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Sample records for acri smart 46-s

  1. Contrast Sensitivity and Spherical Aberration in Eyes Implanted with AcrySof IQ and AcrySof Natural Intraocular Lens: the Results of a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianping; Zhao, Jiangyue; Ma, Liwei; Liu, Guangcong; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Background To systematically evaluate the visual performance of aspheric AcrySof IQ and spherical AcrySof Natural intraocular lens (IOL) after cataract surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved implanting AcrySof IQ and AcrySof Natural were searched from PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals Databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by the Jadad method. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity and spherical aberration were pooled using a random-effects model. Seven studies were identified and analyzed to compare AcrySof IQ (236 eyes) with AcrySof Natural (232 eyes) after phacoemulsification. There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between AcrySof IQ and AcrySof Natural (p =0.137) after a follow up of 3 months. For contrast sensitivity, these differences reached statistical significance under photopic conditions at two spatial frequencies (3 cycles per degree (cpd), 6 cpd, 12 cpd, and 18 cpd; p =0.022, p =0.017, p = 0.065, and p=0.191, respectively) and under mesopic conditions at three spatial frequencies (3 cpd, 6 cpd, 12 cpd, and 18 cpd; p =0.007, p =0.033, p =0.030, and p =0.080, respectively). Eyes with AcrySof IQ also had statistically significant less spherical aberration than eyes with AcrySof Natural (p<0.001). Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable and reliable. Conclusions/Significance The overall findings indicate that AcrySof IQ with a modified aspheric surface induced significantly less spherical aberration than AcrySof Natural. Contrast sensitivity in eyes with AcrySof IQ is better than that in eyes with AcrySof Natural, especially under mesopic conditions. PMID:24205001

  2. In situ tumbling of the AcrySof intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Rao, S K; Leung, A T; Lam, D S; Padmanabhan, P

    2000-02-01

    The small incision through which foldable acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) are implanted does not allow easy explantation of the lens in the event of intraoperative complications. Reversal of the IOL optic during insertion, although rare, can predispose to postoperative complications such as pupillary capture of the IOL, capsule bag distension syndrome, and refractive problems. Explanting the IOL can damage it, the cataract wound, or both. We describe a technique of in situ tumbling of the AcrySof IOL to correct reversed-optic implantation that preserves the integrity of the IOL and anterior segment structures. PMID:10683784

  3. Refractive-Error Quality of Life (RQL) in Patients with AcrySof IQ Aspherical Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Chan; Wang, I-Jong; Lei, Mei-Shu; Hu, Fung-Rong; Lin, Luke L-K

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare refractive-error quality of life, and spherical aberration in pseudophakic eyes with an aspherical intraocular lens (AcrySof IQ) vs. a conventional spherical intraocular lens (AcrySof Single-Piece). Methods 65 patients were randomized to implantation of either an aspherical IOL (Alcon AcrySof IQ) (30 eyes) or a spherical IOL (Alcon AcrySof Single-Piece (35 eyes). Three months postoperatively, complete ophthalmologic examinations including uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and a wavefront analysis were performed. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of life Instrument (NEI RQL) to evaluate vision-related quality of life. Results The mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.09±0.07 logMAR in the aspherical group and 0.12±0.08 in the spherical group, and the difference was not statistically significant. Spherical aberrations were significantly lower in the aspherical group (0.12±0.23 μm), than in the spherical group (0.33±0.20 μm) (P=0.001). Patients with aspherical AcrySof IQ IOLs implantation also experienced less difficulties driving at night (P=0.04), but the difference was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusion The NEI RQL instrument is sensitive enough to detect the visual benefit of cataract surgery. The aspherical AcrySof IQ IOL reduces both spherical aberration and total higher-order aberrations, compared with the performance achieved by the spherical AcrySof Single-Piece IOL. Although the difference between the two IOLs is not statistically significant, there is a tendency toward the association of objective optical performance of aspherical AcrySof IQ IOLs with a subjective improvement in patients’ night driving.

  4. Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.
METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.
CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.

 PMID:11423458

  5. In vitro antiproliferative and antifungal activity of essential oils from Erigeron acris L. and Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.

    PubMed

    Nazaruk, Jolanta; Karna, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr; Sacha, Paweł; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Antiproliferative and antifungal activities of essential oils from Erigeron acris root and herb and from Erigeron annuus herb were investigated. The cell viability assay was performed in cultured fibroblasts, cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231), and endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells as well as colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The essential oil from E. acris root showed the highest antiproliferative activity in the MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 14.5 microg/mL. No effect of the essential oil on normal cells at that concentration was found. Antifungal activity against various strains of five Candida species, i.e. C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis, was tested by the microdilution method. It was found that all examined oils can be useful as antifungal agents against the above-mentioned species, but the essential oil of E. acris herb was the most active. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 30 to 0.4 microL/mL. The data presented suggest that essential oils from E. acris and E. annuus possess antifungal activity against Candida spp. and antiproliferative activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells. PMID:21319704

  6. Long-Term Efficacy and Rotational Stability of AcrySof Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation in Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hun; Chung, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy and rotational stability of the AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) in correcting preoperative astigmatism in cataract patients. Methods This prospective observational study included 30 eyes from 24 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of an AcrySof toric IOL with micro-coaxial cataract surgery between May 2008 and September 2008. Outcomes of visual acuity, refractive and keratometric astigmatism, and IOL rotation after 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and long-term (mean, 13.3±5.0 months) follow-up were evaluated. Results At final follow-up, 73.3% of eyes showed an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better. The postoperative keratometric value was not different from the preoperative value; mean refractive astigmatism was reduced to -0.28±0.38 diopter (D) from -1.28±0.48 D. The mean rotation of the toric IOL was 3.45±3.39 degrees at final follow-up. One eye (3.3%) exhibited IOL rotation of 10.3 degrees, the remaining eyes (96.7%) had IOL rotation of less than 10 degrees. Conclusions Early postoperative and long-term follow-up showed that implantation of the AcrySof toric IOL is an effective, safe, and predictable method for managing corneal astigmatism in cataract patients. PMID:20714383

  7. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure. PMID:26707241

  8. Essential Role of an Unusually Long-lived Tyrosyl Radical in the Response to Red Light of the Animal-like Cryptochrome aCRY.

    PubMed

    Oldemeyer, Sabine; Franz, Sophie; Wenzel, Sandra; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Mittag, Maria; Kottke, Tilman

    2016-07-01

    Cryptochromes constitute a group of flavin-binding blue light receptors in bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects. Recently, the response of cryptochromes to light was extended to nearly the entire visible spectral region on the basis of the activity of the animal-like cryptochrome aCRY in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii This finding was explained by the absorption of red light by the flavin neutral radical as the dark state of the receptor, which then forms the anionic fully reduced state. In this study, time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopy on the full-length aCRY revealed an unusually long-lived tyrosyl radical with a lifetime of 2.6 s, which is present already 1 μs after red light illumination of the flavin radical. Mutational studies disclosed the tyrosine 373 close to the surface to form the long-lived radical and to be essential for photoreduction. This residue is conserved exclusively in the sequences of other putative aCRY proteins distinguishing them from conventional (6-4) photolyases. Size exclusion chromatography showed the full-length aCRY to be a dimer in the dark at 0.5 mm injected concentration with the C-terminal extension as the dimerization site. Upon illumination, partial oligomerization was observed via disulfide bridge formation at cysteine 482 in close proximity to tyrosine 373. The lack of any light response in the C-terminal extension as evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy differentiates aCRY from plant and Drosophila cryptochromes. These findings imply that aCRY might have evolved a different signaling mechanism via a light-triggered redox cascade culminating in photooxidation of a yet unknown substrate or binding partner. PMID:27189948

  9. Enhanced nitrogen deposition exacerbates the negative effect of increasing background ozone in Dactylis glomerata, but not Ranunculus acris.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Kirsten; Mills, Gina; Jones, Laurence; Barnes, Jeremy D; Jones, Davey L

    2011-10-01

    The combined impacts of simulated increased nitrogen (N) deposition (75 kg Nha(-1)yr (-1)) and increasing background ozone (O(3)) were studied using two mesotrophic grassland species (Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris) in solardomes, by means of eight O(3) treatments ranging from 15.5 ppb to 92.7 ppb (24h average mean). A-C(i) curves were constructed for each species to gauge effects on photosynthetic efficiency and capacity, and effects on biomass partitioning were determined after 14 weeks. Increasing the background concentration of O(3) reduced the healthy above ground and root biomass of both species, and increased senesced biomass. N fertilisation increased biomass production in D. glomerata, and a significantly greater than additive effect of O(3) and N on root biomass was evident. In contrast, R. acris biomass was not affected by high N. The study shows the combined effects of these pollutants have differential implications for carbon allocation patterns in common grassland species. PMID:21741736

  10. Preparation of polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of chitosan and poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) for doxorubicin release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jie; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Yanan; Shi, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) was prepared using a polymer-monomer pair reaction system. Chitosan was mixed with 2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (AMPS) in an aqueous solution, followed by polymerization of AMPS. The complex was formed by electrostatic interaction of NH3(+) groups of CS and SO3(-) groups of AMPS, leading to a formation of complex nanoparticles of CS-PAMPS. A series of nanoparticles were obtained by changing the weight ratio of CS to AMPS, the structure and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. It was observed that the nanoparticles possessed spherical morphologies with average diameters from 255 nm to 390 nm varied with compositions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were used as drug vehicles for doxorubicin, displaying relative high drug loading rate and encapsulation rate. The vitro release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting pH of the release media. The nanoparticles demonstrated apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, free of organic solvents, size controllable, good biodegradability and biocompatibility, and they could be potentially used in drug controlled release field. PMID:26478364

  11. Management of moderate and severe corneal astigmatism with AcrySof® toric intraocular lens implantation – Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Koul, Archana; Dutta, Ranjan; Shroff, Noshir Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Visual performance following toric intraocular lens implantation for cataract with moderate and severe astigmatism. Setting Cataract services, Shroff Eye Centre, New Delhi, India. Design Case series. Method This prospective study included 64 eyes of 40 patients with more than 1.50 dioptre (D) of pre-existing corneal astigmatism undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of the AcrySof® toric IntraOcular Lens (IOL). The unaided visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), residual refractive sphere and refractive cylinders were evaluated. Toric IOL axis and alignment error was measured by slit lamp method and Adobe Photoshop (version 7) method. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire at 3 months. Results The mean residual refractive astigmatism was 0.57 D at the final follow-up of 3 months. Mean alignment error was 3.44 degrees (SD = 2.60) by slit lamp method and 3.88 degrees (SD = 2.86) by Photoshop method. Forty-six (71.9%) eyes showed misalignment of 5 degrees or less, and 60 (93.8%) eyes showed misalignment of 10 degrees or less. The mean log MAR UCVA at 1st post-op day was 0.172 (SD = 0.02), on 7th post-op day was 0.138 (SD = 0.11), and on 30th post-op day was 0.081 (SD = 0.11). The mean log MAR BCVA at three months was −0.04 (SD = 0.76). Conclusion We believe that implantation of AcrySof® toric IOL is an effective, safe and predictable method to correct high amounts of corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:26586976

  12. Smart Kids: SMART Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    SMART (Science, Math, and Relevant Technology) Connections, an afterschool offshoot of a program addressing the scarcity of women in science, provides low-income children and children of color, both boys and girls, with hands-on science experience. Efforts continue to be made to ensure that the program works equally for boys as for girls. (CJS)

  13. SMARTE 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains guidance and analysis tools for all aspect...

  14. SMARTe 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decisions support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all a...

  15. SMARTe 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all asp...

  16. Forms and prevalence of intersexuality and effects of environmental contaminants on sexuality in cricket frogs (Acris crepitans).

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, A L; Foley, G L; Nichols, D K; Hansen, L G; Wikoff, B; Faeh, S; Eisold, J; Wheeler, M B; Warner, R; Murphy, J E; Beasley, V R

    1998-01-01

    Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) from several different sites in Illinois were collected to assess the effects of environmental contamination on the prevalence of intersex gonads. Of 341 frogs collected in 1993, 1994, and 1995, 2.7% were intersex individuals. There was no statistically significant relationship between the chemical compounds detected and cricket frog intersexuality. However, there was an association approaching significance (p = 0.07) between the detection of atrazine and intersex individuals. A comparison of reference sites with sites that had point polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) contamination revealed a significant relationship between sex-ratio reversal and contamination with PCBs and PCDFs. The sex ratio of juvenile frogs studied from three sites with PCB and PCDF point contamination favored males over females, which was the opposite of the sex ratio in control ponds (p = 0.0007). The statistically significant correlation between organochlorine contamination and sex-ratio reversal suggests PCBs and PCDFs can influence cricket frog sexual differentiation. The current study suggests that in cricket frogs, sex ratios and the prevalence of intersex gonads are altered by environmental contamination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9647894

  17. Skeletal morphogenesis of the vertebral column of the miniature hylid frog Acris crepitans, with comments on anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pugener, L Analía; Maglia, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Although the vertebral columns of anurans have received much study in the last 150 years, few detailed descriptions exist of the skeletal morphogenesis of this anatomical unit. Herein, the ontogeny of the vertebral skeleton of the hylid frog Acris crepitans is described based on cleared and double-stained specimens, radiographs, and 3D reconstructions generated from synchrotron microCT scans. The adult axial formula is 1-7-1-1, and the vertebral centra are epichordal and procoelous. The neural arches are nonimbricate, and there is a medial articulation between the laminae of Presacrals I and II. Free ribs are absent. The sacral diapophyses are uniform in width or slightly expanded distally. The urostyle is slender, round in cross section, and about equal in length to the presacral region. Presacral vertebrae are the first to form, developing in a cephalic-to-caudal sequence. However, development and growth are decoupled and growth is fastest initially in the posterior presacrals and sacrum. In addition, there is a time lag between the formation of the presacral/sacral region and the postsacral region. More than 8.5% of the specimens examined have vertebral anomalies, and about 50% display small variants from the typical vertebral column morphology. However, these malformations do not seem to have been so severe as to have affected survival. PMID:18946872

  18. Seasonal, annual and geographic variation in color morph frequencies of the cricket frog, Acris crepitans, in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A three-year field study was conducted in Illinois to investigate seasonal, annual and geographic variation in color morph proportions of the cricket frog, Acris crepitans. Life history information (i.e., time of overwintering, emergence of adults in spring, breeding, metamorphosis, emergence of juveniles in summer, and growth and survival) for A. crepitans color morphs was compared to evaluate the potential adaptive significance of this polymorphism. Although seasonal variations in color morph proportions were not significant, some annual and geographic differences were. No differences were found among morphs related to the timing of various life history events. Studies of individual movements, dispersal, growth and survivorship also revealed no differences among morphs. Comparison of these data, as well as physiological and behavioral data for A. crepitans from Illinois, with similar data from Texas and elsewhere suggests that different factors must operate throughout the species range to maintain this color polymorphism. Chance may be a major factor in determining color morph proportions in localized populations in Illinois. 22 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Response of the Sensory animal-like cryptochrome aCRY to blue and red light as revealed by infrared difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spexard, Meike; Thöing, Christian; Beel, Benedikt; Mittag, Maria; Kottke, Tilman

    2014-02-18

    Cryptochromes act as blue light sensors in plants, insects, fungi, and bacteria. Recently, an animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) was identified in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by which gene expression is altered in response to not only blue light but also yellow and red light. This unique response of a flavoprotein in vivo has been attributed to the fact that the neutral radical of the flavin chromophore acts as dark form of the sensor, which absorbs in almost the entire visible spectral range (<680 nm). Here, we investigated light-induced processes in the protein moiety of full-length aCRY by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Findings are compared to published results on the homologous (6-4) photolyases, DNA repair enzymes. The oxidized state of aCRY is converted to the neutral radical by blue light. The recovery is strongly dependent on pH and might be catalyzed by a conserved histidine of the (6-4)/clock cluster. The decay is independent of oxygen concentration in contrast to that of other cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. This blue light reaction of the oxidized flavin is not accompanied by any detectable changes in secondary structure, in agreement with a role in vivo of an unphysiological preactivation. In contrast, the conversion by red light of the neutral radical to the anionic fully reduced state proceeds with conformational changes in turn elements, which most probably constitute a part of the signaling process. These changes have not been detected in the corresponding transition of (6-4) photolyase, which points to a decisive difference between the sensor and the enzyme. PMID:24467183

  20. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  1. Build "Smart".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Barbara; Beaumont, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Smart growth schools are small in size, encourage broad community involvement, and make good use of existing resources. Promoting small, community-based schools requires innovation, new partnerships, and a commitment to working to overcome the barriers presented by traditional rules and regulations. (Author/MLF)

  2. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  3. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  4. SMART WINDOWS FOR SMART BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roughly one third of all energy consumed in the U.S. is used in the residential or commercial sector. Of that, over half of the energy is used to provide lighting and to control the temperature of those buildings. “Smart buildings” is a concept to apply principles ...

  5. Forecasting the timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides. An application of GA-SAKe to the Acri case study (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Terranova, Oreste; Greco, Roberto; Iaquinta, Pasquale; Iovine, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    In Calabria (Southern Italy), rainfall-induced landslides often cause significant economic loss and victims. The timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides can be predicted by means of either empirical ("hydrological") or physically-based ("complete") approaches. In this study, by adopting the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel), the relationships between the rainfall series and the dates of historical activations of the Acri slope movement, a large rock slide located in the Sila Massif (Northern Calabria), have been investigated. SAKe is a self-adaptive hydrological model, based on a black-box approach and on the assumption of a linear and steady slope-stability response to rainfall. The model can be employed to predict the timing of occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides. With the model, either the mobilizations of a single phenomenon, or those of a homogeneous set of landslides in a given study area can be analysed. By properly tuning the model parameters against past occurrences, the mobility function and the threshold value can be identified. The ranges of the parameters depend on the characteristics of the slope and of the considered landslide, besides hydrological characteristics of the triggering events. SAKe requires as input: i) the series of rains, and ii) the set of known dates of landslide activation. The output of the model is represented by the mobilization function, Z(t): it is defined by means of the convolution between the rains and a filter function (i.e. the Kernel). The triggering conditions occur when the value of Z(t) gets greater than a given threshold, Zcr. In particular, the specific release of the model here employed (GA-SAKe) employs an automated tool, based on elitist Genetic Algorithms. As a result, a family of optimal, discretized kernels has been obtained from initial standard analytical functions. Such kernels maximize the fitness function of the model: they have been

  6. Smart card technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes smart card techonology and applications, including the use of smart cards as smart badges. The paper illustrates that smart cards are designed with security features, which makes them suitable for security applications. But smart cards also provide multiple functions, so they can support additional applications. The goal of this paper is to inform about the technology, and to inspire thought about possible applications that would benefit if a smart badge were implemented.

  7. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  8. Deep smarts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself. PMID:15449858

  9. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  10. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  11. Optical bench performance of AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR®, AT LISA® tri, and FineVision® intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Daniel; Hill, Warren E; Hong, Xin; Karakelle, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the resolution and optical quality of the ReSTOR® +3.0 D and ReSTOR +2.5 D multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with the AT LISA® tri and FineVision® trifocal IOLs. Methods Resolution, image quality, and photic phenomena were evaluated in the AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR +3.0 D and +2.5 D multifocal IOLs and compared with the AT LISA tri 839MP and FineVision Micro F12 trifocal IOLs, using a Badal optometer and a Snellen visual acuity chart. Simulated headlight images were obtained using a modulation transfer function (MTF) bench and a 50 μm pinhole target. MTF values, using vertical and horizontal slits, were determined at far, intermediate, and near distances. Results Resolution at 20/40 Snellen visual acuity equivalence was attainable over nearly the entire viewing distance range with the AT LISA tri and FineVision IOLs, but background shadows were more prominent with the AT LISA tri and FineVision IOLs than with the ReSTOR IOLs. Distance MTF peaks at 20/20 Snellen–equivalent spatial frequency were greatest for ReSTOR +2.5 D and ReSTOR +3.0 D IOLs. The near MTF peak occurred at 53 cm with ReSTOR +2.5 D and had a 20/20 Snellen–equivalent value that was lower than the near peaks of the other models but higher than the intermediate foci of the trifocal IOLs. Conclusion AT LISA tri and FineVision trifocal IOLs achieved a useful third focus for intermediate vision but were associated with increased background halos and reduced distance visual quality compared with ReSTOR +2.5 D and +3.0 D multifocal IOLs. PMID:25342881

  12. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the ...

  13. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Making Smart Food Choices Regular physical activity and a healthy ... through physical activity. Download the Tip Sheet Making Smart Food Choices (PDF, 488.99 KB) You Might ...

  14. Smart Textiles: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Schwarz, Anne

    This chapter introduces smart textiles and explains how textile materials and structures can be used as sensors, actuators, communication devices, energy sources and storage tools, and even processors. Conductive materials serve as the base for smart textiles. There are several advantages of using textiles as a substrate for smart functions; this chapter explains their important role in thermoregulation and highlights a smart suit for rescue workers.

  15. Intravenous smart pumps.

    PubMed

    Harding, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) smart pumps provide substantial safety features during infusion. However, nurses need to understand the requisite education necessary to fully benefit from and improve IV smart pump use and clinical integration. Failure to use IV smart pumps places the nurse and patient at increased risk. PMID:23558918

  16. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  17. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  18. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  19. Emerging smart materials systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strock, H.B.

    1996-04-01

    Smart materials systems are nonliving systems that integrate the functions of sensing, actuation, logic and control to respond adaptively to changes in their condition or the environment to which they are exposed, in a useful and usually repetitive manner. Smart materials possess both sensing and actuation capability. They can adaptively respond to changing stimuli, e.g., the variable darkening of photochromic glass or plastic on exposure to sunlight. Such passively smart materials behavior has relatively limited, although marketable, functionality.

  20. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  1. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles. PMID:27005410

  2. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  3. SMARTE TUTORIAL CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe is a web-based decision support tool intended to help revitalization practitioners find information, perform data analysis, communicate, and evaluate future reuse options for a site or area. A tutorial was developed to help users navigate SMARTe. This tutorial is approxima...

  4. Smart Start News, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Monica, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Smart Start is a comprehensive public-private initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and ready to succeed, and provides children from birth to age five access to high-quality and affordable child care, health care, and other critical services. This document comprises the first two issues of "Smart Start News," a…

  5. SMART Boards Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  6. Smart Clothing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    As sensors and computers become smaller and smaller, it becomes possible to add intelligence or smartness to common items. This is already seen in smart appliances, cars that diagnose their own maintenance problems, and military hardware that is something straight out of a science fiction book. In this article, the author looks at a design…

  7. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  8. Playing the Smart Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit cards;…

  9. Smart Icon Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  10. Intelligent Smart Cloud Computing for Smart Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    The cloud computing technology causes much attention in IT field. The developments using this technology have done actively. The cloud computing is more evolved than the existing offer. So, the current cloud computing only has a process that responds user requirements when users demand their needs. For intelligently adapting the needs, this paper suggests a intelligent smart cloud model that is based on 4S/3R. This model can handle intelligently to meet users needs through collecting user's behaviors, prospecting, building, delivering, and rendering steps. It is because users have always mobile devices including smart phones so that is collecting user's behavior by sensors mounted on the devices. The proposed service model using intelligent smart cloud computing will show the personalized and customized services to be possible in various fields.

  11. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

  12. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  13. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  14. Smart Book Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  15. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  16. Smart surgical tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) guided smart surgical tool using a femtosecond fiber laser is developed. This system provides real-time material identification by processing and analyzing the peak intensity and ratio of atomic emissions of LIBS signals. Algorithms to identify emissions of different tissues and metals are developed and implemented into the real-time control system. This system provides a powerful smart surgical tool for precise robotic microsurgery applications with real-time feedback and control.

  17. Get smart about removing slag

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-10-01

    More often than not, sootblowing is literally a shot in the dark. Clyde Bergemann's solution to this problem: control sootblowing operations intelligently, based on the outputs of real-time weight and heat-flux sensors and the calculations of a computer model. The company's intelligent sootblowing system contains many pieces - SmartCannons to clean the furnace by water jets; SmartSensors to detect heat flux, SmartGuages to detect slag buildup, SmartLances aimed at the superheater and reheater, SmartModel to determine when and where cleaning is needed, and SmartControls to direct operations. 3 figs.

  18. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  19. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  20. The Future of Smart Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  1. Smart distribution systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  2. SMART Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the design concept of a super miniaturized autonomous reconfigurable technology (SMART) solar sail a proposed deployable, fully autonomous solar sail for use in very fine station keeping of a spacecraft. The SMART solar sail would include a reflective film stretched among nodes of a SMART space frame made partly of nanotubule struts. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) at each vertex of the frame would spool and unspool nanotubule struts between itself and neighboring nodes to vary the shape of the frame. The MEMSs would be linked, either wirelessly or by thin wires within the struts, to an evolvable neural software system (ENSS) that would control the MEMSs to reconfigure the sail as needed. The solar sail would be highly deformable from an initially highly compressed configuration, yet also capable of enabling very fine maneuvering of the spacecraft by means of small sail-surface deformations. The SMART Solar Sail would be connected to the main body of the spacecraft by a SMART multi-tether structure, which would include MEMS actuators like those of the frame plus tethers in the form of longer versions of the struts in the frame.

  3. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  4. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  5. The Science of Smart Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  6. Smart consumer goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Clifford M.; Thorpe, Chris

    2003-03-01

    'Smart' technologies, which encompass both 'Smart' materials and structures, are creating a sea-change in engineering practice. Their fusion of conventional structural materials with aspects of information technology offers the prospect of engineering systems which can sense their local environment, interprets changes in this envirnoment and respond appropriately. Demonstrator projects exist world-wide exploring the range of possible applications for 'Smart' technologies in sectors ranging from aerospace and civil engineering to automobile and marine. A common feature of such programs is their use of relatively sophisticated technologies, examples including the use of fiber optic techniques for sensing and actuation based on functional material such as piezoceramics, electro- and magnetistrictives and shape-memory alloys. The use of such advanced technologies is symptomatic of the strong technology push which has dominated the development of this field.

  7. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  8. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  9. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  10. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom system that was built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC. In the hope that other educators might find his department's experience useful, this author, David Domermuth (the department's coordinator of manufacturing) describes the system,…

  11. SMARTE: NEXT STEPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe will be developed in an overlapping phased approach. The first phase began in 2003 and focused on the collection of information and resources and the transfer of this data. This phase is ongoing as information and resources are updated annually. The second phase began in 2...

  12. Go Sun Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  13. Conferencing the SMART Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    As schools across the nation strive to eliminate student achievement gaps, it has become more crucial than ever for parents to be involved, especially parents of children achieving below grade level. In Maryland's Howard County Public Schools, a parent-teacher conferencing program called SMART, focused on Specific, Measurable, Achievable,…

  14. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State university. The system consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector, costing a total of $7,300, or $8,800 if a podium, screen, and projector mount are purchased. The…

  15. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  16. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  17. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  18. A new species of Myxidium (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae), from the western chorus frog, Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, and Blanchard's cricket frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi (Hylidae), from eastern Nebraska: morphology, phylogeny, and critical comments on amphibian Myxidium taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bolek, Matthew G; Whipps, Chris M; Janovy, John; Kent, Mike L; Modrý, David

    2006-06-01

    During March 2001-April 2004, 164 adult anurans of 6 species (47 Rana blairi, 35 Rana catesbeiana, 31 Hyla chrysoscelis, 31 Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, 11 Bufo woodhousii, and 9 Acris crepitans blanchardi) from Pawnee Lake, Lancaster County, Nebraska, were surveyed for myxozoan parasites. Of these, 20 of 31 (65%) P. triseriata triseriata and 1 of 9 (11%) A. crepitans blanchardi were infected with a new species of Myxidium. Myxidium melleni n. sp. (Myxosporea) is described from the gallbladder of the western chorus frog, P. triseriata triseriata (Hylidae). This is the second species of Myxidium described from North American amphibians. Mature plasmodia are disc-shaped or elliptical 691 (400-1,375) x 499 (230-1,200) x 23 (16-35) microm, polysporic, producing many disporic pansporoblasts. The mature spores, 12.3 (12.0-13.5) x 7.6 (7.0-9.0) x 6.6 (6.0-8.0) microm, containing a single binucleated sporoplasm, are broadly elliptical, with 2-5 transverse grooves on each valve, and contain 2 equal polar capsules 5.2 (4.8-5.5) x 4.2 (3.8-4.5) microm positioned at opposite ends of the spore. Myxidium melleni n. sp. is morphologically consistent with other members of Myxidium. However, M. melleni n. sp. was phylogenetically distinct from other Myxidium species for which DNA sequences are available. Only with improved morphological analyses, accompanied by molecular data, and the deposit of type specimens, can the ambiguous nature of Myxidium be resolved. Guidelines for descriptions of new species of Myxidium are provided. PMID:16884007

  19. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users. PMID:22164048

  20. Renewable smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  1. Smart materials optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2014-08-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional or `smart' composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation as well. Moreover, since the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and 3D printing. The technology therefore holds promise for development of a new generation of lightweight, compact `smart' telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  2. Smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Embedded optical fibers allow not only the cure-monitoring and in-service lifetime measurements of composite materials, but the NDE of material damage and degradation with aging. The capabilities of such damage-detection systems have been extended to allow the quantitative determination of 2D strain in materials by several different methods, including the interferometric and the numerical. It remains to be seen, what effect the embedded fibers have on the strength of the 'smart' materials created through their incorporation.

