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Sample records for across-species across-assay investigation

  1. Networks of spatial genetic variation across species

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Albaladejo, Rafael G.; Fernández, Laura; Aparicio, Abelardo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Spatial patterns of genetic variation provide information central to many ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions. This spatial variability has traditionally been analyzed through summary statistics between pairs of populations, therefore missing the simultaneous influence of all populations. More recently, a network approach has been advocated to overcome these limitations. This network approach has been applied to a few cases limited to a single species at a time. The question remains whether similar patterns of spatial genetic variation and similar functional roles for specific patches are obtained for different species. Here we study the networks of genetic variation of four Mediterranean woody plant species inhabiting the same habitat patches in a highly fragmented forest mosaic in Southern Spain. Three of the four species show a similar pattern of genetic variation with well-defined modules or groups of patches holding genetically similar populations. These modules can be thought of as the long-sought-after, evolutionarily significant units or management units. The importance of each patch for the cohesion of the entire network, though, is quite different across species. This variation creates a tremendous challenge for the prioritization of patches to conserve the genetic variation of multispecies assemblages. PMID:19861546

  2. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-06-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  3. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  4. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  5. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  6. Expertise acquisition as sustained learning in humans and other animals: commonalities across species.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2008-01-01

    Expertise acquisition may be a universal attribute of animals. In this study data on foraging efficiency, or expertise, was compared for four species: honeybees (Apis mellifera), oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and humans (Homo sapiens). Polynomial regression models were constructed to investigate the relationship between age and foraging efficiency. There was a similar expertise-acquisition function between age and foraging efficiency across species, best described by a quadratic equation. The peak of performance was reached, in all cases, before the average age of death but well after reaching physical maturity and the percentage of lifespan devoted to the skill was more than 10% of the species-typical lifespan. PMID:17534675

  7. BIOINFORMATIC INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS DATA ACROSS SPECIES TO DEVELOP PORCINE INFLAMMATORY GENE REGULATORY PATHWAY INFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of structural and functional genomic data across species holds great promise in finding genes controlling disease resistance. We are investigating the porcine gut immune response to infection through gene expression profiling. We have collected porcine Affymetrix GeneChip data from RNA ...

  8. Computational Integration Of Structural And Functional Genomics Data Across Species To Develop Porcine Inflammatory Gene Regulatory Pathway Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative integration of structural and functional genomic data across species holds great promise in finding genes controlling disease resistance. We are investigating the porcine gut immune response to infection through gene expression profiling. We have collected porcine Affymetrix GeneChip da...

  9. Computational Integration of Structural and Functional Genomics Data Across Species to Develop Information on Porcine Inflammatory Gene Regulatory Pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative integration of structural and functional genomic data across species holds great promise in finding genes controlling disease resistance. We are investigating the porcine gut immune response to infection through gene expression profiling. We have collected porcine Affymetrix GeneChip da...

  10. Nutrition shapes life-history evolution across species.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eli M; Espeset, Anne; Mikati, Ihab; Bolduc, Isaac; Kulhanek, Robert; White, William A; Kenzie, Susan; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2016-07-13

    Nutrition is a key component of life-history theory, yet we know little about how diet quality shapes life-history evolution across species. Here, we test whether quantitative measures of nutrition are linked to life-history evolution across 96 species of butterflies representing over 50 independent diet shifts. We find that butterflies feeding on high nitrogen host plants as larvae are more fecund, but their eggs are smaller relative to their body size. Nitrogen and sodium content of host plants are also both positively related to eye size. Some of these relationships show pronounced lineage-specific effects. Testis size is not related to nutrition. Additionally, the evolutionary timing of diet shifts is not important, suggesting that nutrition affects life histories regardless of the length of time a species has been adapting to its diet. Our results suggest that, at least for some lineages, species with higher nutrient diets can invest in a range of fitness-related traits like fecundity and eye size while allocating less to each egg as offspring have access to a richer diet. These results have important implications for the evolution of life histories in the face of anthropogenic changes in nutrient availability. PMID:27412282

  11. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Tree ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological signals motivates us to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> such properties in tree ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 tree ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 species studied in the work. The long-range scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of tree ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of tree ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the long-range correlations within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621335"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology has contrasting effects on genetic variation within species versus rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in water beetles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujisawa, Tomochika; Vogler, Alfried P; Barraclough, Timothy G</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>Comparative analysis is a potentially powerful approach to study the effects of ecological traits on genetic variation and rate of evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, the lack of suitable datasets means that comparative studies of correlates of genetic traits across an entire clade have been rare. Here, we use a large DNA-barcode dataset (5062 sequences) of water beetles to test the effects of species ecology and geographical distribution on genetic variation within species and rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species traits predicted to influence their genetic characteristics, such as surrogate measures of species population size, latitudinal distribution and habitat types, taking phylogeny into account. Genetic variation of cytochrome oxidase I in water beetles was positively correlated with occupancy (numbers of sites of species presence) and negatively with latitude, whereas substitution rates <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> depended mainly on habitat types, and running water specialists had the highest rate. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions from nearly-neutral theories of evolution, and suggest that the comparative analysis using large databases can give insights into correlates of genetic variation and molecular evolution. PMID:25621335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286044','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286044"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology has contrasting effects on genetic variation within species versus rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in water beetles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fujisawa, Tomochika; Vogler, Alfried P.; Barraclough, Timothy G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Comparative analysis is a potentially powerful approach to study the effects of ecological traits on genetic variation and rate of evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, the lack of suitable datasets means that comparative studies of correlates of genetic traits across an entire clade have been rare. Here, we use a large DNA-barcode dataset (5062 sequences) of water beetles to test the effects of species ecology and geographical distribution on genetic variation within species and rates of molecular evolution <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species traits predicted to influence their genetic characteristics, such as surrogate measures of species population size, latitudinal distribution and habitat types, taking phylogeny into account. Genetic variation of cytochrome oxidase I in water beetles was positively correlated with occupancy (numbers of sites of species presence) and negatively with latitude, whereas substitution rates <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> depended mainly on habitat types, and running water specialists had the highest rate. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions from nearly-neutral theories of evolution, and suggest that the comparative analysis using large databases can give insights into correlates of genetic variation and molecular evolution. PMID:25621335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=data+AND+visualization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65016585&CFTOKEN=56646100','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=305292&keyword=data+AND+visualization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65016585&CFTOKEN=56646100"><span id="translatedtitle">SeqAPASS (Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility) software and documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SeqAPASS is a software application facilitates rapid and streamlined, yet transparent, comparisons of the similarity of toxicologically-significant molecular targets <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The present application facilitates analysis of primary amino acid sequence similarity (including ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726214','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726214"><span id="translatedtitle">The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eckers, Anna; Jakob, Sascha; Heiss, Christian; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Goy, Christine; Brinkmann, Vanessa; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Sansone, Roberto; Esser, Charlotte; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Altschmied, Joachim; Ventura, Natascia; Haendeler, Judith</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ubiquitously expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces drug metabolizing enzymes as well as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Certain AhR ligands promote atherosclerosis, an age-associated vascular disease. Therefore, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the role of AhR in vascular functionality and aging. We report a lower pulse wave velocity in young and old AhR-deficient mice, indicative of enhanced vessel elasticity. Moreover, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) showed increased activity in the aortas of these animals, which was reflected in increased NO production. Ex vivo, AhR activation reduced the migratory capacity of primary human endothelial cells. AhR overexpression as well as treatment with a receptor ligand, impaired eNOS activation and reduced S-NO content. All three are signs of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, AhR expression in blood cells of healthy human volunteers positively correlated with vessel stiffness. In the aging model Caenorhabditis elegans, AhR-deficiency resulted in increased mean life span, motility, pharynx pumping and heat shock resistance, suggesting healthier aging. Thus, AhR seems to have a negative impact on vascular and organismal aging. Finally, our data from human subjects suggest that AhR expression levels could serve as an additional, new predictor of vessel aging. PMID:26790370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587648','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587648"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic Identification of Cerebellar Cortical Neurones <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M.; Heiney, Shane A.; Blazquez, Pablo M.; Meng, Hui; Angelaki, Dora E.; Arenz, Alexander; Margrie, Troy W.; Mostofi, Abteen; Edgley, Steve; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Holtzman, Tahl</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> may have broad application to a variety of future cerebellar cortical <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, particularly in awake animals where opportunities for definitive cell identification are limited. PMID:23469215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028317','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028317"><span id="translatedtitle">NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.; Katz, Paul S.; Kristan, William B.; Macagno, Eduardo R.; Mitra, Partha P.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Preuss, Todd M.; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Stevens, Charles F.; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system ‘maps’ comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of ‘reference species’ to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764020','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764020"><span id="translatedtitle">Was it a pain or a sound? <span class="hlt">Across-species</span> variability in sensory sensitivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Li; Xia, Xiaolei L.; Peng, Weiwei W.; Su, Wenxin X.; Luo, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao T.; Liang, Meng; Iannetti, Giandomenico</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Natural selection has shaped the physiological properties of sensory systems <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, yielding large variations in their sensitivity. Here, we used laser stimulation of skin nociceptors, a widely used technique to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> pain in rats and humans, to provide a vivid example of how ignoring these variations can lead to serious misconceptions in sensory neuroscience. In 6 experiments, we characterized and compared the physiological properties of the electrocortical responses elicited by laser stimulation in rats and humans. We recorded the electroencephalogram from the surface of the brain in freely moving rats and from the scalp in healthy humans. Laser stimuli elicited 2 temporally distinct responses, traditionally interpreted as reflecting the concomitant activation of different populations of nociceptors with different conduction velocities: small-myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Our results show that this interpretation is valid in humans, but not in rats. Indeed, the early response recorded in rats does not reflect the activation of the somatosensory system, but of the auditory system by laser-generated ultrasounds. These results have wide implications: retrospectively, as they prompt for a reconsideration of a large number of previous interpretations of electrocortical rat recordings in basic, preclinical, and pharmacological research, and prospectively, as they will allow recording truly pain-related cortical responses in rats. PMID:26270592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270592"><span id="translatedtitle">Was it a pain or a sound? <span class="hlt">Across-species</span> variability in sensory sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Li; Xia, Xiaolei L; Peng, Weiwei W; Su, Wenxin X; Luo, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao T; Liang, Meng; Iannetti, Giandomenico</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Natural selection has shaped the physiological properties of sensory systems <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, yielding large variations in their sensitivity. Here, we used laser stimulation of skin nociceptors, a widely used technique to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> pain in rats and humans, to provide a vivid example of how ignoring these variations can lead to serious misconceptions in sensory neuroscience. In 6 experiments, we characterized and compared the physiological properties of the electrocortical responses elicited by laser stimulation in rats and humans. We recorded the electroencephalogram from the surface of the brain in freely moving rats and from the scalp in healthy humans. Laser stimuli elicited 2 temporally distinct responses, traditionally interpreted as reflecting the concomitant activation of different populations of nociceptors with different conduction velocities: small-myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Our results show that this interpretation is valid in humans, but not in rats. Indeed, the early response recorded in rats does not reflect the activation of the somatosensory system, but of the auditory system by laser-generated ultrasounds. These results have wide implications: retrospectively, as they prompt for a reconsideration of a large number of previous interpretations of electrocortical rat recordings in basic, preclinical, and pharmacological research, and prospectively, as they will allow recording truly pain-related cortical responses in rats. PMID:26270592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4330341','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4330341"><span id="translatedtitle">ModuleBlast: identifying activated sub-networks within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zinman, Guy E.; Naiman, Shoshana; O'Dee, Dawn M.; Kumar, Nishant; Nau, Gerard J.; Cohen, Haim Y.; Bar-Joseph, Ziv</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Identifying conserved and divergent response patterns in gene networks is becoming increasingly important. A common approach is integrating expression information with gene association networks in order to find groups of connected genes that are activated or repressed. In many cases, researchers are also interested in comparisons <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (or conditions). Finding an active sub-network is a hard problem and applying it <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> requires further considerations (e.g. orthology information, expression data and networks from different sources). To address these challenges we devised ModuleBlast, which uses both expression and network topology to search for highly relevant sub-networks. We have applied ModuleBlast to expression and interaction data from mouse, macaque and human to study immune response and aging. The immune response analysis identified several relevant modules, consistent with recent findings on apoptosis and NFκB activation following infection. Temporal analysis of these data revealed cascades of modules that are dynamically activated within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We have experimentally validated some of the novel hypotheses resulting from the analysis of the ModuleBlast results leading to new insights into the mechanisms used by a key mammalian aging protein. PMID:25428368</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428368"><span id="translatedtitle">ModuleBlast: identifying activated sub-networks within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zinman, Guy E; Naiman, Shoshana; O'Dee, Dawn M; Kumar, Nishant; Nau, Gerard J; Cohen, Haim Y; Bar-Joseph, Ziv</p> <p>2015-02-18</p> <p>Identifying conserved and divergent response patterns in gene networks is becoming increasingly important. A common approach is integrating expression information with gene association networks in order to find groups of connected genes that are activated or repressed. In many cases, researchers are also interested in comparisons <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (or conditions). Finding an active sub-network is a hard problem and applying it <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> requires further considerations (e.g. orthology information, expression data and networks from different sources). To address these challenges we devised ModuleBlast, which uses both expression and network topology to search for highly relevant sub-networks. We have applied ModuleBlast to expression and interaction data from mouse, macaque and human to study immune response and aging. The immune response analysis identified several relevant modules, consistent with recent findings on apoptosis and NFκB activation following infection. Temporal analysis of these data revealed cascades of modules that are dynamically activated within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We have experimentally validated some of the novel hypotheses resulting from the analysis of the ModuleBlast results leading to new insights into the mechanisms used by a key mammalian aging protein. PMID:25428368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875825','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3875825"><span id="translatedtitle">Conserved Changes in the Dynamics of Metabolic Processes during Fruit Development and Ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>1[C][W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F.; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the <span class="hlt">investigated</span> species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24243932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535946','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535946"><span id="translatedtitle">Gene expression profiling of non-polyadenylated RNA-seq <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Yin, Qing-Fei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Transcriptomes are dynamic and unique, with each cell type/tissue, developmental stage and species expressing a different repertoire of RNA transcripts. Most mRNAs and well-characterized long noncoding RNAs are shaped with a 5′ cap and 3′ poly(A) tail, thus conventional transcriptome analyses typically start with the enrichment of poly(A)+ RNAs by oligo(dT) selection, followed by deep sequencing approaches. However, accumulated lines of evidence suggest that many RNA transcripts are processed by alternative mechanisms without 3′ poly(A) tails and, therefore, fail to be enriched by oligo(dT) purification and are absent following deep sequencing analyses. We have described an enrichment strategy to purify non-polyadenylated (poly(A)−/ribo−) RNAs from human total RNAs by removal of both poly(A)+ RNA transcripts and ribosomal RNAs, which led to the identification of many novel RNA transcripts with non-canonical 3′ ends in human. Here, we describe the application of non-polyadenylated RNA-sequencing in rhesus monkey and mouse cell lines/tissue, and further profile the transcription of non-polyadenylated RNAs <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, providing new resources for non-polyadenylated RNA identification and comparison <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26484100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4786983','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4786983"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Conserved Toxicogenomic Responses in Chemically Exposed Hepatocytes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>El-Hachem, Nehme; Grossmann, Patrick; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Bateman, Alain R.; Bouchard, Nicolas; Archambault, Jacques; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Genome-wide expression profiling is increasingly being used to identify transcriptional changes induced by drugs and environmental stressors. In this context, the Toxicogenomics Project–Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation system (TG-GATEs) project generated transcriptional profiles from rat liver samples and human/rat cultured primary hepatocytes exposed to more than 100 different chemicals. Objectives To assess the capacity of the cell culture models to recapitulate pathways induced by chemicals in vivo, we leveraged the TG-GATEs data set to compare the early transcriptional responses observed in the liver of rats treated with a large set of chemicals with those of cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes challenged with the same compounds in vitro. Methods We developed a new pathway-based computational pipeline that efficiently combines gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using pathways from the Reactome database with biclustering to identify common modules of pathways that are modulated by several chemicals in vivo and in vitro <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Results We found that some chemicals induced conserved patterns of early transcriptional responses in in vitro and in vivo settings, and across human and rat genomes. These responses involved pathways of cell survival, inflammation, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Moreover, our results support the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-βR) signaling pathway as a candidate biomarker associated with exposure to environmental toxicants in primary human hepatocytes. Conclusions Our integrative analysis of toxicogenomics data provides a comprehensive overview of biochemical perturbations affected by a large panel of chemicals. Furthermore, we show that the early toxicological response occurring in animals is recapitulated in human and rat primary hepatocyte cultures at the molecular level, indicating that these models reproduce key pathways in response to chemical stress. