff, we bring you the following selected highlights. PMID:27440209

  5. Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.

  6. Unlocking the wasting enigma: Highlights from the 8th Cachexia Conference

    PubMed Central

    von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article highlights pre‐clinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 8th Cachexia Conference held in Paris, France December 2015. This year some interesting results of clinical trials and different new therapeutic targets were shown. This article presents the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new drugs for the treatment of skeletal muscle wasting. Effective treatments of cachexia and wasting disorders are urgently needed in order to improve the patients' quality of life and their survival. PMID:27128291

  7. Bringing the High Energy Universe into Focus: Science Highlights from the NuSTAR Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, the first focusing high-energy X-ray (3 - 79 keV) telescope in orbit, extends sensitive X-ray observations above the band pass where Chandra and XMM-Newton operate. With an unprecedented combination of sensitivity, spectral and imaging resolution above 10 keV, NuSTAR is advancing our understanding of black holes, neutron stars, and supernova remnants. I will describe the mission, and present science highlights to-date from the two-year baseline mission.

  8. Megakaryocytes regulate the quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells through PF4: 2013 ASH meeting highlights

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yamei

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can take one of the three different pathways: quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation. Mechanisms that control the tight balance to maintain lifelong hematopoietic homeostasis have been a major interest of research. Platelet factor-4 (PF4), a weak chemokine, is synthesized exclusively by megakaryocytes and sequestered in platelets. This meeting report highlights a novel study presented at 2013 ASH annual meeting. This study found that megakaryocyte, a progeny of HSC, was involved in maintaining quiescence of HSCs via PF4 in a feedback loop.

  9. Highlights of the Brazilian Thoracic Association guidelines for interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Santana, Alfredo Nicodemos da Cruz; Costa, André Nathan; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Algranti, Eduardo; Capitani, Eduardo Mello de; Bethlem, Eduardo Pamplona; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins; Arakaki, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini; Carvalho, Jozélio Freire de; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Marcelo Jorge Jacó; Lima, Mariana Silva; Soares, Maria Raquel; Caramori, Marlova Luzzi; Aidé, Miguel Abidon; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Oliveira, Rudolf Krawczenko Feitoza de; Jezler, Sérgio; Rodrigues, Sílvia Carla Sousa; Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are heterogeneous disorders, involving a large number of conditions, the approach to which continues to pose an enormous challenge for pulmonologists. The 2012 Brazilian Thoracic Association ILD Guidelines were established in order to provide Brazilian pulmonologists with an instrument that can facilitate the management of patients with ILDs, standardizing the criteria used for the diagnosis of different conditions and offering guidance on the best treatment in various situations. The objective of this article was to briefly describe the highlights of those guidelines. PMID:22782597

  10. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report Second Quarter, Fiscal Year 2010 (January 1, 2010 through March 31, 2010)

    SciTech Connect

    West, Staci A.; Showalter, Mary Ann; Manke, Kristin L.; Carper, Ross R.; Wiley, Julie G.; Beckman, Mary T.

    2010-04-20

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. EMSL is operated by PNNL for the DOE-Office of Biological and Environmental Research. At one location, EMSL offers a comprehensive array of leading-edge resources and expertise. Access to the instrumentation and expertise is obtained on a peer-reviewed proposal basis. Staff members work with researchers to expedite access to these capabilities. The "EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report" documents current research and activities of EMSL staff and users.

  11. Unlocking the wasting enigma: Highlights from the 8th Cachexia Conference.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Nicole; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights pre-clinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 8th Cachexia Conference held in Paris, France December 2015. This year some interesting results of clinical trials and different new therapeutic targets were shown. This article presents the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new drugs for the treatment of skeletal muscle wasting. Effective treatments of cachexia and wasting disorders are urgently needed in order to improve the patients' quality of life and their survival. PMID:27128291

  12. The Fermi Large Area Telescope: Highlights from the first year on orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Raino, S.