  3. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  4. Smart laser profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Francois; Laurent, John

    2004-05-01

    In order to meet the needs of many diverse industrial 3D inspection tasks, INO has developed a new concept for the design of a smart and modular 3D laser profiler. This stand-alone sensor which we call Smart Laser Profiler (SLP) is composed of a laser line projector, collection optics, a high frame rate camera and a digital signal processor (DSP). The on-board DSP is the key to this technology. The SLP sensor has been designed to be both compact and rugged and it is enclosed in a water resistant NEMA 4 class housing that is easy to install on a production line. The Smart Laser Profiler has several preprogrammed functions on the DSP that implement basic shape analysis algorithms like volume measurement and shape conformance. For more complex shape analysis, the sensor can transfer the raw 3D profiles to a PC through a high-speed communication link. The present article will describe both the unique hardware, electronics and optical architecture of the sensor and the software tools that were developed.

  5. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  6. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  7. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  8. Start Smart, Stay Smart, Milwaukee: State of Milwaukee's Children, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Joyce

    As part of the mission of the Start Smart, Stay Smart Milwaukee program to ensure that all Milwaukee area children enter school with the skills necessary for academic achievement and a lifetime of growth and development, the organization is tracking key indicators across the years of growth and development to young adulthood to better assess the…

  9. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City. PMID:26094626

  10. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal

    PubMed Central

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City. PMID:26094626

  11. The Case for Smart Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2008-01-01

    Smart classrooms are just as popular on other community college campuses. Through a combination of PowerPoint presentations, videos, Web pages, and other technologies, faculty can engage students using multimedia to create a richer, more compelling learning experience. This article talks about the use of smart classrooms and the educational…

  12. Get Smart about Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    This publication offers information on energy efficiency in schools. It discusses the high costs of energy in schools, the benefits of smart energy use, options for schools to be smarter in their energy use, energy's impact on student performance, how schools can participate in the EnergySmart Schools campaign operated by Rebuild America, why the…

  13. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  14. Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

    2012-11-01

    Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

  15. Electricity Usage Scheduling in Smart Building Environments Using Smart Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%. PMID:24453860

  16. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%. PMID:24453860

  17. SMARTE: IMPROVING REVITALIZATION DECISIONS (BERLIN, GERMANY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART). In the U.S., the SMART compilation is housed in a web-based, decision support tool called SMARTe. All tools within SMARTe that are developed specifically for...

  18. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  19. A smart rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  20. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  1. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct. PMID:16078623

  2. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  3. Smart photonic carbon brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.

    2016-03-01

    Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.

  4. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  5. Smart Power Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. Research at NREL's Smart Power Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on the development and integration of smart technologies including the integration of distributed and renewable energy resources through power electronics and smart energy management for building applications. The 5,300 sq. ft. laboratory is designed to be highly flexible and configurable, essential for a large variety of smart power applications that range from developing advanced inverters and power converters to testing residential and commercial scale meters and control technologies. Some application scenarios are: (1) Development of power converters for integration of distributed and renewable energy resources; (2) Development of advanced controls for smart power electronics; (3) Testing prototype and commercially available power converters for electrical interconnection and performance, advanced functionality, long duration reliability and safety; and (4) Hardware-in-loop development and testing of power electronics systems in smart distribution grid models.

  6. Gerontechnology for demented patients: smart homes for smart aging.

    PubMed

    Frisardi, Vincenza; Imbimbo, Bruno P

    2011-01-01

    In an aging world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential. Instead of hospitalization or institutionalization, the elderly with chronic conditions, especially those with cognitive impairment, can be assisted in their own environment with numerous 'smart' devices that support them in their activity of daily living. A "smart home" is a residence equipped with technology that facilitates monitoring of residents to improve quality of life and promote physical independence, as well as to reduce caregiver burden. Several projects worldwide have been conducted, but some ethical and legal issues are still unresolved and, at present, there is no evidence of the effects of smart homes on health outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to understand the plus and minuses of these projects, but this will only be possible with a widespread proliferation and penetration of smart homes in the social network. PMID:21157023

  7. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  8. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  9. "Smart" Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    An assembly that contains a sensor, sensor-signal-conditioning circuitry, a sensor-readout analog-to-digital converter (ADC), data-storage circuitry, and a microprocessor that runs special-purpose software and communicates with one or more external computer(s) has been developed as a prototype of "smart" sensor modules for monitoring the integrity and functionality (the "health") of engineering systems. Although these modules are now being designed specifically for use on rocket-engine test stands, it is anticipated that they could also readily be designed to be incorporated into health-monitoring subsystems of such diverse engineering systems as spacecraft, aircraft, land vehicles, bridges, buildings, power plants, oilrigs, and defense installations. The figure is a simplified block diagram of the "smart" sensor module. The analog sensor readout signal is processed by the ADC, the digital output of which is fed to the microprocessor. By means of a standard RS-232 cable, the microprocessor is connected to a local personal computer (PC), from which software is downloaded into a randomaccess memory in the microprocessor. The local PC is also used to debug the software. Once the software is running, the local PC is disconnected and the module is controlled by, and all output data from the module are collected by, a remote PC via an Ethernet bus. Several smart sensor modules like this one could be connected to the same Ethernet bus and controlled by the single remote PC. The software running in the microprocessor includes driver programs for operation of the sensor, programs that implement self-assessment algorithms, programs that implement protocols for communication with the external computer( s), and programs that implement evolutionary methodologies to enable the module to improve its performance over time. The design of the module and of the health-monitoring system of which it is a part reflects the understanding that the main purpose of a health

  10. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  11. Go Sun Smart

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests risk for skin cancer by adopting sun safe practices. The following narrative describes the intervention in toto from its design and implementation through assessment. Our theory driven, experimentally tested intervention was successful in reducing employees’ risks for skin cancer during and after the ski season. We also succeeded in making ski area guests more aware of the need to take sun safe precautions with both themselves and their children. PMID:20148119

  12. Smart interfacial bonding alloys

    SciTech Connect

    R. Q. Hwang; J. C. Hamilton; J. E. Houston

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to explore the use of the newly discovered strain-stabilized 2-D interfacial alloys as smart interface bonding alloys (SIBA). These materials will be used as templates for the heteroepitaxial growth of metallic thin films. SIBA are formed by two metallic components which mix at an interface to relieve strain and prevent dislocations from forming in subsequent thin film growth. The composition of the SIBA is determined locally by the amount of strain, and therefore can react smartly to areas of the highest strain to relieve dislocations. In this way, SIBA can be used to tailor the dislocation structure of thin films. This project included growth, characterization and modeling of films grown using SIBA templates. Characterization will include atomic imaging of the dislocations structure, measurement of the mechanical properties of the film using interface force microscopy (IFM) and the nanoindenter, and measurement of the electronic structure of the SIBA with synchrotron photoemission. Resistance of films to sulfidation and oxidation will also be examined. The Paragon parallel processing computer will be used to calculate the structure of the SIBA and thin films in order to develop ability to predict and tailor SIBA and thin film behavior. This work will lead to the possible development of a new class of thin film materials with properties tailored by varying the composition of the SIBA, serving as a buffer layer to relieve the strain between the substrate and the thin film. Such films will have improved mechanical and corrosion resistance allowing application as protective barriers for weapons applications. They will also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced electromigration making them particularly suitable for application as interconnects and other electronic needs.

  13. Smart friction driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Rainer; Gaul, Lothar

    2005-02-01

    Vibration properties of most assembled mechanical systems depend on frictional damping in joints. The nonlinear transfer behavior of the frictional interfaces often provides the dominant damping mechanism in a built-up structure and plays an important role in the vibratory response of the structure (Gaul and Nitsche 2001 Appl. Mech. Rev. 54 93-105). For improving the performance of systems, many studies have been carried out to predict, measure and/or enhance the energy dissipation of friction. To enhance the friction damping in joint connections a semi-active joint is investigated. A rotational joint connection is designed and manufactured such that the normal force in the friction interface can be influenced with a piezoelectric stack disc. With the piezoelectric device the normal force and thus the friction damping in the joint connection can be controlled. A control design method, namely semi-active control, is investigated. The recently developed LuGre friction model is used to describe the nonlinear transfer behavior of joints. This model is based on a bristle model and turns out to be highly suitable for systems assembled by such smart joints. Those systems can also be regarded as friction driven systems, since the energy flow is controlled by smart joints. The semi-active method is well suited for large space structures since the friction damping in joints turned out to be a major source of damping. To show the applicability of the proposed concept to large space structures a two-beam system representing a part of a large space structure is considered. Two flexible beams are connected with a semi-active joint connection. It can be shown that the damping of the system can be improved significantly by controlling the normal force in the semi-active joint connection. Experimental results validate the damping improvement due to the semi-active friction damping.

  14. Backpack Smarts from A Pro

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160665.html Backpack Smarts From a Pro Overloaded carryalls injure thousands ... SATURDAY, Aug. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ill-fitting backpacks may put school children at risk for muscle ...

  15. Vibration suppression using smart structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim; Inman, Daniel J.; Dosch, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The control of structures for vibration suppression is discussed in the context of using smart materials and structures. Here the use of smart structures refers to using embedded piezoelectric devices as both control actuators and sensors. Using embedded sensors and actuators allows great improvements in performance over traditional structures (both passive and active) for vibration suppression. The application of smart structures to three experimental flexible structures is presented. The first is a flexible beam, the second is a flexible beam undergoing slewing motion, the third is a ribbed antenna. A simple model of a piezoelectric actuator/sensor is presented. The equations of motion for each structure is presented. The control issues considered as those associated with multi-input, multi-output control, PID control and LQR control implementation. A modern control analysis illustrates the usefulness of smart structures for vibration suppression.

  16. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  17. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  18. Smart boards: a reemerging technology.

    PubMed

    Brigham, Tara J

    2013-01-01

    Smart boards, also known as interactive whiteboards (IWBs), are large, interactive, touch-sensitive displays that are mainly used for presentation or educational purposes. While some may not consider this an emerging technology today, changes in the design and capabilities challenge that line of thinking. This column will explain what a smart board is, provide a brief history about it, and describe where it is currently used and why it might be a technology to consider having in a library today. PMID:23607469

  19. Sensors, actuators, and smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiler-McKinstry, S.; Newnham, R. E.

    1993-04-01

    Electroceramic materials are presently noted to have a wide array of sensing and actuating functions which can be incorporated into smart-material designs. The sensor types extend to temperature, piezoelectricity and piezoresistivity, and the presence of oxygen. Attention is given to the prospects for developing composite smart materials that encompass various sensing and actuating functions; these may ultimately reach a level of complexity and sophistication that may be termed 'biomimetric' in its approximation to the functions of the living tissues of organisms.

  20. Sensor technology for smart homes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A; Pasquina, Paul F; Fici-Pasquina, Lavinia

    2011-06-01

    A smart home is a residence equipped with technology that observes the residents and provides proactive services. Most recently, it has been introduced as a potential solution to support independent living of people with disabilities and older adults, as well as to relieve the workload from family caregivers and health providers. One of the key supporting features of a smart home is its ability to monitor the activities of daily living and safety of residents, and in detecting changes in their daily routines. With the availability of inexpensive low-power sensors, radios, and embedded processors, current smart homes are typically equipped with a large amount of networked sensors which collaboratively process and make deductions from the acquired data on the state of the home as well as the activities and behaviors of its residents. This article reviews sensor technology used in smart homes with a focus on direct environment sensing and infrastructure mediated sensing. The article also points out the strengths and limitations of different sensor technologies, as well as discusses challenges and opportunities from clinical, technical, and ethical perspectives. It is recommended that sensor technologies for smart homes address actual needs of all stake holders including end users, their family members and caregivers, and their doctors and therapists. More evidence on the appropriateness, usefulness, and cost benefits analysis of sensor technologies for smart homes is necessary before these sensors should be widely deployed into real-world residential settings and successfully integrated into everyday life and health care services. PMID:21531517

  1. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  2. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  3. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US

  4. Smart Sensor Demonstration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John; Bracey, Andrew; Rawls, Stephen; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are a critical element to any monitoring, control, and evaluation processes such as those needed to support ground based testing for rocket engine test. Sensor applications involve tens to thousands of sensors; their reliable performance is critical to achieving overall system goals. Many figures of merit are used to describe and evaluate sensor characteristics; for example, sensitivity and linearity. In addition, sensor selection must satisfy many trade-offs among system engineering (SE) requirements to best integrate sensors into complex systems [1]. These SE trades include the familiar constraints of power, signal conditioning, cabling, reliability, and mass, and now include considerations such as spectrum allocation and interference for wireless sensors. Our group at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) works in the broad area of integrated systems health management (ISHM). Core ISHM technologies include smart and intelligent sensors, anomaly detection, root cause analysis, prognosis, and interfaces to operators and other system elements [2]. Sensor technologies are the base fabric that feed data and health information to higher layers. Cost-effective operation of the complement of test stands benefits from technologies and methodologies that contribute to reductions in labor costs, improvements in efficiency, reductions in turn-around times, improved reliability, and other measures. ISHM is an active area of development at SSC because it offers the potential to achieve many of those operational goals [3-5].

  5. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  6. Aeroelastic airfoil smart spar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Skott; Pastore, Christopher M.; Garfinkle, Moishe

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft wings and rotor-blades are subject to undesirable bending and twisting excursions that arise from unsteady aerodynamic forces during high speed flight, abrupt maneuvers, or hard landings. These bending excursions can range in amplitude from wing-tip flutter to failure. A continuous-filament construction 'smart' laminated composite box-beam spar is described which corrects itself when subject to undesirable bending excursions or flutter. The load-bearing spar is constructed so that any tendency for the wing or rotor-blade to bend from its normal position is met by opposite twisting of the spar to restore the wing to its normal position. Experimental and theoretical characterization of these spars was made to evaluate the torsion-flexure coupling associated with symmetric lay-ups. The materials used were uniweave AS-4 graphite and a matrix comprised of Shell 8132 resin and U-40 hardener. Experimental tests were conducted on five spars to determine spar twist and bend as a function of load for 0, 17, 30, 45 and 60 deg fiber angle lay-ups. Symmetric fiber lay-ups do exhibit torsion-flexure couplings. Predictions of the twist and bend versus load were made for different fiber orientations in laminated spars using a spline function structural analysis. The analytical results were compared with experimental results for validation. Excellent correlation between experimental and analytical values was found.

  7. SmartSearch steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Jeffrey A.; Alonso, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    There are two primary challenges to monitoring the Web for steganographic media: finding suspect media and examining those found. The challenge that has received a great deal of attention is the second of these, the steganalysis problem. The other challenge, and one that has received much less attention, is the search problem. How does the steganalyzer get the suspect media in the first place? This paper describes an innovative method and architecture to address this search problem. The typical approaches to searching the web for covert communications are often based on the concept of "crawling" the Web via a smart "spider." Such spiders find new pages by following ever-expanding chains of links from one page to many next pages. Rather than seek pages by chasing links from other pages, we find candidate pages by identifying requests to access pages. To do this we monitor traffic on Internet backbones, identify and log HTTP requests, and use this information to guide our process. Our approach has the advantages that we examine pages to which no links exist, we examine pages as soon as they are requested, and we concentrate resources only on active pages, rather than examining pages that are never viewed.

  8. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  9. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here ... Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for ...

  10. Smart dental practice: capitalising on smart mobile technology.

    PubMed

    Plangger, K; Bredican, J; Mills, A J; Armstrong, J

    2015-08-14

    To keep pace with consumer adoption of smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and the applications ('apps') developed for these devices, dental professionals should consider how this technology could be used to simultaneously improve both patient service experiences and dental practice management. Using U-Commerce as a theoretical lens, this article discusses the potential value of smart mobile technology to the dental practice context, with a particular focus on the unique and customisable capabilities of apps. To take full advantage of this technology, a process is outlined for identifying and designing bespoke dental apps that takes into account the unique advantages of these devices. Dental practices, with increasing financial and competitive pressures, may improve the efficiency and profitability of operations and better manage patients, employees and stakeholders by integrating smart mobile technology. PMID:26271871

  11. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Saifur

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  12. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  13. Forisome as biomimetic smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Amy; Hamlington, Benjamin; Knoblauch, Michael; Peters, Winfried; Pickard, William

    2005-05-01

    With the discovery in plants of the proteinaceous forisome crystalloid (Knoblauch et al. 2003), a novel nastic non-living, ATP-independent biological material became available to the designer of smart materials for advanced actuating and sensing. The in vitro studies of Knoblauch et al. show that forisomes (1-3 micron wide and 10-30 micron long) can be repeatedly stimulated to contract and expand anisotropically by shifting either the ambient pH or the ambient calcium ion concentration. In a device, the energy required for the transformations would be provided electrochemically by mini-electrodes inducing pH variation. Because of their unique abilities to develop and reverse strains greater than 20% in time periods less than 1s , forisomes have the potential to outperform current smart materials (such as ATP-dependent actuators or synthetic hydrogels/polymers) as advanced, biomimetic, multi-functional, smart sensors or valves or actuators. To date, studies have been limited to questions of protein engineering explored by Knaublach et al. Probing forisome material properties is therefore an immediate need to lay the foundation for synthesizing forisome-based smart materials for health monitoring of structural integrity in civil infrastructure and aerospace hardware. Here, we use microfluidics to study the surface interaction between forisome and substrate and the conformational dynamics of forisomes within a confined geometry to lay the foundation for forisome-based smart materials synthesis with controlled and repeatable environment.

  14. Funding Smart Classrooms: Administrating Technological Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartabedian, Robert A.

    According to the Northwestern University (2002) Web site, smart classrooms also can be called "electronic or technologically enhanced classrooms." Smart classrooms create new educational opportunities by integrating networking, computers, and audio visual technology. In this paper instructional technology, in particular, the "smart classroom" is…

  15. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  16. 76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... should be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National...

  17. 77 FR 38768 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel transition plan, review the status of the research...

  18. SMART POWER TURBINE

    SciTech Connect

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was remarkably

  19. Smart temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design of a family of specially-designed temperature surety sensors made with shape-memory alloys (SMA). These sensors are capable of detecting a one time temperature excursion or variance form a predetermined temperature range. The propose designs can also be used to detect a one-time temperature rise and persistence above a certain pre-selected critical temperature. In that respect, these sensors relate to a family of one-time thaw sensors detecting whether or not frozen food items or other frozen products or objects experience a thawing-refreezing process in their journey from point A to point B. The proposed sensor can also detect a one time temperature excursion into non-allowable temperatures for non-frozen food, as well as pharmaceutical or other medical products. The essential design of these smart sensor is a lever arm attached to an SMA wire whose temperature is initially below Austenite start temperature or well into the Martensite region. As a given product experiences an undesirable temperature range which pushes the SMA material into the Austenite region the wire contracts and moves the lever arm outside a display window area and exposes either a red working indicator or a graduated scale calibrated to the range of temperature excursion experienced by the product. The sensor is designed such that if the temperature returns to normal the excursion indication will not disappear, but will permanently shown the amount of excursion above the temperature surety region for that product. Several possible design variations are presented and discussed. The proposed embodiments include a rupture type thaw sensor made with short SMA springs or bellows, SMA foil roll-up type sensors, SMA wire-loaded shutter type thaw sensors, SMA torsion strut-loaded shutter type thaw sensors, multiple shutter SMA wire-loaded thaw sensors, multiple shutter, SMA torsion-rod-loaded thaw sensors, and rupture-Type SMA spring-loaded thaw sensors.

  20. Hiring for smarts.

    PubMed

    Menkes, Justin

    2005-11-01

    Yes, it's nice when a leader is charismatic and confident. And a great resume can tell you a lot about a person's knowledge and experience. But such assets are no substitute for sheer business intelligence, and they reveal very little about a leader's ability to consistently reach the "right" answer. How can hiring managers flag individuals with such smarts? Historically, the only reliable measure of brainpower has been the standard IQ test, which is rarely used in business settings because of the specific subjects it tests for-math, reading, and spatial reasoning-and because of its multiple-choice format. Despite its shortcomings, the standard IQ test is still a better predictor of managerial success than any other assessment tool companies currently use, Justin Menkes argues. It's true that there isn't a version of IQ testing that applies to the corporate world, but in rejecting IQ tests altogether, hiring managers have thwarted their own attempts to identify true business stars. The author defines the specific subjects that make up "executive intelligence"-namely, accomplishing tasks, working with people, and judging oneself. He describes how to formulate questions to test job candidates for their mastery of these subjects, offering several examples based on real situations. Knowledge questions, such as those used in standard behavioral interviews, require people to recite what they have learned or experienced; intelligence questions call for individuals to demonstrate their abilities. Therefore, the questions in an executive intelligence test shouldn't require specific industry expertise or experience; any knowledge they call for must be rudimentary and common to all executives. And the questions should not be designed to ask whether the candidate has a particular skill; they should be configured so that the candidate will have to demonstrate that skill in the course of answering them. PMID:16299964

  1. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  2. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  3. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  4. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Md. Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks. PMID:22163772

  5. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    PubMed

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  6. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  7. [Development of smart infusion system].

    PubMed

    Li, Junyang

    2014-01-01

    The free care smart infusion system which has the function of liquid end alarm and automatic stopping has been designed. In addition, the system can send the alarm to the health care staff by Zigbee wireless network. Besides, the database of infusion information has been set up, it can be used for inquiry afterwards. PMID:24839846

  8. MOSES Inversions using Multiresolution SMART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Thomas; Fox, Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles; Courrier, Hans; Plovanic, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    We present improvements to the SMART inversion algorithm for the MOSES imaging spectrograph. MOSES, the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, is a slitless extreme ultraviolet spectrograph designed to measure cotemporal narrowband spectra over a wide field of view via tomographic inversion of images taken at three orders of a concave diffraction grating. SMART, the Smooth Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, relies on a global chi squared goodness of fit criterion, which enables overfit and underfit regions to "balance out" when judging fit quality. "Good" reconstructions show poor fits at some positions and length scales. Here we take a multiresolution approach to SMART, applying corrections to the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. The result is improved fit residuals that more closely resemble the expected noise in the images. Within the multiresolution framework it is also easy to include a regularized deconvolution of the instrument point spread functions, which we do. Different point spread functions among MOSES spectral orders results in spurious doppler shifts in the reconstructions, most notable near bright compact emission. We estimate the point spread funtions from the data. Deconvolution is done using the Richardson-Lucy method, which is algorithmically similar to SMART. Regularization results from only correcting the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. We expect the point spread function deconvolution to increase signal to noise and reduce systematic error in MOSES reconstructions.

  9. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  10. NASA Smart Surgical Probe Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Andrews, Russell J.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Guerrero, Michael; Papasin, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Information Technologies being developed by NASA to assist astronaut-physician in responding to medical emergencies during long space flights are being employed for the improvement of women's health in the form of "smart surgical probe". This technology, initially developed for neurosurgery applications, not only has enormous potential for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, but broad applicability to a wide range of medical challenges. For the breast cancer application, the smart surgical probe is being designed to "see" a suspicious lump, determine by its features if it is cancerous, and ultimately predict how the disease may progress. A revolutionary early breast cancer detection tool based on this technology has been developed by a commercial company and is being tested in human clinical trials at the University of California at Davis, School of Medicine. The smart surgical probe technology makes use of adaptive intelligent software (hybrid neural networks/fuzzy logic algorithms) with the most advanced physiologic sensors to provide real-time in vivo tissue characterization for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of tumors, including determination of tumor microenvironment and evaluation of tumor margins. The software solutions and tools from these medical applications will lead to the development of better real-time minimally-invasive smart surgical probes for emergency medical care and treatment of astronauts on long space flights.

  11. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  12. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-02-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  13. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    PubMed

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography. PMID:26294466

  14. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting. PMID:27023660

  15. smartApps Package v 4.8

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert

    2009-12-04

    The smartApps package provides high-speed communication links between multiple Umbra sessions and/or SMART sessions. Modules within Packages/smartApps: Packages/smartApps/smartBlackboard: The original Broadcast module connected Umbra connectors to the SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) blackboard using UDP and TCP connections. Connectors are added to the module for each connection. Originally written by Scott Gladwell and maintained and updated by Robert J. Anderson. Packages/smartApps/smartBroadcast: A highly efficient version of packet based communication for connecting distributed SMART and Umbra systems together using UDP broadcasts.

  16. smartApps Package v 4.8

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-04

    The smartApps package provides high-speed communication links between multiple Umbra sessions and/or SMART sessions. Modules within Packages/smartApps: Packages/smartApps/smartBlackboard: The original Broadcast module connected Umbra connectors to the SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) blackboard using UDP and TCP connections. Connectors are added to the module for each connection. Originally written by Scott Gladwell and maintained and updated by Robert J. Anderson. Packages/smartApps/smartBroadcast: A highly efficient version of packet based communication for connecting distributedmore » SMART and Umbra systems together using UDP broadcasts.« less

  17. SMART GUIDANCE AND SMARTE - TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING SITE SPECIFIC REDEVELOPMENT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART) Guidance and its electronic counterpart, SMARTe are being developed jointly with the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council. These products will assist ...

  18. Characterization on Smart Optics Using Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, NASA Langley Research Center developed a smart active optical concept to filter narrow band pass or to control optical intensity. To characterize developed smart optics materials, we have measured thickness and reflection properties of the materials using a WVASE32 ellipsometry. This project allowed us to: (1) prepare the smart optical materials for measurement of thickness and optical properties at NASA Langley Research Center; (2) measure thickness and optical properties of the smart optical materials; (3) evaluate the measured properties in terms of applications for narrow band-pass filters. The outcomes of this research provide optical properties and physical properties of the smart optics on a selected spectral range. The applications of this development were used for field-controlled spectral smart filters.

  19. Smart Cards 101: Everything a Beginner Needs To Get Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to implement a smart card system at a college or university, and explains what smart cards are, their potential applications, benefits, and costs. Provides a resource for obtaining additional information about smart cards. (GR)

  20. Sensor technology for smart structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Heyman, J. S.; Holben, M. S., Jr.; Dehart, D. W.; Doederlein, T.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced aerospace structures are discussed that will very likely be fabricated with integral sensors, actuators, and microprocessors for monitoring and dynamic control of configuration. The concept of 'smart structures' integrates fiber-optic sensor technology with advanced composite materials, whereby the optical fibers are embedded in a composite material and provide internal sensing capability for monitoring parameters which are important for the safety, performance, and reliability of the material and the structure. Along with other research facilities, NASA has initiated a cooperative program to design, fabricate, and test composite trusses, tubes, and flat panels with embedded optical fibers for testing and developing prototype smart structures. It is shown that fiber-optic sensor technology can be combined with advanced material and structure concepts to produce a new class of materials with internal sensors for health monitoring of structures.

  1. [Smart cards in health services].

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, O

    2001-10-01

    Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management. PMID:11688229

  2. Public Outreach With Smart-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    SMART-1 will be the first European Space Agency mission to the Moon. Therefore it is possible to foresee that any public outreach activity related to the mission can have a big impact in the media and public in general. This expectation for a large audience carries with it the large responsibility to create a program where is maximized the quality, both didactic and ludic, of the public outreach products, in order to keep the interest in the mission for a longer period. In order to assure the good quality of these products it is important that even when planning the mission some of the targets are selected for its rich outreach content. This presentation will focus on some of the public outreach activities envisaged for SMART-1 as well as the selection of the most suitable targets for that end.