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3302874','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3302874"><span id="translatedtitle">Regular Patterns for Proteome-Wide Distribution of Protein Abundance <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Ying; Ying, Wantao; Wu, Songfeng; Zhu, Yunping; Liu, Siqi; Yang, Pengyuan; Qian, Xiaohong; He, Fuchu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positively correlated with the protein's origination time or sequence conservation during evolution; it is negatively correlated with the protein's domain number and positively correlated with domain coverage in protein structure, and the correlations became stronger during the course of evolution; protein abundance can be further stratified by the function of the protein, whereby proteins that act on material conversion and transportation (mass category) are more abundant than those that act on information modulation (information category). Thus, protein abundance is intrinsically related to the protein's inherent characters of evolution, structure, and function. PMID:22427835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4371795','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4371795"><span id="translatedtitle">A cost minimisation and Bayesian inference model predicts startle reflex modulation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bach, Dominik R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In many species, rapid defensive reflexes are paramount to escaping acute danger. These reflexes are modulated by the state of the environment. This is exemplified in fear-potentiated startle, a more vigorous startle response during conditioned anticipation of an unrelated threatening event. Extant explanations of this phenomenon build on descriptive models of underlying psychological states, or neural processes. Yet, they fail to predict invigorated startle during reward anticipation and instructed attention, and do not explain why startle reflex modulation evolved. Here, we fill this lacuna by developing a normative cost minimisation model based on Bayesian optimality principles. This model predicts the observed pattern of startle modification by rewards, punishments, instructed attention, and several other states. Moreover, the mathematical formalism furnishes predictions that can be tested experimentally. Comparing the model with existing data suggests a specific neural implementation of the underlying computations which yields close approximations to the optimal solution under most circumstances. This analysis puts startle modification into the framework of Bayesian decision theory and predictive coding, and illustrates the importance of an adaptive perspective to interpret defensive behaviour <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:25660056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737272','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737272"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001846"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual differences in frontolimbic circuitry and anxiety emerge with adolescent changes in endocannabinoid signaling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gee, Dylan G; Fetcho, Robert N; Jing, Deqiang; Li, Anfei; Glatt, Charles E; Drysdale, Andrew T; Cohen, Alexandra O; Dellarco, Danielle V; Yang, Rui R; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Lee, Francis S; Casey, B J</p> <p>2016-04-19</p> <p>Anxiety disorders peak in incidence during adolescence, a developmental window that is marked by dynamic changes in gene expression, endocannabinoid signaling, and frontolimbic circuitry. We tested whether genetic alterations in endocannabinoid signaling related to a common polymorphism in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which alters endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) levels, would impact the development of frontolimbic circuitry implicated in anxiety disorders. In a pediatric imaging sample of over 1,000 3- to 21-y-olds, we show effects of the FAAH genotype specific to frontolimbic connectivity that emerge by ∼12 y of age and are paralleled by changes in anxiety-related behavior. Using a knock-in mouse model of the FAAH polymorphism that controls for genetic and environmental backgrounds, we confirm phenotypic differences in frontoamygdala circuitry and anxiety-related behavior by postnatal day 45 (P45), when AEA levels begin to decrease, and also, at P75 but not before. These results, which converge <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and level of analysis, highlight the importance of underlying developmental neurobiology in the emergence of genetic effects on brain circuitry and function. Moreover, the results have important implications for the identification of risk for disease and precise targeting of treatments to the biological state of the developing brain as a function of developmental changes in gene expression and neural circuit maturation. PMID:27001846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26179195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26179195"><span id="translatedtitle">Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554020"><span id="translatedtitle">QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Zheng, Wenguang; Zhu, Yanbing; Ye, Huaxun; Tang, Buyun; Arendsee, Zebulun W; Jones, Dallas; Li, Ruoran; Ortiz, Diego; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan; Scott, M Paul; Salas-Fernandez, Maria G; Yin, Yanhai; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin</p> <p>2015-11-24</p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates metabolic processes affecting carbon and nitrogen partitioning among proteins and carbohydrates, modulating leaf and seed composition in Arabidopsis and soybean. Here the universality of QQS function in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation is exemplified by a series of transgenic experiments. We show that ectopic expression of QQS increases soybean protein independent of the genetic background and original protein content of the cultivar. Furthermore, transgenic QQS expression increases the protein content of maize, a C4 species (a species that uses 4-carbon photosynthesis), and rice, a protein-poor agronomic crop, both highly divergent from Arabidopsis. We determine that QQS protein binds to the transcriptional regulator AtNF-YC4 (Arabidopsis nuclear factor Y, subunit C4). Overexpression of AtNF-YC4 in Arabidopsis mimics the QQS-overexpression phenotype, increasing protein and decreasing starch levels. NF-YC, a component of the NF-Y complex, is conserved across eukaryotes. The NF-YC4 homologs of soybean, rice, and maize also bind to QQS, which provides an explanation of how QQS can act in species where it does not occur endogenously. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first insight into the mechanism of action of QQS in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. They have major implications for the emergence and function of orphan genes, and identify a nontransgenic strategy for modulating protein levels in crop species, a trait of great agronomic significance. PMID:26554020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664325','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664325"><span id="translatedtitle">QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Zheng, Wenguang; Zhu, Yanbing; Ye, Huaxun; Tang, Buyun; Arendsee, Zebulun W.; Jones, Dallas; Li, Ruoran; Ortiz, Diego; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Chuanlong; Nettleton, Dan; Scott, M. Paul; Salas-Fernandez, Maria G.; Yin, Yanhai; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates metabolic processes affecting carbon and nitrogen partitioning among proteins and carbohydrates, modulating leaf and seed composition in Arabidopsis and soybean. Here the universality of QQS function in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation is exemplified by a series of transgenic experiments. We show that ectopic expression of QQS increases soybean protein independent of the genetic background and original protein content of the cultivar. Furthermore, transgenic QQS expression increases the protein content of maize, a C4 species (a species that uses 4-carbon photosynthesis), and rice, a protein-poor agronomic crop, both highly divergent from Arabidopsis. We determine that QQS protein binds to the transcriptional regulator AtNF-YC4 (Arabidopsis nuclear factor Y, subunit C4). Overexpression of AtNF-YC4 in Arabidopsis mimics the QQS-overexpression phenotype, increasing protein and decreasing starch levels. NF-YC, a component of the NF-Y complex, is conserved across eukaryotes. The NF-YC4 homologs of soybean, rice, and maize also bind to QQS, which provides an explanation of how QQS can act in species where it does not occur endogenously. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first insight into the mechanism of action of QQS in modulating carbon and nitrogen allocation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. They have major implications for the emergence and function of orphan genes, and identify a nontransgenic strategy for modulating protein levels in crop species, a trait of great agronomic significance. PMID:26554020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161959"><span id="translatedtitle">The concentration of stress at the rotator cuff tendon-to-bone attachment site is conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saadat, Fatemeh; Deymier, Alix C; Birman, Victor; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The tendon-to-bone attachment site integrates two distinct tissues via a gradual transition in composition, mechanical properties, and structure. Outcomes of surgical repair are poor, in part because surgical repair does not recreate the natural attachment, and in part because the mechanical features that are most critical to mechanical and physiological functions have not been identified. We employed allometric analysis to resolve a paradox about how the architecture of the rotator cuff contributes to load transfer: whereas published data suggest that the mean muscle stresses expected at the tendon-to-bone attachment are conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, data also show that the relative dimensions of key anatomical features vary dramatically, suggesting that the amplification of stresses at the interface between tendon and bone should also vary widely. However, a mechanical model that enabled a sensitivity analysis revealed that the degree of stress concentration was in fact highly conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the factors that most affected stress amplification were most highly conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, while those that had a lower effect showed broad variation across a range of relative insensitivity. Results highlight how micromechanical factors can influence structure-function relationships and cross-species scaling over several orders of magnitude in animal size, and provide guidance on physiological features to emphasize in surgical and tissue engineered repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:27161959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151560"><span id="translatedtitle">The sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: A review of persistence in a course of action due to prior investment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magalhães, Paula; Geoffrey White, K</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The sunk cost effect is the bias or tendency to persist in a course of action due to prior investments of effort, money or time. At the time of the only review on the sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Arkes & Ayton, 1999), research with nonhuman animals had been ecological in its nature, and the findings about the effect of past investments on current choice were inconclusive. However, in the last decade a new line of experimental laboratory-based research has emerged with the promise of revolutionizing the way we approach the study of the sunk cost effect in nonhumans. In the present review we challenge Arkes and Ayton's conclusion that the sunk cost effect is exclusive to humans, and describe evidence for the sunk cost effect in nonhuman animals. By doing so, we also challenge the current explanations for the sunk cost effect in humans, as they are not applicable to nonhumans. We argue that a unified theory is called for, because different independent variables, in particular, investment amount, have the same influence on the sunk cost effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Finally, we suggest possible psychological mechanisms shared across different species, contrast and depreciation, that could explain the sunk cost effect. PMID:27151560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383564','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383564"><span id="translatedtitle">Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3047580','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3047580"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct and Conserved Prominin-1/CD133–Positive Retinal Cell Populations Identified <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jászai, József; Fargeas, Christine A.; Graupner, Sylvi; Tanaka, Elly M.; Brand, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Besides being a marker of various somatic stem cells in mammals, prominin-1 (CD133) plays a role in maintaining the photoreceptor integrity since mutations in the PROM1 gene are linked with retinal degeneration. In spite of that, little information is available regarding its distribution in eyes of non-mammalian vertebrates endowed with high regenerative abilities. To address this subject, prominin-1 cognates were isolated from axolotl, zebrafish and chicken, and their retinal compartmentalization was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and compared to that of their mammalian orthologue. Interestingly, prominin-1 transcripts—except for the axolotl—were not strictly restricted to the outer nuclear layer (i.e., photoreceptor cells), but they also marked distinct subdivisions of the inner nuclear layer (INL). In zebrafish, where the prominin-1 gene is duplicated (i.e., prominin-1a and prominin-1b), a differential expression was noted for both paralogues within the INL being localized either to its vitreal or scleral subdivision, respectively. Interestingly, expression of prominin-1a within the former domain coincided with Pax-6–positive cells that are known to act as progenitors upon injury-induced retino-neurogenesis. A similar, but minute population of prominin-1–positive cells located at the vitreal side of the INL was also detected in developing and adult mice. In chicken, however, prominin-1–positive cells appeared to be aligned along the scleral side of the INL reminiscent of zebrafish prominin-1b. Taken together our data indicate that in addition to conserved expression of prominin-1 in photoreceptors, significant prominin-1–expressing non-photoreceptor retinal cell populations are present in the vertebrate eye that might represent potential sources of stem/progenitor cells for regenerative therapies. PMID:21407811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835394"><span id="translatedtitle">Heme oxygenase-1 protects corexit 9500A-induced respiratory epithelial injury <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Fu Jun; Duggal, Ryan N; Oliva, Octavio M; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173792','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173792"><span id="translatedtitle">Costs of fear: Behavioral and life-history responses to risk and their demographic consequences vary <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>LaManna, Joseph A.; Martin, Thomas E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Behavioural responses to reduce predation risk might cause demographic ‘costs of fear’. Costs differ among species, but a conceptual framework to understand this variation is lacking. We use a life-history framework to tie together diverse traits and life stages to better understand interspecific variation in responses and costs. We used natural and experimental variation in predation risk to test phenotypic responses and associated demographic costs for 10 songbird species. Responses such as increased parental attentiveness yielded reduced development time and created benefits such as reduced predation probability. Yet, responses to increased risk also created demographic costs by reducing offspring production in the absence of direct predation. This cost of fear varied widely <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, but predictably with the probability of repeat breeding. Use of a life-history framework can aid our understanding of potential demographic costs from predation, both from responses to perceived risk and from direct predation mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26900087"><span id="translatedtitle">Costs of fear: behavioural and life-history responses to risk and their demographic consequences vary <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaManna, Joseph A; Martin, Thomas E</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Behavioural responses to reduce predation risk might cause demographic 'costs of fear'. Costs differ among species, but a conceptual framework to understand this variation is lacking. We use a life-history framework to tie together diverse traits and life stages to better understand interspecific variation in responses and costs. We used natural and experimental variation in predation risk to test phenotypic responses and associated demographic costs for 10 songbird species. Responses such as increased parental attentiveness yielded reduced development time and created benefits such as reduced predation probability. Yet, responses to increased risk also created demographic costs by reducing offspring production in the absence of direct predation. This cost of fear varied widely <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, but predictably with the probability of repeat breeding. Use of a life-history framework can aid our understanding of potential demographic costs from predation, both from responses to perceived risk and from direct predation mortality. PMID:26900087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411482','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411482"><span id="translatedtitle">Similarity thresholds used in DNA sequence assembly from short reads can reduce the comparability of population histories <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Judy, Caroline Duffie; Seeholzer, Glenn F.; Maley, James M.; Graves, Gary R.; Brumfield, Robb T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Comparing inferences among datasets generated using short read sequencing may provide insight into the concerted impacts of divergence, gene flow and selection across organisms, but comparisons are complicated by biases introduced during dataset assembly. Sequence similarity thresholds allow the de novo assembly of short reads into clusters of alleles representing different loci, but the resulting datasets are sensitive to both the similarity threshold used and to the variation naturally present in the organism under study. Thresholds that require high sequence similarity among reads for assembly (stringent thresholds) as well as highly variable species may result in datasets in which divergent alleles are lost or divided into separate loci (‘over-splitting’), whereas liberal thresholds increase the risk of paralogous loci being combined into a single locus (‘under-splitting’). Comparisons among datasets or species are therefore potentially biased if different similarity thresholds are applied or if the species differ in levels of within-lineage genetic variation. We examine the impact of a range of similarity thresholds on assembly of empirical short read datasets from populations of four different non-model bird lineages (species or species pairs) with different levels of genetic divergence. We find that, in all species, stringent similarity thresholds result in fewer alleles per locus than more liberal thresholds, which appears to be the result of high levels of over-splitting. The frequency of putative under-splitting, conversely, is low at all thresholds. Inferred genetic distances between individuals, gene tree depths, and estimates of the ancestral mutation-scaled effective population size (θ) differ depending upon the similarity threshold applied. Relative differences in inferences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differ even when the same threshold is applied, but may be dramatically different when datasets assembled under different thresholds are compared. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878673"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleoside-derived antagonists to A3 adenosine receptors lower mouse intraocular pressure and act <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789191','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789191"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleoside-Derived Antagonists to A3 Adenosine Receptors Lower Mouse Intraocular Pressure and Act <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3–5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 minutes. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043931','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043931"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination traits explain soil seed persistence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365192"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of major milk fat globule membrane proteins from pony mare milk highlights the molecular diversity of lactadherin <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cebo, C; Rebours, E; Henry, C; Makhzami, S; Cosette, P; Martin, P</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Although several studies have been devoted to the colloidal and soluble protein fractions of mare milk (caseins and whey proteins), to date little is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) protein fraction from mare milk. The objective of this study was thus to describe MFGM proteins from Equidae milk and to compare those proteins to already described MFGM proteins from cow and goat milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already described in cow or goat milk were identified in mare milk using mass spectrometry. However, species-specific peculiarities were observed for 2 MFGM proteins: butyrophilin and lactadherin. A highly glycosylated 70-kDa protein was characterized for equine butyrophilin, whereas proteins of 64 and 67 kDa were characterized for cow and goat butyrophilin, respectively. Prominent differences <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were highlighted for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 1 or 2 polypeptide chains were identified, respectively, by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis for caprine and bovine lactadherin, 4 isoforms (60, 57, 48, and 45 kDa) for lactadherin from mare milk were identified by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Polymerase chain reaction experiments on lactadherin transcripts isolated from milk fat globules revealed the existence of 2 distinct lactadherin transcripts in the horse mammary gland. Cloning and sequencing of both transcripts encoding lactadherin showed an alternative use of a cryptic splice site located at the end of intron 5 of the equine lactadherin-encoding gene. This event results in the occurrence of an additional alanine (A) residue in the protein that disrupts a putative atypical N-glycosylation site (VNGC/VNAGC) described in human lactadherin. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the existence of both lactadherin variants in mare MFGM. We show here that lactadherin from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845756"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debecker, Sara; Sanmartín-Villar, Iago; de Guinea-Luengo, Miguel; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Stoks, Robby</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast-slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive-reactive personality continuum. Few studies have <span class="hlt">investigated</span> these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> whether pesticide exposure affects covariation between life history and behaviour and whether species and sexes with a faster POLS strategy have a higher sensitivity to pesticides. We reared larvae of four species of Ischnura damselflies in a common garden experiment with an insecticide treatment (chlorpyrifos absent/present) in the final instar. We measured four life-history traits (larval growth rate during the pesticide treatment, larval development time, adult mass and life span) and two behavioural traits (larval feeding activity and boldness, each before and after the pesticide treatment). At the individual level, life-history traits and behavioural traits aligned along a fast-slow and a proactive-reactive continuum, respectively. Species-specific differences in life history, with fast-lived species having a faster larval growth and development, a lower mass at emergence and a shorter life span, suggested that time constraints in the larval stage were predictably driving life-history evolution both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, females were consistently more slow-lived than males, reflecting that a large body size and a long life span are generally more important for females. In contrast to the POLS hypothesis, there was only little evidence for the expected positive coupling between life</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1360673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1360673"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the size of the nuclear genome supports the junk-DNA explanation for the C-value paradox.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pagel, M; Johnstone, R A</p> <p>1992-08-22</p> <p>The amount of DNA in the nuclear genome (the DNA C-value) of eukaryotes varies at least 80,000-fold <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and yet bears little or no relation to organismic complexity or to the number of protein-coding genes. This phenomenon is known as the C-value paradox. One explanation for the C-value paradox attributes the size of the nuclear genome to 'junk' (typically non-coding) genetic elements that accumulate until the costs to the organism of replicating excess DNA select against it. <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, organisms that develop at a slower rate should tolerate more junk DNA. Alternatively, junk DNA may function as a nucleo-skeleton to maintain the volume of the nucleus at a size proportional to the volume of the cytoplasm in the cell. <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, the DNA C-value is predicted to vary with the nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes of cells. Previous studies have not been able to distinguish between the skeletal-DNA and junk-DNA explanations for the C-value paradox. We report a study of DNA content in 24 salamander species which does. The size of the nuclear genome is correlated with developmental rate even after the effects of nuclear and cytoplasmic volume have been removed. However, genome size is not correlated with cytoplasmic volume after controlling for developmental rate. These results support the view that junk DNA accumulates in the nuclear genome until the costs of replicating it become too great, rather than that it functions as a nucleo-skeleton. PMID:1360673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4874708','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4874708"><span id="translatedtitle">Epistasis between antibiotic resistance mutations and genetic background shape the fitness effect of resistance <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pseudomonas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kojadinovic, M.; MacLean, R. C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance often evolves by mutations at conserved sites in essential genes, resulting in parallel molecular evolution between divergent bacterial strains and species. Whether these resistance mutations are having parallel effects on fitness across bacterial taxa, however, is unclear. This is an important point to address, because the fitness effects of resistance mutations play a key role in the spread and maintenance of resistance in pathogen populations. We address this idea by measuring the fitness effect of a collection of rifampicin resistance mutations in the β subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) across eight strains that span the diversity of the genus Pseudomonas. We find that almost 50% of rpoB mutations have background-dependent fitness costs, demonstrating that epistatic interactions between rpoB and the rest of the genome are common. Moreover, epistasis is typically strong, and it is the dominant genetic determinant of the cost of resistance mutations. To <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the functional basis of epistasis, and because rpoB plays a central role in transcription, we measured the effects of common rpoB mutations on transcriptional efficiency across three strains of Pseudomonas. Transcriptional efficiency correlates strongly to fitness across strains, and epistasis arises because individual rpoB mutations have differential effects on transcriptional efficiency in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:27170722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125135','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125135"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurobehavioral Integrity of Chimpanzee Newborns: Comparisons across groups and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> reveal gene-environment interaction effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bard, Kim A.; Brent, Linda; Lester, Barry; Worobey, John; Suomi, Stephen J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aims of this article are to describe the neurobehavioral integrity of chimpanzee newborns, to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> how early experiences affect the neurobehavioral organization of chimpanzees, and to explore species differences by comparing chimpanzee newborns to a group of typically developing human newborns. Neurobehavioral integrity related to orientation, motor performance, arousal, and state regulation of 55 chimpanzee (raised in four different settings) and 42 human newborns was measured with the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) a semi-structured 25-minute interactive assessment. Thirty-eight chimpanzees were tested every other day from birth, and analyses revealed significant developmental changes in 19 of 27 NBAS scores. The cross-group and cross-species comparisons were conducted at 2 and 30 days of age. Among the 4 chimpanzee groups, significant differences were found in 23 of 24 NBAS scores. Surprisingly, the cross-species comparisons revealed that the human group was distinct in only 1 of 25 NBAS scores (the human group had significantly less muscle tone than all the chimpanzee groups). The human group was indistinguishable from at least one of the chimpanzee groups in the remaining 24 of 25 NBAS scores. The results of this study support the conclusion that the interplay between genes and environment, rather than genes alone or environment alone, accounts for phenotypic expressions of newborn neurobehavioral integrity in hominids. PMID:25110465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170722"><span id="translatedtitle">Epistasis between antibiotic resistance mutations and genetic background shape the fitness effect of resistance <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pseudomonas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogwill, T; Kojadinovic, M; MacLean, R C</p> <p>2016-05-11</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance often evolves by mutations at conserved sites in essential genes, resulting in parallel molecular evolution between divergent bacterial strains and species. Whether these resistance mutations are having parallel effects on fitness across bacterial taxa, however, is unclear. This is an important point to address, because the fitness effects of resistance mutations play a key role in the spread and maintenance of resistance in pathogen populations. We address this idea by measuring the fitness effect of a collection of rifampicin resistance mutations in the β subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) across eight strains that span the diversity of the genus Pseudomonas We find that almost 50% of rpoB mutations have background-dependent fitness costs, demonstrating that epistatic interactions between rpoB and the rest of the genome are common. Moreover, epistasis is typically strong, and it is the dominant genetic determinant of the cost of resistance mutations. To <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the functional basis of epistasis, and because rpoB plays a central role in transcription, we measured the effects of common rpoB mutations on transcriptional efficiency across three strains of Pseudomonas Transcriptional efficiency correlates strongly to fitness across strains, and epistasis arises because individual rpoB mutations have differential effects on transcriptional efficiency in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:27170722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4148200','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4148200"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the Dorsal Gradient <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Reveals Interaction between Embryo Morphology and Toll Signaling Pathway during Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koslen, Hannah R.