    2010-03-26

    Since its launch from Cape Canaveral on June 11, 2008, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been performing a survey of the high-energy astrophysical phenomena, including pulsars, black holes and active galactic nuclei; gamma-ray bursts; the origin of cosmic rays and supernova remnants and searches for new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilation. In this contribution I report on the performance of the LAT and on the highlight results achieved in its first year of observations.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory - 1995 Highlights. Fiscal Year 1995, 1 October 1994--30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this Highlights Report is to present a brief overview of the Laboratory`s significant research accomplishments during the fiscal year 1995. The activities covered in this report include advances on the large projects, such as the discovery of the Enhanced Reversed Shear mode on the TFTR and the engineering design developments in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, as well as the significant progress made in plasma theory, small-scale experiments, technology transfer, graduate education, and the Laboratory`s outreach program in science education.

  14. Recent highlights in anti-protozoan drug development and resistance research

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Waters, Norman C.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of research presented in January, 2012, at the Keystone Symposium on “Drug Discovery for Protozoan Parasites” held in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This symposium which convenes approximately every 2 years provides a forum for leading investigators around the world to present data covering basic sciences to clinical trials relating to anti-protozoan drug development and drug resistance. Many talks focused on malaria, but other protozoan diseases receiving attention included African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis. The new research, most of it unpublished, provided insights into the latest developments in the field. PMID:24533285

  15. Highlights of the 2014 International AIDS Conference: update from down under.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Paul A

    The 20th International AIDS Conference held in Melbourne, Australia, from July 20 through July 25, 2014, provided much new data on nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral therapy, potential consequences of switching suppressive antiretroviral regimen, antiretroviral treatment with integrase strand transfer inhibitors, effects of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Paul A. Volberding, MD, in August 2014, in which he focused on a few select highlights from the Conference. PMID:25612178

  16. The benchmark aeroelastic models program: Description and highlights of initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Durham, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort was implemented in aeroelasticity called the Benchmark Models Program. The primary purpose of this program is to provide the necessary data to evaluate computational fluid dynamic codes for aeroelastic analysis. It also focuses on increasing the understanding of the physics of unsteady flows and providing data for empirical design. An overview is given of this program and some results obtained in the initial tests are highlighted. The tests that were completed include measurement of unsteady pressures during flutter of rigid wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil section and dynamic response measurements of a flexible rectangular wing with a thick circular arc airfoil undergoing shock boundary layer oscillations.

  17. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects. PMID:21940210

  18. Highlights from the 50th Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon; Dong, Seok Ho

    2014-01-01

    The July issue of Clinical Endoscopy deals with selected articles covering the state-of-the-art lectures delivered during the 50th seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 30, 2014, highlighting educational contents pertaining to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, which contain fundamental and essential points in GI endoscopy. KSGE is very proud of its seminar, which has been presented twice a year for the last 25 years, and hosted more than 3,500 participants at the current meeting. KSGE seminar is positioned as one of premier state-of-the-art seminars for endoscopy, covering topics for novice endoscopists and advanced experts, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The 50th KSGE seminar consists of more than 20 sessions, including a single special lecture, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. Nine articles were selected from these prestigious lectures, and invited for publication in this special issue. This introductory review, prepared by the editors of Clinical Endoscopy, highlights core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized topic sessions, including live demonstrations and hands-on courses. PMID:25133113

  19. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  20. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights January 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2011-02-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for December 2010, ORNL/TM-2011/10, was distributed to program participants on January 12, 2011. As reported last month, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

  1. NOD-like receptor signaling and inflammasome-related pathways are highlighted in psoriatic epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Siitonen, H. Annika; Vuola, Jyrki; Nuutila, Kristo; Sormunen, Raija; Johnsson, Anna; Linnarsson, Sten; Suomela, Sari; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha; Elomaa, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic skin differs distinctly from normal skin by its thickened epidermis. Most gene expression comparisons utilize full-thickness biopsies, with substantial amount of dermis. We assayed the transcriptomes of normal, lesional, and non-lesional psoriatic epidermis, sampled as split-thickness skin grafts, with 5′-end RNA sequencing. We found that psoriatic epidermis contains more mRNA per total RNA than controls, and took this into account in the bioinformatic analysis. The approach highlighted innate immunity-related pathways in psoriasis, including NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling and inflammasome activation. We demonstrated that the NLR signaling genes NOD2, PYCARD, CARD6, and IFI16 are upregulated in psoriatic epidermis, and strengthened these findings by protein expression. Interestingly, PYCARD, the key component of the inflammasome, showed an altered expression pattern in the lesional epidermis. The profiling of non-lesional skin highlighted PSORS4 and mitochondrially encoded transcripts, suggesting that their gene expression is altered already before the development of lesions. Our data suggest that all components needed for the active inflammasome are present in the keratinocytes of psoriatic skin. The characterization of inflammasome pathways provides further opportunities for therapy. Complementing previous transcriptome studies, our approach gives deeper insight into the gene regulation in psoriatic epidermis. PMID:26976200