  3. Anatomy of a Smart house

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, L.

    1988-07-01

    The author describes the Gas Laboratory House in Bowie, MD. It is being built as a SMART HOUSE. This means it will contain a whole-house control system made up of communication chips, computer programs and microprocessor-based controllers. A single cable carries signals from the chips to many different types of appliances. Flexible gas piping forms a ''circulatory system'' that makes the house completely compatible with natural gas appliances. The SMART HOUSE is fully programmable so that appliances can be told when to turn on and off. It can also have a zoned space-conditioning system, allowing sections of the house to be heated or cooled independently. The authors explains how the system works and the project's development schedule.

  4. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  5. PLCs used in smart home control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinovic, T.; Berdie, A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Horgos, M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the realization of a smart home automation using Siemens PLCs. The smart home interface is realized using the HMI Weintek eMT3070a touchscreen, which shows the window for controlling and monitoring the lighting, room temperature, irrigation systems, swimming pool, etc. By using PLCs, the smart home can be controlled via Ethernet and it can be programmed to the needs of tenants.

  6. Nurses' risk without using smart pumps.

    PubMed

    Harding, Andrew D; Connolly, Mark W; Wilkerson, Timothy O

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous smart pump devices hold specific medications in electronic libraries. These libraries contain predetermined volumes with corresponding administration rate limits. Smart pumps prevent nurses from engaging in calculations under high-pressure situations and ensure that only therapies available to the nurse are administered to patients. When this technology is available and not utilized, litigation could be successful in finding fault on the nurse. Therefore, nurses should use the available smart pump technology every time when administering intravenous therapy. PMID:21343744

  7. Government Program Briefing: Smart Metering

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Peterson, K.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted and updated from a memo delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in March 2008. This briefing piece provides an overview of the benefits, costs, and challenges of smart metering.

  8. Tailoring materials for smart applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, J.P.; Chen, Y.

    1994-12-31

    An improved method has been developed for preparing piezoelectric composite materials. The piezoelectric ceramic phase loading in the piezoelectric composites was increased up to 85 volume percent. The piezoelectric efficiencies of the cured composite materials were found to be superior to those of the best composite 0-3 piezoelectrics that have been reported. The electrical and mechanical properties of the composites indicate the possible applications of these materials as transducers and sensors in smart systems.

  9. Electronic instrumentation for smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1995-04-01

    The requirements of electronic instrumentation for smart structures are similar to those of data acquisition systems at our national particle physics laboratories. Modern high energy and heavy ion physics experiments may have tens of thousands of channels of data sources producing data that must be converted to digital form, compacted, stored and interpreted. In parallel, multiple sensors distributed in and around smart structures generate either binary or analog signals that are voltage, charge, or time like in their information content. In all cases, they must be transmitted, converted and preserved into a unified digital format for real-time processing. This paper will review the current status of practical large scale electronic measurement systems with special attention to architectures and physical organization. Brief surveys of the current state of the art will include preamplifiers and amplifiers, comparators and discriminators, voltage or charge analog-to-digital converters, time internal meters or time-to-digital converters, and finally, counting or scalar systems. The paper will conclude by integrating all of these ideas in a concept for an all-digital readout of a smart structure using the latest techniques used in physics research today.

  10. Smart built-in test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Dale W.

    1990-01-01

    The work which built-in test (BIT) is asked to perform in today's electronic systems increases with every insertion of new technology or introduction of tighter performance criteria. Yet the basic purpose remains unchanged -- to determine with high confidence the operational capability of that equipment. Achievement of this level of BIT performance requires the management and assimilation of a large amount of data, both realtime and historical. Smart BIT has taken advantage of advanced techniques from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to meet these demands. The Smart BIT approach enhances traditional functional BIT by utilizing AI techniques to incorporate environmental stress data, temporal BIT information and maintenance data, and realtime BIT reports into an integrated test methodology for increased BIT effectiveness and confidence levels. Future research in this area will incorporate onboard fault-logging of BIT output, stress data and Smart BIT decision criteria in support of a singular, integrated and complete test and maintenance capability. The state of this research is described along with a discussion of directions for future development.

  11. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  12. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches. PMID:16282655

  13. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  14. Creating New Mathematical Applications Utilizing SMART Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Cheryl D.; Swanier, Cheryl S.; Nyagwencha, Justus Nyamweya; Cagle, Ashley L.; Houser, Navorro

    2011-01-01

    SMART Technologies is leading the way for interactive learning, through their many different tools. The SMART Table is a multi-user, multi-touch interactive interface that not only teaches children different concepts in fun ways (Steurer P., 2003), but it also inspires cooperative competition. In Alabama, the state curriculum for kindergarten…

  15. Smart Sensors Gather Information for Machine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Stennis Space Center was interested in using smart sensors to monitor components on test stands and avert equipment failures. Partnering with St. Paul, Minnesota-based Lion Precision through a Cooperative Agreement, the team developed a smart sensor and the associated communication protocols. The same sensor is now commercially available for manufacturing.

  16. Smart Partnerships to Increase Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret; Davis, Niki; Lewin, Cathy; Charania, Amina; Nordin, Hasniza; Orlic, Davor; Butler, Deirdre; Lopez-Fernadez, Olatz

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory analysis of smart partnerships identifies the risk of increasing the digital divide with the deployment of data analytics. Smart partnerships in education appear to include a process of evolution into a synergy of strategic and holistic approaches that enhance the quality of education with digital technologies, harnessing ICT…

  17. Train Smart: Perfect Trainings Every Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rich

    This book explains the TrainSmart approach to training, which is based on how the authors believe the brain naturally learns best. Part 1 introduces the five pillars of the TrainSmart Model, which are as follows: (1) engage (engage participants' attention); (2) frame (establish a frame of reference); (3) explore (introduce a conceptual activity);…

  18. The Riddle of the Smart Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dusti D.

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of graduate students were introduced to the fields of instructional design and educational technology with the riddle of the smart machines, yet over the years no one has answered it correctly. After revealing the surprising answer to this riddle, both the negative and positive impacts of smart machines are analyzed. An example of this is…

  19. The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Zvornicanin, Edita; Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Hadziefendic, Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Smart phones are being increasingly used among health professionals. Ophthalmological applications are widely available and can turn smart phones into sophisticated medical devices. Smart phones can be useful instruments for the practice of evidence-based medicine, professional education, mobile clinical communication, patient education, disease self-management, remote patient monitoring or as powerful administrative tools. Several applications are available for different ophthalmological examinations that can assess visual acuity, color vision, astigmatism, pupil size, Amsler grid test and more. Smart phones can be useful ophthalmic devices for taking images of anterior and posterior eye segment. Professional literature and educational material for patients are easily available with use of smart phones. Smart phones can store great amount of informations and are useful for long term monitoring with caution for patient confidentiality. The use of smart phones especially as diagnostic tools is not standardized and results should be carefully considered. Innovative role of smartphone technology and its use in research, education and information sharing makes smart phones a future of ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:25132717

  20. Families & the North Carolina Smart Start Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Betsy; Bryant, Donna; Zolotor, Adam

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families. This study examined characteristics of families participating in Smart Start, their child care arrangements and family activities, and their need for and use of community…

  1. Establishing a Successful Smart Card Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to run a successful smart card program through a comprehensive approach that includes a detailed plan for the present and future, high level support from school administration, and extensive user input. Florida State University is used to illustrate a successfully implemented smart card program. (GR)

  2. The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Zvornicanin, Edita; Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Hadziefendic, Bahrudin

    2014-06-01

    Smart phones are being increasingly used among health professionals. Ophthalmological applications are widely available and can turn smart phones into sophisticated medical devices. Smart phones can be useful instruments for the practice of evidence-based medicine, professional education, mobile clinical communication, patient education, disease self-management, remote patient monitoring or as powerful administrative tools. Several applications are available for different ophthalmological examinations that can assess visual acuity, color vision, astigmatism, pupil size, Amsler grid test and more. Smart phones can be useful ophthalmic devices for taking images of anterior and posterior eye segment. Professional literature and educational material for patients are easily available with use of smart phones. Smart phones can store great amount of informations and are useful for long term monitoring with caution for patient confidentiality. The use of smart phones especially as diagnostic tools is not standardized and results should be carefully considered. Innovative role of smartphone technology and its use in research, education and information sharing makes smart phones a future of ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:25132717

  3. Smartness as a Cultural Practice in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study explores smartness as a cultural construct rather than a biological capacity. The cultural construction of smartness has broad consequences related to teacher expectations, student academic identity development, and schooling inequities. This study is based on a 1-year ethnography in a kindergarten classroom, and the author investigates…

  4. Online Bridge Crack Monitoring with Smart Film

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhou, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng

    2013-01-01

    Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed. PMID:24489496

  5. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  6. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  7. Smart Gun Technology project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user form firing a law officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing (or {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes}) surety technologies. This project was funded by the National Institute of Justice. This report lists the findings and results of the project`s three primary objectives. First, to find and document the requirements for a smart firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. Second, to investigate, evaluate, and prioritize technologies that meet the requirements for a law enforcement officer`s smart firearm. Third, to demonstrate and document the most promising technology`s usefulness in models of a smart firearm.

  8. Online bridge crack monitoring with smart film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhou, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng

    2013-01-01

    Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed. PMID:24489496

  9. SMART-1, Platform Design and Project Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoberg, F.

    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology (SMART), an element of ESA's Horizons 2000 plan for scientific projects. These missions aim at testing key technologies for future Cornerstone missions. The mission of SMART-1 is the flight demonstration of Electric Primary Propulsion for a scientifically relevant deep space trajectory. More specifically, SMART-1 will be launched into a geostationary transfer orbit and use a single ion thruster to achieve lunar orbit. include: -A modern avionics architecture with a clean-cut control hierarchy -Extensive Failure Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) capabilities following the control hierarchy of the -An advanced power control and distribution system -A newly developed gimbal mechanism for the orientation of the electric ion thruster The project is currently in the FM AIT phase scheduled for launch in late 2002. The paper will describe the SMART- 1 spacecraft platform design as well as the current project and spacecraft verification status.

  10. Smart structures applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, James A.; Joshi, Shiv P.

    1996-05-01

    A survey of current literature was performed and vehicle designers from the aerospace industry were polled to examine how state of the art smart structural concepts could improve the design of hypersonic vehicles. Several types of hypersonic vehicles; including winged single stage to orbit, sub-orbital cruise aircraft, and supersonic/hypersonic missiles have demanding airframe and systems requirements which may not be sufficiently met with traditional structural designs. The use of smart structures is examined to improve vehicle performance in areas such as active vibration control, noise reduction, vehicle attitude control, structural cooling, and engine performance. The operating environment of hypersonic vehicles are examined and the capabilities of currently used structural materials and actuators are compared with those of smart materials and structures. Possible smart structures applications are presented as modifications to existing designs as well as new structural concepts. Conclusions are made on the suitability of various smart structures concepts for current and future hypersonic applications.

  11. SMART-1 Payload First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Science Technology Working Team

    We present first results from SMART-1's science and technology payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, featuring many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. The SMART-1 observations will be coordinated with Japanese missions Lunar-A and SELENE, to answer open questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence (e.g. water, oxygen). With their science and technology results, these missions can be considered as preparatory missions for future robotic and human exploration of the solar system.

  12. Smart sensor for terminal homing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, D.; Aggarwal, R.; Hummel, R.

    1980-01-01

    The practical scene matching problem is considered to present certain complications which must extend classical image processing capabilities. Certain aspects of the scene matching problem which must be addressed by a smart sensor for terminal homing are discussed. First a philosophy for treating the matching problem for the terminal homing scenario is outlined. Then certain aspects of the feature extraction process and symbolic pattern matching are considered. It is thought that in the future general ideas from artificial intelligence will be more useful for terminal homing requirements of fast scene recognition and pattern matching.

  13. Smart antennas based on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrigo, Martino; Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-21

    We report two configurations of smart graphene antennas, in which either the radiation pattern of the antenna or the backscattering of the periodic metallic arrays is controlled by DC biases that induce metal-insulator reversible transitions of graphene monolayers. Such a transition from a high surface resistance (no bias) to a low surface resistance state (finite bias voltage) causes the radiation pattern of metallic antennas backed with graphene to change dramatically, from omnidirectional to broadside. Moreover, reflectarrays enhance the backscattered field due to the same metal-dielectric transition.

  14. Electronics for Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warkentin, D. J.; Tani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly presents work addressing some of the basic considerations for the electronic components used in smart structures incorporating piezoelectric elements. After general remarks on the application of piezoelectric elements to the problem of structural vibration control, three main topics are described. Work to date on the development of techniques for embedding electronic components within structural parts is presented, followed by a description of the power flow and dissipation requirements of those components. Finally current work on the development of electronic circuits for use in an 'active wall' for acoustic noise is introduced.

  15. Smart Sensors Assess Structural Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA frequently inspects launch vehicles, fuel tanks, and other components for structural damage. To perform quick evaluation and monitoring, the Agency pursues the development of structural health monitoring systems. In 2001, Acellent Technologies Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a hybrid Stanford Multi-Actuator Receiver Transduction (SMART) Layer for aerospace vehicles and structures. As a result, Acellent expanded the technology's capability and now sells it to aerospace and automotive companies; construction, energy, and utility companies; and the defense, space, transportation, and energy industries for structural condition monitoring, damage detection, crack growth monitoring, and other applications.

  16. A Trend of Systems Development Technologies toward Smart Public Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hirasawa, Shigeki

    Driven by increasing urbanization and serious economic and environmental challenges, what is called smart grid and smart cities, the transformation to smart public infrastructure system will require technological progress. This paper presents an emerging trend of the systems development and a framework of systems technologies to achieve the smart public infrastructure of the future.

  17. Smart mud and sensitive enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-04-19

    Environmental legislation is increasingly preventing use of oil base mud. Most recently, Marathon Oil U.K. Ltd. won a U.K. production license that specified oil base mud cannot be used on the license blocks. The goal is to protect sea-birds. Unfortunately, water base mud, the green' alternative, does not have a performance to match oil base mud. But an Aberdeen chemist thinks he has found the answer with Smart Mud, an emulsion drilling mud that becomes water soluble as soon as it hits the sea. Smart Mud passed the laboratory test stage and is ready for field trials this year. Another researcher is using enzymes and organisms to detect gases that are hard to monitor and cause problems for the oil and gas industry: phenol vapors, methane, and sulfur and nitrous oxides. The methane sensor, for example, uses methanotrophic organisms. They metabolize methane, producing chemicals that can be detected by electrochemical sensors, which relay signals to instruments. Enzymes perform a similar task for phenol and oxide detection. The main problem is to keep the biosensors alive and detect their by-products, while maintaining contact with the toxic gases. To do this, the team invented a polymer matrix in which the biosensors can live.

  18. Smart-1 Moon Impact Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, Andres; Rigger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the operations to control the Moon impact of the 3-axis stabilized spacecraft SMART-1 in September 2006. SMART-1 was launched on 27/09/2003. It was the first ESA mission to use an Electric Propulsion (EP) engine as the main motor to spiral out of the Earth gravity field and reach a scientific moon orbit [1]. During September 2005 the last EP maneuvers were performed using the remaining Xenon, in order to compensate for the 3rd body perturbations of the Sun and Earth. These operations extended the mission for an additional year. Afterwards the EP performance became unpredictable and low, so that no meaningful operation for the moon impact could be done. To move the predicted impact point on the 16/8/2006 into visibility from Earth an alternative Delta-V strategy was designed. Due to their alignment, the attitude thrusters could not be used directly to generate the Delta-V, so this strategy was based on controlled angular momentum biasing. Firing along the velocity vector around apolune, the remaining Hydrazine left from the attitude control budget was used, to shift the impact to the required coordinates.

  19. Pultrusion of smart FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; MacDonald, Douglas O.; Westhaver, Paul A. D.

    1997-06-01

    A laboratory scale pultrusion process has been developed to fabricate smart fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) materials. Microstructural analyses of the smart pultruded FRP was carried out using both an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope. The tensile properties and shear strength, i.e. modulus and strength, of pultruded carbon/vinylester and glass/vinylester rods were determined through mechanical testing. Testing was carried out on baseline pultruded samples, as well as those containing one and two embedded optical fibers. The pultruded carbon reinforced rods with and without optical fiber showed higher shear and tensile strength, as well as greater tensile modulus than did the glass fiber analogue. An embedded optical fiber did not have a significant effect upon the tensile properties of either glass or carbon pultruded FRP rod, but it slightly affected the shear strength of the glass fiber rods. Increased numbers of embedded optical fibers in the FRP rods had a more pronounced influence upon the shear strength. The interfaces between the resin matrix and the buffer coating on the optical fibers were examined and interpreted in terms of the coating's ability to resist high temperatures and its compatibility with resin matrix. Polyimide buffers proved to be superior to acrylate buffers.

  20. Concepts for smart nanocomposite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pammi, SriLaxmi; Brown, Courtney; Datta, Saurabh; Kirikera, Goutham R.; Schulz, Mark J.

    2003-10-01

    This paper explores concepts for new smart materials that have extraordinary properties based on nanotechnology. Carbon and boron nitride nanotubes in theory can be used to manufacture fibers that have piezoelectric, pyroelectric, piezoresistive, and electrochemical field properties. Smart nanocomposites designed using these fibers will sense and respond to elastic, thermal, and chemical fields in a positive human-like way to improve the performance of structures, devices, and possibly humans. Remarkable strength, morphing, cooling, energy harvesting, strain and temperature sensing, chemical sensing and filtering, and high natural frequencies and damping will be the properties of these new materials. Synthesis of these unique atomically precise nanotubes, fibers, and nanocomposites is at present challenging and expensive, however, there is the possibility that we can synthesize the strongest and lightest actuators and most efficient sensors man has ever made. A particular advantage of nanotube transducers is their very high load bearing capability. Carbon nanotube electrochemical actuators have a predicted energy density at low frequencies that is thirty times greater than typical piezoceramic materials while boron nitride nanotubes are insulators and can operate at high temperatures, but they have a predicted piezoelectric induced stress constant that is about twenty times smaller than piezoceramic materials. Carbon nanotube fibers and composites exhibit a change in electrical conductivity due to strain that can be used for sensing. Some concepts for nanocomposite material sensors are presented and initial efforts to fabricate carbon nanocomposite load sensors are discussed.

  1. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  2. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  3. Smart materials and structures: what are they?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, W. B., Jr.; Sirkis, J. S.; Gardiner, P. T.

    1996-06-01

    There has been considerable discussion in the technical community on a number of questions concerned with smart materials and structures, such as what they are, whether smart materials can be considered a subset of smart structures, whether a smart structure and an intelligent structure are the same thing, etc. This discussion is both fueled and confused by the technical community due to the truly multidisciplinary nature of this new field. Smart materials and structures research involves so many technically diverse fields that it is quite common for one field to completely misunderstand the terminology and start of the art in other fields. In order to ascertain whether a consensus is emerging on a number of questions, the technical community was surveyed in a variety of ways including via the internet and by direct contact. The purpose of this survey was to better define the smart materials and structures field, its current status and its potential benefits. Results of the survey are presented and discussed. Finally, a formal definition of the field of smart materials and structures is proposed.

  4. Establishing trust in decentralized smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, H.; Cosar, T.; Beyerer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Smart sensors can gather all kind of information and process it. Cameras are still dominating and smart cameras can offer services for face recognition or person tracking. Operators are building collaborations to cover a larger area, to save costs and to add more and different sensors. Cryptographic methods may achieve integrity and confidentiality between operators, but not trust. Even if a partner or one of his sensors is authenticated, no statements can be made about the quality of the sensor data. Hence, trust must be established between the partners and their sensors. Trust can be built based on past experience. A reputation system collects opinions of operators about the behavior of sensors and calculates trust based on these opinions. Many reputation systems have been proposed, e.g., for authentication of files in peer-topeer networks. This work presents a new reputation system, which is designed to calculate the trustworthiness of smart sensors and smart sensor systems. A new trust model, including functions to calculate and update trust on past experiences, is proposed. When fusing information of multiple sensors, it cannot always be reconstructed, which information led to a bad result. Hence, an approach for fair rating is shown. The proposed system has been realized in a Service-Oriented Architecture for easy integration in existing smart sensor systems, e.g., smart surveillance systems. The model itself can be used in every decentralized heterogeneous smart sensor network.

  5. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  6. Are Smart Growth Objectives Complementary or Conflicting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglen, G. E.; Gabriel, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    Increasing awareness about the problems brought on by urban sprawl has led to proactive measures to guide future development. Such efforts have largely been grouped under the term, "smart growth". Although not widely recognized as such, the "smart" in smart growth implies an optimization of some quantity or objective while undertaking new forms of urban development. This presentation seeks to first illuminate that planners, developers, scientists, and environmentalists, among other groups, can consider more than one objective in the context of smart growth. In essence, we posit that smart growth can be construed as a "multiobjective optimization" problem with objectives including: profit maximization, minimization of environmental damage, and maximization of social welfare to name just a few. Unlike single objective optimization, in the multiple objectives case, one seeks to find a "non-inferior" solution such that any improvement in one of the objectives must come at the expense of the other objectives. In essence, such a non-inferior solution gives one possible compromise between the competing objectives. Specific examples of disparate objectives in the context of smart growth might include: a state planner wanting to steer new development towards areas that have available infrastructural capacity to support new growth, to a land developer who might want to build a new sub-division in a specific location and density that will yield the greatest profit. These differing objectives in smart growth if optimized one at a time would undoubtedly lead to different global land use plans for an area. Given the wide range of stakeholders in smart growth, the case of competing objectives is more realistic. This presentation seeks to develop a meaningful framework in which the multiple objectives held by a range of parties might be generally handled in a context that truly reflects smart growth.

  7. Variation of some physical properties of amorphous As46Te46S8 thin films depending on substrate temperature and film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Sehly, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Thin films of As46Te46S8 with different thicknesses were prepared by thermal evaporation at different temperatures. It was found that the mechanism of the optical absorption follows the rule of direct transition. An increase in the optical gap (E0) from 2.35 to 2.73 eV was observed when the substrate temperature TS was varied from room temperature to 463 K (the film thickness =100 nm). It was also found that E0 is dependent on the film thickness and increased from 1.7 to 2.38 eV with increasing the film thickness from 35 to 135 nm. (TS = room temperature). The electrical resistivity (ρ) and the activation energy for conduction (ΔE) decreased from 7.74×105 to 6.81×102 Ωcm and from 0.55 to 0.15 eV when TS increased from room temperature to 448 K, respectively (the film thickness =100 nm). Mott and Davis model for the density of states in amorphous solids was used for interpreting and discussing the obtained results.

  8. Synoptic Spectrophotometry Enabled by SMARTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    2011-05-01

    The photometric record for many types of astrophysical objects is remarkably fecund, due to a growing body of synoptic photometric surveys. The same cannot be said for the spectroscopic record, despite the fact that much of the astrophysics requires spectroscopy, rather than photometry, to decipher. I shall report on selected topics I've been studying over the past 7 years, using the SMARTS/CTIO 1.5m telescope to obtain long time series on interesting stars. The venerable RC spectrograph offers resolutions from 300 to 3000 km/s, and can obtain useful spectra from magnitudes 0 to 18 (for emission line objects) in less than an hour. The capabilities of the echelle spectrograph greatly expand the scope of the science. I shall touch on science topics ranging from long term evolution of classical and recurrent novae, the accretion-induced activity in T Tauri stars and cataclysmic variables, to the orbits of O stars.

  9. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  10. SMARTE: IMPROVING REVITALIZATION DECISIONS - OCTOBER 3, 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools -electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and Revitalization (OBCR), the Interstate Tec...

  11. Fuzzy finite element analysis of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, Unyime O.; Koko, Tamunoiyala S.; Orisamolu, Irewole R.; Gallant, B. Keith

    2000-06-01

    A fuzzy finite element based approach is developed for modelling smart structures with vague or imprecise uncertainties. Fuzzy sets are used to represent the uncertainties present in the piezoelectric, mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the smart structure. In order to facilitate efficient computation, a sensitivity analysis procedure is used to streamline the number of input fuzzy variables, and the vertex fuzzy analysis technique is then used to compute the possibility distributions of the responses of the smart structural system. The methodology has been developed within the framework of the SMARTCOM computational tool for the design/analysis of smart composite structures. The methodology developed is found to be accurate and computationally efficient for solution of practical problems.

  12. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  13. Learning optics using a smart-phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Amparo; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Barreiro, Juan C.; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    We propose several ideas about how to teach Optics using smart-phones. We think that the almost addictive interest of students in smart-phone technology can be useful for the benefits of learning. Moreover as all of our students are from university level, it helps that mostly all of them own a device. In this work we review many possibilities that using a smart-phone offer from the teaching point of view. We begin with a search of different apps about Optics. Then we also use the device as a sensor for implementing some experiments, we analyze accessories such as telescope and microscope lenses and finally, when the smart-phone is over, we use different parts to teach diffraction or imaging.

  14. Sickle Cell Disease: "Be Sickle Smart!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... a serious and under-recognized condition called iron overload. What has been your approach in raising public ... for their health and be screened for iron overload due to blood transfusions. Be Sickle Smart is ...

  15. AGSM Intelligent Devices/Smart Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project provides development and qualification of Smart Sensors capable of self-diagnosis and assessment of their capability/readiness to support operations. These sensors will provide pressure and temperature measurements to use in ground systems.

  16. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    SMART is an interactive decision analysis and refinement software system that uses evaluation criteria for discrepant conditions to automatically provide and populate a document/procedure with predefined steps necessary to repair a discrepancy safely, effectively, and efficiently. SMART can store the tacit (corporate) knowledge merging the hardware specification requirements with the actual "how to" repair methods, sequences, and required equipment, all within a user-friendly interface. Besides helping organizations retain repair knowledge in streamlined procedures and sequences, SMART can also help them in saving processing time and expense, increasing productivity, improving quality, and adhering more closely to safety and other guidelines. Though SMART was developed for Space Shuttle applications, its interface is easily adaptable to any hardware that can be broken down by component, subcomponent, discrepancy, and repair.

  17. Overview of the SAMPSON smart inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, James P.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Baumann, Erwin W.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.

    1999-07-01

    The SAMPSON program will demonstrate the application of Smart Materials and Structures to large-scale aircraft and marine propulsion systems and show that smart materials can be used to significantly enhance vehicle performance, thereby enabling new missions and/or expanding current missions. Two demonstrations will be executed in relevant environments and at scales representations of actual vehicle components. The demonstrations will serve to directly address questions of scalability and technology readiness, thereby improving the opportunities and reducing the risk for transitioning the technology into applications. The aircraft application to be examined is the in-flight structural variation of a fighter engine inlet. Smart technologies will be utilized to actively deform the inlet into predetermined configurations to improve the performance of the inlet at all flight conditions. The inlet configurations to be investigated consists of capture area control, compression ramp generation, leading edge blunting, and porosity control. The operation and demonstration of this Smart Inlet is described in detail.

  18. Unlocking the potential of the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The smart grid refers to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the whole delivery electrical energy process. The generation, delivery and consumption energy, all the steps for power transmission and distribution make the smart grid a complex system. The question is if the amount, diversity, and uses of such data put the smart grid in the category of Big Data applications, followed by the natural question of what is the true value of such data. In this paper an initial answer to this question is provided, the current state of data generation of the Polish grid is analyzed, and a future realistic scenario is illustrated. The analysis shows that the amount of data generated in smart grid is comparable to some of Big Data system examples.

  19. Top 10 "Smart" Technologies for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodeman, Doug; Holzberg, Carol S.; Kennedy, Kristen; McIntire, Todd; McLester, Susan; Ohler, Jason; Parham, Charles; Poftak, Amy; Schrock, Kathy; Warlick, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes 10 smart technologies for education, including voice to text software; mobile computing; hybrid computing; virtual reality; artificial intelligence; telementoring; assessment methods; digital video production; fingerprint recognition; and brain functions. Lists pertinent Web sites for each technology. (LRW)

  20. Optical smart card using semipassive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, I.; Green, Shlomo; Dimkov, Ilan

    2006-03-01

    An optical secure short-range communication system is presented. The mobile unit (optical smart card) of this system utilizes a retroreflector with an optical modulator, using light from the stationary unit; this mobile unit has very low power consumption and can be as small as a credit card. Such optical smart cards offer better security than RF-based solutions, yet do not require physical contact. Results from a feasibility study model are included.