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Morphogenetic gradients are essential to allocate cell fates in embryos of varying sizes within and across closely related species. We previously showed that the maternal NF-κB/Dorsal (Dl) gradient has acquired different shapes in Drosophila species, which result in unequally scaled germ layers along the dorso-ventral axis and the repositioning of the neuroectodermal borders. Here we combined experimentation and mathematical modeling to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> which factors might have contributed to the fast evolutionary changes of this gradient. To this end, we modified a previously developed model that employs differential equations of the main biochemical interactions of the Toll (Tl) signaling pathway, which regulates Dl nuclear transport. The original model simulations fit well the D. melanogaster wild type, but not mutant conditions. To broaden the applicability of this model and probe evolutionary changes in gradient distributions, we adjusted a set of 19 independent parameters to reproduce three quantified experimental conditions (i.e. Dl levels lowered, nuclear size and density increased or decreased). We next searched for the most relevant parameters that reproduce the species-specific Dl gradients. We show that adjusting parameters relative to morphological traits (i.e. embryo diameter, nuclear size and density) alone is not sufficient to reproduce the species Dl gradients. Since components of the Tl pathway simulated by the model are fast-evolving, we next asked which parameters related to Tl would most effectively reproduce these gradients and identified a particular subset. A sensitivity analysis reveals the existence of nonlinear interactions between the two fast-evolving traits tested above, namely the embryonic morphological changes and Tl pathway components. Our modeling further suggests that distinct Dl gradient shapes observed in closely related melanogaster sub-group lineages may be caused by similar sequence modifications in Tl pathway components, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165818"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of the dorsal gradient <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> reveals interaction between embryo morphology and Toll signaling pathway during evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ambrosi, Priscilla; Chahda, Juan Sebastian; Koslen, Hannah R; Chiel, Hillel J; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Morphogenetic gradients are essential to allocate cell fates in embryos of varying sizes within and across closely related species. We previously showed that the maternal NF-κB/Dorsal (Dl) gradient has acquired different shapes in Drosophila species, which result in unequally scaled germ layers along the dorso-ventral axis and the repositioning of the neuroectodermal borders. Here we combined experimentation and mathematical modeling to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> which factors might have contributed to the fast evolutionary changes of this gradient. To this end, we modified a previously developed model that employs differential equations of the main biochemical interactions of the Toll (Tl) signaling pathway, which regulates Dl nuclear transport. The original model simulations fit well the D. melanogaster wild type, but not mutant conditions. To broaden the applicability of this model and probe evolutionary changes in gradient distributions, we adjusted a set of 19 independent parameters to reproduce three quantified experimental conditions (i.e. Dl levels lowered, nuclear size and density increased or decreased). We next searched for the most relevant parameters that reproduce the species-specific Dl gradients. We show that adjusting parameters relative to morphological traits (i.e. embryo diameter, nuclear size and density) alone is not sufficient to reproduce the species Dl gradients. Since components of the Tl pathway simulated by the model are fast-evolving, we next asked which parameters related to Tl would most effectively reproduce these gradients and identified a particular subset. A sensitivity analysis reveals the existence of nonlinear interactions between the two fast-evolving traits tested above, namely the embryonic morphological changes and Tl pathway components. Our modeling further suggests that distinct Dl gradient shapes observed in closely related melanogaster sub-group lineages may be caused by similar sequence modifications in Tl pathway components, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16833159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16833159"><span id="translatedtitle">A hybrid empirical-mechanistic modeling approach for extrapolating biota-sediment accumulation factors and bioaccumulation factors <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, time, and/or ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>An approach is presented for extrapolating field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, time, and/or ecosystems. This approach, called the hybrid bioaccumulation modeling approach, uses mechanistic bioaccumulation models to extrapolate field-measured bioaccumulation data (i.e., BSAFs and BAFs) to new sets of ecological conditions. The hybrid approach predicts relative differences in bioaccumulation using food web models with two sets of ecological conditions and parameters: One set for the ecosystem where the BSAFs and/or BAFs were measured, and the other set for the ecological conditions and parameters for which the extrapolated BSAFs and/or BAFs are desired. The field-measured BSAF (or BAF) is extrapolated by adjusting the measured BSAF (or BAF) by the predicted relative difference, which is derived from two separate solutions of the food web model. Extrapolations of polychlorinated biphenyl BSAFs and BAFs for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan to Green Bay of Lake Michigan (Green Bay, WI, USA) walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), as well as Hudson River largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), resulted in generally better agreement between measured and predicted BSAFs and BAFs with the hybrid approach. PMID:16833159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753374','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753374"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant MicroRNAs Display Differential 3′ Truncation and Tailing Modifications That Are ARGONAUTE1 Dependent and Conserved <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>[W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhai, Jixian; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Simon, Stacey A.; Huang, Sheng; Petsch, Katherine; Arikit, Siwaret; Pillay, Manoj; Ji, Lijuan; Xie, Meng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Bin; Timmermans, Marja; Yang, Bing; Chen, Xuemei; Meyers, Blake C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Plant small RNAs are 3′ methylated by the methyltransferase HUA1 ENHANCER1 (HEN1). In plant hen1 mutants, 3′ modifications of small RNAs, including oligo-uridylation (tailing), are associated with accelerated degradation of microRNAs (miRNAs). By sequencing small RNAs of the wild type and hen1 mutants from Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and maize (Zea mays), we found 3′ truncation prior to tailing is widespread in these mutants. Moreover, the patterns of miRNA truncation and tailing differ substantially among miRNA families but are conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The same patterns are also observable in wild-type libraries from a broad range of species, only at lower abundances. ARGONAUTE (AGO1), even with defective slicer activity, can bind these truncated and tailed variants of miRNAs. An ago1 mutation in hen1 suppressed such 3′ modifications, indicating that they occur while miRNAs are in association with AGO1, either during or after RNA-induced silencing complex assembly. Our results showed AGO1-bound miRNAs are actively 3′ truncated and tailed, possibly reflecting the activity of cofactors acting in conserved patterns in miRNA degradation. PMID:23839787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811536"><span id="translatedtitle">The function of orthologues of the human Parkinson's disease gene LRRK2 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: implications for disease modelling in preclinical research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langston, Rebekah G; Rudenko, Iakov N; Cookson, Mark R</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In the period since LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) was identified as a causal gene for late-onset autosomal dominant parkinsonism, a great deal of work has been aimed at understanding whether the LRRK2 protein might be a druggable target for Parkinson's disease (PD). As part of this effort, animal models have been developed to explore both the normal and the pathophysiological roles of LRRK2. However, LRRK2 is part of a wider family of proteins whose functions in different organisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we compare the information available on biochemical properties of LRRK2 homologues and orthologues from different species from invertebrates (e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) to mammals. We particularly discuss the mammalian LRRK2 homologue, LRRK1, and those species where there is only a single LRRK homologue, discussing examples where each of the LRRK family of proteins has distinct properties as well as those cases where there appear to be functional redundancy. We conclude that uncovering the function of LRRK2 orthologues will help to elucidate the key properties of human LRRK2 as well as to improve understanding of the suitability of different animal models for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of LRRK2-related PD. PMID:26811536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750525','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750525"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of population genetic structure and host specificity in the bat fly, Cyclopodia horsfieldi, <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pteropus bats in Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> bat flies between the three Pteropus species in the region. We demonstrate the utility of parasite genetics as an additional layer of information to measure host movement and interspecific host contact. These approaches may have wide implications for understanding zoonotic, epizootic, and enzootic disease dynamics. Bat flies may play a role as vectors of disease in bats, and their competence as vectors of bacterial and/or viral pathogens is in need of further <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. PMID:23924629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17489450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17489450"><span id="translatedtitle">Episodic death <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of desert shrubs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miriti, Maria N; Rodríguez-Buriticá, Susana; Wright, S Joseph; Howe, Henry F</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Extreme events shape population and community trajectories. We report episodic mortality across common species of thousands of long-lived perennials individually tagged and monitored for 20 years in the Colorado Desert of California following severe regional drought. Demographic records from 1984 to 2004 show 15 years of virtual stasis in populations of adult shrubs and cacti, punctuated by a 55-100% die-off of six of the seven most common perennial species. In this episode, adults that experienced reduced growth in a lesser drought during 1984-1989 failed to survive the drought of 2002. The significance of this event is potentially profound because population dynamics of long-lived plants can be far more strongly affected by deaths of adults, which in deserts potentially live for centuries, than by seedling births or deaths. Differential mortality and rates of recovery during and after extreme climatic events quite likely determine the species composition of plant and associated animal communities for at least decades. The die-off recorded in this closely monitored community provides a unique window into the mechanics of this process of species decline and replacement. PMID:17489450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216159','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216159"><span id="translatedtitle">Gene Sequence Homology of Chemokines <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The abundance of expressed gene and protein sequences available in the biological information databases facilitates comparison of protein homologies. A high degree of sequence similarity typically implies homology regarding structure and function and may provide clues to antibody cross-reactivities...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=218085','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=218085"><span id="translatedtitle">GENE SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY OF CHEMOKINES <span class="hlt">ACROSS</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The abundance of expressed gene and protein sequences available in the biological information databases facilitates comparison of protein homologies. A high degree of sequence similarity typically implies homology regarding structure and function and may provide clues to antibody cross-react...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185525"><span id="translatedtitle">Hepatocytes as in vitro test system to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed rainbow trout and common carp: Comparison between in vivo and in vitro and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bischof, Ina; Köster, Jessica; Segner, Helmut; Schlechtriem, Christian</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In vitro tools using isolated primary fish hepatocytes have been proposed as a useful model to study the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics in fish. In order to evaluate the potential of in vitro fish hepatocyte assays to provide information on in vivo metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish, the present study addressed the following questions: Are in vitro and in vivo metabolite patterns comparable? Are species specific differences of metabolite patterns in vivo reflected in vitro? Are metabolite patterns obtained from cryopreserved hepatocytes comparable to those from freshly isolated cells? Rainbow trout and common carp were dosed orally with feed containing the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) for 14days. In parallel, in vitro incubations using suspensions of freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary hepatocytes obtained from both species were performed. In vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with authentic standards supported by HPLC-MS. Comparable metabolite patterns from a qualitative perspective were observed in liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspensions in vitro. Species specific differences of MXC metabolite patterns observed between rainbow trout and common carp in vivo were well reflected by experiments with hepatocytes in vitro. Finally, cryopreserved hepatocytes produced comparable metabolite patterns to freshly isolated cells. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro hepatocyte assay could be used to identify metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish and could thus serve as a valuable tool to support in vivo studies as required for pesticides approval according to the EU regulation 1107. PMID:27185525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380824','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380824"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Introgression <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Boundaries in Heliconius Butterflies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Salazar, Camilo; Baxter, Simon W.; Merot, Claire; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies. PMID:22737081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27547354"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-pool aggregation alters grassland productivity and diversity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKenna, Thomas P; Yurkonis, Kathryn A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Plant performance is determined by the balance of intra- and interspecific neighbors within an individual's zone of influence. If individuals interact over smaller scales than the scales at which communities are measured, then altering neighborhood interactions may fundamentally affect community responses. These interactions can be altered by changing the number (species richness), abundances (species evenness), and positions (species pattern) of the resident plant species, and we aimed to test whether aggregating species at planting would alter effects of species richness and evenness on biomass production at a common scale of observation in grasslands. We varied plant species richness (2, 4, or 8 species and monocultures), evenness (0.64, 0.8, or 1.0), and pattern (planted randomly or aggregated in groups of four individuals) within 1 × 1 m plots established with transplants from a pool of 16 tallgrass prairie species and assessed plot-scale biomass production and diversity over the first three growing seasons. As expected, more species-rich plots produced more biomass by the end of the third growing season, an effect associated with a shift from selection to complementarity effects over time. Aggregating conspecifics at a 0.25-m scale marginally reduced biomass production across all treatments and increased diversity in the most even plots, but did not alter biodiversity effects or richness-productivity relationships. Results support the hypothesis that fine-scale species aggregation affects diversity by promoting species coexistence in this system. However, results indicate that inherent changes in species neighborhood relationships along grassland diversity gradients may only minimally affect community (meter) - scale responses among similarly designed biodiversity-ecosystem function studies. Given that species varied in their responses to local aggregation, it may be possible to use such species-specific results to spatially design larger-scale grassland communities to achieve desired diversity and productivity responses. PMID:27547354</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321135','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321135"><span id="translatedtitle">Searching for the origins of musicality <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoeschele, Marisa; Merchant, Hugo; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hattori, Yuko; ten Cate, Carel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the introduction to this theme issue, Honing et al. suggest that the origins of musicality—the capacity that makes it possible for us to perceive, appreciate and produce music—can be pursued productively by searching for components of musicality in other species. Recent studies have highlighted that the behavioural relevance of stimuli to animals and the relation of experimental procedures to their natural behaviour can have a large impact on the type of results that can be obtained for a given species. Through reviewing laboratory findings on animal auditory perception and behaviour, as well as relevant findings on natural behaviour, we provide evidence that both traditional laboratory studies and studies relating to natural behaviour are needed to answer the problem of musicality. Traditional laboratory studies use synthetic stimuli that provide more control than more naturalistic studies, and are in many ways suitable to test the perceptual abilities of animals. However, naturalistic studies are essential to inform us as to what might constitute relevant stimuli and parameters to test with laboratory studies, or why we may or may not expect certain stimulus manipulations to be relevant. These two approaches are both vital in the comparative study of musicality. PMID:25646517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009cosc.conf.1865A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009cosc.conf.1865A"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservation of Edge Essentiality Profiles in Metabolic Networks <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arodź, Tomasz</p> <p></p> <p>Reactions involved in cellular metabolism form a complex network susceptible to targeted attacks. Recent experiments show that several descriptors of edge essentiality correlate well with lethality of silencing corresponding genes in a model organism, opening path to identifying targets for antimicrobial drugs that would disrupt network functioning in bacteria. However, correlation of high essentiality with experiment is necessary but not sufficient for a descriptor to be useful. Also, the essentialities of corresponding edges have to differ markedly between pathogens and hosts, to yield minimal effect on the latter. Here, we analyse similarity of profiles of several edge essentiality measures across multiple species. We show that local measures, based on degrees of a substrate and a product linked by the edge, or on the alternative paths connecting the two, are evolutionarily conserved within bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, but also differ between these groups, leading to isolated clusters of species. Furthermore, comparison with a global topological measure, the relative decrease in network efficiency upon edge removal, shows that metabolic networks are more conserved locally than globally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25646517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25646517"><span id="translatedtitle">Searching for the origins of musicality <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoeschele, Marisa; Merchant, Hugo; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hattori, Yuko; ten Cate, Carel</p> <p>2015-03-19</p> <p>In the introduction to this theme issue, Honing et al. suggest that the origins of musicality--the capacity that makes it possible for us to perceive, appreciate and produce music--can be pursued productively by searching for components of musicality in other species. Recent studies have highlighted that the behavioural relevance of stimuli to animals and the relation of experimental procedures to their natural behaviour can have a large impact on the type of results that can be obtained for a given species. Through reviewing laboratory findings on animal auditory perception and behaviour, as well as relevant findings on natural behaviour, we provide evidence that both traditional laboratory studies and studies relating to natural behaviour are needed to answer the problem of musicality. Traditional laboratory studies use synthetic stimuli that provide more control than more naturalistic studies, and are in many ways suitable to test the perceptual abilities of animals. However, naturalistic studies are essential to inform us as to what might constitute relevant stimuli and parameters to test with laboratory studies, or why we may or may not expect certain stimulus manipulations to be relevant. These two approaches are both vital in the comparative study of musicality. PMID:25646517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014HMR....68..253W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014HMR....68..253W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and latitudes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisshak, M.; Schönberg, C. H. L.; Form, A.; Freiwald, A.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure ( pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg m-2 year-1. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19516959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19516959"><span id="translatedtitle">Meta Analysis of Gene Expression Data within and <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fierro, Ana C; Vandenbussche, Filip; Engelen, Kristof; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Since the second half of the 1990s, a large number of genome-wide analyses have been described that study gene expression at the transcript level. To this end, two major strategies have been adopted, a first one relying on hybridization techniques such as microarrays, and a second one based on sequencing techniques such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), cDNA-AFLP, and analysis based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Despite both types of profiling experiments becoming routine techniques in many research groups, their application remains costly and laborious. As a result, the number of conditions profiled in individual studies is still relatively small and usually varies from only two to few hundreds of samples for the largest experiments. More and more, scientific journals require the deposit of these high throughput experiments in public databases upon publication. Mining the information present in these databases offers molecular biologists the possibility to view their own small-scale analysis in the light of what is already available. However, so far, the richness of the public information remains largely unexploited. Several obstacles such as the correct association between ESTs and microarray probes with the corresponding gene transcript, the incompleteness and inconsistency in the annotation of experimental conditions, and the lack of standardized experimental protocols to generate gene expression data, all impede the successful mining of these data. Here, we review the potential and difficulties of combining publicly available expression data from respectively EST analyses and microarray experiments. With examples from literature, we show how meta-analysis of expression profiling experiments can be used to study expression behavior in a single organism or between organisms, across a wide range of experimental conditions. We also provide an overview of the methods and tools that can aid molecular biologists in exploiting these public data. PMID:19516959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Watershed&pg=2&id=EJ722371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Watershed&pg=2&id=EJ722371"><span id="translatedtitle">Watershed <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> activities promote learning in an <span class="hlt">investigations</span> interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.genome.gov/genomiccareers/career.cfm?id=16','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.genome.gov/genomiccareers/career.cfm?id=16"><span id="translatedtitle">Forensics <span class="hlt">Investigator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Careers Career Profiles Forensics <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Overview Description Forensic science technicians <span class="hlt">investigate</span> crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16741634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16741634"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> <span class="hlt">investigators</span>: examining witnesses' influence on <span class="hlt">investigators</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahl, Leora C; Lindsay, D Stephen; Brimacombe, C A Elizabeth</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This research examined the influence of eyewitness identification decisions on participants in the role of police <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. Undergraduate "<span class="hlt">investigators</span>" interviewed confederate "witnesses" and then searched a computer database of potential suspects. The database included information on each suspect's physical description, prior criminal record, alibi, and fingerprints. Participants selected a suspect and estimated the probability that the suspect was guilty. <span class="hlt">Investigators</span> subsequently administered a photo lineup to the witness and re-estimated the suspect's guilt. If the witness identified the suspect probability estimates increased dramatically. If the witness identified an innocent lineup member or rejected the lineup, <span class="hlt">investigators</span>' probability estimates dropped significantly, even when pre-lineup objective evidence (e.g., fingerprints) was strong. Performance of participants acting as witnesses in two baseline studies was at chance. Therefore, participant-<span class="hlt">investigators</span> greatly overestimated the amount of information gain provided by eyewitness identifications. PMID:16741634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Book+AND+Journalism+AND+Research&pg=4&id=ED128842','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Book+AND+Journalism+AND+Research&pg=4&id=ED128842"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigative</span> Reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, David; Benjaminson, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>This book is devoted to <span class="hlt">investigative</span> reporting. Chapters tell how to decide on a subject, how to find and evaluate sources, how to approach and interview the sources and the subject of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, how to write the <span class="hlt">investigative</span> story, how to insure that it gets published, and how to advance the aims of an <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, even after the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467761','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467761"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) amplify <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prebble, Jessica M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Meudt, Heidi M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed as polymorphic markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) for use in species delimitation and population and conservation genetic studies. Methods and Results: Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed on genomic DNA from seedlings of M. drucei. From trimmed paired-end sequences >400 bp, 484 microsatellite loci were identified. Twelve of 48 microsatellite loci tested were found to be polymorphic and consistently scorable when screened on 53 individuals from four populations representing the geographic range of M. drucei. They also amplify in all other species in the M. pygmaea species group, i.e., M. antarctica, M. brevis, M. glauca, and M. pygmaea, as well as 18 other Myosotis species. Conclusions: These 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers establish an important resource for research and conservation of the M. pygmaea species group and potentially other Southern Hemisphere Myosotis. PMID:26082880</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112772"><span id="translatedtitle">On the significance of an alternate pathway of melatonin synthesis via 5-methoxytryptamine: comparisons <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Back, Kyoungwhan; Manchester, Lucien C; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Reiter, Russel J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Melatonin is a phylogenetically ancient molecule. It is ubiquitously present in almost all organisms from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to humans. Its original primary function is presumable to be that of an antioxidant with other functions of this molecule having been acquired during evolution. The synthetic pathway of melatonin in vertebrates has been extensively studied. It is common knowledge that serotonin is acetylated to form N-acetylserotonin by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) or arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT or NAT) and N-acetylserotonin is, subsequently, methylated to melatonin by N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; also known as hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, HIOMT). This is referred to as a classic melatonin synthetic pathway. Based on new evidence, we feel that this classic melatonin pathway is not generally the prevailing route of melatonin production. An alternate pathway is known to exist, in which serotonin is first O-methylated to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) and, thereafter, 5-MT is N-acetylated to melatonin. Here, we hypothesize that the alternate melatonin synthetic pathway may be more important in certain organisms and under certain conditions. Evidence strongly supports that this alternate pathway prevails in some plants, bacteria, and, perhaps, yeast and may also occur in animals. PMID:27112772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27508305"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phung, Tanya N; Huber, Christian D; Lohmueller, Kirk E</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only if more of the genome is under purifying selection than currently believed. Our work has implications for understanding the evolution of genomes and interpreting patterns of genetic variation. PMID:27508305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=honey&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65318480&CFTOKEN=56035787','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=276372&keyword=honey&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65318480&CFTOKEN=56035787"><span id="translatedtitle">SeqAPASS: Sequence alignment to predict <span class="hlt">across-species</span> susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Efforts to shift the toxicity testing paradigm from whole organism studies to those focused on the initiation of toxicity and relevant pathways have led to increased utilization of in vitro and in silico methods. Hence the emergence of high through-put screening (HTS) programs, s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318766"><span id="translatedtitle">Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filingeri, Davide</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. PMID:25318766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4533066','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4533066"><span id="translatedtitle">Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms, and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e., hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 8269–8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e., the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) that lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e., hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g., insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g., roundworms and humans), the findings of Russell et al. highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection that could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. PMID:25318766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980041','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980041"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phung, Tanya N.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only if more of the genome is under purifying selection than currently believed. Our work has implications for understanding the evolution of genomes and interpreting patterns of genetic variation. PMID:27508305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558017','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558017"><span id="translatedtitle">Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain <span class="hlt">Across-Species</span> Scaling of Adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gilman, Casey A.; Imburgia, Michael J.; Bartlett, Michael D.; King, Daniel R.; Crosby, Alfred J.; Irschick, Duncan J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko’s adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2–100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic “model gecko” system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of adhesion in animals with dry adhesion systems. PMID:26331621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43560&keyword=Drosophila&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64208028&CFTOKEN=80627290','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43560&keyword=Drosophila&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64208028&CFTOKEN=80627290"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERSPECIES COMPARISONS OF A/D RATIOS: A/D RATIOS ARE NOT CONSTANT <span class="hlt">ACROSS</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The hypothesis that the ratio of the adult (A) and developmental (D) toxicity of a chemical is constant across animal species has been proposed as the basis for identifying developmental hazards, both from traditional developmental toxicity screens using laboratory mammals and fr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309825','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309825"><span id="translatedtitle">Conserved changes in dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463925"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of Behavioral Deficits in Rodents Following Brain Injury <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>, Gender, and Experimental Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartman, Richard E; Thorndyke, Earl C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Behavioral data were collected from several hundred mice and rats using a variety of experimental models of brain injury. The use of consistent protocols allowed compilation of these data, facilitating analyses of animal behaviors across experimental models, species, and gender. Spatial learning and sensorimotor/coordination data are presented, suggesting that, in general, rats performed better than mice both in the water maze and on the rotarod. Compared with females, males performed slightly better in the water maze and slightly worse on the rotarod. However, gender by species interactions accounted for both of these differences. Male rats performed better in the water maze than female rats, male mice, and female mice, which did not differ. Male mice performed worse on the rotarod than female mice, male rats, and female rats, which performed similarly. Furthermore, animals with subcortical injury were impaired in the water maze, but performed better than animals with cortical injuries. However, only animals with cortical injuries were impaired on the rotarod. Additional covariates, such as edema and lesion size, may further clarify these phenotypes. Overall, we provide evidence that abbreviated test batteries can be specifically designed to test deficits, depending on the species, gender, and model. PMID:26463925</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644596"><span id="translatedtitle">Empathy as a driver of prosocial behaviour: highly conserved neurobehavioural mechanisms <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decety, Jean; Bartal, Inbal Ben-Ami; Uzefovsky, Florina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Empathy reflects the natural ability to perceive and be sensitive to the emotional states of others, coupled with a motivation to care for their well-being. It has evolved in the context of parental care for offspring, as well as within kinship bonds, to help facilitate group living. In this paper, we integrate the perspectives of evolution, animal behaviour, developmental psychology, and social and clinical neuroscience to elucidate our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying empathy. We focus, in particular, on processing of signals of distress and need, and their relation to prosocial behaviour. The ability to empathize, both in animals and humans, mediates prosocial behaviour when sensitivity to others' distress is paired with a drive towards their welfare. Disruption or atypical development of the neural circuits that process distress cues and integrate them with decision value leads to callous disregard for others, as is the case in psychopathy. The realization that basic forms of empathy exist in non-human animals is crucial for gaining new insights into the underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of empathy, enabling translation towards therapeutic and pharmacological interventions. PMID:26644596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2699109','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2699109"><span id="translatedtitle">The Gene Ontology's Reference Genome Project: A Unified Framework for Functional Annotation <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Gene Ontology (GO) is a collaborative effort that provides structured vocabularies for annotating the molecular function, biological role, and cellular location of gene products in a highly systematic way and in a species-neutral manner with the aim of unifying the representation of gene function across different organisms. Each contributing member of the GO Consortium independently associates GO terms to gene products from the organism(s) they are annotating. Here we introduce the Reference Genome project, which brings together those independent efforts into a unified framework based on the evolutionary relationships between genes in these different organisms. The Reference Genome project has two primary goals: to increase the depth and breadth of annotations for genes in each of the organisms in the project, and to create data sets and tools that enable other genome annotation efforts to infer GO annotations for homologous genes in their organisms. In addition, the project has several important incidental benefits, such as increasing annotation consistency across genome databases, and providing important improvements to the GO's logical structure and biological content. PMID:19578431</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000133"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical strategy for characterizing bacterial proteomes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the absence of genomic sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turse, Joshua E.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Callister, Stephen J.</p> <p>2010-11-12</p> <p>Current methods in proteomics are dependent on the availability of sequenced genomes to identify proteins. However, genomic sequences are not always available for bacteria or microbial communities, even with high throughput sequencing technology becoming more readily available. Nevertheless, the homology that exists between related bacteria makes possible the extraction of meaningful biological information from an organism’s, or community’s proteome using the genomic sequence of a near neighbor. Here, a cross-organism search strategy was used to look at the amount of proteomics information obtainable with relative genetic distance from a near neighbor organism and to identify proteins in the proteome of minimally characterized environmental isolates. We conclude that closely related organisms with sequenced genomes, can be used to characterize proteomes of organisms with unsequenced genomes. In general, a cross-organism search strategy demonstrates the first step to use of sequences genomes to evaluate the proteomes of environmental bacteria and microbial communities that have no sequenced genome</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16356269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16356269"><span id="translatedtitle">Ulysses - an application for the projection of molecular interactions <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kemmer, Danielle; Huang, Yong; Shah, Sohrab P; Lim, Jonathan; Brumm, Jochen; Yuen, Macaire M S; Ling, John; Xu, Tao; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Ouellette, B F Francis</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We developed Ulysses as a user-oriented system that uses a process called Interolog Analysis for the parallel analysis and display of protein interactions detected in various species. Ulysses was designed to perform such Interolog Analysis by the projection of model organism interaction data onto homologous human proteins, and thus serves as an accelerator for the analysis of uncharacterized human proteins. The relevance of projections was assessed and validated against published reference collections. All source code is freely available, and the Ulysses system can be accessed via a web interface http://www.cisreg.ca/ulysses. PMID:16356269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157257','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157257"><span id="translatedtitle">Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and elevations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an effective alternative to mosquito blood meal analysis for determining vector-host contacts when mosquito densities are low and collection of blood-fed mosquitoes is impractical. Our study supports the hypothesis that avian malaria has been a primary factor influencing the elevational distribution and abundance of these three species, and likely limits other native Hawaiian species that are susceptible to malaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951321','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3951321"><span id="translatedtitle">The Voice of Emotion <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021650"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma lipid profiling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G; Mendoza, Vivienne H; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N; Eiermann, George J; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C; Akiyama, Taro E; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A; Donnelly, Marcie J; Voronin, Gregory O; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H; Hansen, Barbara C; Koblan, Ken S; Roddy, Thomas P; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18645725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18645725"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved predictive model for n-decane kinetics <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, as a component of hydrocarbon mixtures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merrill, E A; Gearhart, J M; Sterner, T R; Robinson, P J</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>n-Decane is considered a major component of various fuels and industrial solvents. These hydrocarbon products are complex mixtures of hundreds of components, including straight-chain alkanes, branched chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, diaromatics, and naphthalenes. Human exposures to the jet fuel, JP-8, or to industrial solvents in vapor, aerosol, and liquid forms all have the potential to produce health effects, including immune suppression and/or neurological deficits. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has previously been developed for n-decane, in which partition coefficients (PC), fitted to 4-h exposure kinetic data, were used in preference to measured values. The greatest discrepancy between fitted and measured values was for fat, where PC values were changed from 250-328 (measured) to 25 (fitted). Such a large change in a critical parameter, without any physiological basis, greatly impedes the model's extrapolative abilities, as well as its applicability for assessing the interactions of n-decane or similar alkanes with other compounds in a mixture model. Due to these limitations, the model was revised. Our approach emphasized the use of experimentally determined PCs because many tissues had not approached steady-state concentrations by the end of the 4-h exposures. Diffusion limitation was used to describe n-decane kinetics for the brain, perirenal fat, skin, and liver. Flow limitation was used to describe the remaining rapidly and slowly perfused tissues. As expected from the high lipophilicity of this semivolatile compound (log K(ow) = 5.25), sensitivity analyses showed that parameters describing fat uptake were next to blood:air partitioning and pulmonary ventilation as critical in determining overall systemic circulation and uptake in other tissues. In our revised model, partitioning into fat took multiple days to reach steady state, which differed considerably from the previous model that assumed steady-state conditions in fat at 4 h post dosing with 1200 ppm. Due to these improvements, and particularly the reconciliation between measured and fitted partition coefficients, especially fat, we have greater confidence in using the proposed model for dose, species, and route of exposure extrapolations and as a harmonized model approach for other hydrocarbon components of mixtures. PMID:18645725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171949"><span id="translatedtitle">The amphibian skin-associated microbiome <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, space and life history stages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kueneman, Jordan G; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Woodhams, Douglas C; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Skin-associated bacteria of amphibians are increasingly recognized for their role in defence against pathogens, yet we have little understanding of their basic ecology. Here, we use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the host and environmental influences on the skin microbiota of the cohabiting amphibian species Anaxyrus boreas, Pseudacris regilla, Taricha torosa and Lithobates catesbeianus from the Central Valley in California. We also studied populations of Rana cascadae over a large geographic range in the Klamath Mountain range of Northern California, and across developmental stages within a single site. Dominant bacterial phylotypes on amphibian skin included taxa from Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Sphingobacteria and Actinobacteria. Amphibian species identity was the strongest predictor of microbial community composition. Secondarily, within a given amphibian species, wetland site explained significant variation. Amphibian-associated microbiota differed systematically from microbial assemblages in their environments. Rana cascadae tadpoles have skin bacterial communities distinct from postmetamorphic conspecifics, indicating a strong developmental shift in the skin microbes following metamorphosis. Establishing patterns observed in the skin microbiota of wild amphibians and environmental factors that underlie them is necessary to understand skin symbiont community assembly, and ultimately, the role skin microbiota play in the extended host phenotype including disease resistance. PMID:24171949</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718956"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of resveratrol on longevity <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: a meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hector, Katie L; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Nakagawa, Shinichi</p> <p>2012-10-23</p> <p>Resveratrol has shown evidence of decreasing cancer incidence, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and neural degeneration in animal studies. However, the effects on longevity are mixed. We aimed to quantify the current knowledge of life extension from resveratrol. We used meta-analytic techniques to assess the effect resveratrol has on survival, using data from 19 published papers, including six species: yeast, nematodes, mice, fruitflies, Mexican fruitflies and turquoise killifish. Overall, our results indicate that resveratrol acts as a life-extending agent. The effect is most potent in yeast and nematodes, with diminished reliability in most higher-order species. Turquoise killifish were especially sensitive to life-extending effects of resveratrol but showed much variation. Much of the considerable heterogeneity in our analysis was owing to unexplained variation between studies. In summary, we can report that few species conclusively show life extension in response to resveratrol. As such, we question the practice of the substance being marketed as a life-extending health supplement for humans. PMID:22718956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322761','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322761"><span id="translatedtitle">The QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> via NF-YC interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua Quine Starch, At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127836"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternary <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stieve, A.</p> <p>1991-05-15</p> <p>The primary purpose of the Quaternary <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11362822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11362822"><span id="translatedtitle">Viatical <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Viatical Benefits, a viatical settlement company in Fort Lauderdale, FL, is reportedly under <span class="hlt">investigation</span> by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for using high-pressure sales tactics to sell policies to investors. The SEC has declined comment, and Egbert Jaeger, the president of Viatical Benefits, has denied any <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. This <span class="hlt">investigation</span> follows a preliminary injunction filed by a Federal judge against Life Partners Inc. of Waco, TX, in August. The SEC claimed that Life Partners repackaged life insurance contracts as securities for investors, in violation of Federal securities laws. Viatical settlements enable persons with HIV to sell their life insurance policies at a discount, providing clients with sixty to eighty percent of the face value in cash to use for living expenses. Viatical settlement companies usually act as brokers in the sale of the policies. PMID:11362822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040152154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040152154"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Organizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Panontin, Tina; Carvalho, Robert; Keller, Richard</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Contents include the folloving:Overview of the Application; Input Data; Analytical Process; Tool's Output; and Application of the Results of the Analysis.The tool enables the first element through a Web-based application that can be accessed by distributed teams to store and retrieve any type of digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> material in a secure environment. The second is accomplished by making the relationships between information explicit through the use of a semantic network-a structure that literally allows an <span class="hlt">investigator</span> or team to "connect -the-dots." The third element, the significance of the correlated information, is established through causality and consistency tests using a number of different methods embedded within the tool, including fault trees, event sequences, and other accident models. And finally, the evidence gathered and structured within the tool can be directly, electronically archived to preserve the evidence and <span class="hlt">investigative</span> reasoning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013354','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013354"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mendillo, Michael</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A detailed presentation is given in the form of viewgraphs on principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> requirements ranging from simple to complex payloads. It is stated that the program was very important to the US science community, and that there was already concern that its funding was under stress, impacting the number of missions flown, down from around 44 to 25 or so. It is also stated that the program needs more help at NASA HQ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986769"><span id="translatedtitle">OntologicalDiscovery.org: A web resource for the empirical discovery of phenotypic relations <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and experimental systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Erich J; Li, Zuopan; Jay, Jeremy J; Philip, Vivek M; Zhang, Yun; Langston, Michael A; Chesler, Elissa J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Ontological Discovery Environment ( http://ontologicaldiscovery.org ) is a free, public Internet resource for the storage, sharing, retrieval and analysis of phenotype-centered genomic data sets. The intent of this resource is to allow the creation of user-defined phenotype categories based on naturally and experimentally observed biological networks, pathways and systems rather than on externally manifested constructs and semantics such as disease names and processes. By extracting the relationships of complex processes from the technology that produces those relationships, this resource meets a growing demand for data integration and hypothesis discovery across multiple experimental contexts, including broad species and phenotype domains. At a highly processed level, analyses of set similarity, distance and hierarchical relations are performed through a modular suite of tools. The core pivot point of analysis is the creation of a bipartite network of gene-phenotype relations, a unique discrete graph approach to