  2. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on ""CO2 sequestration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Lumley, David; Sherlock, Don; Daley, Tom; Lawton, Don; Masters, Ron; Verliac, Michel; White, Don

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on 'CO{sub 2} Sequestration Geophysics' was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier. Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO{sub 2} sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  3. Design of a detection system of highlight LED arrays' effect on the human organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwang; Shi, Guiju; Xue, Tongze; Liu, Yanming

    2009-05-01

    LED (Light Emitting Diode) has many advantages in the intensity, wavelength, practicality and price, so it is feasible to apply in biomedicine engineering. A system for the research on the effect of highlight LED arrays to human organization is designed. The temperature of skin surface can rise if skin and organization are in irradiation by highlight LED arrays. The metabolism and blood circulation of corresponding position will be quicker than those not in the shine, so the surface temperature will vary in different position of skin. The structure of LED source arrays system is presented and a measure system for studying LED's influence on human organization is designed. The temperature values of shining point are detected by infrared temperature detector. Temperature change is different according to LED parameters, such as the number, irradiation time and luminous intensity of LED. Experimental device is designed as an LED arrays pen. The LED arrays device is used to shine the points of human body, then it may effect on personal organization as well as the acupuncture. The system is applied in curing a certain skin disease, such as age pigment, skin cancer and fleck.

  4. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on"CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, D.; Sherlock, D.; Daley, T.; Huang, L.; Lawton, D.; Masters, R.; Verliac, M.; White, D.

    2010-01-15

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on CO2 Sequestration Geophysics was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee (see side bar) representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier (Figures 1-2). Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO2 sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  5. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2010 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs Nagy, Attila

    2011-10-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2010, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. At the end of 2010, project X-NOISE EV of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission has been launched as a continuation of the X-Noise series, with objectives of reducing aircraft noise and reaching the goal set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. Some contributions submitted to the editor summarizes selected findings from European projects launched before or concluded in 2010, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations or by industries. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of High-Speed Aircraft Propellers and Open Rotors" held in Warsaw in October is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  6. The year in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia: selected highlights from 2013.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Harish; Kohl, Benjamin A; Gutsche, Jacob T; Fassl, Jens; Patel, Prakash A; Riha, Hynek; Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Vernick, William J; Andritsos, Michael; Silvay, George; Augoustides, John G T

    2014-02-01

    This article reviewed selected research highlights of 2013 that pertain to the specialty of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. The first major theme is the commemoration of the sixtieth anniversary of the first successful cardiac surgical procedure with cardiopulmonary bypass conducted by Dr Gibbon. This major milestone revolutionized the practice of cardiovascular surgery and invigorated a paradigm of mechanical platforms for contemporary perioperative cardiovascular practice. Dr Kolff was also a leading contributor in this area because of his important contributions to the refinement of cardiopulmonary bypass and mechanical ventricular assistance. The second major theme is the diffusion of echocardiography throughout perioperative practice. There are now guidelines and training pathways to guide its generalization into everyday practice. The third major theme is the paradigm shift in perioperative fluid management. Recent large randomized trials suggest that fluids are drugs that require a precise prescription with respect to type, dose, and duration. The final theme is patient safety in the cardiac perioperative environment. A recent expert scientific statement has focused attention on this issue because most perioperative errors are preventable. It is likely that clinical research in this area will blossom because this is a major opportunity for improvement in our specialty. The patient care processes identified in these research highlights will further improve perioperative outcomes for our patients. PMID:24440007