  1. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  2. Smart Coatings for Launch Site Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.

  3. Design Strategies for Bioorthogonal Smart Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Peyton; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry has enabled the selective labeling and detection of biomolecules in living systems. Bioorthogonal smart probes, which become fluorescent or deliver imaging or therapeutic agents upon reaction, allow for the visualization of biomolecules or targeted delivery even in the presence of excess unreacted probe. This review discusses the strategies used in the development of bioorthogonal smart probes and highlights the potential of these probes to further our understanding of biology. PMID:25315039

  4. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  5. Smart structures for rotorcraft control (SSRC) II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacot, A. Dean; Dadone, Leo

    1998-06-01

    The Smart Structures for Rotor Control (SSRC) is a consortium under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Smart Structures program. Phase I of the program was administered by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, with Boeing Seattle as the consortium administrator, and MIT, PSU and Boeing Helicopters as the other principal consortium members. Phase II, renamed Smart Materials and Structures Demonstration Consortium (SMSDC), is a combination of the proposed Phase II efforts of SSRC and the Boeing MESA Smart Materials Actuated Rotor Technology (SMART) program. This paper summarizes the SSRC efforts, introduces the SMSDC program, and provides a framework for the relationships between specific SSRC technical papers in this conference. The SSRC objectives were to research smart structure methods to achieve reduced rotorcraft vibration, reduce acoustic noise, and increased performance. The SSRC program includes dynamic piezoelectric actuation of flaps on the rotor blades, distributed dynamic piezo actuation of the rotor twist, and quasi-steady rotor twist control using shape memory alloys. The objective of Phase II is then to fly a rotorcraft to demonstrate such a system.

  6. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  7. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F.; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  8. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  9. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ULTRASONIC AQUEOUS CLEANING SYSTEMS, SMART SONIC CORPORATION, SMART SONIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a product of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technoloy Verification (ETV) Program and is focused on the Smart Sonics Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems. The verification is based on three main objectives. (1) The Smart Sonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems, Model 2000 and...

  11. How to Achieve Smart Cities Through Smart Communication and Representation of Urban Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donolo, R. M.; Donolo, M.

    2013-05-01

    Urban environment is developing in different, complex and rapid ways. The challenge of the moment is to face this issue within the model and the philosophy of the "smart city". The biggest obstacles to the implementation of a smart city model can be probably found in the structure of urban areas and in the stratification of old urban infrastructures that make difficult the setting of new technological infrastructures. Moreover it is difficult to implement the smart city model also in the new urban areas, because these areas are often the result of recent urban sprawl and shapeless urbanization, and it is difficult to set the new technological infrastructures. But in this paper we would like to highlight that in addition to these problems, there is another obstacle in the implementation of the smart city model: the difficulties encountered by the authorities in the information of citizens about the problems and the resources of a city. We think that a smart information and communication system, with the support of web-GIS and smart visualization, will surely help the implementation of smart city models and smart grid models and the inclusion of citizens in the management of cities and countries.

  12. SMART: The Future of Spaceflight Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel avionics approach is necessary to meet the future needs of low cost space and lunar missions that require low mass and low power electronics. The current state of the art for avionics systems are centralized electronic units that perform the required spacecraft functions. These electronic units are usually custom-designed for each application and the approach compels avionics designers to have in-depth system knowledge before design can commence. The overall design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) cycle for this conventional approach requires long delivery times for space flight electronics and is very expensive. The Small Multi-purpose Advanced Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) concept is currently being developed to overcome the limitations of traditional avionics design. The SMART concept is based upon two multi-functional modules that can be reconfigured to drive and sense a variety of mechanical and electrical components. The SMART units are key to a distributed avionics architecture whereby the modules are located close to or right at the desired application point. The drive module, SMART-D, receives commands from the main computer and controls the spacecraft mechanisms and devices with localized feedback. The sensor module, SMART-S, is used to sense the environmental sensors and offload local limit checking from the main computer. There are numerous benefits that are realized by implementing the SMART system. Localized sensor signal conditioning electronics reduces signal loss and overall wiring mass. Localized drive electronics increase control bandwidth and minimize time lags for critical functions. These benefits in-turn reduce the main processor overhead functions. Since SMART units are standard flight qualified units, DDT&E is reduced and system design can commence much earlier in the design cycle. Increased production scale lowers individual piece part cost and using standard modules also reduces non-recurring costs. The benefit list

  13. SmartGrid: Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub and SmartGrid Project Information (from OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Both OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov are DOE portals to a wealth of information about the federal initiatives that support the development of the technologies, policies and projects transforming the electric power industry. Projects funded through the U.S. Recovery Act are organized by type and pinned to an interactive map at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Smart_Grid. Each project title links to more detailed information. The Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub at SmartGrid.gov are also available on OpenEI at http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/928. In addition, the SmartGrid Information Center contains documents and reports that can be searched or browsed. Smart Grid Resources introduces international SmartGrid programs and sites, while OpenEI encourages users to add SmartGrid information to the repository.

  14. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  15. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gitchell, John M.; Palmer, Adam L.

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  16. Smarticles: smart, active granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, Will; Pazouki, Arman; Negrut, Dan; Goldman, Daniel

    We investigate a granular medium composed of smart, active particles, or ``smarticles''. Previously, we discovered that ensembles of ``u''-shaped particles exhibited geometrically-induced cohesion by mechanically entangling via particle interpenetration [Gravish et al., PRL, 2012]; the strength and/or extent of entanglement could be varied by changing particle level entanglement by changes in arm-to-base length of the u-particle. Since changing this parameter on demand is inconvenient, we develop a power-autonomous programmable robot composed of two motors and three links with an on-board microcontroller. This smarticle can be activated to change its configuration (specified by its two joint angles) through audio communication. To complement these experiments, since study large ensembles of smarticles is cost and labor prohibitive, we also develop a simulated smarticle in the Chrono multibody simulation environment. We systematically study ensemble cohesiveness and compaction as a function of shape changes of the smarticles. We find that suitable activation of smarticles allows ensembles to become cohesive to ``grip'' rigid objects and lose cohesion to release on command. Work supported by ARO.

  17. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    PubMed

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects. PMID:21904408

  18. Smart materials for turbomachinery quieting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonson, Michael L.; Lysak, Peter D.; Willits, Steven M.

    2000-06-01

    As part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) SAMPSON program, a team has been developing and testing the use of smart materials for quieting turbomachinery. The team is composed of representatives form Pennsylvania State University, General Dynamics Electric Boat, GTE BBN Technologies, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division. Four concepts for quieting were proposed and wind tunnel testing, water tunnel testing, as well as computational fluid dynamic analysis were performed to down select two of the concepts for further consideration: protuberance and gap control. The wind tunnel testing was performed to determine the optimum shape of the protuberance. Water tunnel testing was performed at Penn State University/Applied Research Laboratory to establish the performance of the protuberance and gap control elements. Piezoelectric inchworm actuators, developed by PSU/Center for Acoustics and Vibration, were utilized for the evaluation of the two concepts. GTE BBN Technologies developed the control system simulation for the ultimate concept, the General Dynamics Electric Boat was responsible for hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic analysis. Naval Surface Warfare Center/Carderock Division performed hydrodynamic analysis and developed the rotary component design for the water tunnel test fixture. Successful testing in the twelve- inch diameter water tunnel at PSU/ARL demonstrated superior performance with the gap control concept over the protuberance control concept, and efforts are on-going to develop the final large scale demonstration. This paper summarizes the result of these activities.

  19. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  20. Performance Appraisal of College-Level Learners Using Smart Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riyaz, Reeja

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of the use of Smart Boards in learning and teaching second-language writing skills. Results showed that the use of Smart Boards in learning and teaching improved students' second-language skills.

  1. High power microwave hazard facing smart ammunitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohl, J.

    1995-03-01

    The battle field of the present and even more the one in future will be characterized by the use of weapon systems with a high degree of electronics, computers, and sensors, designed and built to keep not only the man out of the loop. But the higher the technology used for smart weapon systems, the more these systems are endangered by numerous sources of hazard. One of those sources is the threat caused by induced or natural electromagnetic fields. These threat factors can be generated by natural, civil and military environment. In principle there are two main applications which must be considered in military applications: Firstly, weapon systems, that is, high power microwave sources as well as intelligent electromagnetic radiation systems to defeat ammunition on the battle field and secondly, the hardening of the own smart ammunition systems and missiles against the interference sources created by the different types of electromagnetic fields. This report will discuss the possible electromagnetic coupling effects on smart ammunition and missiles and their typical interference caused on the electronics and sensor level. Real time 6-DOF simulations show the flight mission which may be compromised depending on the coupled electromagnetic fields. The German MOD has established a research program where smart ammunitions with different seeker systems are investigated in respect of the coupling effects on smart ammunition caused by high power microwaves. This program considers all available resources and know how in Germany. The systems are investigated by analytical, numerical, and experimental methods with passive and activated missiles.

  2. 1-3 piezocomposite SmartPanels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Daniel; Gentilman, Richard L.; Pham-Nguyen, Hong; Serwatka, William J.; McGuire, Patrick T.; Near, Craig D.; Bowen, Leslie J.

    1997-05-01

    Piezocomposite SmartPanelsTM, consisting of 1-3 actuators and pressure sensors and net-shape-molded PZT accelerometers in a large area low profile panel, have been fabricated at Materials Systems Inc. and evaluated at the Naval Research Laboratory. Single layer and two-layer 100 X 100 mm SmartPanels have been tested for sensor sensitivities, actuator authority, surface displacement uniformity, and sensor-actuator coupling. Multilayer GRP circuits boards are used both as stiff faceplates and to provide electrical connections and ground planes. The SmartPanel technology has recently been scaled up to 250 X 250 mm devices. SmartPanels draw upon PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic injection molding technology, which is used to produce cost-effective and robust 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials. The 1-3 materials are used extensively for SonoPanelTM transducers in a number of sensor and actuator applications. SonoPanels have been qualified for US Navy applications, based on successful completion of pressure and shock tests, and are currently being scaled up from 250 X 250 mm to 750 X 750 mm panels. Several applications for SmartPanels and SonoPanels are described, including conformable transducers, multielement arrays, pressure sensors, and velocity sensors.

  3. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  4. Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

  5. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  6. Multiple sensor smart robot hand with force control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killion, Richard R.; Robinson, Lee R.; Bejczy, Antal

    1987-01-01

    A smart robot hand developed at JPL for the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) is described. The development of this smart hand was based on an integrated design and subsystem architecture by considering mechanism, electronics, sensing, control, display, and operator interface in an integrated design approach. The mechanical details of this smart hand and the overall subsystem are described elsewhere. The sensing and electronics components of the JPL/PFMA smart hand are summarized and it is described in some detail in control capabilities.

  7. 78 FR 18322 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Friday, April 19, 2013... Smart Grid Program Plan. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda...

  8. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  9. Idea Bank: How a Smart Board Changed My Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Cabral, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    By using a Smart Board or other "smart" technologies, it has become possible to teach interactively with students. One of the hardest concepts for middle schoolers to understand is key signatures. The Smart Board has changed the way the author reinforces key signatures with all her students, beginners to eighth graders. In this article, the author…

  10. Smart Phones Permitted: How Teachers Use Text Messaging to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Meghan; Gomez, Audri; McKee, Aja; Maghzi, Kimiya Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    The use of smart phones by teachers in K-12 education has been contentious. Although teachers are often instructed to put their phones away during instruction, teachers and students can benefit in many ways from using smart phones in the classroom. The use of information systems such as a smart phone can support knowledge sharing and collaboration…

  11. Smart Phones, a Powerful Tool in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Antony J.; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones, especially "smart phones", seem to have become ubiquitous. Actually, it is misleading to call many of these devices phones, as they are actually a portable and powerful computer that can be very valuable in the chemistry classroom. Currently, there are three major ways in which smart phones can be used for education. Smart phones…

  12. Recent Progresses in Polymeric Smart Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Lan, Xin; Lu, Hai-Bao; Leng, Jin-Song

    Smart materials can be defined as materials that sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli. In recent years, a wide range of novel smart materials have been developed in biomaterials, sensors, actuators, etc. Their applications cover aerospace, automobile, telecommunications, etc. This paper presents some recent progresses in polymeric smart materials. Special emphasis is laid upon electroactive polymer (EAP), shape memory polymer (SMP) and their composites. For the electroactive polymer, an analysis of stability of dielectric elastomer using strain energy function is derived, and one type of electroactive polymer actuator is presented. For the shape memory polymer, a new method is developed to use infrared laser to actuate the SMP through the optical fiber embedded within the SMP. Electrically conductive nanocarbon powders are utilized as the fillers to improve the electrical conductivity of polymer. A series of fundamental investigations of electroactive SMP are performed and the shape recovery is demonstrated.

  13. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  14. Calibration and Mosaicing of SMART-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. M.; Grieger, B.; Mora, A.; Almeida, M.; Costa, M.; Antunes, L.; Fernandes, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    Since mid 2010 the scientific community has access to the data collected by SMART-1 mission that orbited the Moon between 2004 and 2006. The onboard camera (AMIE) collected during that period images with the then state-of-the-art resolution and coverage of the lunar surface. The scientific interest of SMART-1 images is historical, as the data offers a snapshot of the lunar surface during the mission period, allowing comparative studies of the lunar surface. Our aim in this work is to build the atlas of the Moon as SMART-1 captured it. During the Earth escape phase, the AMIE CCD was damaged by radiation, invalidating the laboratorial flat field correction algorithm. A new image calibration procedure was developed based on the in-flight images and on theoretical models. This was followed by a mosaicing technique applied to all the 31947 collected images , to select, compensate geometrical distortions and compose a total of 88 maps of the lunar surface.

  15. Smart Technology in Lung Disease Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Geller, Nancy L; Kim, Dong-Yun; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of smart technology by investigators and patients to facilitate lung disease clinical trials and make them less costly and more efficient. By "smart technology" we include various electronic media, such as computer databases, the Internet, and mobile devices. We first describe the use of electronic health records for identifying potential subjects and then discuss electronic informed consent. We give several examples of using the Internet and mobile technology in clinical trials. Interventions have been delivered via the World Wide Web or via mobile devices, and both have been used to collect outcome data. We discuss examples of new electronic devices that recently have been introduced to collect health data. While use of smart technology in clinical trials is an exciting development, comparison with similar interventions applied in a conventional manner is still in its infancy. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of using this omnipresent, powerful tool in clinical trials, as well as directions for future research. PMID:26135330

  16. Probabilistic assessment of smart composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A composite wing with spars and bulkheads is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of probabilistic assessment of smart composite structures to control uncertainties in distortions and stresses. Results show that a smart composite wing can be controlled to minimize distortions and to have specified stress levels in the presence of defects. Structural responses such as changes in angle of attack, vertical displacements, and stress in the control and controlled plies are probabilistically assessed to quantify their respective uncertainties. Sensitivity factors are evaluated to identify those parameters that have the greatest influence on a specific structural response. Results show that smart composite structures can be configured to control both distortions and ply stresses to satisfy specified design requirements.

  17. Microwave Power for Smart Membrane Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart membrane actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. A large, ultra-light space structure, such as solar sails and Gossamer spacecrafts, requires a distribution of power into individual membrane actuators to control them in an effective way. A patch rectenna array with a high voltage output was developed to drive smart membrane actuators. Networked patch rectenna array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is developed and tested for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. For the future development, the PAD circuit could be imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array with the thin-film microcircuit embodiment. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a sixteen nodal elements were made for laboratory testing.

  18. Workforce mobility: Contributing towards smart city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. M.; Wahap, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    Smart cities gained importance as a means of making ICT enabled services and applications available to the citizens, companies and authorities that form part of a city's system. It aims at increasing citizen's quality of life, and improving the efficiency and quality of the services provided by governing entities and businesses. This perspective requires an integrated vision of a city and of its infrastructures in all components. One of the characteristics of a smart city is mobility. The concept of mobility, especially for the workforce, is studied through a research carried out on a daily work undertaken as a prototype in the administrative town of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Utilizing the location track from GNSS integrated with mobile devices platform, information on movement and mobility was analysed for quality and efficiency of services rendered. This paper will highlight the research and outcomes that were successfully carried out and will suggest that workforce mobility management can benefit the authorities towards implementing a smart city concept.

  19. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  20. Damping control of 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.

    Advanced 'smart' structures with self-sensation and control capabilities have attracted much attention in recent years. 'Smart' piezoelectric structures (conventional structures integrated with piezoelectric sensor and actuator elements) possessing self-monitoring and adaptive static and/or dynamic characteristics are very promising in many applications. This paper presents a study on 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures. A generic piezoelastic vibration theory for a thin piezoelectric shell continuum made of a hexagonal piezoelectric material is first derived. Piezoelastic system equation and electrostatic charge equation are formulated using Hamilton's principle and Kirchhoff-Love thin shell assumptions. Dynamic adaptivity, damping control, of a simply supported cylindrical shell structure is demonstrated in a case study. It shows that the system damping increases with the increase of feedback voltage for odd modes. The control scheme is ineffective for all even modes because of the symmetrical boundary conditions.

  1. Deformation measurements of smart aerodynamic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    1999-10-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F platform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flat, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  2. Smart structures for rotorcraft control (SSRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacot, A. Dean

    1997-05-01

    The Smart Structures for Rotor Control (SSRC) is a consortium under the overall Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Smart Structures program. The program is administered by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, with Boeing Seattle as the consortium administrator, and MIT, PSU and Boeing Helicopters as the other principal consortium members. The SSRC objectives are to research smart structure methods to achieve reduced rotorcraft vibration, reduced acoustic noise, and increased performance (i.e., payload). The SSRC program includes dynamic piezoelectric actuation of flaps on each rotor, distributed dynamic piezo actuation of the rotor twist, and quasi-static rotor twist control using shape memory alloys. Supporting these actuation approaches are system studies, rotorcraft structural and aero-elastic analyses, piezoelectric materials development, electronics development, and health monitoring studies.

  3. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  4. Smart white-light dazzler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Timothy D.; Ludman, Jacques E.; Watt, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The Smart, White-Light Dazzler (SWLD) is a nonlethal weapon designed to aim and deliver a dazzling and disabling light flash of maximum eye-safe energy to a selected target. The two key features of the SWLD technology are its self-aiming and power-adjusting capabilities; optical barriers, such as dark glasses, rifle scopes, binoculars, etc., and iris aperture, whether the eyes are light or dark adapted, are automatically taken into account by using a low-power infrared (IR) laser to probe and return a glint from the eye(s) of the target. Using the retro-reflected glint the dazzle pulse is adjusted and directed to arrive at the target with maximum allowable nonlethal energy at any range from 1 m to 100 m. The collateral risk of this technology is very small. If the weapon is misaimed dramatically, the returned glint may come from an unintended person who will then be dazzled. Although this person will be incapacitated for 2-3 minutes, he will suffer no long-term effects. We assume all persons in dangerous situations would rather be accidentally, temporarily dazzled than suffer more serious consequences. The SWLD adds an important tool to the spectrum of nonlethal responses available for use by military and law enforcement personnel. Applications include dispersing persons in crowd control and disabling terrorists in hijacking situations. The dazzle process may be repeated, choosing the next most susceptible target until a crowd is subdued. One important application in counter-terrorism is onboard planes where a pilot can fire a SWLD through a cockpit-door window and dazzle a hijacker with no damage to passengers.

  5. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  6. Smart cards for EV billing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    If electric vehicles are to gain widespread popularity, there will need to be public charging stations for refueling away from home. However, public charging raises some potentially complex issues regarding how individual EV owners will be billed for the electricity they use. It`s easy enough to meter the electricity used at a given battery charger, but the utility bill goes to the EV station merchant rather than the driver who consumed the electricity. So far this has not posed a problem, as many early charging sites have either been providing free electricity or billing only nominal flat fees. As the EV market grows, however, an effective point-of-sale (POS) billing mechanism will need to be established. In 1993, an investigation of POS billing systems for different types of non-home EV charging was conducted. Recently, the Cost Subcommittee of the Infrastructure Working Council`s (IWC) Load Management, Distribution, Power Quality Committee requested that an update be performed on the newest of these POS technologies--smart cards. The same size and shape as regular credit cards, smart cards use a microchip instead of a magnetic stripe to store information. The chip can hold significantly more information than a magnetic stripe, enabling greater security and flexible applications. Since 1993, there have been major advances in smart card technology, and smart card use has grown dramatically in both Europe and Asia. The US has been slower to embrace smart cards due to the entrenched infrastructure of traditional magnetic stripe credit cards. This paper reviews smart card technology and related POS transaction structures, and assesses the technical feasibility and economics of using these versatile cards for EV billing.

  7. SMART-1 studies of impact processes: all scales from South Pole-Aitken basin to the SMART-1 bouncing site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2013-09-01

    We highlight some ESA SMART - 1 results on impact processes. We discuss impact basins, the morphology of raters, the properties of central peaks, and the study of specific impact craters of interest to ILEWG community. We also give an update on the results from SMART-1 impact campaign and the search for SMART-1 bouncing site and debris using latest LRO data.

  8. System requirements specification for SMART structures mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer. The modules are to be included as part of the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) package developed for the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done. Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing.

  9. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  10. Smart Offices and Intelligent Decision Rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Carlos; Marreiros, Goreti; Santos, Ricardo; Freitas, Carlos Filipe

    Nowadays computing technology research is focused on the development of Smart Environments. Following that line of thought several Smart Rooms projects were developed and their appliances are very diversified. The appliances include projects in the context of workplace or everyday living, entertainment, play and education. These appliances envisage to acquire and apply knowledge about the environment state in order to reason about it so as to define a desired state for its inhabitants and perform adaptation adaptation to these desires and therefore improving their involvement and satisfaction with that environment.

  11. Fiber optic smart structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    Fiber optic smart structures as applied to aerospace platforms are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on advantages of these structures which include weight saving for equivalent performance, immunity to electromagnetic interference, the ability to multiplex a number of fiber optic sensors along a single line, the inherent high bandwidth of fiber optic sensors and the data links supporting them, the ability to perform in extremely hostile environments at high temperatures, vibration, and shock loadings. It is concluded that fiber optic smart structures have a considerable potential to enhance the value of future aircraft and spacecraft through improved reliability, maintainability, and flight performance augmentation.

  12. 75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... framework and roadmap that identified a number of standards that are applicable to the ongoing development...). \\4\\ Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0, NIST...

  13. The segmentation of the HMD market: optics for smart glasses, smart eyewear, AR and VR headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Saeedi, Ehsan; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the various optical technologies that have been developed to implement HMDs (Head Mounted Displays), both as AR (Augmented Reality) devices, VR (Virtual Reality) devices and more recently as smart glasses, smart eyewear or connected glasses. We review the typical requirements and optical performances of such devices and categorize them into distinct groups, which are suited for different (and constantly evolving) market segments, and analyze such market segmentation.

  14. Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen.

  15. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i

  16. 75 FR 55306 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of... Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will hold a meeting on Wednesday, September 29, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. The primary purpose of this meeting is to provide an orientation for Committee members...

  17. 76 FR 12711 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of... Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will hold a meeting on Thursday, March 24, 2011 from 8:30 a.m. to 5... Subcommittee, strategize the Table of Contents for the Committee report to NIST, agree on the page limit...

  18. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  19. Managing Distributed Systems with Smart Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe an event-based, publish-and-subscribe mechanism based on using 'smart subscriptions' to recognize weakly-structured events. We present a hierarchy of subscription languages (propositional, predicate, temporal and agent) and algorithms for efficiently recognizing event matches. This mechanism has been applied to the management of distributed applications.

  20. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  1. Smart Grid Cybersecurity: Job Performance Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, David

    2012-08-01

    This is the project report to DOE OE-30 for the completion of Phase 1 of a 3 phase report. This report outlines the work done to develop a smart grid cybersecurity certification. This work is being done with the subcontractor NBISE.

  2. Are We Smart Enough for Our Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, David

    1996-01-01

    Employers place less emphasis on experience and much more on adaptability. They want people who can learn. However, at the lowest stratum of the service sector, jobs are being dumbed down so that a worker has only to obey commands of smart machines ("Touch french fry icon now"). (Author/JOW)

  3. SMARTE: IMPROVING REVITALIZATION DECISIONS (CINCINNATI, OHIO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and ...

  4. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  5. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits 10 tips for affordable vegetables and fruits It is possible to fit vegetables and fruits into any budget. Making nutritious choices does not have to hurt ...

  6. Smart Money: Public Investment in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweke, William

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the inspiring achievements of Zavala and Ortega Elementary Schools. These two schools are examples of "smart money," public dollars that are invested and generate a high societal return, measurable in real, quantifiable results for workers, businesses and society. The author explores ways in improving school performance even…

  7. An Action Plan for Smart Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teicher, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Empowering children to use the Internet safely and responsibly is essential. Students can also be taught to communicate positively with others. The CyberSmart! School Program offers a framework that teachers can use to discuss the Internet with students and raise awareness. Tips regarding etiquette, advertising, and privacy protection are also…

  8. The Starting Early Starting Smart Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey Family Programs, Seattle, WA.

    Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) is an early childhood public/private initiative designed to identify new, empirical knowledge about the effectiveness of integrating substance abuse prevention, addictions treatment, and mental health services with primary health care and childcare service settings (e.g., Head Start, day care, preschool) to…

  9. Helping Students to Become Money Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Being money smart has value that offers individuals skills for a lifetime. "Lawmakers had no way of knowing in 2007 that the U. S. economic situation would be where it is today, making financial education for students now even more crucial than at any other time in recent history" (Black, 2009, p. 1). According to Beverly & Burkhalter (2005, p.…

  10. Smart Classrooms Cannot Replace Remarkable Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Miles

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the changing attitudes of students towards their professors as they rely more on "smart classrooms." The author muses over a 30-year teaching career and remembers those professors whose miniature characterizations were about what students--most students--wanted then, the remarkable professor.…

  11. Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    By making a commitment to high-performance schools, many school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can have lasting benefits for their students, their communities, and the environment. An energy-efficient school district with 4,000 students could save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can…

  12. The Handbook for SMART School Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conzemius, Anne; O'Neill, Jan

    This handbook is designed to help educators set the stage for collaboration and teamwork by teaching how to become a SMART School using focus, reflection, collaboration, and leadership to set strategic and specific, measurable, results-based, and time-bound goals. The progress made in reaching these goals can then be measured using the…

  13. Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    1998-01-01

    Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.

  14. Direction of Contents Development for SMART Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, YoungSun; An, SangJin; Lee, YoungJun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a direction of developing SMART education contents for its effective implementation by analyzing the status of educational informatization policies in Korea. Korean government has built the information and communication infrastructure, and provided teachers and students with various kinds of contents. And, in…

  15. GET SMARTE: DECISION TOOLS TO REVITALIZE BROWNFIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic) is an open-source, web-based, decision-support system for developing and evaluating future use scenarios for potentially contaminated sites (i.e., brownfields). It contains resources and analysis tools...