gene-set analysis which enables set-set matching of non-referential data. The central organizing metaphor of a gene set may be created, stored and curated by individual users, shared among virtual working groups, or made publicly available. Gene sets submission incorporates a variety of accession numbers, microarray feature IDs, and gene symbols from model organisms, allowing integration across experimental platforms, literature reviews and other genomic analyses. The sets themselves are annotated with several levels of metadata which may include an unstructured description, publication information and structured community ontologies for anatomy, process and function. Gene set translation to user chosen reference species through gene homology allows translational comparison of models regardless of the face validity of the experimental systems. In addition, computationally derived gene sets can be integrated into phenome interdependency and similarity hierarchy graphs, which are hierarchical trees of phenotypes based on the genes to which they are associated. This provides an empirical discovery of the natural phenotype ontology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1998887','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1998887"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems developmental biology: the use of ontologies in annotating models and in identifying gene function within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Systems developmental biology is an approach to the study of embryogenesis that attempts to analyze complex developmental processes through integrating the roles of their molecular, cellular, and tissue participants within a computational framework. This article discusses ways of annotating these participants using standard terms and IDs now available in public ontologies (these are areas of hierarchical knowledge formalized to be computationally accessible) for tissues, cells, and processes. Such annotations bring two types of benefit. The first comes from using standard terms: This allows linkage to other resources that use them (e.g., GXD, the gene-expression [G-E] database for mouse development). The second comes from the annotation procedure itself: This can lead to the identification of common processes that are used in very different and apparently unrelated events, even in other organisms. One implication of this is the potential for identifying the genes underpinning common developmental processes in different tissues through Boolean analysis of their G-E profiles. While it is easiest to do this for single organisms, the approach is extendable to analyzing similar processes in different organisms. Although the full computational infrastructure for such an analysis has yet to be put in place, two examples are briefly considered as illustration. First, the early development of the mouse urogenital system shows how a line of development can be graphically formalized using ontologies. Second, Boolean analysis of the G-E profiles of the mesenchyme-to-epithelium transitions that take place during mouse development suggest Lhx1, Foxc1, and Meox1 as candidate transcription factors for mediating this process. PMID:17566825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17566825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17566825"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems developmental biology: the use of ontologies in annotating models and in identifying gene function within and <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bard, Jonathan</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Systems developmental biology is an approach to the study of embryogenesis that attempts to analyze complex developmental processes through integrating the roles of their molecular, cellular, and tissue participants within a computational framework. This article discusses ways of annotating these participants using standard terms and IDs now available in public ontologies (these are areas of hierarchical knowledge formalized to be computationally accessible) for tissues, cells, and processes. Such annotations bring two types of benefit. The first comes from using standard terms: This allows linkage to other resources that use them (e.g., GXD, the gene-expression [G-E] database for mouse development). The second comes from the annotation procedure itself: This can lead to the identification of common processes that are used in very different and apparently unrelated events, even in other organisms. One implication of this is the potential for identifying the genes underpinning common developmental processes in different tissues through Boolean analysis of their G-E profiles. While it is easiest to do this for single organisms, the approach is extendable to analyzing similar processes in different organisms. Although the full computational infrastructure for such an analysis has yet to be put in place, two examples are briefly considered as illustration. First, the early development of the mouse urogenital system shows how a line of development can be graphically formalized using ontologies. Second, Boolean analysis of the G-E profiles of the mesenchyme-to-epithelium transitions that take place during mouse development suggest Lhx1, Foxc1, and Meox1 as candidate transcription factors for mediating this process. PMID:17566825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=Enzyme&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77929598&CFTOKEN=54795744','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310170&keyword=Enzyme&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77929598&CFTOKEN=54795744"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-á</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25284323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25284323"><span id="translatedtitle">Early life seizures: evidence for chronic deficits linked to autism and intellectual disability <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernard, Paul B; Benke, Tim A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent work in Exp Neurol by Lugo et al. (2014b) demonstrated chronic alterations in sociability, learning and memory following multiple early life seizures (ELS) in a mouse model. This work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the detrimental nature of ELS on the developing brain to contribute to aspects of an autistic phenotype with intellectual disability. Review of the face validity of behavioral testing and the construct validity of the models used informs the predictive ability and thus the utility of these models to translate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms into future human studies. PMID:25284323</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029730"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative Control of Cell Cycle Progression by the RNA Exonuclease Dis3 and Ras Is Conserved <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snee, Mark J; Wilson, William C; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Shin-Yu; Wilson, Beth A; Kseib, Cedric; O'Neal, Julie; Mahajan, Nitin; Tomasson, Michael H; Arur, Swathi; Skeath, James B</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Dis3 encodes a conserved RNase that degrades or processes all RNA species via an N-terminal PilT N terminus (PIN) domain and C-terminal RNB domain that harbor, respectively, endonuclease activity and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, dis3 mutations cause chromosome missegregation and failure in mitosis, suggesting dis3 promotes cell division. In humans, apparently hypomorphic dis3 mutations are found recurrently in multiple myeloma, suggesting dis3 opposes cell division. Except for the observation that RNAi-mediated depletion of dis3 function drives larval arrest and reduces tissue growth in Drosophila, the role of dis3 has not been rigorously explored in higher eukaryotic systems. Using the Drosophila system and newly generated dis3 null alleles, we find that absence of dis3 activity inhibits cell division. We uncover a conserved CDK1 phosphorylation site that when phosphorylated inhibits Dis3's exonuclease, but not endonuclease, activity. Leveraging this information, we show that Dis3's exonuclease function is required for mitotic cell division: in its absence, cells are delayed in mitosis and exhibit aneuploidy and overcondensed chromosomes. In contrast, we find that modest reduction of dis3 function enhances cell proliferation in the presence of elevated Ras activity, apparently by accelerating cells through G2/M even though each insult by itself delays G2/M. Additionally, we find that dis3 and ras genetically interact in worms and that dis3 can enhance cell proliferation under growth stimulatory conditions in murine B cells. Thus, reduction, but not absence, of dis3 activity can enhance cell proliferation in higher organisms. PMID:27029730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Tree-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of δ13C, δ18O and tree-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in δ13C and δ18O across sites and species, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and species. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the δ13C and δ18O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = -0.72 for δ18O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ˜3‰ for δ13C, indicating species-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of tree-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of tree species growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864583','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864583"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Worthen, Wade B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite’s stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development of A. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis (females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis. We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. PMID:27067302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243481','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243481"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma lipid profiling <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309931&keyword=public+AND+relation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65210943&CFTOKEN=55885623','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309931&keyword=public+AND+relation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65210943&CFTOKEN=55885623"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence alignment to predict <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> susceptibility (SeqAPASS): Cross species extrapolation in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to develop innovative approaches and decision support tools for the safety assessment of current and emerging chemicals in relation to their impact on the environment. To support this goal, there is a compelling need for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=22452&keyword=Taxonomy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76733606&CFTOKEN=65337079','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=22452&keyword=Taxonomy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76733606&CFTOKEN=65337079"><span id="translatedtitle">HARMONIZATION OF HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF BAYESIAN UPDATING TECHNIQUES TO INCORPORATE MECHANISTIC INFORMATION <span class="hlt">ACROSS</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Bayesian statistical techniques have proven useful in clinical and environmental epidemiological applications to evaluate and integrate available information, and in regulatory applications such as the National Ambient Air Quality Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides. A recent special...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tree-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and tree-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in δ(13)C and δ(18)O across sites and species, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and species. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the δ(13)C and δ(18)O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = -0.72 for δ(18)O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ∼3‰ for δ(13)C, indicating species-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of tree-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of tree species growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits. PMID:25466725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535652','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535652"><span id="translatedtitle">Translational Rodent Paradigms to <span class="hlt">Investigate</span> Neuromechanisms Underlying Behaviors Relevant to Amotivation and Altered Reward Processing in Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Jared W.; Markou, Athina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Amotivation and reward-processing deficits have long been described in patients with schizophrenia and considered large contributors to patients’ inability to integrate well in society. No effective treatments exist for these symptoms, partly because the neuromechanisms mediating such symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we propose a translational neuroscientific approach that can be used to assess reward/motivational deficits related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia using behavioral paradigms that can also be conducted in experimental animals. By designing and using objective laboratory behavioral tools that are parallel in their parameters in rodents and humans, the neuromechanisms underlying behaviors with relevance to these symptoms of schizophrenia can be <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. We describe tasks that measure the motivation of rodents to expend physical and cognitive effort to gain rewards, as well as probabilistic learning tasks that assess both reward learning and feedback-based decision making. The latter tasks are relevant because of demonstrated links of performance deficits correlating with negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. These tasks utilize operant techniques in order to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> neural circuits targeting a specific domain <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. These tasks therefore enable the development of insights into altered mechanisms leading to negative symptom-relevant behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. Such findings will then enable the development of targeted treatments for these altered neuromechanisms and behaviors seen in schizophrenia. PMID:26194891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=protease&pg=2&id=EJ558752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> with Protease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yip, Din Yan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in a range of biology class levels. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1093275.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1093275.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Purposeful Statistical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Day, Lorraine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lorraine Day provides us with a great range of statistical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> using various resources such as maths300 and TinkerPlots. Each of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> link mathematics to students' lives and provide engaging and meaningful contexts for mathematical inquiry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ663525','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ663525"><span id="translatedtitle">Success with <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chin, Christine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Describes strategies for facilitating student science <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and alleviating common weaknesses associated with student performance. Includes checklist criteria for performance on <span class="hlt">investigative</span> tasks and an example of an assessment rubric for the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. (Author/KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019277','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019277"><span id="translatedtitle">Magsat scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Magsat spacecraft is providing the first global, vector magnetic survey. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> using the Magsat data are being carried out by scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, at the U.S. Geological Survey of the Department of the Interior and by 32 selected <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. Nineteen of the <span class="hlt">investigators</span> are from the United States and 13 are from various foreign nations. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> described fall into four categories; (1) geomagnetic field modeling; (2) crustal magnetic anomaly studies; (3) <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the inner Earth: the core, mantle and core-mantle interface; and (4) studies of external current systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921"><span id="translatedtitle">Infant death scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span> by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span> as well as train others to properly conduct death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. PMID:25642921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ftim.book...29M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ftim.book...29M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Encrypted Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe</p> <p></p> <p>When encrypted material is discovered during a digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and the <span class="hlt">investigator</span> cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital <span class="hlt">investigator</span> must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital <span class="hlt">investigation</span> can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=watchdog&pg=3&id=EJ527293','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=watchdog&pg=3&id=EJ527293"><span id="translatedtitle">Istrazivacko novinarstvo (<span class="hlt">Investigative</span> Journalism).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kosir, Manca</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Reports that the democratization of the political system establishes a special type of reporting: the "so-called" <span class="hlt">investigative</span> journalism. Defines the basic characteristics of this type of journalism--states that the journalist conducts the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> very thoroughly, using special techniques/methods. Sees the journalist's role as "watchdog"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crab&pg=4&id=EJ273250','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crab&pg=4&id=EJ273250"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea Anemone: <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunt, John D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">investigations</span> can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018427"><span id="translatedtitle">Vamistor resistor <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented of the failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span> conducted on resistors produced by the Vamistor Divison, Wagner Electric Corporation. This failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span> included; failure analyses, chemical and metallurgical analyses, failure mechanism studies, seal leak analyses, and nondestructive stress tests. The data, information, conclusions, and recommendation can be helpful in assessing current usage of these resistors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=novel+AND+Police+AND+ART&id=ED426699','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=novel+AND+Police+AND+ART&id=ED426699"><span id="translatedtitle">Crime Scene <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.</p> <p></p> <p>Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=empire+AND+state+AND+building&id=EJ525075','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=empire+AND+state+AND+building&id=EJ525075"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigations</span>: Building Mathematics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Small, Marian S.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>These activities invite students to use mathematics to explore interesting facts about famous buildings. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for grades three to four focuses on the SkyDome, a sports arena in Toronto, Canada, and the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for grades five to six discusses the Empire State Building in New York City. Includes reproducible student worksheets.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810032087&hterms=investigation+scientific&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinvestigation%2Bscientific','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810032087&hterms=investigation+scientific&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinvestigation%2Bscientific"><span id="translatedtitle">Magsat scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the geomagnetic field and of presatellite and early satellite measurements is described. The objectives of each <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in the areas of geomagnetic modeling, crustal magnetic anomaly studies, <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the inner earth, and studies of external current systems are presented, along with some early results from Magsat.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022760','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022760"><span id="translatedtitle">Microgravity silicon zoning <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and methods for <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150390"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of outbreaks: epidemiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joseph, Carol</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease create high levels of public anxiety and media interest and inevitably consume a great deal of public health resources. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> should begin as early as possible in order to rapidly identify suspected sources of infection, control the outbreak and prevent further cases occurring. The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> should be coordinated by an outbreak control team who work collaboratively within local/national/international public health guidelines and with clear terms of reference. The actions carried out by epidemiologists when <span class="hlt">investigating</span> community-, hospital-, or travel-associated outbreaks are comprehensively outlined in this chapter. The microbiological and environmental actions that complement this work are discussed in the accompanying chapters. PMID:23150390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009108','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790009108"><span id="translatedtitle">Skylab EREP <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierson, W. J. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The problems in the areas of agriculture, range and forestry; land use and cartography; geology and hydrology; oceans atmosphere, and data analysis techniques were <span class="hlt">investigated</span> and summarized using Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0004399&hterms=INVESTIGATOR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DINVESTIGATOR','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0004399&hterms=INVESTIGATOR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DINVESTIGATOR"><span id="translatedtitle">Dendritic Growth <span class="hlt">Investigators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Representatives of NASA materials science experiments supported the NASA exhibit at the Rernselaer Polytechnic Institute's Space Week activities, April 5 through 11, 1999. From left to right are: Angie Jackman, project manager at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for dendritic growth experiments; Dr. Martin Glicksman of Rennselaer Polytechnic Instutute, Troy, NY, principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) that flew three times on the Space Shuttle; and Dr. Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA, a co-<span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the IDGE and now principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> on the Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment being developed for the International Space Station (ISS). The image at far left is a dendrite grown in Glicksman's IDGE tests aboard the Shuttle. Glicksman is also principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> for the Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/outbreaks/index.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/outbreaks/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Outbreaks and <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Rhizopus <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> web page. Histoplasmosis in an Illinois Prison Histoplasmosis outbreak at a state prison in Illinois, ... Department of Corrections Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California Prisons High rates of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) at two ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Amino+AND+acids&pg=6&id=EJ016640"><span id="translatedtitle">Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Using Chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Witters, Weldon L.; Bush, Kenneth</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Three different problems are given for student <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in determining amino acid compositions, floral pigments, and water soluble amino acids by using the techniques of Roll Chromotography, DISC Chromotography, Thin Layer, and Paper Chromotography. (BR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/investigational-drug-access-fact-sheet','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/investigational-drug-access-fact-sheet"><span id="translatedtitle">Access to <span class="hlt">Investigational</span> Drugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... drug if the supply is limited and the demand is high. Are all <span class="hlt">investigational</span> drugs available through ... be limited in part by drug supply, patient demand, or other factors. What is NCI’s role in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair+AND+topics&pg=3&id=EJ471534','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair+AND+topics&pg=3&id=EJ471534"><span id="translatedtitle">Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Mentorship Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DeBruin, Jerry; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Science fair mentorship programs let students <span class="hlt">investigate</span> a wide variety of science topics under the guidance of interested community members. These programs enhance the relationships among school, community, and home. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20646121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20646121"><span id="translatedtitle">Does size matter? An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of habitat use across a carnivore assemblage in the Serengeti, Tanzania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Durant, Sarah M; Craft, Meggan E; Foley, Charles; Hampson, Katie; Lobora, Alex L; Msuha, Maurus; Eblate, Ernest; Bukombe, John; McHetto, John; Pettorelli, Nathalie</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>1. This study utilizes a unique data set covering over 19 000 georeferenced records of species presence collected between 1993 and 2008, to explore the distribution and habitat selectivity of an assemblage of 26 carnivore species in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro landscape in northern Tanzania. 2. Two species, the large-spotted genet and the bushy-tailed mongoose, were documented for the first time within this landscape. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was used to examine habitat selectivity for 18 of the 26 carnivore species for which there is sufficient data. Eleven ecogeographical variables (EGVs), such as altitude and habitat type, were used for these analyses. 3. The ENFA demonstrated that species differed in their habitat selectivity, and supported the limited ecological information already available for these species, such as the golden jackals' preference for grassland and the leopards' preference for river valleys. 4. Two aggregate scores, marginality and tolerance, are generated by the ENFA, and describe each species' habitat selectivity in relation to the suite of EGVs. These scores were used to test the hypothesis that smaller species are expected to be more selective than larger species [Science, 1989, 243, 1145]. Two predictions were tested: Marginality should decrease with body mass; and tolerance should increase with body mass. Our study provided no evidence for either prediction. 