  7. Highlights from the 52nd Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Il Ju; Kwon, Kwang An; Ryu, Ji Kon

    2015-01-01

    In this July issue of Clinical Endoscopy, state-of-the-art articles selected from the lectures delivered during the 52nd Seminar of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) on March 29, 2015 are covered, focusing on highlighted educational contents relevant to either diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Our society, the KSGE, has continued to host this opportunity for annual seminars twice a year over the last 26 years and it has become a large-scale prestigious seminar accommodating over 4,000 participants. Definitely, the KSGE seminar is considered as one of the premier state-of-the-art seminars dealing with GI endoscopy, appealing to both the beginner and advanced experts. Lectures, live demonstrations, hands-on courses, as well as an editor school, which was an important consensus meeting on how to upgrade our society journal, Clinical Endoscopy, to a Science Citation Index (Expanded) designation were included in this seminar. The 52nd KSGE seminar consisted of more than 20 sessions, including special lectures, concurrent sessions for GI endoscopy nurses, and sessions exploring new technologies. This is a very special omnibus article to highlight the core contents divided into four sessions: upper GI tract, lower GI tract, pancreatobiliary system, and other specialized sessions. PMID:26240798

  8. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2011-07-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for May 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/126, was distributed to program participants on June 9, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Fuel Performance Modeling - Fuel Performance Analysis; (2) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Behavior, (b) Thermomechanical Modeling, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport; (3) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; and (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.

  9. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights March 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2011-04-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for February 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/71, was distributed to program participants on March 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Thermomechanical Behavior, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (d) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; and (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

  10. Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights February 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Bell, Gary L; Besmann, Theodore M

    2011-03-01

    During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for January 2010, ORNL/TM-2011/30, was distributed to program participants on February 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; and (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

  11. Does mode mixing matter in EMD-based highlight volume methods for hydrocarbon detection? Experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ya-juan; Cao, Jun-xing; Du, Hao-kun; Zhang, Gu-lan; Yao, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based spectral decomposition methods have been successfully used for hydrocarbon detection. However, mode mixing that occurs during the sifting process of EMD causes the 'true' intrinsic mode function (IMF) to be extracted incorrectly and blurs the physical meaning of the IMF. We address the issue of how the mode mixing influences the EMD-based methods for hydrocarbon detection by introducing mode-mixing elimination methods, specifically ensemble EMD (EEMD) and complete ensemble EMD (CEEMD)-based highlight volumes, as feasible tools that can identify the peak amplitude above average volume and the peak frequency volume. Three schemes, that is, using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are employed in the EMD-, EEMD- and CEEMD-based highlight volume methods. When these methods were applied to seismic data from a tight sandstone gas field in Central Sichuan, China, the results demonstrated that the amplitude anomaly in the peak amplitude above average volume captured by EMD, EEMD and CEEMD combined with Hilbert transforms, whether using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are almost identical to each other. However, clear distinctions can be found in the peak frequency volume when comparing results generated using all IMFs, selected IMFs, or weighted IMFs. If all IMFs are used, the influence of mode mixing on the peak frequency volume is not readily discernable. However, using selected IMFs or a weighted IMFs' scheme affects the peak frequency in relation to the reservoir thickness in the EMD-based method. Significant improvement in the peak frequency volume can be achieved in EEMD-based highlight volumes using selected IMFs. However, if the weighted IMFs' scheme is adopted (i.e., if the undesired IMFs are included with reduced weights rather than excluded from the analysis entirely), the CEEMD-based peak frequency volume provides a more accurate reservoir thickness estimate compared with the other two methods. This

  12. Topographic attributes as a guide for automated detection or highlighting of geological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viseur, Sophie; Le Men, Thibaud; Guglielmi, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetry or LIDAR technology combined with photography allow geoscientists to obtain 3D high-resolution numerical representations of outcrops, generally termed as Digital Outcrop Models (DOM). For over a decade, these 3D numerical outcrops serve as support for precise and accurate interpretations of geological features such as fracture traces or plans, strata, facies mapping, etc. These interpretations have the benefit to be directly georeferenced and embedded into the 3D space. They are then easily integrated into GIS or geomodeler softwares for modelling in 3D the subsurface geological structures. However, numerical outcrops generally represent huge data sets that are heavy to manipulate and hence to interpret. This may be particularly tedious as soon as several scales of geological features must be investigated or as geological features are very dense and imbricated. Automated tools for interpreting geological features from DOMs would be then a significant help to process these kinds of data. Such technologies are commonly used for interpreting seismic or medical data. However, it may be noticed that even if many efforts have been devoted to easily and accurately acquire 3D topographic point clouds and photos and to visualize accurate 3D textured DOMs, few attentions have been paid to the development of algorithms for automated detection of the geological structures from DOMs. The automatic detection of objects on numerical data generally assumes that signals or attributes computed from this data allows the recognition of the targeted object boundaries. The first step consists then in defining attributes that highlight the objects or their boundaries. For DOM interpretations, some authors proposed to use differential operators computed on the surface such as normal or curvatures. These methods generally extract polylines corresponding to fracture traces or bed limits. Other approaches rely on the PCA technology to segregate different topographic plans