  16. Working Smart Workbook. An Interactive Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This workbook accompanies an interactive videodisc used in the Working Smart workplace literacy project prepared for the hotel and food services industry in the Los Angeles, California area. The first instructional unit addresses preparing the work area, including stocking supplies and cleaning the work area. The second instructional unit covers…

  17. The Southern Part of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ; 42-46S) of the Andes: History of Medium and Large Explosive Holocene Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, C. R.; Naranjo, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano is one of 13 large volcanic centers, and numerous small cones, comprising the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), that results from the subduction of the Nazca plate (at 7.8 cm/yr) between the landward extension of the Chiloé FZ at 42S and the Chile Rise - Trench triple junction at 46S. Chaitén is a rhyolite dome inside a 3 km diameter caldera located 15 km west of the larger Michinmahuida stratovolcano. Other stratovolcanoes in the SSVZ include Yate, Hornopirén, Corcovado, Yanteles, Melimoyu, Mentolat, Cay and Macá. Hudson volcano, the southernmost in the Southern SVZ, is a large 10 km caldera, while Huequi and Hualaihué - Cordón Cabrera are a group of small aligned cinder cones possibly related to a larger eroded volcanic complex. Prior to the May 2008 eruption of Chaitén, the only well documented historic eruptions in this segment of the Andean arc were the explosive eruption of Hudson in August 1991 (Naranjo et al. 1993), and two eruptions of Michinmahuida in 1742 and 1834-35. Tephra deposits provide evidence of 11 prehistoric explosive Holocene eruptions of the southernmost SSVZ Hudson volcano, including two large eruptions near <6700 and <3600 BP (Naranjo and Stern 1998). The 6700 BP eruption produced greater than 18 km3 of andesitic tephra, possibly the largest Holocene eruption in all the southern Andes. Although Hudson is clearly the most active of the Southern SVZ volcanoes in terms of both volume and frequency of explosive eruptions, tephra deposits indicate that seven of the other SSVZ volcanoes, including Chaitén, also have had medium to large Holocene explosive eruptions (Naranjo and Stern 2004). Three of these eruptions were from Corcovado at approximately <9190, <7980 and <6870 BP, one from Yanteles at <9180 BP, two from Melimoyu at <2740 and <1750 BP, one from Mentolat at <6960 and one from Macá at <1540 BP. Two other eruptions, at <6350 and <3820 BP, we interpret as having been produced by

  18. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key

  19. SMART-1 ion engine fired successfully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster hi-res Size hi-res: 257 kb Credits: ESA 2002. Illustration by Medialab. Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster Electrons attracted into the discharge chamber collide with xenon atoms from the propellant gas supply, making charged atoms (ions). Current-carrying coils, inside and outside the doughnut-shaped discharge chamber, sustain a magnetic field oriented like the spokes of a wheel. By the Hall effect, ions and electrons swerving in opposite directions in the magnetic field create an electric field. This expels the xenon ions in a propulsive jet. Other emitted electrons then neutralize the xenon, producing the blue jet. Engineers at ESOC, the European Space Agency's control centre in Darmstadt, Germany, sent a command to begin the firing test, which lasted for one hour. This was similar to a trial performed on Earth before SMART-1 was launched. Several months ago, the ion engine, or Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) system, had been placed in a vacuum chamber on the ground and its functions and operation were measured. Now in space and in a true vacuum, the ion engine actually worked better than in the test on ground and has nudged SMART-1 a little closer to the Moon. This is the first time that Europe flies an electric primary propulsion in space, and also the first European use of this particular type of ion engine, called a 'Hall-effect' thruster. The SEPP consists of a single ion engine fuelled by xenon gas and powered by solar energy. The ion engine will accelerate SMART-1 very gradually to cause the spacecraft to travel in a series of spiralling orbits - each revolution slightly further away from the Earth - towards the Moon. Once captured by the Moon's gravity, SMART-1 will move into ever-closer orbits of the Moon. As part of one of the overall mission objectives to test this new SEPP technology, the data will now be analysed to see how much acceleration was achieved and how

  20. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  1. Smart material-based radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleski, Scott

    2014-10-01

    From sensors to power harvesters, the unique properties of smart materials have been exploited in numerous ways to enable new applications and reduce the size of many useful devices. Smart materials are defined as materials whose properties can be changed in a controlled and often reversible fashion by use of external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields, temperature, or humidity. Smart materials have been used to make acceleration sensors that are ubiquitous in mobile phones, to make highly accurate frequency standards, to make unprecedentedly small actuators and motors, to seal and reduce friction of rotating shafts, and to generate power by conversion of either kinetic or thermal energy to electrical energy. The number of useful devices enabled by smart materials is large and continues to grow. Smart materials can also be used to generate plasmas and accelerate particles at small scales. The materials discussed in this talk are from non-centrosymmetric crystalline classes including piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and ferroelectric materials, which produce large electric fields in response to external stimuli such as applied electric fields or thermal energy. First, the use of ferroelectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials for plasma generation and particle acceleration will be reviewed. The talk will then focus on the use of piezoelectric materials at the University of Missouri to construct plasma sources and electrostatic accelerators for applications including space propulsion, x-ray imaging, and neutron production. The basic concepts of piezoelectric transformers, which are analogous to conventional magnetic transformers, will be discussed, along with results from experiments over the last decade to produce micro-thrusters for space propulsion and particle accelerators for x-ray and neutron production. Support from ONR, AFOSR, and LANL.

  2. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Mel

    2002-03-01

    Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all

  3. A Rhythm-Based Authentication Scheme for Smart Media Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Dong; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience. PMID:25110743

  4. Technology Verification of the Advanced Integral Reactor SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Si-Hwan Kim; Young-Dong Hwang; Hee-Chul Kim; Sung-Quun Zee

    2006-07-01

    SMART(System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is an integral type advanced pressurized water reactor with a rated thermal power of 330 MW, developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for a seawater desalination and small scale electricity generation. Safety and economic improvement are the two most important considerations in the design of the SMART. The SMART design combines firmly established commercial reactor design technologies with advanced design features. The advanced design features and technologies implemented into the SMART design have been proven or will be qualified through the technology verification program of SMART. Technology verification program of SMART consists of basic thermal-hydraulic experiments, separate effect test, major components performance test, system integrated tests of safety system and one fifth scaled pilot plant construction project. The overall performance and safety of SMART will be demonstrated through the SMART-pilot plant (SMART-P). The SMART-P plant construction project is currently underway and will be complete the construction by 2010. (authors)

  5. The SMARTS Observatory: Rich Science Accessible to Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misenti, Victoria; Bailyn, C. D.; Henry, T. J.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; Consortium, SMARTS

    2013-01-01

    The SMARTS Observatory has been producing excellent science for 10 years, as evidenced by many publications of gamma ray bursts, comprehensive novae observations, long-term AGN monitoring, and discoveries of nearby stars. Nonetheless, in these difficult economic times, SMARTS is experiencing funding limitations that are beginning to impact the services it is able to provide. SMARTS will be able to continue operations beyond FY2013 only if funding for 3 or more years is committed by March 1, 2013. Therefore, SMARTS is now seeking new members among scientists and institutions who would like to use SMARTS telescopes --- the 1.5m, 1.3m, 1.0m, and 0.9m at CTIO --- to carry out their science programs. In this poster we show scientific highlights from SMARTS users as well as statistics on its productivity. We describe the capabilities of SMARTS, both in the current reduced operational mode of three telescopes as well as in the full operational mode of four telescopes. We also provide details about how the SMARTS Consortium currently functions, what it costs to participate, and how to become a member. The advantages of SMARTS memberships include long-term science, flexible scheduling, and dedicated assistance from the SMARTS and CTIO teams that make it one of the smoothest operating observatories in the world.

  6. A rhythm-based authentication scheme for smart media devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience. PMID:25110743

  7. Design of an Open Smart Energy Gateway for Smart Meter Data Management

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Janie; McParland, Chuck; Piette, Mary Ann; Czarnecki, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    With the widespread deployment of electronic interval meters, commonly known as smart meters, came the promise of real-time data on electric energy consumption. Recognizing an opportunity to provide consumers access to their near real-time energy consumption data directly from their installed smart meter, we designed a mechanism for capturing those data for consumer use via an open smart energy gateway (OpenSEG). By design, OpenSEG provides a clearly defined boundary for equipment and data ownership. OpenSEG is an open-source data management platform to enable better data management of smart meter data. Effectively, it is an information architecture designed to work with the ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.x (SEP 1.x). It was specifically designed to reduce cyber-security risks and provide secure information directly from smart meters to consumers in near real time, using display devices already owned by the consumers. OpenSEG stores 48 hours of recent consumption data in a circular cache using a format consistent with commonly available archived (not real-time) consumption data such as Green Button, which is based on the Energy Services Provider Interface (ESPI) data standard. It consists of a common XML format for energy usage information and a data exchange protocol to facilitate automated data transfer upon utility customer authorization. Included in the design is an application program interface by which users can acquire data from OpenSEG for further post processing. A sample data display application is included in the initial software product. The data display application demonstrates that OpenSEG can help electricity use data to be retrieved from a smart meter and ported to a wide variety of user-owned devices such as cell phones or a user-selected database. This system can be used for homes, multi-family buildings, or small commercial buildings in California.

  8. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings.

    PubMed

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-01-01

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses) to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance. PMID:25946630

  9. WSN- and IOT-Based Smart Homes and Their Extension to Smart Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Ghayvat, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Gui, Xiang; Suryadevara, Nagender

    2015-01-01

    Our research approach is to design and develop reliable, efficient, flexible, economical, real-time and realistic wellness sensor networks for smart home systems. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes based on wireless networking technologies are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate real-time data related to the object usage and movement inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. Here, wellness stands for how efficiently someone stays fit in the home environment and performs his or her daily routine in order to live a long and healthy life. We initiate the research with the development of the smart home approach and implement it in different home conditions (different houses) to monitor the activity of an inhabitant for wellness detection. Additionally, our research extends the smart home system to smart buildings and models the design issues related to the smart building environment; these design issues are linked with system performance and reliability. This research paper also discusses and illustrates the possible mitigation to handle the ISM band interference and attenuation losses without compromising optimum system performance. PMID:25946630

  10. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The whole story began in September 2003, when an Ariane 5 launcher blasted off from Kourou, French Guiana, to deliver the European Space Agency’s lunar spacecraft SMART-1 into Earth orbit. SMART-1 is a small unmanned satellite weighing 366 kilograms and roughly fitting into a cube just 1 metre across, excluding its 14-metre solar panels (which were folded during launch). After launch and injection into an elliptical orbit around the Earth, the gentle but steady push provided by the spacecraft’s highly innovative electric propulsion engine forcefully expelling xenon gas ions caused SMART-1 to spiral around the Earth, increasing its distance from our planet until, after a long journey of about 14 months, it was “captured” by the Moon’s gravity. To cover the 385,000 km distance that separates the Earth from the Moon if one travelled in a straight line, this remarkably efficient engine brought the spacecraft on a 100 million km long spiralling journey on only 60 litres of fuel! The spacecraft was captured by the Moon in November 2004 and started its scientific mission in March 2005 in an elliptical orbit around its poles. ESA’s SMART-1 is currently the only spacecraft around the Moon, paving the way for the fleet of international lunar orbiters that will be launched from 2007 onwards. The story is now close to ending. On the night of Saturday 2 to Sunday 3 September, looking at the Moon with a powerful telescope, one may be able to see something special happening. Like most of its lunar predecessors, SMART-1 will end its journey and exploration of the Moon by landing in a relatively abrupt way. It will impact the lunar surface in an area called the “Lake of Excellence”, situated in the mid-southern region of the Moon’s visible disc at 07:41 CEST (05:41 UTC), or five hours before if it finds an unknown peak on the way. The story is close to ending After 16 months harvesting scientific results in an elliptical orbit around the Moon’s poles (at

  11. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  12. Smart glove: hand master using magnetorheological fluid actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. J.; Park, M. K.; Yamane, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a hand master using five miniature magneto-rheological (MR) actuators, which is called 'the smart glove', is introduced. This hand master is intended to display haptic feedback to the fingertip of the human user interacting with any virtual objects in virtual environment. For the smart glove, two effective approaches are proposed: (i) by using the MR actuator which can be considered as a passive actuator, the smart glove is made simple in structure, high in power, low in inertia, safe in interface and stable in haptic feedback, and (ii) with a novel flexible link mechanism designed for the position-force transmission between the fingertips and the actuators, the number of the actuator and the weight of the smart glove can be reduced. These features lead to the improvement in the manipulability and portability of the smart glove. The feasibility of the constructed smart glove is verified through basic performance evaluation.

  13. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  14. Smart garments in chronic disease management: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the progress made developments in the area of Smart Garments for chronic disease management over last 10 years. A large number of health monitoring smart garments and wearable sensors have been manufactured to monitor patient's physiological parameters such as electrocardiogram, blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation, while patient is not in hospital. In last few years with the advancement in smartphones and cloud computing it is now possible to send the measure physiological data to any desired location. However there are many challenges in the development of smart garment systems. The two major challenges are development of new lightweight power sources and there is a need for global standardization and a road map for development of smart garments. In this paper we will discuss current state-of-theart smart garments and wearable sensor systems. Also discussed will be the new emerging trends in smart garment research and development.

  15. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  16. 75 FR 66752 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference... regulatory authorities that also are considering the adoption of Smart Grid Interoperability Standards.../FERC Collaborative on Smart Response (Collaborative), in the International D Ballroom at the Omni...

  17. Combining Sense and Intelligence for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    IFOS developed the I*Sense technology with assistance from a NASA Langley Research Center SBIR contract. NASA and IFOS collaborated to create sensing network designs that have high sensitivity, low power consumption, and significant potential for mass production. The joint- research effort led to the development of a module that is rugged, compact and light-weight, and immune to electromagnetic interference. These features make the I*Sense multisensor arrays favorable for smart structure applications, including smart buildings, bridges, highways, dams, power plants, ships, and oil tankers, as well as space vehicles, space stations, and other space structures. For instance, the system can be used as an early warning and detection device, with alarms being set to monitor the maximum allowable strain and stress values at various points of a given structure.

  18. Technology Readiness and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Harold; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2013-02-27

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) originated as a way for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to monitor the development of systems being readied for space. The technique has found wide application as part of the more general topic of system engineering. In this paper, we consider the applicability of TRLs to systems being readied for the smart grid. We find that there are many useful parallels, and much to be gained by this application. However, TRLs were designed for a developer who was also a user. That is not usually the case for smart grid developments. We consider the matter from the point of view of the company responsible for implementation, typically a utility, and we find that there is a need for connecting the many standards in the industry. That connection is explored, and some new considerations are introduced.

  19. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  20. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Synnott, Jonathan; Nugent, Chris; Jeffers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation. PMID:26087371

  1. Getting SMaRT in California

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-02-01

    With the year 2000 fast approaching, Waste Management`s Davis Street SMaRT Station in the San Francisco Bay Area is ramping up its yard and wood waste components to reach the magic 50% recycling figure required of california jurisdictions. Waste Management`s Davis Street Station in San Leandro, Calif., is in a growth spurt. Late last year the SMaRT facility--which stands for station for materials recycling and transfer--added 50 tph of yard and wood waste capacity, making it one of the largest facilities in the country that deal with organic wastes, and bringing the multimaterial facility to a total of more than 3,000 tpd of overall capacity.

  2. 'Smart' polymers in biotechnology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaev, Igor Yu

    1995-05-01

    'Smart' water-soluble polymers and hydrogels are capable of responding reversibly to slight changes in the properties of the medium (pH, temperature, ionic strength, the presence of certain substances, illumination, electric field), the response of the system being readily seen with the naked eye (the formation of a new phase in a hitherto homogeneous solution, sudden swelling or contraction of the hydrogel). The properties of such polymers and hydrogels are examined. The use of 'smart' polymers and hydrogels for the concentration of protein solutions and the dehydration of suspensions, for the creation of membranes with a controllable permeability, for the isolation and purification of biomolecules, for the immobilisation of biocatalysts, and for the creation of sensor systems and systems for the controlled release of medicinal drugs is discussed. The bibliography includes 261 references.

  3. Smart Rehabilitation Garment for posture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Chen, W; Timmermans, A A A; Karachristos, C; Martens, J B; Markopoulos, P

    2015-08-01

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and development of Smart Rehabilitation Garment (SRG) a wearable system designed to support posture correction. The SRG combines a number of inertial measurement units (IMUs), controlled by an Arduino processor. It provides feedback with vibration on the garment, audible alarm signals and visual instruction through a Bluetooth connected smartphone. We discuss the placement of sensing modules, the garment design, the feedback design and the integration of smart textiles and wearable electronics which aimed at achieving wearability and ease of use. We report on the system's accuracy as compared to optical tracker method. PMID:26737595

  4. Development of a simulated smart pump interface.

    PubMed

    Elias, Beth L; Moss, Jacqueline A; Shih, Alan; Dillavou, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Medical device user interfaces are increasingly complex, resulting in a need for evaluation in clinicallyaccurate settings. Simulation of these interfaces can allow for evaluation, training, and use for research without the risk of harming patients and with a significant cost reduction over using the actual medical devices. This pilot project was phase 1 of a study to define and evaluate a methodology for development of simulated medical device interface technology to be used for education, device development, and research. Digital video and audio recordings of interface interactions were analyzed to develop a model of a smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface. This model was used to program a high-fidelity simulated smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface on an inexpensive netbook platform. PMID:24189715

  5. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman Ali, Syed M.; Hussain, Sajid; Akber Siddiqui, Ali; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-12-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input & Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively.

  6. Use of smart materials in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winzer, Stephen R.; Bridger, Keith; Caldwell, Paul J.; Sewell, James S.

    1996-05-01

    Medical diagnostic capabilities have seen explosive growth over the past decade, as new techniques, such as MRI, have been taken from the laboratory setting into the clinical environment, with considerable benefit to the population at large. In this paper, we address another area of medical diagnostics which, we believe, stands on the verge of explosive growth, driven more by the emerging requirements for cost-effective diagnostic tools, and by the evolving needs of the defense medical community, with spinoff of those into the strongly related emergency care area of the civilian market. One of the factors that will drive this area of medical diagnostics is the development of smart materials and the sensors and sensor systems developed from them. In this paper we discuss some of the developments in the field of smart materials as they apply to development of new, low cost acoustic sensors for patient monitoring and medical imaging.

  7. SMART- Small Motor AerRospace Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, M.; Crescenzi, R.; Ferrari, A.; Guarrea, G.; Pontetti, G.; Orsini, F.; Quattrino, L.; Viola, F.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents the "SMART" (Small Motor AerRospace Tecnology) propulsion system, constituted of microthrusters array realised by semiconductor technology on silicon wafers. SMART system is obtained gluing three main modules: combustion chambers, igniters and nozzles. The module was then filled with propellant and closed by gluing a piece of silicon wafer in the back side of the combustion chambers. The complete assembled module composed of 25 micro- thrusters with a 3 x 5 nozzle is presented. The measurement showed a thrust of 129 mN and impulse of 56,8 mNs burning about 70mg of propellant for the micro-thruster with nozzle and a thrust of 21 mN and impulse of 8,4 mNs for the micro-thruster without nozzle.

  8. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  9. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  10. Home Area Networks and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-04-01

    With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.

  11. Real-time smart fluorescence sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Jason E.; Vaughn, Mike S.; Taylor, Mervin; Ponstingl, Mike

    2011-06-01

    A novel compact LED array based light induced fluorescence (LIF) sensor has been developed for real-time in-line monitoring of intrinsic fluorophores in the solid and liquid state. The sensor is essential for on-the-spot, routine, and cost effective real-time analysis. The sensor is designed to provide real-time emission response along with various smart sensing parameters to ensure real-time measurement quality that is required for regulated GMP process monitoring applications. This work describes a LIF sensor tailored for solid-phase fluorometry. Fundamental figures of merit, excitation overexposure and smart sensing features required for modern process monitoring and control are discussed within the context of pharmaceutical solid-phase manufacturing and similar applications.

  12. Urban Sprawl, Smart Growth, and Deliberative Democracy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl—such as smart growth—have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy—an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting—would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues. PMID:20724685

  13. Dynamic adaptivity of "smart" piezoelectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Horn-Sen; Zhong, Jianping P.

    1990-10-01

    Active smart" space and machine structures with adaptive dynamic characteristics have long been interested in a variety of high-performance systems, e.g., flexible robots, flexible space structures, "smart" machines, etc. In this paper, an active adaptive structure made of piezoelectric materials is proposed and evaluated. The structural adaptivity is achieved by a voltage feedback (open or closed loops) utilizing the converse piezoelectric effect. A mathematical model is proposed and the electrodynamic equations of motion and the generalized boundary conditions of a generic piezoelectric shell subjected to mechanical and electrical excitations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the linear piezoelectric theory. The dynamic adaptivity of the structure is introduced using a feedback control system. The theory is demonstrated in a case study in which the structural adaptivity (natural frequency) is investigated.

  14. Development of passive smart structural attachment fixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Larry D.; Westermo, Bruce D.; Law, Will; Trombi, Robert; Waldbusser, Raymond

    1997-05-01

    This paper discusses efforts related to the development and evaluation of smart bolts and fasteners. The work has been directed at meeting the high-strength application requirements for the aircraft industry and selected applications within the construction industry. The fasteners are fabricated from metastable austenitic steel materials which progressively and irreversibly transform from a non- ferromagnetic, austenitic parent phase to a thermodynamically stable, ferromagnetic martensitic phase as a function of applied strain. Thus, the ferromagnetic response of an in-place fastener can be used to indicate the degree of inelastic deformation, i.e., the peak, post-yield, strain, that it has experienced up to that time. A combination of alloy chemistry and thermomechanical treatment was utilized to produce the desired martensitic transformation vs. peak strain behavior. A discussion of the smart materials behavior of the fasteners will be followed by a presentation of recent test results which illustrate the structural bolt monitoring technique with some possible applications.

  15. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  16. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets.

    PubMed

    Synnott, Jonathan; Nugent, Chris; Jeffers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation. PMID:26087371

  17. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  18. Urban sprawl, smart growth, and deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-10-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl-such as smart growth-have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy-an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting-would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues. PMID:20724685

  19. A Photoresponsive Smart Covalent Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Ding, Xuesong; Kim, Jangbae; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-07-20

    Ordered π-columnar structures found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) render them attractive as smart materials. However, external-stimuli-responsive COFs have not been explored. Here we report the design and synthesis of a photoresponsive COF with anthracene units as the photoresponsive π-building blocks. The COF is switchable upon photoirradiation to yield a concavo-convex polygon skeleton through the interlayer [4π+4π] cycloaddition of anthracene units stacked in the π-columns. This cycloaddition reaction is thermally reversible; heating resets the anthracene layers and regenerates the COF. These external-stimuli-induced structural transformations are accompanied by profound changes in properties, including gas adsorption, π-electronic function, and luminescence. The results suggest that COFs are useful for designing smart porous materials with properties that are controllable by external stimuli. PMID:26095503

  20. A Photoresponsive Smart Covalent Organic Framework**

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Ding, Xuesong; Kim, Jangbae; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Ordered π-columnar structures found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) render them attractive as smart materials. However, external-stimuli-responsive COFs have not been explored. Here we report the design and synthesis of a photoresponsive COF with anthracene units as the photoresponsive π-building blocks. The COF is switchable upon photoirradiation to yield a concavo-convex polygon skeleton through the interlayer [4π+4π] cycloaddition of anthracene units stacked in the π-columns. This cycloaddition reaction is thermally reversible; heating resets the anthracene layers and regenerates the COF. These external-stimuli-induced structural transformations are accompanied by profound changes in properties, including gas adsorption, π-electronic function, and luminescence. The results suggest that COFs are useful for designing smart porous materials with properties that are controllable by external stimuli. PMID:26095503

  1. Protecting the Smart Grid: A Risk Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai

    2011-10-10

    This paper describes a risk-based approach to security that has been used for years in protecting physical assets, and shows how it could be modified to help secure the digital aspects of the smart grid and control systems in general. One way the smart grid has been said to be vulnerable is that mass load fluctuations could be created by quickly turning off and on large quantities of smart meters. We investigate the plausibility.

  2. Scalable Real Time Data Management for Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Purohit, Sumit; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2011-12-16

    This paper presents GridMW, a scalable and reliable data middleware for smart grids. Smart grids promise to improve the efficiency of power grid systems and reduce green house emissions through incorporating power generation from renewable sources and shaping demand to match the supply. As a result, power grid systems will become much more dynamic and require constant adjustments, which requires analysis and decision making applications to improve the efficiency and reliability of smart grid systems.

  3. Health smart cards: merging technology and medical information.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sherry R

    2003-01-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized plastic cards, with an embedded dime-sized Integrated Circuit microprocessor chip. Smart cards can be used for keyless entry, electronic medical records, etc. Health smart cards have been in limited use since 1982 in Europe and the United States, and several barriers including lack of infrastructure, low consumer confidence, competing standards, and cost continue to be addressed. PMID:12627691

  4. Results from SMART-1 Lunar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2006-08-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA mission that reached the Moon. It demonstrated Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) and tested new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. Launched on 27 Sept. 2003, as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger, SMART-1 has spiralled out towards lunar capture on 15 November 2004, and then towards lunar science orbit reached on 1 March 2005. The mission has been extended and is due to end with an impact on 2-3 September 2006. This is permitting science but also to prepare future international lunar exploration, in collaboration with upcoming missions. We shall present the first year lunar results from SMART-1's science and technology payload. The 19 kg payload includes a miniaturized high-resolution camera (AMIE), a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) for surface elemental composition. There is also an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addresses several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system.

  5. SMART-1 - the lunar adventure begins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    On the one hand, SMART-1 will test new state-of-the art instruments and techniques essential to ambitious future interplanetary missions, such as a solar-electric primary propulsion system. On the other, SMART-1 will answer pending scientific questions, addressing key issues such as the Moon's formation, its precise mineralogical composition, and the presence and quantity of water. These data will help scientists to understand the Earth-Moon system and Earth-like planets, and will also provide invaluable information when considering a long-lasting human presence on the Moon. On 15 July 2003, SMART 1 was shipped to the European launch base in Kourou, French Guiana, where it is being prepared for its launch, due to take place on an Ariane-5 rocket on 29 August 2003 (Central European Summer Time). For the first time, SMART-1 will combine the power obtained by solar-electric propulsion - never used before by Europe as a main propulsion system - with lunar gravity. It will not follow a direct path to cross the 400 000 kilometres distance between the Earth and the Moon. Instead, from an elliptical orbit around the Earth where it is placed by the rocket, SMART-1 will gradually expand the orbit in a spiral pathway that will bring it closer to the Moon every month. Finally, the Moon’s gravitational field will capture the spacecraft. SMART-1 will not land on the Moon, but will make its observations from orbit, obtaining a global view. When it reaches its destination, in December 2004, it will enter orbit around the Moon and make measurements for a period of six months possibly extended to one year. Why the Moon? Water, minerals, and a violent origin “Our knowledge of the Moon is still surprisingly incomplete,” says Bernard Foing, ESA’s SMART-1 Project Scientist. “We still want to know how the Earth-Moon system formed and evolved, as well as the role of geophysical processes such as volcanism, tectonics, cratering, or erosion in shaping the Moon. And, of course, in

  6. Magnetoresistive smart fluid (marsonpol) and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reji, John; Suresh, G.; Narayanadas, D. J.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetorheological fluid, Electrorheological fluid and ferro fluids are the smart fluids known today. These fluids are either electrically conductive or non conductive. They do not exhibit variable electrical resistance or switching behavior. Of recent interest to researchers has been the development of new types of magnetoresistive materials. Such materials can be of large practical importance, as they will change their electrical resistance in the presence of a magnetic field. However, most materials only exhibit appreciable magnetoresistance under extreme conditions, such as high magnetic fields or low temperatures. A smart fluid whose electrical resistance can be varied by several orders of magnitude under nominal level of magnetic field is reported in this paper (designated MARSONPOL). In the absence of a magnetic field the fluid is an insulator having electrical resistance in the order of 108 ohm-meter and in the presence of a magnetic field the resistance of the material reduces to less than 1 ohm-meter, at room temperature of 30°C. The sharp and reversible change in resistivity makes the material transform from an insulator to conductor, rendering properties characteristic of either state, within a fraction of a second. Fluids with such characteristics are not reported in the literature making this development a breakthrough and opening up potentials for the development of several smart devices. One such device is the magnetic field sensor probe currently under development at NPOL. A capsule of MARSONPOL forms the basic sensor element. Depending on the strength of the Magnetic field, the electrical resistivity of the capsule undergoes changes. The present paper will discuss details of the smart fluid as well as features of the magnetic field sensor.

  7. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  8. Implications of smart materials in advanced prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoe, Edward M.; Radicic, William N.; Knapp, Michael S.