5. Our results not only support previous analyses of carnivore diet breadth, but also represent a novel approach to the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of habitat selection <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblages. Our method provides a powerful tool to explore similar questions in other systems and for other taxa. PMID:20646121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007680','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007680"><span id="translatedtitle">The TIMS <span class="hlt">investigator</span>'s guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palluconi, Frank D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six-channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the thermal infrared atmospheric window region (8 to 12 microns) with a sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measurement of spectral radiance or brightness temperature is needed. The purpose of the TIMS <span class="hlt">Investigator</span>'s Guide is to provide in one location, enough information about TIMS that potential <span class="hlt">investigators</span> can decide whether or not it would provide measurements useful in their research program and to provide a new user of TIMS data sufficient information to begin analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920008509"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Oil+AND+spills&pg=4&id=EJ582582','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Oil+AND+spills&pg=4&id=EJ582582"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ocean Pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>LeBeau, Sue</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes a fifth-grade class project to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013916','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810013916"><span id="translatedtitle">Magsat <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. [Canadian shield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&pg=2&id=EJ642063"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> into Character Enhancement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartoonian, H. Michael</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents six different <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=2&id=EJ758279','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=insulation&pg=2&id=EJ758279"><span id="translatedtitle">The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Urban-Rich, Juanita</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author developed an activity called "The Polar Insulation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>." This activity builds on students' natural interest in "things polar" and introduces them to animal adaptations in a unique way. The aim of the exploration is to determine the role of animal coverings (e.g., blubber, fur, and feathers) and to see which is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ848825.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ848825.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> the Tallgrass Prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, Marcia V.; Chi, Sojin Y.; Hertzog, Nancy B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article describes an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of a tallgrass prairie undertaken by 3- through 7-year-old children in a preschool and a combined kindergarten/first-grade classroom at a Midwestern university. The teaching teams were curious about how these two age groups would explore their questions about the prairie--how their questions would differ by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=centro&pg=7&id=ED234182','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=centro&pg=7&id=ED234182"><span id="translatedtitle">Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia</p> <p></p> <p>The Spanish Literacy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=7&id=EJ333531"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Ramps and Sliders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malone, Mark R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of <span class="hlt">investigative</span> skills. (ML)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acid+AND+rain&pg=5&id=EJ471604"><span id="translatedtitle">Acid Rain <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hugo, John C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents an activity in which students <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin%2c+AND+Charles&id=EJ884165','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Darwin%2c+AND+Charles&id=EJ884165"><span id="translatedtitle">Charles Darwin's Botanical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harley, Suzanne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant <span class="hlt">investigations</span> to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103250.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103250.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil, An Environmental <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. This particular unit <span class="hlt">investigates</span> soil in relation to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24057309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24057309"><span id="translatedtitle">Civil aircraft accident <span class="hlt">investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haines, Daniel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED403111.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED403111.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Your Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this interdisciplinary curriculum is to enable students to make informed and responsible decisions about natural resources management by promoting an understanding of natural, social, and economic environments and the student's role in affecting all three. The included <span class="hlt">investigations</span> utilize processes and techniques that help people…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+pollution&pg=2&id=EJ809662','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+pollution&pg=2&id=EJ809662"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=automatas&pg=2&id=EJ939738','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=automatas&pg=2&id=EJ939738"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequences for Student <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pond&id=EJ817945','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pond&id=EJ817945"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Change <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Wendy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The author describes how the yearlong <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9322994R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9322994R"><span id="translatedtitle">OTV bearing deflection <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not <span class="hlt">investigated</span>, but might yield different results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016195','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016195"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Jordan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A number of geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020776"><span id="translatedtitle">The gravimetric geodesy <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siry, J. W.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The Gravimetric Geodesy <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> which will utilize altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data from GEOS-C, ATS-F, and other spacecraft as appropriate to improve our knowledge of the earth's gravitational field is discussed. This <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is interrelated with the study of oceanographic phenomena such as those associated with tides and currents, hence the latter are considered together with gravitational effects in the analysis of the data. The oceanographic effects, each of the order of a meter or two in amplitude and with still smaller uncertainties does not seriously hamper the altimeter gravimetric studies at the five meter level. Laser and satellite-to-satellite tracking data, when combined with the altimeter results, should provide the basis for such studies over wide areas of the ocean surface. Laser and conventional geodetic tracking data from ISAGEX and succeeding campaigns will provide a valuable framework for these analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993173"><span id="translatedtitle">Best Practice -- Subsurface <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark Scott</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>These best practices for Subsurface Survey processes were developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and later shared and formalized by a sub-committee, under the Electrical Safety Committee of EFCOG. The developed best practice is best characterized as a Tier II (enhanced) survey process for subsurface <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. A result of this process has been an increase in the safety and lowering of overall cost, when utility hits and their related costs are factored in. The process involves improving the methodology and thoroughness of the survey and reporting processes; or improvement in tool use rather than in the tools themselves. It is hoped that the process described here can be implemented at other sites seeking to improve their Subsurface <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> results with little upheaval to their existing system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5482560','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5482560"><span id="translatedtitle">Site <span class="hlt">investigation</span> for Magnus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Semple, R.M.; Rigden, W.J.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>In April 1982, BP's Magnus structure was installed about 150 km northeast of the Shetland Islands. The most northerly, deepest water platform in the North Sea, the steel tower is supported on groups of 2 m diameter piles that were driven, in good accordance with predictions, to an average penetration of 85 m in strong cohesive soils. The paper describes <span class="hlt">investigations</span> performed at the platform site, and documents soil characteristics for conventional and state of the art pile analyses. Reference is made to several innovative techniques first used at the Magnus site that have since been incorporated into the larger North Sea <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. Information is given about the geological history of the site. Test results are presented on soil strength and stiffness, including critical state soil mechanics parameters, on residual pore pressures after sampling, and on the effect of sample size on strength characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981EOSTr..62...44B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981EOSTr..62...44B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observatory ends scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Peter M.</p> <p></p> <p>The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-3), which was instrumental in the discovery of the first suspected black hole, wound up its scientific <span class="hlt">investigation</span> at the end of 1980. Spacecraft science operations were terminated after 8½ years of operation. Named Copernicus, OAO-3 performed consistently beyond design specifications and 7½ years beyond project requirements. Its performance profile, according to the NASA-Goddard engineers and scientists, was ‘astonishing.’While formal scientific <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were ended December 31, a series of engineering tests are still being made until February 15. At that time, all contact with the spacecraft will end. Project engineers are uncertain whether Copernicus will orient itself permanently toward the sun, begin a permanent orbital tumbling action, or a variation of both.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031909"><span id="translatedtitle">FCS Technology <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Budinger, James; Gilbert, Tricia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This working paper provides an overview of the Future Communication Study (FCS) technology <span class="hlt">investigation</span> progress. It includes a description of the methodology applied to technology evaluation; evaluation criteria; and technology screening (down select) results. A comparison of screening results with other similar technology screening activities is provided. Additional information included in this working paper is a description of in-depth studies (including characterization of the L-band aeronautical channel; L-band deployment cost assessment; and performance assessments of candidate technologies in the applicable aeronautical channel) that have been conducted to support technology evaluations. The paper concludes with a description on-going activities leading to conclusion of the technology <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and the development of technology recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010aidp.book..201B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010aidp.book..201B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ball Lightning <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitin, A. I.; Dijkhuis, G. C.</p> <p></p> <p>Ball lightning (BL) researches' review and theoretical models of three different authors are presented. The general review covers <span class="hlt">investigations</span> from 1838 until the present day, and includes a discussion on observation data, experimental modeling, and theoretical approaches. Section 6.1 is written by Bychkov and Nikitin; authors of the sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 are, respectively, Bychkov, Nikitin and Dijkhuis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021013','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021013"><span id="translatedtitle">Rocket Motor Microphone <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008607"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis Failure <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klein, John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The-Genesis mission to collect solar-wind samples and return them to Earth for detailed analysis proceeded successfully for 3.5 years. During reentry on September 8, 2004, a failure in the entry, descent and landing sequence resulted in a crash landing of the Genesis sample return capsule. This document describes the findings of the avionics sub-team that supported the accident <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of the JPL Failure Review Board.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014281"><span id="translatedtitle">STS <span class="hlt">investigators</span>' guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The capability of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle, to support crew tended and free flyer research in low Earth orbit has opened new possibilities for science in space. For the first time, research equipment can be put into orbit routinely, operated in either a shirtsleeve environment or exposed to space, and then returned to the <span class="hlt">investigator</span>. NASA, operator of the Shuttle, has implemented a variety of programs to ensure that anyone with a worthy research idea can take advantage of this opportunity. <span class="hlt">Investigators</span> ranging from high school students to renowned space scientists have already used the Shuttle as a platform for making Earth, atmospheric, and astronomical observations; for performing space plasma physics measurements; and for exploring the effects of microgravity on living organisms and physical processes. For <span class="hlt">investigators</span> considering a flight experiment for the first time, this guide explains what the Shuttle has to offer, how to arrange to fly an experiment, and what to expect once preparations for the flight are under way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2104290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2104290"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comparative <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on toothpastes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matthews-Brzozowska, T; Wasik, A; Orkiszewska, R; Brodniewicz, Z; Bobowicz, Z</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A comparative study was carried out of the clinical usefulness and properties of two types (differing in the type of chalk used) of the following toothpastes: Nivea, Herbena, Salodent and four various Fluorodent toothpastes (differing in the type of calcium carbonate and thickener). The study was carried out on 100 students of the first classes of the Economics College in Poznań. The obtained results of clinical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> justify the replacement (in part at least) in the production of toothpastes of the imported chalk Socal with Polish chalk from Janikowo. PMID:2104290</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009032"><span id="translatedtitle">Radar <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, S. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Radar <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760005597&hterms=eye+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Deye%2Blight','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760005597&hterms=eye+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Deye%2Blight"><span id="translatedtitle">Apollo light flash <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Osborne, W. Z.; Pinsky, L. S.; Bailey, J. V.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The visual phenomenon of light flashes resulting from high energy, heavy cosmic rays penetrating the command module structure and crewmembers' eyes is <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Light flash events observed during dedicated sessions on Apollo 15, 16, 17 are described along with a Monte Carlo simulation of the exposure of an astronaut to cosmic radiation during a mission. Results of the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector experiment developed for Apollo 16 and 17 to obtain a direct record of incident cosmic ray particles are correlated with crewmembers' reports of light flashes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018787"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave radar oceanographic <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, F. C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011671','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011671"><span id="translatedtitle">VAB Sway <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Youngquist, Robert c.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Lane, John E.; Starr, Stanley O.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) was constructed in the mid-1960s to house the Saturn V moon rocket while it was being assembled. Designed to withstand hurricanes and tropical storms, the V AB has a foundation consisting of 30,000 cubic yards of concrete strengthened by 4,225 steel rods driven 160 feet into limestone bedrock. The goal of the VAB Sway <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>, which began collecting data in April 201 0 and ended in November 2012, was to quantify the displacement or sway of the VAB as a function of wind loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981weso.rept.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981weso.rept.....H"><span id="translatedtitle">Geokinetic environment <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartnett, E. B.; Carleen, E. D.; Blaney, J. I.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>This report covers the development and implementation of special concepts, techniques and instrumentation for the collection, analysis and application of geokinetic data. The Geokinetic Data Acquisition System (GDAS) was modified, maintained and operationally deployed to various sites designated by AFGL. Tests were conducted at the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) CASINO Facility in Maryland; Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (CIGTF), Holloman AFB, N.M.; Space Transportation System (STS) Launch Complex, Vandenberg AFB, Ca. and the SAC Wing V Minuteman Complex at Cheyenne, Wy. The CASINO data contributed to SAMSO's MX/TGG Advanced Development Bridge II Program for radiation hardening of third generation hardware. The CIGTF <span class="hlt">investigation</span> supported USAF requirements for highly precise azimuth reference. The Hill AFB the performance of a minuteman III missile guidance system in an engineering silo. The STS program at Vandenberg AFB was to assist in determining the nature of a Titan III-D pressure load. The SAC Wing V deployment was to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> plateau/valley basin geologic characteristics in respect to motion response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009609"><span id="translatedtitle">Bearing fatigue <span class="hlt">investigation</span> 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001046','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001046"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics Explorer guest <span class="hlt">investigator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sojka, J. J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The research has focused on using the SAI auroral images as a high resolution auroral precipitation input to the USU global scale ionospheric model. From the global scale modeling viewpoint, these images offer unique spatial and temporal resolution since all prior studies have used empirical auroral models. These latter models are devoid of storm, substorm, or discrete oval features. The research focused on the problems in converting images to energy flux; using LAPU data to calibrate these energy fluxes; using the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to look at the ionospheric consequences of this structure; and then using DE-2 in-situ observations to compare with the TDIM ionospheric parameters. In carrying out these studies, several additional <span class="hlt">investigations</span> cropped up which were pursued to help meet the overall goals. The foremost difficulty in carrying out the TDIM modeling in conjunction with the high resolution DE auroral model was that of defining an appropriate ionospheric convection pattern. Under northward conditions this pattern is very complex. In order to study Theta aurora or in general northward IMF conditions, a new model was required. Hence, a study was completed to supply this new model to drive the TDIM as a function of the IMF. With the DE auroral model having adequate resolution to show structure on the 100's of km and all model electric fields being devoid of such structure, an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was pursued to find out the effects of structures in the electric field on the F-region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720013145','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720013145"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of lunar materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358305"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of venous ulcers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kokkosis, Angela A; Labropoulos, Nicos; Gasparis, Antonios P</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The evaluation of patients with venous ulceration primarily includes noninvasive methods to elucidate the distribution and extent of pathology. Duplex ultrasound is the first line of <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, as it provides assessment of both reflux and obstruction conditions. In patients with iliofemoral pathology, axial imaging with computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed. If the treatment of iliofemoral vein obstruction is warranted, then invasive assessment using venography and/or intravascular ultrasound should be used to guide the interventional procedure. Venous valve reflux can be identified and accurately characterized by duplex ultrasound, whereas the ultrasound assessment of functional abnormality associated with obstruction is less reliable. In patients with ulceration, the evaluation for and treatment of proximal venous obstruction has resulted in improved ulcer healing. PMID:26358305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2003-00079&hterms=SIT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSIT','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2003-00079&hterms=SIT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSIT"><span id="translatedtitle">Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Board</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Columbia Accident <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Board gathers for a second day for its third public hearing, held in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The CAIB was set up to examine STS-107 and analyze exploratory tests. Navy Admiral Harold W. 'Hal' Gehman Jr. was designated as the Chairman of the Board. From left to right in this photo sit Board Members Steven B. Wallace, Scott Hubbard, Dr. John Logsdon, Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Hal Gehman, General Duane Deal, Dr. Douglas Osheroff, and Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess. Not shown are Maj. General John Barry, Dr. James N. Hallock, Roger Tetrault, Dr. Sheila Widnall, and Dr. Sally Ride. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039346&hterms=POPs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPOPs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039346&hterms=POPs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPOPs"><span id="translatedtitle">MESUR Pathfinder Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golombek, M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The MESUR (Mars Environmental Survey) Pathfinder mission is the first Discovery mission planned for launch in 1996. MESUR Pathfinder is designed as an engineering demonstration of the entry, descent and landing approach to be employed by the follow-on MESUR Network mission, which will land of order 10 small stations on the surface of Mars to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> interior, atmospheric and surface properties. Pathfinder is a small Mars lander, equipped with a microrover to deploy instruments and explore the local landing site. Instruments selected for Pathfinder include a surface imager on a 1 m pop-up mast (stereo with spectral filters), an atmospheric structure instrument/surface meteorology package, and an alpha proton x-ray spectrometer. The microrover will carry the alpha proton x-ray spectrometer to a number of different rocks and surface materials and provide close-up imaging...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091260','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091260"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Slipstream Velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crowley, J W , Jr</p> <p>1925-01-01</p> <p>These experiments were made at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the velocity of the air in the slipstream in horizontal and climbing flight to determine the form of expression giving the slipstream velocity in terms of the airspeed of the airplane. The method used consisted in flying the airplane both on a level course and in climb at full throttle and measuring the slipstream velocity at seven points in the slipstream for the whole speed range of the airplane in both conditions. In general the results show that for both condition, horizontal and climbing flights, the slipstream velocity v subscript 3 and airspeed v can be represented by straight lines and consequently the equations are of the form: v subscript s = mv+b where m and b are constant. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhyEd..48..459M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhyEd..48..459M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> diffusion with technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities (darkness) of the digital pictures are recorded and then plotted on a graph. The resulting graph of darkness versus time allows students to see the results of diffusion of the dye over time. Through modification of the basic lesson plan, students are able to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the influence of a variety of variables on diffusion. Furthermore, students are able to expand the boundaries of their thinking by formulating hypotheses and testing their hypotheses through experimentation. As a result, students acquire a relevant science experience through taking measurements, organizing data into tables, analysing data and drawing conclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036832&hterms=IP&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DIP','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036832&hterms=IP&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DIP"><span id="translatedtitle">Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patzold, M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Wennmacher, A.; Aksnes, K.; Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Tinto, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Yeomans, D. K.; Barriot, J. -P.; Bird, M. K.; Boehnhardt, H.; Gill, E.; Montenbruck, O.; Grun, E.; Hausler, B.; Ip, W. H.; Thomas, N.; Marouf, E. A.; Rickman, H.; Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Rosetta Radio Science <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (RSI) experiment was selected by the European Space Agency to be included in the International Rosetta Mission to comet P/Wirtanen (launch in 2003, arrival and operational phase at the comet 2011-2013). The RSI science objectives address fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, the gravity field, non-gravitational forces, the size and shape, the internal structure, the composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains and the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux on the orbiter. RSI will make use of the radio system of the Rosetta spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090903"><span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin D <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The solar dosimeter, a spinoff from NASA solar cell technology, measures the amount of solar radiation to which its wearer is exposed. It was used in a University of Cincinnati Medical Center <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into the effect of sunlight exposure on maintaining vitamin D status in infants. The infants were exposed to sunlight and records were kept by mothers. Each baby wore a solar dosimeter. The two circular "eyes" in the instrument are silicon photovoltaic detectors which collect solar energy, convert it to electric signals and transmit the charge to E-cells that record the charge by plating silver ions onto an electrode. The time required to plate the silver measures the radiation received. The University found the solar dosimeter to be very effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170453','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170453"><span id="translatedtitle">Gear Crack Propagation <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995cub..rept.....A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995cub..rept.....A"><span id="translatedtitle">EUVE guest <span class="hlt">investigator</span> program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayres, Thomas R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the grant was to obtain and analyze data from the EUVE mission: specifically to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the 'coronal X-ray deficiency syndrome.' This refers to the fact that late-F/early-G giants in the Hertzsprung gap tend to show high levels of X-ray activity, but curiously depressed relative to their emissions of coronal proxies like C IV (lambda)1549. Later, when such stars have evolved through the red-giant branch to the post-flash 'Clump,' their X-ray levels decline dramatically, but their X-ray/C IV ratios return to 'normal' values. The origin of the dichotomy is thought to bear strongly on the nature of the elusive coronal heating mechanism, and its evolution in time. The observations undertaken here include: ROSAT and ASCA (specifically, 31 Com, a gap star; and beta Cet, an active Clump giant) to probe the high-temperature material; HST/GHRS spectroscopy to measure TZ flows and densities; and EUVE (31 Com observed in AO-1, re-observed in AO-3; beta Cet and v Peg (a gap giant) in AO-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dawn Topography <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the Dawn topography <span class="hlt">investigation</span> is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/125044"><span id="translatedtitle">Ship Creek bioassessment <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960025599','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960025599"><span id="translatedtitle">Tape recorder failure <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Higgins, M. D.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Carnahan, C. C.; Snyder, G. L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Two end-item tape recorders lost 4:1 mode data recording mode capability at less than half of their 1 6,000-cycle, 4-year operating life. Subsequent life tests on two spare recorders also experienced 4:1 mode data loss at 8,000 and 11,700 cycles. Tear down inspection after completion of the life tests showed that the tape had worn through the alfesil record and reproduce heads. An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was initiated to understand the cause of excessive tape head wear and the reasons why the 4:1 mode data rate, low-speed mode is more damaging than the 1:1 mode data rate, high-speed recording mode. The objective was to establish how operating conditions (tape speed, humidity, temperature, stop/start cycles) affects head life with the goal of extending head life on the remaining in-service tape recorders. Another interest was to explain why an earlier vendor life test showed capability beyond 16,000 cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219353','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219353"><span id="translatedtitle">HALOE Science <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benner, D. Chris</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This cooperative agreement has <span class="hlt">investigated</span> a number of spectroscopic problems of interest to the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). The types of studies performed are in two parts, namely, those that involve the testing and characterization of correlation spectrometers and those that provide basic molecular spectroscopic information. In addition, some solar studies were performed with the calibration data returned by HALOE from orbit. In order to accomplish this a software package was written as part of this cooperative agreement. The HALOE spectroscopic instrument package was used in various tests of the HALOE flight instrument. These included the spectral response test, the early stages of the gas response test and various spectral response tests of the detectors and optical elements of the instruments. Considerable effort was also expended upon the proper laboratory setup for many of the prelaunch tests of the HALOE flight instrument, including the spectral response test and the gas response test. These tests provided the calibration and the assurance that the calibration was performed correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0601331&hterms=football&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfootball','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0601331&hterms=football&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfootball"><span id="translatedtitle">Soldering In Space <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This video captures Mike Fincke melting solder during the first set of planned In-Space Soldering <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> (ISSI) experiments onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the video, Fincke touches the tip of the soldering iron to a wire wrapped with rosin-core solder. Review of the experiment video revealed melting kinetics, wetting characteristics, and equilibrium shape attainment of the solder charge. The main photograph shows the results of feeding solder wire onto a heated surface. Here the solder is still attached with the spool seen floating in the foreground of the image. The inset photograph at right, shows a set of three simple melting experiments in which the solder, not affected by gravity, achieved an unexpected equilibrium football shape on the wire. Samples returned to Earth were examined for porosity and flux distribution as well as micro structural development. ISSI's purpose was to find out how solder behaves in a weightless environment and promote our knowledge of fabrication and repair techniques that might be employed during extended space exploration missions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0601311&hterms=football&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfootball','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0601311&hterms=football&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfootball"><span id="translatedtitle">Soldering In Space <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This video captures Mike Fincke melting solder during the first set of planned In-Space Soldering <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> (ISSI) experiments onboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the video, Fincke touches the tip of the soldering iron to a wire wrapped with rosin-core solder.Review of the experiment video revealed melting kinetics, wetting characteristics, and equilibrium shape attainment of the solder charge. The main photograph shows the results of feeding solder wire onto a heated surface. Here the solder is still attached with the spool seen floating in the foreground of the image. The inset photograph at right, shows a set of three simple melting experiments in which the solder, not affected by gravity, achieved an unexpected equilibrium football shape on the wire. Samples returned to Earth were examined for porosity and flux distribution as well as micro structural development. ISSI's purpose was to find out how solder behaves in a weightless environment and promote our knowledge of fabrication and repair techniques that might be employed during extended space exploration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT.........5X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT.........5X"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Holographic Scanners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiang, Lian Qin</p> <p></p> <p>Holographic scanners are capable of challenging both the speed and resolution of polygon scanners. This work <span class="hlt">investigates</span>, in detail, the design and operation of a holographic scanner with an aspherical reflector. The characteristics of this holographic scanner are presented through theoretical analyses and computer simulation. The calculated data and the experimental results show that this system has excellent scan line straightness and scan linearity. The influence of the eccentricity and wobble of the hologram on the quality of the scan lines can be minimized by proper choice of system parameters. This unique system can readily perform 1-D, 2 -D, 3-D and selective scans. These features make suitable applications for robot vision, part inspection, high speed printing, and input/output devices for computers. If the hologram is operating in the reflective mode, there are no transmissive components in this scanner. It can be used with acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves with longer wavelengths, such as infrared, microwaves, millimeter waves. Since it is difficult to find a suitable recording material for these waves, a technique for making computer -generated holograms has also been developed here. The practical considerations for making quality holograms are summarized. An improved coating process for photoresist and a novel anti-reflection setup for the hologram plate are developed. The detailed experimental processes are included. The planar grating scanner for one dimensional, two-dimensional and cross-scanning patterns is analyzed and demonstrated. A comparison is made with two other two-dimensional scanners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960012180','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960012180"><span id="translatedtitle">Gear crack propagation <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Analytical and experimental studies were performed to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151477"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasonic mitigation <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further <span class="hlt">investigations</span> are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002591','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002591"><span id="translatedtitle">Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980193194','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980193194"><span id="translatedtitle">CGRO Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Begelman, Mitchell C.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The following are highlights from the research supported by this grant: (1) Theory of gamma-ray blazars: We studied the theory of gamma-ray blazars, being among the first <span class="hlt">investigators</span> to propose that the GeV emission arises from Comptonization of diffuse radiation surrounding the jet, rather than from the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism. In related work, we uncovered possible connections between the mechanisms of gamma-ray blazars and those of intraday radio variability, and have conducted a general study of the role of Compton radiation drag on the dynamics of relativistic jets. (2) A Nonlinear Monte Carlo code for gamma-ray spectrum formation: We developed, tested, and applied the first Nonlinear Monte Carlo (NLMC) code for simulating gamma-ray production and transfer under much more general (and realistic) conditions than are accessible with other techniques. The present version of the code is designed to simulate conditions thought to be present in active galactic nuclei and certain types of X-ray binaries, and includes the physics needed to model thermal and nonthermal electron-positron pair cascades. Unlike traditional Monte-Carlo techniques, our method can accurately handle highly non-linear systems in which the radiation and particle backgrounds must be determined self-consistently and in which the particle energies span many orders of magnitude. Unlike models based on kinetic equations, our code can handle arbitrary source geometries and relativistic kinematic effects In its first important application following testing, we showed that popular semi-analytic accretion disk corona models for Seyfert spectra are seriously in error, and demonstrated how the spectra can be simulated if the disk is sparsely covered by localized 'flares'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16980559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16980559"><span id="translatedtitle">Branching genes are conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Genes controlling a novel signal in pea are coregulated by other long-distance signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Xenie; Brcich, Tanya; Dun, Elizabeth A; Goussot, Magali; Haurogné, Karine; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Physiological and genetic studies with the ramosus (rms) mutants in garden pea (Pisum sativum) and more axillary shoots (max) mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have shown that shoot branching is regulated by a network of long-distance signals. Orthologous genes RMS1 and MAX4 control the synthesis of a novel graft-transmissible branching signal that may be a carotenoid derivative and acts as a branching inhibitor. In this study, we demonstrate further conservation of the branching control system by showing that MAX2 and MAX3 are orthologous to RMS4 and RMS5, respectively. This is consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that branching in pea is regulated by a novel long-distance signal produced by RMS1 and RMS5 and that RMS4 is implicated in the response to this signal. We examine RMS5 expression and show that it is more highly expressed relative to RMS1, but under similar transcriptional regulation as RMS1. Further expression studies support the hypothesis that RMS4 functions in shoot and rootstock and participates in the feedback regulation of RMS1 and RMS5 expression. This feedback involves a second novel long-distance signal that is lacking in rms2 mutants. RMS1 and RMS5 are also independently regulated by indole-3-acetic acid. RMS1, rather than RMS5, appears to be a key regulator of the branching inhibitor. This study presents new interactions between RMS genes and provides further evidence toward the ongoing elucidation of a model of axillary bud outgrowth in pea. PMID:16980559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=rat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65246273&CFTOKEN=76664649','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310169&keyword=rat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65246273&CFTOKEN=76664649"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross-species extrapolation of mammalian-based ToxCast Data using Sequence Alignment to Predict <span class="hlt">Across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Susceptibility (SeqAPASS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) and in silico technologies have emerged as 21st century tools for chemical hazard identification. In 2007 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast Program, which has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654418','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654418"><span id="translatedtitle">Importance of leaf anatomy in determining mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: quantitative limitations and scaling up by models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tomás, Magdalena; Flexas, Jaume; Copolovici, Lucian; Galmés, Jeroni; Hallik, Lea; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Tosens, Tiina; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Foliage photosynthetic and structural traits were studied in 15 species with a wide range of foliage anatomies to gain insight into the importance of key anatomical traits in the limitation of diffusion of CO2 from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts. The relative importance of different anatomical traits in constraining CO2 diffusion was evaluated using a quantitative model. Mesophyll conductance (g m) was most strongly correlated with chloroplast exposed surface to leaf area ratio (S c/S) and cell wall thickness (T cw), but, depending on foliage structure, the overall importance of g m in constraining photosynthesis and the importance of different anatomical traits in the restriction of CO2 diffusion varied. In species with mesophytic leaves, membrane permeabilities and cytosol and stromal conductance dominated the variation in g m. However, in species with sclerophytic leaves, g m was mostly limited by T cw. These results demonstrate the major role of anatomy in constraining mesophyll diffusion conductance and, consequently, in determining the variability in photosynthetic capacity among species. PMID:23564954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26147572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26147572"><span id="translatedtitle">Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Adam C; Hudson, Marie-Anne R; Downes, Constance M; Francis, Charles M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI) are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations) or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species' breeding habitat). A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC) were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN) across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s) with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines. PMID:26147572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rhesus+AND+monkey&id=EJ860862','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rhesus+AND+monkey&id=EJ860862"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783790"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual expertise does not predict the composite effect <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: A comparison between spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as “different” when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We adapted a behavioural task that measures the composite illusion to examine the perception of faces in two nonhuman species. Specifically we had spider (Ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform a two-forced choice, match-to-sample task where only the top half of sample was relevant to the task. The results of Experiment 1 show that spider monkeys (N = 2) process the faces of familiar species (conspecifics and humans, but not chimpanzees, sheep, or sticks), holistically. The second experiment tested rhesus monkeys (N = 7) with the faces of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, sheep and sticks. Contrary to prediction, there was no evidence of a composite effect in the human (or familiar primate) condition. Instead, we present evidence of a composite illusion in the chimpanzee condition (an unfamiliar primate). Together, these experiments show that visual expertise does not predict the composite effect across the primate order. PMID:19815323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493114','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493114"><span id="translatedtitle">Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Downes, Constance M.; Francis, Charles M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI) are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations) or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species’ breeding habitat). A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC) were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN) across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s) with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines. PMID:26147572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4938493','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4938493"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems Genetic Analyses Highlight a TGFβ-FOXO3 Dependent Striatal Astrocyte Network Conserved <span class="hlt">across</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Associated with Stress, Sleep, and Huntington’s Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarpa, Joseph R.; Jiang, Peng; Losic, Bojan; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent systems-based analyses have demonstrated that sleep and stress traits emerge from shared genetic and transcriptional networks, and clinical work has elucidated the emergence of sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility as early symptoms of Huntington's disease. Understanding the biological bases of these early non-motor symptoms may reveal therapeutic targets that prevent disease onset or slow disease progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex clinical presentation remain largely unknown. In the present work, we specifically examine the relationship between these psychiatric traits and Huntington's disease (HD) by identifying striatal transcriptional networks shared by HD, stress, and sleep phenotypes. First, we utilize a systems-based approach to examine a large publicly available human transcriptomic dataset for HD (GSE3790 from GEO) in a novel way. We use weighted gene coexpression network analysis and differential connectivity analyses to identify transcriptional networks dysregulated in HD, and we use an unbiased ranking scheme that leverages both gene- and network-level information to identify a novel astrocyte-specific network as most relevant to HD caudate. We validate this result in an independent HD cohort. Next, we computationally predict FOXO3 as a regulator of this network, and use multiple publicly available in vitro and in vivo experimental datasets to validate that this astrocyte HD network is downstream of a signaling pathway important in adult neurogenesis (TGFβ-FOXO3). We also map this HD-relevant caudate subnetwork to striatal transcriptional networks in a large (n = 100) chronically stressed (B6xA/J)F2 mouse population that has been extensively phenotyped (328 stress- and sleep-related measurements), and we show that this striatal astrocyte network is correlated to sleep and stress traits, many of which are known to be altered in HD cohorts. We identify causal regulators of this network through Bayesian network analysis, and we highlight their relevance to motor, mood, and sleep traits through multiple in silico approaches, including an examination of their protein binding partners. Finally, we show that these causal regulators may be therapeutically viable for HD because their downstream network was partially modulated by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a medical intervention thought to confer some therapeutic benefit to HD patients. In conclusion, we show that an astrocyte transcriptional network is primarily associated to HD in the caudate and provide evidence for its relationship to molecular mechanisms of neural stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we present a unified systems-based framework for identifying gene networks that are associated with complex non-motor traits that manifest in the earliest phases of HD. By analyzing and integrating multiple independent datasets, we identify a point of molecular convergence between sleep, stress, and HD that reflects their phenotypic comorbidity and reveals a molecular pathway involved in HD progression. PMID:27390852</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Zinc&pg=6&id=ED260930','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Zinc&pg=6&id=ED260930"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 19 chemistry <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: interactions with water; salt and calcium;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Digestion&pg=7&id=ED260928','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Digestion&pg=7&id=ED260928"><span id="translatedtitle">Biology. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 18 biology <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. These <span class="hlt">investigations</span> focus on concepts related to: organisms; classification; populations;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inclined+AND+plane&pg=6&id=ED260932','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inclined+AND+plane&pg=6&id=ED260932"><span id="translatedtitle">Physics. Student <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> and Readings. <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigations</span> in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics <span class="hlt">investigations</span> which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002230"><span id="translatedtitle">Accident/Mishap <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigation</span>Organizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap <span class="hlt">investigation</span> teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support <span class="hlt">investigators</span> by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65939&keyword=mde&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64723199&CFTOKEN=53300181','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65939&keyword=mde&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64723199&CFTOKEN=53300181"><span id="translatedtitle">ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS: WATERBORNE DISEASE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a disease outbreak <span class="hlt">investigation</span> involving drinking water, an engineering <span class="hlt">investigation</span> may be necessary to determine how or why the pathogen of concern was able to get to the consumer. In many of the US outbreaks, the survival of the pathogen was dependent on multiple...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031800.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Rules of Procedure for <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.</p> <p></p> <p>Among the functions of the Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities of the NEA is the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of cases of alleged unethical conduct by members of the teaching profession. The rules of procedure for <span class="hlt">investigations</span> presented in this document are intended to assure all parties in a conflict of their individual rights of procedural…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=t-+AND+maze&pg=3&id=EJ549762','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=t-+AND+maze&pg=3&id=EJ549762"><span id="translatedtitle">Four <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> of Animal Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheverton, John</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes four techniques for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> animal behavior in situations where it is relatively easy to obtain meaningful data. Presents <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for attention responses and habituation of domestic animals to sound stimuli, interaction of lambs and ewes, behavior of lambs in a simple T-maze, and vigilance in birds at a feeder. (JRH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24986727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24986727"><span id="translatedtitle">Diving fatality <span class="hlt">investigations</span>: recent changes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Modifications to the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. The most germane proposal for <span class="hlt">investigators</span> assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications. PMID:24986727</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22%28%28Criminal+AND+justice%29+AND+system%29%22%5D%7D&resultIndex=5','SCIGOV-CON-113'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/131?