  13. Papillomavirus research update: highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F; Rohan, T; Schneider, A; Frazer, I; Pfister, H; Castellsague, X; de Sanjose, S; Moreno, V; Puig-Tintore, L; Smith, P; Munoz, N; zur Hausen, H

    2001-01-01

    The 18th international papillomavirus conference took place in Barcelona, Spain in July 2000. The HPV clinical workshop was jointly organised with the annual meeting of the Spanish Association of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. The conference included 615 abstracts describing ongoing research in epidemiology, diagnosis/screening, treatment/prognosis, immunology/human immunodeficiency virus, vaccine development/trials, transformation/progression, replication, transcription/translation, viral protein functions, and viral and host interactions. This leader summarises the highlights presented at the conference (the full text of the abstracts and lectures can be found at www.hpv2000.com). Relevant material in Spanish can be found at www.aepcc.org. Key Words: papillomavirus • epidemiology • immunology • biology • screening PMID:11253126

  14. Highlights from Faraday Discussion: Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts, London, UK, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nico; Manyar, Haresh G; Roldan, Alberto

    2016-06-28

    The Faraday Discussion on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts took place from 4-6 April 2016 in London, United Kingdom. It brought together world leading scientists actively involved in the synthesis, characterisation, modelling and testing of solid catalysts, attracting more than one hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels - academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, and students. The meeting was a reflection of how big of an impact the ability to control and design catalysts with specific properties for particular processes can potentially have on the chemical industry, environment, economy and society as a whole. In the following, we give an overview of the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation. PMID:27307017

  15. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  16. Etiology of Obesity Over the Life Span: Ecological and Genetic Highlights from Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pei Nee; Teh, Christinal Pey Wen; Poh, Bee Koon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and the prevalence rate has doubled since the 1980s. Asian countries are also experiencing the global epidemic of obesity with its related health consequences. The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate across all age groups in Asia. These increases are mainly attributed to rapid economic growth, which leads to socio-economic, nutrition and lifestyle transitions, resulting in a positive energy balance. In addition, fat mass and obesity-associated gene variants, copy number variants in chromosomes and epigenetic modifications have shown positive associations with the risk of obesity among Asians. In this review highlights of prevalence and related ecological and genetic factors that could influence the rapid rise in obesity among Asian populations are discussed. PMID:26626465

  17. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  18. Nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Newly eco-friendly high light transparency film with plant-based materials was investigated to future development of liquid crystal displays and optical devices with water repellency as a chemical design concept of nanoimprint lithography. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency. The developed formulation of advanced nanoimprinted materials design derived from lactulose and psicose, and the development of suitable UV nanoimprint conditions produced high resolutions of the conical shaped moth-eye regularly-nanostructure less than approximately 200 nm diameter, and acceptable patterning dimensional accuracy by the replication of 100 times of UV nanoimprint lithography cycles. The newly plant-based materials and the process conditions are expected as one of the defect less nanoimprint lithographic technologies in next generation electronic devices.

  19. Bronchial anthracofibrosis with interstitial lung disease: an association yet to be highlighted.

    PubMed

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), an emerging pulmonary disease due to long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke, is predominantly seen in females from developing nations. BAF is known to be associated with tuberculosis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, but the association of BAF with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and yet to be highlighted. A 72-year-old woman with a 30-year history of exposure to biomass fuel smoke presented with dry cough and exertional dyspnoea. Imaging demonstrated interlobular, intralobular and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and honeycombing adjoining the subpleural regions, suggestive of the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. A restrictive pattern with diffusion defect was noted. Fibrebronchoscopy revealed a bluish-black anthracotic pigmentation with a narrowed and distorted left upper lobe, and apical segment of left lower lobe bronchus, confirming BAF. A diagnosis of BAF with ILD was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of this association. PMID:26759407

  20. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.