    1994-05-01

    This research reviews common implant materials and suggests smart materials that may be used as substitutes. Current prosthetic technology, including artificial limbs, joints, and soft and hard tissue, falls short in comprehensive characterization of the chemo-mechanics and materials relationships of the natural tissues and their prosthetic materials counterparts. Many of these unknown chemo-mechanical properties in natural tissue systems maintain cooperative function that allows for optimum efficiency in performance and healing. Traditional prosthetic devices have not taken into account the naturally occurring electro-chemo-mechanical stress- strain relationships that normally exist in a tissue system. Direct mechanical deformation of tissue and cell membrane as a possible use of smart materials may lead to improved prosthetic devices once the mechanosensory systems in living tissues are identified and understood. Smart materials may aid in avoiding interfacial atrophy which is a common cause of prosthetic failure. Finally, we note that advanced composite materials have not received sufficient attention, they should be more widely used in prosthetics. Their structural efficiency allows design and construction of truly efficient bionic devices.

  9. SMART-1 operations experience and lessons learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Octavio; Alonso, Maria; Gestal, Daniel; de Bruin, Jurriaan; Rathsman, Peter; Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Ricken, Sascha; Blake, Rick; Voss, Pablo Pardo; Stagnaro, Luca

    2007-06-01

    SMART-1 is the first of a series of ESA Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology where elements of the platform and the payload technology have been conceived as a demonstration for future cornerstone missions and an early opportunity for science. SMART-1 has also been an opportunity to experiment with new ways of conducting ground operations taking advantage of both increased satellite autonomy and ground automation tools. The paper will focus on three areas: The accumulated performance of the technology demonstration components since launch as the electrical propulsion engine, the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries, the 32 bit CPU ERC32 Single Chip, the CAN bus, the DTU Star Trackers and the complex on-board autonomy. The changes implemented on-board and on the ground during the lunar phase to increase the data return. The pros and contras in some of the choices made for SMART-1, the developments and solutions implemented to mitigate the problems, the tools developed to automate the operations and the distribution of data.

  10. ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Marini, Andrea; Grande, Manuel; Huovelin, Juhani; Josset, Jean-Luc; Keller, Horst Uwe; Nathues, Andreas; Koschny, Detlef; Malkki, Ansi

    SMART-1 is the first of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. Its objective is to demonstrate Primary Solar Electric Propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The 370 kg spacecraft is to be launched in summer 2003 as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and after a 15 month cruise is to orbit the Moon for 6 months with possible extension. SMART-1 will carry out observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit with a science and technology payload (19 kg total mass): a miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) mapping surface elemental composition a Deep Space Communication experiment (KaTE) a radio-science investigations (RSIS) a Laser-Link Experiment an On Board Autonomous Navigation experiment (OBAN) and plasma sensors (SPEDE). SMART-1 will study accretional and bombardment processes that led to the formation of rocky planets and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Its science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon of geophysical processes (volcanism tectonics cratering erosion deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology and the preparation for future lunar and planetary exploration.

  11. With Geospatial in Path of Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homainejad, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    With growth of urbanisation, there is a requirement for using the leverage of smart city in city management. The core of smart city is Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and one of its elements is smart transport which includes sustainable transport and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Cities and especially megacities are facing urgent transport challenge in traffic management. Geospatial can provide reliable tools for monitoring and coordinating traffic. In this paper a method for monitoring and managing the ongoing traffic in roads using aerial images and CCTV will be addressed. In this method, the road network was initially extracted and geo-referenced and captured in a 3D model. The aim is to detect and geo-referenced any vehicles on the road from images in order to assess the density and the volume of vehicles on the roads. If a traffic jam was recognised from the images, an alternative route would be suggested for easing the traffic jam. In a separate test, a road network was replicated in the computer and a simulated traffic was implemented in order to assess the traffic management during a pick time using this method.

  12. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  13. Software Technology Readiness for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Tugurlan, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Chassin, David P.

    2011-06-13

    Abstract Budget and schedule overruns in product development due to the use of immature technologies constitute an important matter for program managers. Moreover, unexpected lack of technology maturity is also a problem for buyers. Both sides of the situation would benefit from an unbiased measure of technology maturity. This paper presents the use of a software maturity metric called Technology Readiness Level (TRL), in the milieu of the smart grid. For most of the time they have been in existence, power utilities have been protected monopolies, guaranteed a return on investment on anything they could justify adding to the rate base. Such a situation did not encourage innovation, and instead led to widespread risk-avoidance behavior in many utilities. The situation changed at the end of the last century, with a series of regulatory measures, beginning with the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978. However, some bad experiences have actually served to strengthen the resistance to innovation by some utilities. Some aspects of the smart grid, such as the addition of computer-based control to the power system, face an uphill battle. It is our position that the addition of TRLs to the decision-making process for smart grid power-system projects, will lead to an environment of more confident adoption.

  14. Silicon sensor integration to form smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdeas, Leon; James, Daniel A.; Thiel, David V.; See, Le Lian

    2002-11-01

    The use of silicon-based sensors requires the addition of external support electronics to allow for compatibility with external logging and display instruments. The development of a smart sensor technology, where the support electronics are incorporated into the sensor allows for a simpler interface. To achieve this integration techniques are required for the connection of substrate sensors with drive and support circuitry (operational amplifiers and CMOS circuitry), for effective encapsulation into a single packaged device. In this paper a literature review of basic peripheral and internal interconnect techniques is presented. Three techniques for interconnects were experimentally investigated (wraparound, thermomigration and etched micro via"s) using in-house fabrication equipment and the results presented and discussed. An integrated "smart" light sensor was constructed by forming a schotkey diode on n-type silicon. The sensor was integrated with a commercially available LM324 quad operational amplifier die and etched micro via`s were used to connect between the electronics on one side and the silicon sensor on the other side so forming a smart sensor. The light level sensor was calibrated and tested for suitability as a solar intensity monitor.

  15. Smart wing wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari; Kudva, Jayanth N.; West, Mark N.

    1997-05-01

    The use of smart materials technologies can provide unique capabilities in improving aircraft aerodynamic performance. Northrop Grumman built and tested a 16% scale semi-span wind tunnel model of the F/A-18 E/F for the on-going DARPA/WL Smart Materials and Structures-Smart Wing Program. Aerodynamic performance gains to be validated included increase in the lift to drag ratio, increased pitching moment (Cm), increased rolling moment (Cl) and improved pressure distribution. These performance gains were obtained using hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist via a SMA torque tube and are compared to a conventional wind tunnel model with hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the first wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel. Among the benefits demonstrated are 8 - 12% increase in rolling moment due to wing twist, a 10 - 15% increase in rolling moment due to contoured aileron, and approximately 8% increase in lift due to contoured flap, and improved pressure distribution due to trailing edge control surface contouring.

  16. Smart electronics and MEMS for aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, smart electronics and MEMS are employed to sense and control the drag in aircraft structures. The sensors are fabricated with interdigital transducers printed on a piezoelectric polymer. They in turn are mounted onto an ultra thin Penn State's novel RF antenna (Patent field). The sensor are designed to measure both pressure and shear of the fluid flow on aerospace structures. The wave form measurements may be monitored at a remote location either at the cockpit or elsewhere via the antennas in the sensors and an outside antenna. The integrated MEMS actuators which comprise of cantilever-, diaphram- and microbridge-based MEMS with suitable smart electronics etched onto the structure are controlled by the built-in antennas through feedback and feedforward control architecture. The integration of such materials and smart electronics into the skin of airfoil is ideal for sensing and controlling drag. The basic idea of this concept involves detection of the point of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and transmitting acoustical energy into the boundary layer so that the low energy fluid particles accelerate in the transverse direction and mix with the high energy flow outside of the boundary layer. 3D microriblets can be fabricated using stereo lithography and UV curable conducting polymers. The control of drag using these active microriblets are outlined.

  17. Applications of polymeric smart materials to environmental problems.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, H N; Bergbreiter, D E

    1997-01-01

    New methods for the reduction and remediation of hazardous wastes like carcinogenic organic solvents, toxic materials, and nuclear contamination are vital to environmental health. Procedures for effective waste reduction, detection, and removal are important components of any such methods. Toward this end, polymeric smart materials are finding useful applications. Polymer-bound smart catalysts are useful in waste minimization, catalyst recovery, and catalyst reuse. Polymeric smart coatings have been developed that are capable of both detecting and removing hazardous nuclear contaminants. Such applications of smart materials involving catalysis chemistry, sensor chemistry, and chemistry relevant to decontamination methodology are especially applicable to environmental problems. PMID:9114277

  18. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein. PMID:27236725

  19. The SMARTS Observatory: Rich Science Accessible for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Imran; Misenti, V.; Henry, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The SMARTS observatory announces opportunities for new members to use the SMARTS telescopes--the 1.5m, 1.3m, and 0.9m in at CTIO in Chile-- to carry out their science programs. We have entered a new era for the consortium, SMARTS3, with an agreement to continue operations through September 2016. In light of this, we are accepting both individual and institutional members on a first-come, first-served basis. The advantages of SMARTS include long-term science, queue scheduling with flexibility for targets of opportunity, daily data reduction and distribution, and assistance from the dedicated SMARTS and CTIO teams. SMARTS Observatory has been producing excellent science for over 10 years. With 23 members from 11 institutions, SMARTS provides observational data for a diverse number of projects. Our productivity and capability is evidenced by many publications in various fields, among them comprehensive novae observations, long-term AGN monitoring, and discoveries of planets via micro-lensing. In this poster, we show scientific highlights from SMARTS users as well as statistics on its productivity. We provide details about how the SMARTS Consortium currently functions, what it costs to participate, and how to become a member.

  20. Smart thermal networks for smart cities - Introduction of concepts and measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. R.; Pol, O.; Basciotti, D.; Page, J.

    2012-10-01

    In order to contribute to high living standards, climate mitigation and energy supply security, future urban energy systems require a holistic approach. In particular an intelligent integration of thermal networks is necessary. This paper will briefly present the "smart city" concept and introduce an associated definition for smart thermal networks defined on three levels: 1. the interaction with urban planning processes and the interface to the overall urban energy system, 2. the adaptation of the temperature level and 3. supply and demand-side management strategies.

  1. The SmartHand transradial prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prosthetic components and control interfaces for upper limb amputees have barely changed in the past 40 years. Many transradial prostheses have been developed in the past, nonetheless most of them would be inappropriate if/when a large bandwidth human-machine interface for control and perception would be available, due to either their limited (or inexistent) sensorization or limited dexterity. SmartHand tackles this issue as is meant to be clinically experimented in amputees employing different neuro-interfaces, in order to investigate their effectiveness. This paper presents the design and on bench evaluation of the SmartHand. Methods SmartHand design was bio-inspired in terms of its physical appearance, kinematics, sensorization, and its multilevel control system. Underactuated fingers and differential mechanisms were designed and exploited in order to fit all mechatronic components in the size and weight of a natural human hand. Its sensory system was designed with the aim of delivering significant afferent information to the user through adequate interfaces. Results SmartHand is a five fingered self-contained robotic hand, with 16 degrees of freedom, actuated by 4 motors. It integrates a bio-inspired sensory system composed of 40 proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors and a customized embedded controller both employed for implementing automatic grasp control and for potentially delivering sensory feedback to the amputee. It is able to perform everyday grasps, count and independently point the index. The weight (530 g) and speed (closing time: 1.5 seconds) are comparable to actual commercial prostheses. It is able to lift a 10 kg suitcase; slippage tests showed that within particular friction and geometric conditions the hand is able to stably grasp up to 3.6 kg cylindrical objects. Conclusions Due to its unique embedded features and human-size, the SmartHand holds the promise to be experimentally fitted on transradial amputees and employed as a bi

  2. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The whole story began in September 2003, when an Ariane 5 launcher blasted off from Kourou, French Guiana, to deliver the European Space Agency’s lunar spacecraft SMART-1 into Earth orbit. SMART-1 is a small unmanned satellite weighing 366 kilograms and roughly fitting into a cube just 1 metre across, excluding its 14-metre solar panels (which were folded during launch). After launch and injection into an elliptical orbit around the Earth, the gentle but steady push provided by the spacecraft’s highly innovative electric propulsion engine forcefully expelling xenon gas ions caused SMART-1 to spiral around the Earth, increasing its distance from our planet until, after a long journey of about 14 months, it was “captured” by the Moon’s gravity. To cover the 385,000 km distance that separates the Earth from the Moon if one travelled in a straight line, this remarkably efficient engine brought the spacecraft on a 100 million km long spiralling journey on only 60 litres of fuel! The spacecraft was captured by the Moon in November 2004 and started its scientific mission in March 2005 in an elliptical orbit around its poles. ESA’s SMART-1 is currently the only spacecraft around the Moon, paving the way for the fleet of international lunar orbiters that will be launched from 2007 onwards. The story is now close to ending. On the night of Saturday 2 to Sunday 3 September, looking at the Moon with a powerful telescope, one may be able to see something special happening. Like most of its lunar predecessors, SMART-1 will end its journey and exploration of the Moon by landing in a relatively abrupt way. It will impact the lunar surface in an area called the “Lake of Excellence”, situated in the mid-southern region of the Moon’s visible disc at 07:41 CEST (05:41 UTC), or five hours before if it finds an unknown peak on the way. The story is close to ending After 16 months harvesting scientific results in an elliptical orbit around the Moon’s poles (at

  3. A telemedicine wound care model using 4G with smart phones or smart glasses

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junna; Zuo, Yanhai; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Kang, Yutian; Yu, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiaofang; Huang, Yao; Lu, Shuliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess the feasibility of a wound care model using 4th-generation mobile communication technology standards (4G) with smart phones or smart glasses for wound management. This wound care model is an interactive, real-time platform for implementing telemedicine changing wound dressings, or doing operations. It was set up in March 2015 between Jinhua in Zhejiang province and Shanghai, China, which are 328 km apart. It comprised of a video application (APP), 4G net, smart phones or smart glasses, and a central server. This model service has been used in 30 patients with wounds on their lower extremities for 109 times in 1 month. Following a short learning curve, the service worked well and was deemed to be user-friendly. Two (6.7%) patients had wounds healed, while others still required wound dressing changes after the study finished. Both local surgeons and patients showed good acceptance of this model (100% and 83.33%, respectively). This telemedicine model is feasible and valuable because it provides an opportunity of medical service about wound healing in remote areas where specialists are scarce. PMID:27495023

  4. Analysis of Distance Learning in Smart Schools in Iran: A Case Study of Tehran's Smart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motamedi, Vahid; Piri, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    In the paradigm of information society the structure and facts have become flexible and subjective. In the recent social-economic order, IT and communication have taken over the leading role. Distance learning in smart schools is one of the flexible realities in the education field that has crossed the format of the hard and inflexible traditional…

  5. Overview of the ARPA/WL Smart Structures and Materials Development-Smart Wing contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudva, Jayanth N.; Jardine, A. Peter; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari

    1996-05-01

    While the concept of an adaptive aircraft wing, i.e., a wing whose shape parameters such as camber, wing twist, and thickness can be varied to optimize the wing shape for various flight conditions, has been extensively studied, the complexity and weight penalty of the actuation mechanisms have precluded their practical implementation. Recent development of sensors and actuators using smart materials could potentially alleviate the shortcomings of prior designs, paving the way for a practical, `smart' adaptive wing which responds to changes in flight and environmental conditions by modifying its shape to provide optimal performance. This paper presents a summary of recent work done on adaptive wing designs under an on-going ARPA/WL contract entitled `Smart Structures and Materials Development--Smart Wing.' Specifically, the design, development and planned wind tunnel testing of a 16% model representative of a fighter aircraft wing and incorporating the following features, are discussed: (1) a composite wing torque box whose span-wise twist can be varied by activating built-in shape memory alloy (SMA) torque tubes to provide increased lift and enhanced maneuverability at multiple flight conditions, (2) trailing edge control surfaces deployed using composite SMA actuators to provide smooth, hingeless aerodynamic surfaces, and (3) a suite of fiber optic sensors integrated into the wing skin which provide real-time strain and pressure data to a feedback control system.

  6. 77 FR 71169 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Tuesday, December 18... recommendations from the Committee's report and to receive presentations on cybersecurity coordination and...

  7. The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling on Students' Attitudes towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the relative effect of Smart and Mainstream schooling on students' attitudes towards science which was measured using ATSSA(M)--the Malay version of the Germann's (1988) Attitudes Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) instrument. The participants comprised 775 Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two…

  8. Myths About Energy in Schools. EnergySmart Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-02-01

    The following pages take a look at some of the myths and misconceptions about energy in schools, and provide the facts that can help school districts make smart energy choices. Around the country, many school districts are already proving that energy-smart building choices can significantly reduce their operating costs and, at the same time, create better places to teach and learn.

  9. Smart Start's Impact on North Carolina's Children, Families, & Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. Serving all 100 counties in the state, Smart Start's services include child care subsidies and health and family support services. This report describes the program, focusing on its impact on the…

  10. Things to Say: Future Applications of Smart Objects in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preis, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Smart object technology allows users to know something in real time about the physical objects in their presence. Each object, from cereal boxes to skyscrapers, becomes a source of information with which users can interact. Through a series of usage scenarios, the article explores the potential impact of smart objects on learning in formal and…

  11. Smart Learning Adoption in Employees and HRD Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Junghwan; Zo, Hangjung; Lee, Hwansoo

    2014-01-01

    The innovation of online technologies and the rapid diffusion of smart devices are changing workplace learning environment. Smart learning, as emerging learning paradigm, enables employees' learning to take place anywhere and anytime. Workplace learning studies, however, have focused on traditional e-learning environment, and they have failed…

  12. SMART GROWTH: INFILL DEVELOPMENT ALONG A MULTILANE TRANSIT CORRIDOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infill development along transit corridors is a key element of smart growth, and revitalization of older, low and moderate income neighborhoods and their business districts is an important smart growth strategy. In many such neighborhoods and business districts, the principal ...

  13. EnergySmart Schools National Financing Roundtable--Key Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As a follow-up to the release of its "Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools", the U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools program hosted the National Financing Roundtable on February 5, 2009. This event was held prior to the seventh Annual High Performance Schools Symposium, hosted by the Council of Educational Facility Planners…

  14. Reinventing Government? Perspectives on the Smart Start Implementation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awsumb, Catherine

    Smart Start is a statewide initiative to ensure that all of North Carolina's children arrive at school healthy and ready to learn. A formative evaluation assessed, from the perspective of local participants in the original twelve Smart Start sites, how well these process goals are being met in the implementation process. Focus group and individual…

  15. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  16. Investigating the Smart Science Learning Experience amongst Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Ong Eng; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    1999 marks an important milestone when the Malaysian Ministry of Education launched its 3-year pilot Smart Schools Initiative in 87 schools across the country. This study aims to compare the differential perceptions on science learning experience between a group of 383 Form 3 (Year 9 equivalent in the UK) students in two Smart schools and a group…

  17. School Smarts: A Reflection of Pedagogical and Personal Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies show that many college instructors still believe that Latino students lack the "school smarts" for academic success. This essay challenges the notion of school smarts in order to highlight Latino students' numerous strengths. I share my model for a mentorship program that facilitates better student-faculty…

  18. Implementing Smart School Technology at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Charles K.

    This paper describes the characteristics of "smart schools" and offers guidelines for developing such schools. Smart schools are defined as having three features: (1) they are computer networked via local area networks in order to share information through teleconferencing, databases, and electronic mail; (2) they are connected beyond the…

  19. Smart Training: The Manager's Guide to Training for Improved Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Clay

    This book describes and advocates "smart training," an approach to on-the-job training that helps employees gain competence and empowers them to act to satisfy customers. The book is organized in 16 chapters grouped into 4 parts. Part 1 outlines the basics of smart training, including its performance base, the need for initial analysis, and the…

  20. The Smart Power Lab at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Brian

    2015-06-11

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the "smart homes" of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  1. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model

    PubMed Central

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called “anchor” nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  2. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model.

    PubMed

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called "anchor" nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  3. Smart cards: a specific application in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Güler, I; Zengin, R M; Sönmez, M

    1998-12-01

    Computers have the ability to process and access tremendous amounts of information in our daily lives. But, now, individuals have this ability by carrying a smart card in their own wallets. These cards provide us the versatility, power, and security of computers. This study begins with a short description of smart cards and their advantages. Then, an electronic circuit that is designed for healthcare application in hospitals is introduced. This circuit functions as a smart card holder identifier, access controller for hospital doors and also can be used as a smart card reader/writer. Design steps of this electronic circuit, operation principles, serial communication with P.C., and the software are examined. Finally a complete access control network for hospital doors that functions with smart cards is discussed. PMID:9871875

  4. Acoustic Radiation from Smart Foam for Various Foam Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivakumar, Nishkala

    2011-10-01

    Smart foam is an emerging active-passive noise control technology with many applications. Smart foam consists of passive foam with an embedded curved piezoelectric (PZT) film. We experimented with three geometries of varying film curvatures and a constant cross-sectional area of 58 cm^2, constructed using melamine foam covered with 28 μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (piezoelectric) films with Cu-Ni surface electrodes. An AC voltage provided by a signal generator and amplifier drives the smart foam. An omnidirectional microphone mounted at a distance 100mm from the foam surface measured the sound level (dB) and harmonic distortion generated by the smart foam. Experiments were repeated for voltages, 40V-140V, and frequencies, 300Hz-2000Hz. The result show that the sound level generated by the smart foams has a characteristic frequency response common to all geometries and a peak sound level between 900 to 1,100 Hz.

  5. Climate-smart management of biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Fuller, Angela K.; Rosenblatt, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining where biodiversity is likely to be most vulnerable to climate change and methods to reduce that vulnerability are necessary first steps to incorporate climate change into biodiversity management plans. Here, we use a spatial climate change vulnerability assessment to (1) map the potential vulnerability of terrestrial biodiversity to climate change in the northeastern United States and (2) provide guidance on how and where management actions for biodiversity could provide long-term benefits under climate change (i.e., climate-smart management considerations). Our model suggests that biodiversity will be most vulnerable in Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia due to the combination of high climate change velocity, high landscape resistance, and high topoclimate homogeneity. Biodiversity is predicted to be least vulnerable in Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire because large portions of these states have low landscape resistance, low climate change velocity, and low topoclimate homogeneity. Our spatial climate-smart management considerations suggest that: (1) high topoclimate diversity could moderate the effects of climate change across 50% of the region; (2) decreasing local landscape resistance in conjunction with other management actions could increase the benefit of those actions across 17% of the region; and (3) management actions across 24% of the region could provide long-term benefits by promoting short-term population persistence that provides a source population capable of moving in the future. The guidance and framework we provide here should allow conservation organizations to incorporate our climate-smart management considerations into management plans without drastically changing their approach to biodiversity conservation.

  6. Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012).

    PubMed

    Smart, Laura S; Prochaska, James O

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Mollie Stevens Smart (1916-2012). Mollie attended the University of Toronto, from which she graduated with honors in psychology at age 20 in 1936. She studied and worked at the Merrill-Palmer Institute in Detroit, earning a master's degree in child development from the University of Michigan in 1941. She earned her doctorate in educational psychology at the University of Delhi in 1969. An author, teacher, and mentor, Mollie won Fulbright research grants to India and New Zealand and lectured in the United States, India, New Zealand, Canada, and China. She wrote 26 books, most co-authored with her husband, Russell (Rus) C. Smart. Beginning in the 1940s, when Freudian theory had a strong grip on the popular view of child development, the books placed the developing child in the context of family and community systems. The Smarts' best-selling college textbook Children: Development and Relationships (1967, 1973, 1977, 1982) was based on the theories of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Mollie was a member of the American Psychological Association throughout her professional career and held memberships also in the Society for Research in Child Development, the National Council on Family Relations, the Groves Conference on Marriage and Family, and the Fulbright Association. After moving to Ridgefield, Washington, in 2003 with her daughter Ellen following Rus's death in 1996, she applied her great knowledge to advise a community-based organization that serves the needs of new babies born into destitute families. Mollie died at home in Ridgefield on October 22, 2012, at age 96. PMID:24016121

  7. Terpolymer smart gels: synthesis and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Dibyendu S.; Alam, Sarfaraz; Mathur, G. N.

    2004-10-01

    Two smart terpolymer gels, MS-1 and MS-2, were synthesized such that the same gel can respond to more than one external environmental condition, such as pH, temperature, solvent composition, electric field. So two terpolymers gels of vinyl monomers such as sodium acrylate, acrylamide and N-isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TMEDA) as an accelerator and methylene bisacrylamide as a cross-linker. These terpolymers were characterized by elemental and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The swelling behavior of these terpolymer smart gels was evaluated by changing the pH, temperature and solvent composition. The variation of the swelling behavior with time was evaluated in an aqueous medium at room temperature. The time taken for maximum swelling (tm) was about 20 min for the gel MS-2. However the tm value for the gel MS-1 is higher than that of MS-2. The swelling behavior remains almost unchanged over a temperature range of 22-50 °C for both the gels. The discontinuous volume transitions were observed at pH 7.6 and 8.2 for the two gels, MS-1 and MS-2, respectively. The gel MS-1 suddenly shrinks below and swells above pH 7.6. Correspondingly, the pH is 8.2 for the case of MS-2. Volume transitions in an acetone-water mixture were also observed for these gels. The swelling behaviors of these two smart gels are almost parallel above the 40% acetone concentration.

  8. Application of the smart portal in transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Baylor, Vivian M.; Dress, William B.; Hickerson, Tim W.; Jatko, William B.; Labaj, Leo E.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Pack, Richard M.

    1997-02-01

    Under a program sponsored by the Department of Energy, the Oak Ridge complex is developing a `Portal-of-the-Future', or `smart portal.' This is a security portal for vehicular traffic which is intended to quickly detect explosives, hidden passengers, etc. It uses several technologies, including microwaves, weigh-in-motion, digital image processing, and electroacoustic wavelet-based heartbeat detection. A novel component of particular interest is the Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS), which detects the presence of persons hiding in a vehicle. The system operates by detecting the presence of a human ballistocardiographic signature. Each time the heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave that propagates through the body. The wave, whose graph is called a ballistocardiogram, is the mechanical analog of the electrocardiograms, which is routinely used for medical diagnosis. The wave is, in turn, coupled to any surface or object with which the body is in contact. If the body is located in an enclosed space, this will result in a measurable deflection of the surface of the enclosure. Independent testing has shown ESDS to be highly reliable. The technologies used in the smart portal operate in real time and allow vehicles to be checked through the portal in much less time than would be required for human inspection. Although not originally developed for commercial transportation, the smart portal has the potential to solve several transportation problems. It could relieve congestion at international highway border crossings by reducing the time required to inspect each vehicle while increasing the level of security. It can reduce highway congestion at the entrance of secure facilities such as prisons. Also, it could provide security at intermodal transfer points, such as airport parking lots and car ferry terminals.

  9. SMART-1: Development and lessons learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsman, Peter; Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Foing, Bernard; Stagnaro, Luca

    2005-07-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the small missions for advanced research and technology as part of ESA's science programme “Cosmic vision”. It was successfully launched on September 27, 2003 and is presently traveling towards its destination, the Moon. The main objective of the mission, to demonstrate solar electric primary propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo), has already been achieved. At the time of writing the electric propulsion system has been working already for more than 3400 h and has provided a Delta-V to the spacecraft of more than 2500 m/s. The other technology objectives are also being fulfilled by the verification of the proper functioning of such on-board experiments like the X-Ka band transponder, the X-ray spectrometer, the near IR spectrometer, the laser link, etc. The scientific objectives are related to lunar science and will be fulfilled once the spacecraft enters its operational lunar orbit, currently expected for January 2005. SMART-1 lunar science investigations will include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes, environment and high-resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. SMART-1 has been an innovative mission in many aspects and we are now drawing some preliminary conclusions about the lessons to be learnt. The paper describes the spacecraft and the technology elements with particular emphasis to the technology nature of the mission. The on-board avionics employs many novel designs for spacecraft, including a serial CAN bus for data communication, autonomous star trackers and extensive use of auto-code generation for implementing the attitude control system and the failure, detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Finally, the orbital operation phase currently ongoing, including the routine electric propulsion operations and the instrument commissioning, is providing a wealth of data and lesson-learnt useful for future autonomous planetary missions.

  10. Application of the smart portal in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Dress, W.B.; Hickerson, T.W.; Jatko, W.B.; Labaj, L.E.; Muhs, J.D.; Pack, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Under a program sponsored by the Department of Energy, the Oak Ridge complex is developed a ``Portal-of-the-Future``, or ``smart portal``. This is a security portal for vehicular traffic which is intended to quickly detect explosives, hidden passengers, etc. It uses several technologies, including microwaves, weigh-in-motion, digital image processing, and electroacoustic wavelet-based heartbeat detection. A novel component of particular interest is the Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS), which detects the presence of persons hiding in a vehicle. The system operates by detecting the presence of a human ballistocardiographic signature. Each time the heart beats, it generates a small but measurable shock wave that propagates through the body. The wave, whose graph is called a ballistocardiogram, is the mechanical analog of the electrocardiogram, which is routinely used for medical diagnosis. The wave is, in turn, coupled to any surface or object with which the body is in contact. If the body is located in an enclosed space, this will result in a measurable deflection of the surface of the enclosure. Independent testing has shown ESDS to be highly reliable. The technologies used in the smart portal operate in real time and allow vehicles to be checked through the portal in much less time than would be required for human inspection. Although not originally developed for commercial transportation, the smart portal has the potential to solve several transportation problems. It could relieve congestion at international highway border crossings by reducing the time required to inspect each vehicle while increasing the level of security. It can reduce highway congestion at the entrance of secure facilities such as prisons. Also, it could provide security at intermodal transfer points, such as airport parking lots and car ferry terminals.

  11. SMART-1 mission description and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, G. D.; Marini, A.; Stagnaro, L.; van Dooren, J.; di Napoli, L.; Foing, B. H.; Lumb, R.; Volp, J.; Brinkmann, J.; Grünagel, R.; Estublier, D.; Tremolizzo, E.; McKay, M.; Camino, O.; Schoemaekers, J.; Hechler, M.; Khan, M.; Rathsman, P.; Andersson, G.; Anflo, K.; Berge, S.; Bodin, P.; Edfors, A.; Hussain, A.; Kugelberg, J.; Larsson, N.; Ljung, B.; Meijer, L.; Mörtsell, A.; Nordebäck, T.; Persson, S.; Sjöberg, F.

    2002-12-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 scientific programme. The SMART-1 mission is dedicated to testing of new technologies for future cornerstone missions, using Solar-Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) in Deep Space. The chosen mission planetary target is the Moon. The target orbit will be polar with the pericentre close to the South-Pole. The pericentre altitude lies between 300 and 2000 km, while the apocentre will extend to about 10,000 km. During the cruise phase, before reaching the Moon, the spacecraft thrusting profile allows extended periods for cruise science. The SMART-1 spacecraft will be launched in the spring of 2003 as an auxiliary passenger on an Ariane 5 and placed into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). The expected launch mass is about 370 kg, including 19 kg of payload. The selected type of SEPP is a Hall-effect thruster called PPS-1350. The thruster is used to spiral out of the GTO and for all orbit maneuvers including lunar capture and descent. The trajectory has been optimised by inserting coast arcs and the presence of the Moon's gravitational field is exploited in multiple weak gravity assists. The Development Phase started in October 1999 and is expected to be concluded by a Flight Acceptance Review in January 2003. The short development time for this high technology spacecraft requires a concerted effort by industry, science institutes and ESA centres. This paper describes the mission and the project development status both from a technical and programmatic standpoint.

  12. Modules to enhance smart lighting education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, Robert M.; Joenathan, Charles; Connor, Kenneth; Chouikha, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Over the past several years there has been a rapid advancement in solid state lighting applications brought on by the development of high efficiency light emitting diodes. Development of lighting devices, systems and products that meet the demands of the future lighting marketplace requires workers from many disciplines including engineers, scientists, designers and architects. The National Science Foundation has recognized this fact and established the Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center that promotes research leading to smart lighting systems, partners with industry to enhance innovation and educates a diverse, world-class workforce. The lead institution is Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with core partners Boston University and The University of New Mexico. Outreach partners include Howard University, Morgan State University, and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of advanced smart lighting systems workers often have little or no formal education in basic optics, lighting and illumination. This paper describes the initial stages of the development of self-contained and universally applicable educational modules that target essential optics topics needed for lighting applications. The modules are intended to be easily incorporated into new and existing courses by a variety of educators and/or to be used in a series of stand-alone, asynchronous training exercises by new graduate students. The ultimate goal of this effort is to produce resources such as video lectures, video presentations of students-teaching-students, classroom activities, assessment tools, student research projects and laboratories integrated into learning modules. Sample modules and resources will be highlighted. Other outreach activities such as plans for coursework, undergraduate research, design projects, and high school enrichment programs will be discussed.

  13. KEA-71 Smart Current Signature Sensor (SCSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and uses of the Smart Current Signature Sensor (SCSS), also known as the Valve Health Monitor (VHM) system. SCSS provides a way to not only monitor real-time the valve's operation in a non invasive manner, but also to monitor its health (Fault Detection and Isolation) and identify potential faults and/or degradation in the near future (Prediction/Prognosis). This technology approach is not only applicable for solenoid valves, and it could be extrapolated to other electrical components with repeatable electrical current signatures such as motors.

  14. Optical smart packaging to reduce transmitted information.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Luisa; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a smart image-packaging optical technique that uses what we believe is a new concept to save byte space when transmitting data. The technique supports a large set of images mapped into modulated speckle patterns. Then, they are multiplexed into a single package. This operation results in a substantial decreasing of the final amount of bytes of the package with respect to the amount resulting from the addition of the images without using the method. Besides, there are no requirements on the type of images to be processed. We present results that proof the potentiality of the technique. PMID:22274339

  15. Smart structures with nerves of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measures, R. M.

    A comprehensive presentation is made of the development status and prospective applications of fiber-optic sensor-incorporating 'smart structures', which will be capable of collecting component-integrity information through a 'nervous system' over the course of their service lives. During fabrication and assembly, the integral sensor networks would check for structural flaws or handling damage, thereby enhacing a manufacturer's quality control efforts. In service within aircraft structures, integral fiber-optic sensors could provide strain, displacement, and deformation data required for many control situations, allowing actuators to respond to gusts almost instantaneously.

  16. Smart internet search engine through 6W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehler, Stephen; Cader, Masud; Szu, Harold

    2006-04-01

    Current Internet search engine technology is limited in its ability to display necessary relevant information to the user. Yahoo, Google and Microsoft use lookup tables or indexes which limits the ability of users to find their desired information. While these companies have improved their results over the years by enhancing their existing technology and algorithms with specialized heuristics such as PageRank, there is a need for a next generation smart search engine that can effectively interpret the relevance of user searches and provide the actual information requested. This paper explores whether a smarter Internet search engine can effectively fulfill a user's needs through the use of 6W representations.

  17. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  18. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  19. The vision of a smart city

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Bowerman, B.; Braverman, J.; Taylor, J.; Todosow, H.; Von Wimmersperg, U.

    2000-09-28

    The vision of ''Smart Cities'' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced, integrated materials, sensors, electronics, and networks which are interfaced with computerized systems comprised of databases, tracking, and decision-making algorithms. This paper discusses a current initiative being led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory to create a research, development and deployment agenda that advances this vision. This is anchored in the application of new technology to current urban center issues while looking 20 years into the future and conceptualizing a city framework that may exist.

  20. Smart prosthetics based on magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. David; Matthis, Wilfried; Toscano, James R.

    2001-06-01

    One of the most exciting new applications for magnetorheological fluid technology is that of real-time controlled dampers for use in advanced prosthetic devices. In such systems a small magnetorheological fluid damper is used to control, in real-time, the motion of an artificial limb based on inputs from a group of sensors. A 'smart' prosthetic knee system based on a controllable magnetorheological fluid damper was commercially introduced to the orthopedics and prosthetics market in 2000. The benefit of such an artificial knee is a more natural gait that automatically adapts to changing gait conditions.

  1. Design of low cost smart infusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Yohanes David; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2015-01-01

    We propose design of a smart infusion device suitable for public hospitals in Indonesia. The device comprised of LED, photodiode and DC motor to measure and control the infusion rate, using the principle of LED beam absorption. The infusion rate was identified by using microcontroller and displayed through computer unit. Experiment results for different flow rate level and concentration of Dextrose showed that the device is able to detect, measure, and control the infusion droplets flow rate by the average error rate of 1.0081%.

  2. Universal Design and the Smart Home.

    PubMed

    Pennick, Tim; Hessey, Sue; Craigie, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The related concepts of Universal Design, Inclusive Design, and Design For All, all recognise that no one solution will fit the requirements of every possible user. This paper considers the extent to which current developments in smart home technology can help to reduce the numbers of users for whom mainstream technology is not sufficiently inclusive, proposing a flexible approach to user interface (UI) implementation focussed on the capabilities of the user. This implies development of the concepts underlying Universal Design to include the development of a flexible inclusive support infrastructure, servicing the requirements of individual users and their personalised user interface devices. PMID:27534327

  3. Effect of a Smart Start Playground Improvement Grant on Child Care Playground Hazards. Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Guthrie, Christine

    Smart Start (North Carolina) playground improvement grants were awarded to cover playground safety assessment, planning and evaluation, quality enhancements (such as fencing, surfacing, and new equipment), and safety programs. Visual inspections were conducted of the safety of child care home and center playgrounds after Smart Start-sponsored…

  4. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  5. The Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills. FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen; Taylor, Karen; Maxwell, Kelly

    Helping families access affordable, quality child care has been the primary focus for the Orange County, North Carolina Smart Start Partnership for Young Children. This study investigated the effects of Smart Start efforts on children's skills at kindergarten entry. Kindergarten teachers rated the cognitive, language and social skills of 39…

  6. SMARTE: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (BELFAST, IRELAND)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART). In the U.S., the SMART compilation is housed in a web-based, decision support tool called SMARTe. All tools within SMARTe that are developed specifically for...

  7. Evaluation of the Kids' Shop Smart tour.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon C; Kalina, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the Kids' Shop Smart Tour program on participants' attitudes toward trying new foods and eating a variety of foods, as well as their recognition of Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Data were collected from parents/caregivers, students in kindergarten to grade 3, and teachers; questionnaires, quizzes, and interviews were used. Questionnaires were sent home with 947 students; 52% of parents/caregivers returned completed questionnaires. Many parents/caregivers reported that their children tried and liked unfamiliar foods on the tour. No significant difference was detected in children's willingness to try new foods or consumption of a greater variety of food before and after the tour. Quiz score differences between participants and a comparison group were not statistically significant. Of the 38 teachers who completed interviews, 97% reported that the program helped them meet curriculum requirements; 95% would recommend the resource to other teachers. Quantitative findings do not indicate that the program increases children's willingness to try new foods or eat a greater variety of food. However, qualitative data revealed that some parents observed their children trying new foods more willingly and demonstrating greater knowledge of and interest in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Further research with validated measurement tools is recommended to establish the effectiveness of the Kids' Shop Smart Tour. PMID:15005861

  8. Dielectric elastomer switches for smart artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Calius, Emilio P.; Inamura, Tokushu; Xie, Sheng Q.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2010-08-01

    Some of the most exciting possibilities for dielectric elastomer artificial muscles consist of biologically inspired networks of smart actuators working towards common goals. However, the creation of these networks will only be realised once intelligence and feedback can be fully distributed throughout an artificial muscle device. Here we show that dielectric elastomer artificial muscles can be built with intrinsic sensor, control, and driver circuitry, bringing them closer in capability to their natural analogues. This was achieved by exploiting the piezoresistive behaviour of the actuator's highly compliant electrodes using what we have called the dielectric elastomer switch. We developed suitable switching material using carbon loaded silicone grease and experimentally demonstrated the primitives required for self-sensing actuators and digital computation, namely compliant electromechanical NAND gates and oscillator circuits. We anticipate that dielectric elastomer switches will reduce the need for bulky and rigid external circuitry as well as provide the simple distributed intelligence required for soft, biologically inspired networks of actuators. Examples include many-degree-of-freedom robotic hearts, intestines, and manipulators; wearable assistive devices; smart sensor skins and fabrics; and ultimately new types of artificial muscle embedded, electromechanical computers.

  9. Ground Demonstration of a Smart Telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintin de Kercadio, L.; Fourtier, P.; Nicolas, G.; Olive, X.; Alison, B.

    2007-08-01

    The trend in terms of telemetry volume is to generate on-board more and more data due to the fact that ground operators like to have a full observability of spacecrafts embedding functionalities which are more and more complex to control. In addition the budget for the TM bandwidth is often poor and restricted wrt the mission. Transmitting less volume of data by keeping the same level of spacecraft observability is a challenge and can be addressed by the smart TM concept. A ground demonstrator has been developed to validate the feasibility of a smart telemetry concept. It is based on the fact that most of downloaded parameters are very stable or follow known evolutions. Consequently a transmission of few values associated, if needed, with adequate statistics, is enough to rebuild on ground initial information with acceptable uncertainty due to loss of samples. This demonstrator could be fed by any telemetry files with a compatible packet description and provides expected gain in term of reduction of data rate. A short animation of this tool will be performed during the DASIA conference.

  10. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  11. Networked Rectenna Array for Smart Material Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart material actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. Networked rectenna patch array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is adopted for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. The PAD circuit is imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array. The thin-film microcircuit embodiment of PAD circuit adds insignificant amount of rigidity to membrane flexibility. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a few nodal elements were made for laboratory testing. The networked actuators were tested to correlate the network coupling effect, power allocation and distribution, and response time. The features of preliminary design are 16-channel computer control of actuators by a PCI board and the compensator for a power failure or leakage of one or more rectennas.

  12. Smart materials based on polymeric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crowson, A.

    1995-12-01

    The science and technology of the 21st century will rely heavily on the development of new materials. Such materials are expected to be innovative with regards to structure, functionality, and design. One concept in achieving this goal is what has been termed {open_quotes}smart materials{close_quotes}. A smart material is defined as a material which has been atomically or molecularly engineered in such a way that the microstructure itself is imbued with embedded sensors, actuators, and control mechanisms, giving it the capability of sensing and responding to external stimuli in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Programs in this area have involved technological advances in a number of scientific disciplines inclusive of materials science, chemistry, biotechnology, molecular electronics, nanotechnology, etc. These have encompassed research themes into the design of polymeric materials which are capable of altering their mechanical and electrical properties when exposed to specific molecular species, the synthesis of amphiphlic molecules with easily modified ferroelectric, photochromic and nonlinear properties, the design of stress sensitive molecules capable of monitoring damage and redistributing stresses in composites, and the merging of biological and chemical technologies to create assemblies with signal transduction properties. This presentation will highlight some of these activities.

  13. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  14. Optimal wavelet denoising for smart biomonitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek

    2001-03-01

    Future smart-systems promise many benefits for biomedical diagnostics. The ideal is for simple portable systems that display and interpret information from smart integrated probes or MEMS-based devices. In this paper, we will discuss a step towards this vision with a heart bio-monitor case study. An electronic stethoscope is used to record heart sounds and the problem of extracting noise from the signal is addressed via the use of wavelets and averaging. In our example of heartbeat analysis, phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages in that they may be replayed and analysed for spectral and frequency information. Many sources of noise may pollute a PCG including foetal breath sounds if the subject is pregnant, lung and breath sounds, environmental noise and noise from contact between the recording device and the skin. Wavelets can be employed to denoise the PCG. The signal is decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform. Due to the efficient decomposition of heart signals, their wavelet coefficients tend to be much larger than those due to noise. Thus, coefficients below a certain level are regarded as noise and are thresholded out. The signal can then be reconstructed without significant loss of information in the signal. The questions that this study attempts to answer are which wavelet families, levels of decomposition, and thresholding techniques best remove the noise in a PCG. The use of averaging in combination with wavelet denoising is also addressed. Possible applications of the Hilbert Transform to heart sound analysis are discussed.

  15. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  16. Design of smart imagers with image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serova, Evgeniya N.; Shiryaev, Yury A.; Udovichenko, Anton O.

    2005-06-01

    This paper is devoted to creation of novel CMOS APS imagers with focal plane parallel image preprocessing for smart technical vision and electro-optical systems based on neural implementation. Using analysis of main biological vision features, the desired artificial vision characteristics are defined. Image processing tasks can be implemented by smart focal plane preprocessing CMOS imagers with neural networks are determined. Eventual results are important for medicine, aerospace ecological monitoring, complexity, and ways for CMOS APS neural nets implementation. To reduce real image preprocessing time special methods based on edge detection and neighbored frame subtraction will be considered and simulated. To select optimal methods and mathematical operators for edge detection various medical, technical and aerospace images will be tested. The important research direction will be devoted to analogue implementation of main preprocessing operations (addition, subtraction, neighbored frame subtraction, module, and edge detection of pixel signals) in focal plane of CMOS APS imagers. We present the following results: the algorithm of edge detection for analog realization, and patented focal plane circuits for analog image reprocessing (edge detection and motion detection).

  17. Development of smart structural attachment fixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Larry D.; Westermo, Bruce D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses efforts related to the development of smart bolts to be used as structural attachment fixtures. The work has been directed at meeting the high-strength application requirements for the aircraft industry and selected applications within the construction industry. The bolts are fabricated from metastable austenitic steel materials which progressively and irreversibly transform from a nonferromagnetic, austenitic parent phase to a thermodynamically stable, ferromagnetic martensitic phase as a function of applied strain. Thus, the ferromagnetic response of a bolt in service can be used to indicate the degree of inelastic deformation, i.e., the peak strain, that the bolt has experienced up to that particular point. A combination of bolt alloy chemistry and thermomechanical treatment has been utilized to produce a sharp ferromagnetic response with respect to small plastic deformation strains. The extreme strength of the materials allows for a centrally drilled access hole for the placement of sensitive Hall sensor probes to detect any inelastic material behavior along the length of the bolt without removal from the structure. A discussion of the smart materials behavior of the bolts will be followed by a presentation of recent test results which illustrate the structural bolt monitoring technique with some possible applications.

  18. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  19. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  20. BAE systems' SMART chip camera FPA development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Louise; Auroux, Pierre-Alain; McManus, Don; Harris, D. Ahmasi; Blackwell, Richard J.; Bryant, Jeffrey; Boal, Mihir; Binkerd, Evan

    2015-06-01

    BAE Systems' SMART (Stacked Modular Architecture High-Resolution Thermal) Chip Camera provides very compact long-wave infrared (LWIR) solutions by combining a 12 μm wafer-level packaged focal plane array (FPA) with multichip-stack, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and wafer-level optics. The key innovations that enabled this include a single-layer 12 μm pixel bolometer design and robust fabrication process, as well as wafer-level lid packaging. We used advanced packaging techniques to achieve an extremely small-form-factor camera, with a complete volume of 2.9 cm3 and a thermal core weight of 5.1g. The SMART Chip Camera supports up to 60 Hz frame rates, and requires less than 500 mW of power. This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Low Cost Thermal Imager - Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program, and BAE Systems' internal research and development investment.

  1. Auxetics in smart systems and structures 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo; Alderson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.

    2013-08-01

    Auxetics comes from the Greek (auxetikos), meaning 'that which tends to expand'. The term indicates specifically materials and structures with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). Although the Poisson's ratio is a mechanical property, auxetic solids have shown evidence of multifunctional characteristics, ranging from increased stiffness and indentation resistance, to energy absorption under static and dynamic loading, soundproofing qualities and dielectric tangent loss. NPR solids and structures have also been used in the past as material platforms to build smart structural systems. Auxetics in general can be considered also a part of the 'negative materials' field, which includes solids and structures exhibiting negative thermal expansion, negative stiffness and compressibility. All these unusual deformation characteristics have the potential to provide a significant contribution to the area of smart materials systems and structures. In this focus issue, we are pleased to present some examples of novel multifunctional behaviors provided by auxetic, negative stiffness and negative compressibility in smart systems and structures. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the multidisciplinary and systems approach provided by auxetics and negative materials, also with examples applied to energy absorption, vibration damping, structural health monitoring and active deployment aspects. Three papers in this focus issue provide significant new clarifications on the role of auxeticity in the mechanical behavior of shear deformation in plates (Lim), stress wave characteristics (Lim again), and thermoelastic damping (Maruszewski et al ). Kochmann and Venturini describe the performance of auxetic composites in finite strain elasticity. New types of microstructures for auxetic systems are depicted for the first time in three works by Ge et al , Zhang et al , and Kim and co-workers. Tubular auxetic structures and their mechanical performance are also analyzed by Karnessis and

  2. Design smartness for tackling unanticipated loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Narayanan, V. T.; Natarajan, C.; Rajaraman, Arunachalam

    2003-10-01

    With present day scenario on enviornment and living, unanticipated loads from natural and man-made causes are on the rise, defying any rationality or scientific reasoning for anticipation. This aspect, coupled with the interest in creating slender and sleek structural systems, has assumed greater significance in designing structures with 'smartness' -- either in-built or externally activated or through evolution to a different configuration -- for tackling loads which do not get bracketed in conventional or limit state approaches. The definition of smartness under these circumstances can be termed as the ability to carry unanticipated loads over and above the designed one. Although the design methodology is confined within the boundaries of codal and functional requirements, a "buffer" needs to be built in the design so that an extra reserve is available over and above that prescribed by normal approach. This might seem misleading and here only the present day computing methods provide the turn-around by shifting the paradigm from "design-for-requirement" to "requirement-from-designs," an Object Oriented Approach. Thus the focus on present paper is on choosing from different designs to satisfy "buffer requirements" to bring in "smartness" in the design choice. Reinforced concrete section under bending is the emphasis to highlight this aspect, even though the concept is expandable. For a given span, and design/ultimate moment, sections are chosen to provide buffer and compared with conventional designs. Nonlinear behavior is modeled so that failure state is kept as the endpoint. From the studies it is observed that for a given span, moment -- either ultimate or design state -- and given strengths, number of "smart designs" with buffer indications can be generated to satisfy different criteria. This is illustrated with some examples for a typical span and given external moment, modeling either a bridge section or part of a frame member. It was also observed from the

  3. OnCampus: a mobile platform towards a smart campus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Fulin; Chen, Zhen; Kang, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers and practitioners are working to develop smart cities. Considerable attention has been paid to the college campus as it is an important component of smart cities. Consequently, the question of how to construct a smart campus has become a topical one. Here, we propose a scheme that can facilitate the construction of a smart and friendly campus. We primarily focus on three aspects of smart campuses. These are: the formation of social circles based on interests mining, the provision of educational guidance based on emotion analysis of information posted on a platform, and development of a secondary trading platform aimed at optimizing the allocation of campus resources. Based on these objectives, we designed and implemented a mobile platform called OnCampus as the first step towards the development of a smart campus that has been introduced in some colleges. We found that OnCampus could successfully accomplish the three above mentioned functions of a smart campus. PMID:27429884

  4. Synthesis of SMART-1 lunar results: Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall give a synthesis on SMART-1 lunar highlights relevant for science and exploration. The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year extension until impact on 3 September 2006. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission addresses several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. SMART-1 AMIE camera has been used to map sites of interest that are relevant to the study of cataclysm bombardment, and to preview future sites for sampling return. Lunar North polar maps and South pole repeated high resolution images have been obtained, giving a monitoring of illumination to map potential sites relevant for future exploration. The SMART-1 observations have been coordinated with upcoming missions. SMART-1 has been useful in the preparation of Selene Kaguya, the Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1, Chinese Chang'E 1 , the US Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LCROSS, and subsequent lunar landers. SMART-1 is contributing to prepare the next steps for exploration: survey of resources, search for ice, monitoring polar illumination, and mapping of sites for potential landings, international robotic villages and for future human activities and lunar bases.

  5. Fragility estimates of smart structures with sensor faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeesock; Bai, Jong-Wha; Albano, Leonard D.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the impact of sensor faults within smart structures is investigated using seismic fragility analysis techniques. Seismic fragility analysis is one of the methods used to evaluate the vulnerability of structural systems under a broad range of earthquake events. It would play an important role in estimating seismic losses and in the decision making process based on vibration control performance of the smart structures during seismic events. In this study, a three-story building employing a highly nonlinear hysteretic magnetorheological (MR) damper is analyzed to estimate the seismic fragility of the smart control system. Different levels of sensor damage scenarios for smart structures are considered to provide a better understanding of the expected fragility estimates due to the impact of sensor failures. Probabilistic demand models are constructed with a Bayesian updating approach while the seismic capacity of smart structures is estimated based on the approximate structural performance of semi-actively controlled structures. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ground motion is used as a measure of earthquake intensity. Then the fragility curves for the smart structures are developed and compared with those for the semi-active control systems with different levels of sensor damage scenarios. The responses of an uncontrolled structure are used as a baseline. It is shown from the simulations that the proposed methodology is effective in quantifying the impact of sensor faults within smart structures.

  6. Smart structural fasteners for the aircraft and construction industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Larry D.; Westermo, Bruce D.; Crum, Duane B.; Law, Will; Trombi, Robert; Waldbusser, Raymond

    1999-06-01

    This paper discusses research and development efforts directed at producing a passive, smart bolt for infrastructure applications. The smart bolts are fabricated from high-strength TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) Steels. TRIP steels gradually transform from a non-magnetic, austenitic parent phase to a ferromagnetic, martensitic product phase. The stress-assisted (elastic range) and strain-induced (plastic range) phase transitions that inherently occur in the material provide a magnetic signature by which the damage state of the bolt can be determined. The irreversible nature of the phase transformations means that the bolt can passively retain peak strain (i.e., peak damage information) for later interrogation. Several different smart bolt design concepts were considered and evaluated. Design modeling and smart bolt optimization were achieved with the aid of a series of Pro/Engineer solid model renderings and a Pro/Mechanica finite element model analysis. The smart bolt was developed for high-tension fastener applications in the USAF C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft. Alloy design efforts, testing, and evaluation data are presented and discussed. Full-scale, smart aircraft bolt manufacturing is discussed and field application scheduling/evaluation plans are outlined. Extension of the smart bolt technology for construction industry applications is discussed.

  7. Application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruirui

    2013-12-01

    Smart Grid is a promising power delivery infrastructure integrated with communication and information technologies. By incorporating monitoring, analysis, control and communications facilities, it is possible to optimize the performance of the power system, allowing electricity to be delivered more efficiently. In the transmission and distribution sector, online monitoring of transmission lines and primary equipments is of vital importance, which can improve the reliability of power systems effectively. Optical fiber sensors can provide an alternative to conventional electrical sensors for such applications, with high accuracy, long term stability, streamlined installation, and premium performance under harsh environmental conditions. These optical fiber sensors offer immunity to EMI and extraordinary resistance to mechanical fatigue and therefore they will have great potential in on-line monitoring applications in Smart Grid. In this paper, we present a summary of the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid and explore the use of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid. First, the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid is summarized. Second, a review on optical fiber sensor technology is given. Third, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid is discussed, including transmission line monitoring, primary equipment monitoring and substation perimeter intrusion detection. Finally, future research directions of optical fiber sensors for power systems are discussed. Compared to other traditional electrical sensors, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid has unique advantages.

  8. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski

    2003-03-01

    Initial assessment of vibrating fine screens at a taconite processing plant in Mountain Iron Minnesota showed undesirable high noise and vibration levels. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. Current material separation technology uses heavy electric motors with an unbalance rotating mass to generate the shaking. These motors along with the screens and supporting structure shake other machines and structure in the vicinity of the screens. SmartScreens{trademark} technology, based on smart materials, uses miniaturized motors to generate shaking. This technology, based on Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}, can efficiently and effectively direct the energy flow and confine it to the screens. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, maintenance cost, and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic change to the screening and physical separation industry. The conceptual designs for SmartScreens{trademark} resonators have been developed. These resonators will be utilized to amplify motion generated by smart motors. Resonator designs are down selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. The most promising resonator designs are incorporated in the full system model and are analyzed through experimental testing and analysis. After a detailed review, one or two of these resonator systems will be used in the development of SmartScreens{trademark}.

  9. Exploring the critical quality attributes and models of smart homes.

    PubMed

    Ted Luor, Tainyi; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yu, Hueiju; Lu, Yinshiu

    2015-12-01

    Research on smart homes has significantly increased in recent years owing to their considerably improved affordability and simplicity. However, the challenge is that people have different needs (or attitudes toward smart homes), and provision should be tailored to individuals. A few studies have classified the functions of smart homes. Therefore, the Kano model is first adopted as a theoretical base to explore whether the functional classifications of smart homes are attractive or necessary, or both. Second, three models and test user attitudes toward three function types of smart homes are proposed. Based on the Kano model, the principal results, namely, two "Attractive Quality" and nine "Indifferent Quality" items, are found. Verification of the hypotheses also indicates that the entertainment, security, and automation functions are significantly correlated with the variables "perceive useful" and "attitude." Cost consideration is negatively correlated with attitudes toward entertainment and automation. Results suggest that smart home providers should survey user needs for their product instead of merely producing smart homes based on the design of the builder or engineer. PMID:26277255

  10. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  11. HomeADL for adaptive ADL monitoring within smart homes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Nugent, Chris D; Finlay, Dewar D; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present homeADL: a representation standard for an inference hierarchy of activities of daily living which may be monitored in a sensor equipped smart home. The approach allows a free exchange of ADL monitoring structures between different communities who share the same concern of providing high quality healthcare to the elderly. Its ability of matching different ADL protocols enables a mapping between an ADL protocol to a suitable smart home which makes an effective management of smart homes within a community hence, not only being able to satisfy an individual's healthcare requirements but also efficiently using monitoring resources at hand. PMID:19163419

  12. Smart homes to improve the quality of life for all.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marco; Aloise, Fabio; Baldoni, Roberto; Cincotti, Febo; Guger, Christoph; Lazovik, Alexander; Mecella, Massimo; Pucci, Paolo; Rinsma, Johanna; Santucci, Giuseppe; Taglieri, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    A home is smart when, being aware of its own state and that of its users, is capable of controlling itself in order to support the user wishes and thus improving their quality of life. This holds both for users with special needs and for those with ordinary domestic needs. In this paper, we overview the Smart Homes for All project which represents the current state of the art with respect to software control and user interfaces in the smart homes arena. PMID:22254672

  13. Smart robots: a handbook of intelligent robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Smart robots, designed to improve the quality and increase both the productivity and profitability of manufactured goods, are discussed in detail. Attention is focused on: (1) artificial intelligence for smart robots, (2) smart robot systems, (3) sensor-controlled robots, (4) machine vision systems, (5) robot manipulators, (6) locomotion, (7) natural languagae processing, (8) expert systems, and (9) computer integrated manufacturing. Photographs, charts and diagrams illustrate the systems covered. Areas of successful application to date include the automobile industry, textiles, forging, die casting and electronics. 110 references.

  14. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  15. Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Russell, Armistead G; Culligan, Patricia J; Sharma, Karnamadakala Rahul; Kumar, Emani

    2016-05-20

    Policy directives in several nations are focusing on the development of smart cities, linking innovations in the data sciences with the goal of advancing human well-being and sustainability on a highly urbanized planet. To achieve this goal, smart initiatives must move beyond city-level data to a higher-order understanding of cities as transboundary, multisectoral, multiscalar, social-ecological-infrastructural systems with diverse actors, priorities, and solutions. We identify five key dimensions of cities and present eight principles to focus attention on the systems-level decisions that society faces to transition toward a smart, sustainable, and healthy urban future. PMID:27199418

  16. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  17. Role of Smart Grids in Integrating Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.; Miller, M.; Schaffer, W.; Gueran, L.; Reuter, A.; Jang, B.; Widegren, K.

    2015-05-27

    This report was prepared for the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), which periodically publishes briefs and discussion papers on key topics of smart grid development globally. The topic of this report was selected by a multilateral group of national experts participating in ISGAN Annex 4, a working group that aims to produce synthesis insights for decision makers. This report is an update of a 2012 ISGAN Annex 4 report entitled “Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration.” That report and other past publications of ISGAN Annexes can be found at www.iea-isgan.org and at www.cleanenergysolutions.org.

  18. Smart grid: Carbon and economic implications for Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rebecca M.

    Smart grid, a mechanism to provide bidirectional communication and control between electricity providers and consumers, is the subject of great public interest as a means to enable a more efficient and renewably powered electricity grid infrastructure. Considerable public and private investment in smart grid is driven, in part, by the belief that it will provide significant environmental benefits, including CO2 emissions reductions. Previous studies of the environmental benefits of smart grid have focused on hypothesized changes in CO2 at the national level and have not addressed economic considerations. Because there are regional differences in electricity system characteristics and because significant electricity regulatory decisions are made by the states, there is a need to understand the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. This dissertation developed a methodology by which to evaluate the interrelationships between the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. The foundation of the methodology is a static, mixed integer linear program which estimates the direction and magnitude of potential changes in CO2 and economics due to coupling of smart gird with demand response, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The research hypotheses of this dissertation are: (1) smart grid CO 2 reductions and economic benefits are not aligned given current electricity regulatory policies, and (2) given insufficient CO2 incentives or the wrong set of economic incentives, smart grid could fail to achieve attainable CO2 reductions. The methodology was applied to a case study of Colorado which suggests that in 2006 smart grid could have contributed to incremental reductions in electricity sector CO2 emissions of up to 23% or incremental reductions in cost of up to 8%, but not via the same smart grid deployment strategy. As such, the research confirmed the hypothesis that CO2 reductions and

  19. Optical-based smart structures for tamper-indicating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Simmons, K.L.; Undem, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of several related projects performed from 1991 through 1996 concerning the design, construction, and application of optical-based smart structure to tamper-indicating and sensing secure containers. Due to several influences, the projects were carried through to varying degrees of completion. Cancellation of the overall project at the client level motivated the authors to gather all of the technology and ideas about smart structures developed during these several projects, whether completed or just conceptualized, into one document. Although each section individually discusses a specific project, the overall document is written chronologically with each successive section showing how increased smart structure complexity was integrated into the container.

  20. Overview of recent progress on the DARPA/USAF Wright Laboratory Smart Materials and Structures Development--Smart Wing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudva, Jayanth N.; Appa, Kari; Jardine, A. Peter; Martin, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1997-05-01

    The concept of an adaptive aircraft wing, i.e., whose shape parameters such as camber, span-wise twist, and thickness can be varied to optimize the wing shape for various flight conditions, has been extensively studied by numerous researchers. While the aerodynamic benefits (in terms of increased lift/drag ratios, improved maneuverability, and delayed flow separation) have been analytically and experimentally established, the complexity and weight penalty of the designs and actuation using smart materials could potentially alleviate the shortcomings of prior designs, leading the way to a more practical `smart' adaptive wing which responds to changes in flight and environmental conditions by optimally modifying its shape. A summary of recent work in the area of adaptive wing concepts incorporating smart structures technologies is presented. Emphasis is placed on continuing research at Northrop Grumman under a United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency contract entitled `Smart Structures and Materials Development-Smart Wing,'. Limitations and potential benefits of adaptive wing designs, applications and advantages of smart material actuators and sensors, and results of recent tests are discussed. Recommendations for future work required to develop an operational smart adaptive wing are also outlined.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  2. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  3. SMART-1: key technologies and autonomy implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfving, A.; Stagnaro, L.; Winton, A.

    2003-01-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 Science Plan. The main mission objective of SMART-1 is to demonstrate innovative and key technologies for scientific deep-space missions. One of the key technologies is the solar electric propulsion used as primary propulsion. The electric propulsion will be using 1400 W to transfer the 350 kg spacecraft from an Ariane 5 standard GTO to an elliptic Moon polar orbit, 10000×300 km. The total mission time is 24 months including a maximum of 18 months transfer time. The spacecraft development entered the detailed design and implementation phase in October 1999, under the responsibility of the Swedish Space Cooperation as prime contractor, and the flight acceptance is targeted for the 3rd quarter of 2002. The committed total life cost budget is 84 million Euro. Apart from the in-orbit demonstration of electric propulsion as primary propulsion, SMART-1 is implementing many other enabling technologies for deep-space missions such as deep-space transponder with communication in X-band for uplink and in X- and Ka-band for downlink, highly integrated and radiation tolerant microprocessors, FPGAs and memories, high on-board autonomy driven by ground communication only once per 4 days, maximum available power to electric propulsion by centralised and software-controlled power management, minimum propellant consumption through innovative angular momentum management. In addition, the spacecraft avionics design is tailored to the low-cost philosophy by enabling flexible integration of commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment. The scientific instruments, five in total, support characterisation of the electric propulsion thrust environment during the long transfer phase and detailed imaging and spectroscopy of the lunar surface in visible, infrared and X-ray during the Moon orbiting phase. Several of the instruments implement new enabling technologies, e.g. swept charge devices

  4. Smart and functional polymer materials for smart and functional microfluidic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Bonnie L.

    2014-04-01

    As microfluidic systems evolve from "chip-in-the-lab" to true portable lab-on-a-chip (LoC) or lab-in-a-package (LiP) microinstrumentation, there is a need for increasingly miniaturized sensors, actuators, and integration/interconnect technologies with high levels of functionality and self-direction. Furthermore, as microfluidic instruments are increasingly realized in polymer-based rather than glass- or silicon- based platforms, there is a need to realize these highly functional components in materials that are polymer-compatible. Polymers that are altered to possess basic functionality, and even higher-functioning "smart" polymer materials, may help to realize high-functioning and selfdirecting portable microinstrumentation. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have been recognized for over a decade as beneficial to the development of smart microfluidics systems and instrumentation. In addition, functional materials such as conductive and magnetic composite polymers are being increasingly employed to push microfluidics systems to greater degrees of functionality, portability, and/or flexibility for wearable/implantable systems. Functional and smart polymer materials can be employed to realize electrodes, electronic routing, heaters, mixers, valves, pumps, sensors, and interconnect structures in polymer-based microfluidic systems. Stimuli for such materials can be located on-chip or in a small package, thus greatly increasing the degree of portability and the potential for mechanical flexibility of such systems. This paper will examine the application of functional polymer materials to the development of high-functioning microfluidics instruments with a goal towards self-direction.

  5. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  6. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  7. Smart Networked Elements in Support of ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos; Perotti, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    At the core of ISHM is the ability to extract information and knowledge from raw data. Conventional data acquisition systems sample and convert physical measurements to engineering units, which higher-level systems use to derive health and information about processes and systems. Although health management is essential at the top level, there are considerable advantages to implementing health-related functions at the sensor level. The distribution of processing to lower levels reduces bandwidth requirements, enhances data fusion, and improves the resolution for detection and isolation of failures in a system, subsystem, component, or process. The Smart Networked Element (SNE) has been developed to implement intelligent functions and algorithms at the sensor level in support of ISHM.

  8. Sensing and actuation of smart chiral honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitch, H.; Burgard, M.; Edery-Azulay, Lucy; Evans, K. E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Miller, W.; Scarpa, F.; Smith, C. W.; Tee, K. F.; Schönecker, A.; Seffner, L.

    2008-03-01

    A chiral honeycomb configuration is developed with embedded piezosensors and actuators for smart sandwich panel applications. The chiral honeycomb concept is made of repeating units of cylinders and plates (ligaments), featuring an in-plane negative Poisson's ratio. Rapid Prototyping vacuum-cast and FDM (Fusion Deposition Moulding) techniques are developed to embed micro fibres composites to be used for potential structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, and microwave absorption screens for electromagnetic compatibility. Finite Element models are also developed to prototype and simulate the response, sensing and actuation capability of the honeycombs for design purposes. Dynamic tests using scanning laser vibrometers and acoustic wave propagation are carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept.

  9. Smart textile plasmonic fiber dew sensors.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hamid; Rivard, Maxime; Arzi, Ezatollah; Légaré, François; Hassani, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensor that detects dew formation in optical fiber-based smart textiles. The proposed SPR sensor facilitates the observation of two phenomena: condensation of moisture and evaporation of water molecules in air. This sensor detects dew formation in less than 0.25 s, and determines dew point temperature with an accuracy of 4%. It can be used to monitor water layer depth changes during dew formation and evaporation in the range of a plasmon depth probe, i.e., 250 nm, with a resolution of 7 nm. Further, it facilitates estimation of the relative humidity of a medium over a dynamic range of 30% to 70% by measuring the evaporation time via the plasmon depth probe. PMID:26072854

  10. Broadband electromagnetic cloaking with smart metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Jung, Youngjean; Kang, Gumin; Baek, Seunghwa; Choi, Minjung; Park, Haesung; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R

    2012-01-01

    The ability to render objects invisible with a cloak that fits all objects and sizes is a long-standing goal for optical devices. Invisibility devices demonstrated so far typically comprise a rigid structure wrapped around an object to which it is fitted. Here we demonstrate smart metamaterial cloaking, wherein the metamaterial device not only transforms electromagnetic fields to make an object invisible, but also acquires its properties automatically from its own elastic deformation. The demonstrated device is a ground-plane microwave cloak composed of an elastic metamaterial with a broad operational band (10-12 GHz) and nearly lossless electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial is uniform, or perfectly periodic, in its undeformed state and acquires the necessary gradient-index profile, mimicking a quasi-conformal transformation, naturally from a boundary load. This easy-to-fabricate hybrid elasto-electromagnetic metamaterial opens the door to implementations of a variety of transformation optics devices based on quasi-conformal maps. PMID:23169054

  11. Mars Smart Lander Parachute Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Eric M.; Raiszadeh, Ben

    2002-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Mars Smart Lander has been developed that includes six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for both the supersonically-deployed and subsonically-deployed parachutes. This simulation is designed to be incorporated into a larger simulation of the entire entry, descent and landing (EDL) sequence. The complete end-to-end simulation will provide attitude history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. Other issues such as recontact with jettisoned elements (heat shield, back shield, parachute mortar covers, etc.), design of parachute and attachment points, and desirable line properties can also be addressed readily using this simulation.

  12. The Security Email Based on Smart Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Zhang; Jiang, Meng Hai.

    Email has become one of the most important communication tools in modern internet society, and its security is an important issue that can't be ignored. The security requirements of Email can be summarized as confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. Recently many researches on IBE (identify based encrypt) have been carried out to solve these security problems. However, because of IBE's fatal flaws and great advantages of PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), PKI is found to be still irreplaceable especially in the applications based on smart card. In this paper, a construction of security Email is presented, then the design of relatively cryptography algorithms and the configuration of certificates are elaborated, and finally the security for the proposed system is discussed.

  13. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  14. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar for SMART CITIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The use of monitoring and surveillance technologies is now recognized as a reliable option of the overall smart cities management cycle, for the advantages that they offer in terms of: economically sustainable planning of the ordinary and extraordinary maintenance interventions; situational awareness of possible risks factors in view of a reliable early warning; improvement of the security of the communities especially in public environments. In this frame, the abstract will deal with the recent advances in the development and deployment of radar systems for the urban surveillance, exploitation of the subsurface resources and civil engineering structures. In particular, we will present the recent scientific developments and several examples of use of these systems in operational conditions.

  16. Smart pigs assess reliability of corroded pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G.; Dawson, S.J.; Brown, M.

    1995-03-01

    Pipeline operating companies are relying more and more on high-resolution, magnetic pigs to inspect onshore and offshore pipelines for corrosion. Data derived from these corrosion surveys can be used to develop a safe future operating strategy. British Gas has successfully developed and applied a realistic deterministic analysis for corroded pipelines. It involves identification and calculation of failure pressure and time to failure of corroded pipe spools with the highest risk of failure. High-resolution, intelligent pigs (smart pigs) can accurately detect, size, and locate corrosion in pipelines. Once corrosion is detected, the operator needs to known if the corrosion will affect the integrity of the pipeline and when it could fail from further corrosion growth. This information can be used to develop a pipeline de-rating schedule, implement a repair or replacement program, determine if re-inspection is necessary, and evaluate effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor program. Such methods are described.

  17. Smart fabric sensors for foot motion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Salcedo, Lina Maria

    Smart Fabrics or fabrics that have the characteristics of sensors are a wide and emerging field of study. This thesis summarizes an investigation into the development of fabric sensors for use in sensorized socks that can be used to gather real time information about the foot such as gait features. Conventional technologies usually provide 2D information about the foot. Sensorized socks are able to provide angular data in which foot angles are correlated to the output from the sensor enabling 3D monitoring of foot position. Current angle detection mechanisms are mainly heavy and cumbersome; the sensorized socks are not only portable but also non-invasive to the subject who wears them. The incorporation of wireless features into the sensorized socks enabled a remote monitoring of the foot.

  18. The "SMART Travel Health" Mobile Application Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallos, Parisis; Mantas, John

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate the users' perception on a pilot mobile application ("SMART Travel Health"), their attitude towards use, and their intention to use it. A theoretical model was constructed based on TAM and other related works. The population was 88 travellers who used the pilot application. Data analysis was performed using partial least squares path modeling. Results highlight the very strong significant effect of perceived ease of use to perceived usefulness, the strong significant effect of perceived usefulness to attitude towards use, as well as, the significant effect of perceived ease of use to attitude towards using the application. Also, the strong significant effect of attitude towards use to behavioral intention to use is presenting the positive perception of the population about this mobile application. PMID:26153000

  19. Solid-state light sources getting smart.

    PubMed

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2005-05-27

    More than a century after the introduction of incandescent lighting and half a century after the introduction of fluorescent lighting, solid-state light sources are revolutionizing an increasing number of applications. Whereas the efficiency of conventional incandescent and fluorescent lights is limited by fundamental factors that cannot be overcome, the efficiency of solid-state sources is limited only by human creativity and imagination. The high efficiency of solid-state sources already provides energy savings and environmental benefits in a number of applications. However, solid-state sources also offer controllability of their spectral power distribution, spatial distribution, color temperature, temporal modulation, and polarization properties. Such "smart" light sources can adjust to specific environments and requirements, a property that could result in tremendous benefits in lighting, automobiles, transportation, communication, imaging, agriculture, and medicine. PMID:15919985

  20. Smart video surveillance system preserving privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we present a smart video surveillance system based on standard technologies and wired or wireless IP networking. The key novelty of the system is that it protects the privacy of people under surveillance. More specifically, a video analysis module detects regions of interest in the scene by change detection or face detection techniques. It is assumed that these regions contain private and sensitive information. Scrambling is then applied only to the corresponding regions. Furthermore, the amount of distortion can be controlled by restricting scrambling to some resolution levels. As a result, the scene remains visible, but privacy-sensitive information is unidentifiable. The scrambling is controlled by a private encryption key which is kept under control of legal authorities. The latter are therefore the only ones who can grant authorization to unlock the protection and view the whole scene. Therefore, this system successfully addresses the loss of privacy issue associated with video surveillance.

  1. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  2. Traffic monitoring with distributed smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin; Ulm, Michael; Schwingshackl, Gert

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy--the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully captured and interpreted by a vision system. 3In this work we present steps towards a visual monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations around a pedestrian crossing at a street intersection. The camera system is specifically designed to detect incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system has been field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in a weatherproof housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection and tracking software, one camera runs a pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG dectection principle. All 3 cameras use sparse optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. Geometric calibration of the cameras allows us to estimate the real-world co-ordinates of detected objects and to link the cameras together into one common reference system. This work describes the foundation for all the different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehicles), and explains the system setup, tis design, and evaluation results which we have achieved so far.

  3. Does LearnSmart Connect Students to Textbook Content in an Interpersonal Communication Course?: Assessing the Effectiveness of and Satisfaction with LearnSmart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study examines McGraw-Hill Higher Education's LearnSmart online textbook supplement and its effect on student exam performance in an interpersonal communication course. Students (N = 62) in two sections were either enrolled in a control group with no required LearnSmart usage or a treatment group with requisite LearnSmart assignments.…

  4. To Be a Safe Boater, Be a Smart Boater

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158342.html To Be a Safe Boater, Be a Smart Boater Experts offer tips on how to ... out in their boats, so experts are offering a few safety reminders. Launch your watercraft in designated ...

  5. "Be Sickle Smart!" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Sickle Cell Disease "Be Sickle Smart! " Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... Studdard Singer Ruben Studdard fights for those with sickle cell disease Recording artist and former American Idol winner ...

  6. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  7. 70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Smart view recreation area entrance road. View of the snake or worm fences used to reinforce the roadway alignment. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Fuzzy finite-element analysis of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpan, U. O.; Koko, T. S.; Orisamolu, I. R.; Gallant, B. K.

    2001-04-01

    A fuzzy finite element based approach is developed for modelling smart structures with vague or imprecise uncertainties. Fuzzy sets are used to represent the uncertainties present in the piezoelectric, mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the smart structure. In order to facilitate efficient computation, a sensitivity analysis procedure is used to streamline the number of input fuzzy variables, and the vertex fuzzy analysis technique is then used to compute the possibility distributions of the responses of the smart structural system. The methodology has been developed within the framework of the SMARTCOM computational tool for the design/analysis of smart composite structures. The methodology developed is found to be accurate and computationally efficient for the solution of practical problems.

  9. Smart fabrics: integrating fiber optic sensors and information networks.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Mahmoud

    2004-01-01

    "Smart Fabrics" are defined as fabrics capable of monitoring their own "health", and sensing environmental conditions. They consist of special type of sensors, signal processing, and communication network embedded into textile substrate. Available conventional sensors and networking systems are not fully technologically mature for such applications. New classes of miniature sensors, signal processing and networking systems are urgently needed for such application. Also, the methodology for integration into textile structures has to be developed. In this paper, the development of smart fabrics with embedded fiber optic systems is presented for applications in health monitoring and diagnostics. Successful development of such smart fabrics with embedded sensors and networks is mainly dependent on the development of the proper miniature sensors technology, and on the integration of these sensors into textile structures. The developed smart fabrics will be discussed and samples of the results will be presented. PMID:15718661

  10. A review of the functionalities of smart walkers.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria; Santos, Cristina; Frizera, Anselmo; Ceres, Ramón

    2015-10-01

    There is a need to conceptualize and improve the investigation and developments in assistive devices, focusing on the design and effectiveness of walkers in the user's rehabilitation process and functional compensation. This review surveys the importance of smart walkers in maintaining mobility and discusses their potential in rehabilitation and their demands as assistive devices. It also presents related research in addressing and quantifying the smart walker's efficiency and influence on gait. Besides, it discusses smart walkers focusing on studies related to the concept of autonomous and shared-control and manual guidance, the use of smart walkers as personal helpers to sit-to-stand and diagnostic tools for patients' rehabilitation through the evaluation of their gait. PMID:26307456

  11. SMARTE: HELPING COMMUNITIES OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO REVITALIZATION - JUNE 28, 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools -electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and Revitalization (OBCR), the Interstate Tec...

  12. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the “Domus”1 smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%). PMID:27616986

  13. Effect of smart phone use on dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Choi, Mun-Hee; Goo, Bong-Oh

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated what kind of effect smart phone use has on dynamic postural balance. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 healthy students in their 20's who were recruited from a University in Busan, Korea. [Methods] The present experiment was quasi-experimental research which measured the postural balance (Biodex) of subjects while they sent text messages via smart phones in the standing position with the eyes open, and while they used two-way SNS. [Results] There were significant differences between standing and the dual-task situations. Among dual tasks using smart phones, SNS using situations showed the highest instability. [Conclusion] The use of smart phones in less stable conditions such as while walking or in moving vehicles should be discouraged. PMID:25140085

  14. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  15. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment.

    PubMed

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the "Domus" smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%). PMID:27616986

  16. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - What You Can Do

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  17. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Symptom Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  18. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  19. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  20. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Bronchitis (Chest Cold)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  1. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  2. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sore Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  3. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Sinus Infection (Sinusitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Resistance Improving Prescribing Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions That Work Systematic Reviews of Outpatient Stewardship Audit and Feedback ...

  4. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Resor, Brian R.; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  5. VOLTTRON - An Intelligent Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-12

    The distributed nature of the Smart Grid, such as responsive loads, solar and wind generation, and automation in the distribution system present a complex environment not easily controlled in a centralized manner.

  6. Thundercloud: Domain specific information security training for the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, Joseph

    In this paper, we describe a cloud-based virtual smart grid test bed: ThunderCloud, which is intended to be used for domain-specific security training applicable to the smart grid environment. The test bed consists of virtual machines connected using a virtual internal network. ThunderCloud is remotely accessible, allowing students to undergo educational exercises online. We also describe a series of practical exercises that we have developed for providing the domain-specific training using ThunderCloud. The training exercises and attacks are designed to be realistic and to reflect known vulnerabilities and attacks reported in the smart grid environment. We were able to use ThunderCloud to offer practical domain-specific security training for smart grid environment to computer science students at little or no cost to the department and no risk to any real networks or systems.

  7. Implementation of "Heart Smart:" A Cardiovascular School Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Ann M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    "Heart Smart," a research-based health promotion program for elementary schools, was tested in four elementary schools. The program's objectives, strategies, curriculum, and other components are described. (Author/MT)

  8. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  9. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  10. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  11. Effect of Smart Phone Use on Dynamic Postural Balance

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Choi, Mun-Hee; Goo, Bong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated what kind of effect smart phone use has on dynamic postural balance. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 healthy students in their 20’s who were recruited from a University in Busan, Korea. [Methods] The present experiment was quasi-experimental research which measured the postural balance (Biodex) of subjects while they sent text messages via smart phones in the standing position with the eyes open, and while they used two-way SNS. [Results] There were significant differences between standing and the dual-task situations. Among dual tasks using smart phones, SNS using situations showed the highest instability. [Conclusion] The use of smart phones in less stable conditions such as while walking or in moving vehicles should be discouraged. PMID:25140085

  12. Implementing a High-Assurance Smart-Card OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Paul A.; Toll, David C.; Palmer, Elaine R.; McIntosh, Suzanne K.; Weber, Samuel; Edwards, Jonathan W.

    Building a high-assurance, secure operating system for memory constrained systems, such as smart cards, introduces many challenges. The increasing power of smart cards has made their use feasible in applications such as electronic passports, military and public sector identification cards, and cell-phone based financial and entertainment applications. Such applications require a secure environment, which can only be provided with sufficient hardware and a secure operating system. We argue that smart cards pose additional security challenges when compared to traditional computer platforms. We discuss our design for a secure smart card operating system, named Caernarvon, and show that it addresses these challenges, which include secure application download, protection of cryptographic functions from malicious applications, resolution of covert channels, and assurance of both security and data integrity in the face of arbitrary power losses.

  13. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system. PMID:25243214

  14. Ticcing in Public: Eight Smart Ways to Deal with It

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest News Contact Us TICCING IN PUBLIC 8 Smart Ways to Deal with It by Mitzi Waltz ... and Tic Disorders. Return to the Tourette Association Home Page ©2007-2016 Tourette Association of America Inc.

  15. Integrated smart electrochromic windows for energy saving and storage applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong; Jin, Xiujuan; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-18

    A self-powered electrochromic smart window with tunable transmittance driven by dye-sensitized solar cells has been designed, which also acts as a photocharged electrochromic supercapacitor with high areal capacitance and reversible color changes. PMID:24281715

  16. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  17. How to engage end-users in smart energy behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkering, Pieter; Laes, Erik; Kessels, Kris; Uyterlinde, Matthijs; Straver, Koen

    2014-12-01

    End users will play a crucial role in up-coming smart grids that aim to link end-users and energy providers in a better balanced and more efficient electricity system. Within this context, this paper aims to deliver a coherent view on current good practice in end-user engagement in smart grid projects. It draws from a recent review of theoretical insights from sustainable consumption behaviour, social marketing and innovation systems and empirical insights from recent smart grid projects to create an inventory of common motivators, enablers and barriers of behavioural change, and the end-user engagement principles that can be derived from that. We conclude with identifying current research challenges as input for a research agenda on end-user engagement in smart grids.

  18. Against "Smart" Thinking: A Response to Venitha Pillay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2007-01-01

    In this response I argue that smart thinking would not necessarily engender democratic justice in our South African society. I contend that we need to cultivate responsible thinkers and that universities are favourably positioned to do so.

  19. A smart grid simulation testbed using Matlab/Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The smart grid is the integration of computing and communication technologies into a power grid with a goal of enabling real time control, and a reliable, secure, and efficient energy system [1]. With the increased interest of the research community and stakeholders towards the smart grid, a number of solutions and algorithms have been developed and proposed to address issues related to smart grid operations and functions. Those technologies and solutions need to be tested and validated before implementation using software simulators. In this paper, we developed a general smart grid simulation model in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, which integrates renewable energy resources, energy storage technology, load monitoring and control capability. To demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of our simulation model, we created simulation scenarios and performed simulations using a real-world data set provided by the Pecan Street Research Institute.

  20. SMARTE: HELPING COMMUNITIES EVALUATE REUSE OPTIONS AND OVERCOME REVITALIZATION OBSTACLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization (OBLR), the Interstate Techn...