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22%28%28Criminal+AND+justice%29+AND+system%29%22%5D%7D&resultIndex=5"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial Crisis Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=113">THOMAS, 113th Congress </a></p> <p>Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993alab.reptR....J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993alab.reptR....J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Zerodur material processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, R. Barry</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The Final Report of the Center for Applied Optics (CAO), of The University of Alabama (UAH) study entitled '<span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Zerodur Material Processing' is presented. The objectives of the effort were to prepare glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing block Zerodur to desired specifications using equipment located in the optical shop located in the Optical System Branch at NASA/MSFC; characterize samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness; utilize Zerodur samples for coating <span class="hlt">investigations</span>; and perform <span class="hlt">investigations</span> into enhanced optical fabrication and metrology techniques. The results of this <span class="hlt">investigation</span> will be used to support the Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) program as well as other NASA/MSFC research programs. The results of the technical effort are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010430','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010430"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Zerodur material processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, R. Barry</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Final Report of the Center for Applied Optics (CAO), of The University of Alabama (UAH) study entitled '<span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Zerodur Material Processing' is presented. The objectives of the effort were to prepare glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing block Zerodur to desired specifications using equipment located in the optical shop located in the Optical System Branch at NASA/MSFC; characterize samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness; utilize Zerodur samples for coating <span class="hlt">investigations</span>; and perform <span class="hlt">investigations</span> into enhanced optical fabrication and metrology techniques. The results of this <span class="hlt">investigation</span> will be used to support the Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) program as well as other NASA/MSFC research programs. The results of the technical effort are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6297684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6297684"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> at Momotombo, Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cordon, U.J.; Zurflueh, E.G.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>The Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua was <span class="hlt">investigated</span> in three exploration stages, using a number of geophysical techniques. Stage 1 of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> by Texas Instruments, Inc., (1970) located and delineated a potential geothermal field, with the dipole mapping surveys and electromagnetic soundings being most effective. Stage 2 of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, performed in 1973 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), outlined the resistivity anomalies in the area west of the previously selected field; Schlumberger VES soundings and constant depth profiling (SCDP) proved most useful. During Stage 3 of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, Electroconsult (ELC) performed 20 additional Schlumberger VES soundings as part of the 1975 plant feasibility studies. Results of these geophysical techniques are summarized and their effectiveness briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006601','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870006601"><span id="translatedtitle">COFS 1 Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fontana, Anthony; Wright, Robert L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The process for selecting guest <span class="hlt">investigators</span> for participation in the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS)-1 program is described. Contracts and grants will be awarded in late CY87. A straw-man list of types of experiments and a distribution of the experiments has been defined to initiate definition of an experiments package which supports development and validation of control structures interaction technology. A schedule of guest <span class="hlt">investigator</span> participation has been developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873494"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimizing liability during internal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morris, Cole</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Today's security professional must appreciate the potential landmines in any <span class="hlt">investigative</span> effort and work collaboratively with others to minimize liability risks, the author points out. In this article he examines six civil torts that commonly arise from unprofessionally planned or poorly executed internal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>-defamation, false imprisonment. intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault and battery, invasion of privacy, and malicious prosecution and abuse of process. PMID:20873494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754002"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive fallacies and criminal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ditrich, Hans</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime <span class="hlt">investigators</span>. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene <span class="hlt">investigators</span> according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the <span class="hlt">investigator</span> to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting <span class="hlt">investigating</span> officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of <span class="hlt">investigators</span> on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. PMID:25754002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977942"><span id="translatedtitle">Los Alamos Laser Eye <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Odom, C. R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle <span class="hlt">investigator</span> was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle <span class="hlt">investigator</span>'s unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940243"><span id="translatedtitle">Hurricane Katrina Wind <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Desjarlais, A. O.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage <span class="hlt">investigation</span> in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed <span class="hlt">investigations</span> by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these <span class="hlt">investigations</span> will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned <span class="hlt">investigative</span> effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan <span class="hlt">investigations</span>: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184749"><span id="translatedtitle">100 Areas CERCLA ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001481','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001481"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground vortex flow field <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Flow field <span class="hlt">investigations</span> were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were <span class="hlt">investigated</span>. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..0QY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..0QY"><span id="translatedtitle">SOFIA general <span class="hlt">investigator</span> science program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Erick T.; Andersson, B.-G.; Becklin, Eric E.; Reach, William T.; Sankrit, Ravi; Zinnecker, Hans; Krabbe, Alfred</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and DLR, the German Aerospace Center, to provide the worldwide astronomical community with an observatory that offers unique capabilities from visible to far-infrared wavelengths. SOFIA consists of a 2.7-m telescope mounted in a highly modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft, a suite of instruments, and the scientific and operational infrastructure to support the observing program. This paper describes the current status of the observatory and details the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program. The observatory has recently completed major development activities, and it has transitioned into full operational status. Under the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program, astronomers submit proposals that are peer reviewed for observation on the facility. We describe the results from the first two cycles of the General <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> program. We also describe some of the new observational capabilities that will be available for Cycle 3, which will begin in 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0100142&hterms=viscosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dviscosity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0100142&hterms=viscosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dviscosity"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical Viscosity of Xenon <span class="hlt">investigators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal <span class="hlt">investigator</span> and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-<span class="hlt">investigator</span>, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollination&pg=4&id=EJ556087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Evolution with Living Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlessman, Mark A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes two <span class="hlt">investigative</span> labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+properties+AND+acid+AND+bases&pg=2&id=ED401139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chemical+AND+properties+AND+acid+AND+bases&pg=2&id=ED401139"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing Chemistry: <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> for Teachers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 101 <span class="hlt">investigations</span> for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11650742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11650742"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">investigator</span> as volunteer subject.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burchell, Howard B</p> <p>1982-07-01</p> <p>It is particularly within the past three decades that increased attention has been focused on human experimentation, both in regard to the scientific design that ensures the greatest chance of success and to conformity to ethical principles that are most likely to receive public approbation. The story of man's experimentation on man dates back to prehistoric times. In the past two centuries, these <span class="hlt">investigations</span> have been carried out at an increasing level of sophistication. In this saga, the narratives of the auto-experimenters define a special group of <span class="hlt">investigators</span>, to many of whom the term "heroic" can be applied. When <span class="hlt">investigators</span> involve themselves as subjects of their research, a situation of informed consent is often assumed to exist. Discussions concerning voluntarism and ethical propriety have been much less voluminous when the <span class="hlt">investigators</span> have themselves been subjects that when this is not so. It is within the past half century that physiologists particularly have often been auto-experimenters, and Dr. Earl Wood belongs to the best of this illustrious group. PMID:11650742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED399893.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED399893.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Campus Life and Government <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shekleton, James F.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses the proper way to conduct official government <span class="hlt">investigations</span> on college campuses within the framework of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution which protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. The article emphasizes that this amendment lays the groundwork for the limitations on the exercise of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070034812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070034812"><span id="translatedtitle">The GLAST Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Band, David L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We provide an overview of the GLAST Guest <span class="hlt">Investigator</span> (GI) program, which will support basic research relevant to the GLAST mission in yearly cycles beginning approximately two months after launch. Current details about the GLAST GI program will always be posted on the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC) website: http://glast.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhyW...25i...8L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012PhyW...25i...8L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Police close unsolved 'climategate' <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavender, Gemma</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982RScI...53.1911B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982RScI...53.1911B"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic apparatus for nucleation <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Mark; Vonnegut, Bernard</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>An automated apparatus serves repeatedly to detect and record the repeated formation of the crystalline phase in a single sample of a supercooled liquid. The technique is successfully applied to <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of the nucleation of ice formation with silver iodide by repeatedly freezing and thawing a small volume of water in a U-shaped capillary tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395099','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/395099"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor air quality <span class="hlt">investigation</span> protocols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ <span class="hlt">investigation</span> protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Rod+AND+Ellis&pg=3&id=EJ626526','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Rod+AND+Ellis&pg=3&id=EJ626526"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Form-Focused Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Rod</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LACTOSE&id=EJ364126','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LACTOSE&id=EJ364126"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of Milk Sugar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Christopher A.; Dawson, Maureen M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Describes an experiment to identify lactose and estimate the concentration of lactose in a sample of milk. Gives a background of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. Details the experimental method, results and calculations. Discusses the implications of the experiment to students. Suggests further experiments using the same technique used in "miniprojects." (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020392','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020392"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of empennage buffeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lan, C. E.; Lee, I. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Progress in the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of empennage buffeting in reviewed. In summary, the following tasks were accomplished: relevant literatures was reviewed; equations for calculating structural response were formulated; root-mean-square values of root bending moment for a 65-degree rigid delta wing were calculated and compared with data; and a water-tunnel test program for an F-18 model was completed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898702.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ898702.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Why Are Mathematical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Important?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Quinnell, Lorna</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>"Research studies show that when students discover mathematical ideas and invent mathematical procedures, they have a stronger conceptual understanding of connections between mathematical ideas." Flewelling and Higginson state that inquiry, <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, and problem solving "give students the opportunity to use their imagination and to get into…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481842.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481842.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Matriculation Outcomes: A Regional <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martinez, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>This document, originally published in a journal, <span class="hlt">investigates</span> whether matriculation works and if so how does it affect students. The document uses the data from a study done at the Riverside Community College District (RCCD), which addressed the effect of matriculation on student persistence. The RCCD data came from a variety of sources and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mineral&pg=2&id=EJ775124','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mineral&pg=2&id=EJ775124"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>"Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry <span class="hlt">investigation</span> to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper Development Association. This lesson…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+petroff&id=ED529528','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+petroff&id=ED529528"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nath, Janice, Ed.; Guadarrama, Irma N., Ed.; Ramsey, John, Ed.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> University-School Partnerships: A Volume in Professional Development School Research, the fourth book in the PDS Research Series developed by the same editors, includes a collection of organized papers that represent the best and latest examples of practitioner thinking, research, and program design and evaluation in the field at the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=male+AND+female+AND+brain+AND+differences&pg=6&id=EJ888706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=male+AND+female+AND+brain+AND+differences&pg=6&id=EJ888706"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Gender Differences in Reading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=frost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65340300&CFTOKEN=54755701','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64739&keyword=frost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65340300&CFTOKEN=54755701"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3195B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3195B"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> with the SJCSI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berbey, E.; Delpeyroux, G.; Douay, E.; Juchereau, C.; Garavet, O.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Scientific <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> with the SJCSI (Saint Jean* Crime Scene <span class="hlt">Investigation</span>) Our work, which we have been teaching for 3 years, consists of a scientific <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. We create a case from A to Z and then our students (15 to 16 years old) are meant to collect samples and clues from a reconstituted crime scene and then have to catch the culprit thanks to laboratory tests crossing four subjects: Physics and Chemistry, Biology, Math and English. I'm a biology teacher and I work with 3 other teachers in my school. The objectives of these activities are: • Make sciences more attractive by putting them into a context of crime <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. • Use science techniques to find a culprit or to clear a suspect. • To acquire scientific knowledge. • Realize that the different scientific subjects complement each other to carry out a survey. • Use English language and improve it. The <span class="hlt">investigation</span> consists of doing experiments after collecting different samples and clues on the crime scene. Examples of Biology experimentation: • Detecting the origin of the blood samples found on the crime scene. Students observe blood samples with a microscope and compare the characteristics to those of human blood found on the web. They discover that blood samples found aren't human blood because the red cells have a nucleus. By using the information given in the scenario, they discover that blood sample belongs to the parrot of a suspect. Students, also take a photo of their microscopic preparations, add title and caption and so they learn the cell's structure and the characteristics of blood cells. • In another case, students have to study the blood sample found under the victims fingernails. They observe blood preparation and compare it to the blood of a suspect who has a genetic disease: drepanocytosis. So, they discover the characteristics of blood cells by comparing them to sickle cells. • DNA electrophoresis to identify DNA found, for example, on the gun. • Blood type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11566420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11566420"><span id="translatedtitle">Forensic osteological <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in Kosovo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rainio, J; Hedman, M; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Peltola, P; Ranta, H; Sajantila, A; Söderholm, N; Penttilä, A</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>A team of Finnish forensic experts performed <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented using standard methods of forensic pathology and osteology. Gunshot injuries were found in some cases, but reliable determination of the cause and manner of death was not possible. A discrepancy arose between the number of victims reported in information received from the presiding district court, and results of the <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. The estimation of the minimum number of victims was mostly acquired by DNA analysis. PMID:11566420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/599952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/599952"><span id="translatedtitle">Microgravity <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of foundation conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yule, D.E.; Sharp, M.K.; Butler, D.K.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A microgravity <span class="hlt">investigation</span> was conducted in the upstream and downstream switchyards of the Wilson Dam powerplant, Florence, Alabama. The objective of the survey was the detection in the switchyard foundations of subsurface cavities or other anomalous conditions that could threaten the stability of the switchyard structures. The survey consisted of 288 gravity stations in the downstream switchyard and 347 stations in the upstream switchyard. Significant anomalous areas in the switchyards were selected on the basis of residual gravity anomaly maps. These results were prioritized and used to guide an exploratory drilling program to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the cause of the anomalies. Highest-priority boring location recommendations were in negative gravity anomaly areas, since negative anomalies could be caused by actual cavities or low-density zones that might represent incipient cavity formation. Remaining boring locations were in positive anomaly areas for verification purposes. The results of the borings confirm the presence of cavities and soft zones indicative of cavity formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092019','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092019"><span id="translatedtitle">Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851331','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851331"><span id="translatedtitle">The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5743..234S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5743..234S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of cresol photolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sokolova, T. V.; Mayer, Georgy V.; Chaikovskaya, Olga N.; Sokolova, Irina V.; Sosnin, Edward A.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The method of fluorescent spectroscopy is used to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the influence of the pH of the medium on phototransformations of o- and p-cresol in water under UV irradiation. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of cresol photodecomposition decreases with the increasing pH of the medium. The efficiency of cresol phototransformations in an alkaline medium is higher under irradiation at 283 nm, whereas in a neutral medium, it is higher under irradiation at 222 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014987','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014987"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of dynamic ground effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ray Chung; Muirhead, Vincent U.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental <span class="hlt">investigation</span> of dynamic ground effect was conducted in the Univ. of Kansas wind tunnel using delta wings of 60, 70, 75 deg sweep; the XB-70 wing; and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made. Test data were compared to other test data, including dynamic flight test data of the XB-70 and F-104A. Limited flow visualization test were conducted. A significant dynamic effect was found for highly swept delta wings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27128319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27128319"><span id="translatedtitle">The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Ontology for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the <span class="hlt">investigation</span> process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical <span class="hlt">investigations</span> and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860016360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860016360"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress concentration <span class="hlt">investigations</span> using NASTRAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gillcrist, M. C.; Parnell, L. A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Parametic <span class="hlt">investigations</span> are performed using several two dimensional finite element formulations to determine their suitability for use in predicting extremum stresses in marine propellers. Comparisons are made of two NASTRAN elements (CTRIM6 and CTRAIA2) wherein elasticity properties have been modified to yield plane strain results. The accuracy of the elements is <span class="hlt">investigated</span> by comparing finite element stress predictions with experimentally determined stresses in two classical cases: (1) tension in a flat plate with a circular hole; and (2) a filleted flat bar subjected to in-plane bending. The CTRIA2 element is found to provide good results. The displacement field from a three dimensional finite element model of a representative marine propeller is used as the boundary condition for the two dimensional plane strain <span class="hlt">investigations</span> of stresses in the propeller blade and fillet. Stress predictions from the three dimensional analysis are compared with those from the two dimensional models. The validity of the plane strain modifications to the NASTRAN element is checked by comparing the modified CTRIA2 element stress predictions with those of the ABAQUS plane strain element, CPE4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=SIG&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSIG','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017841&hterms=SIG&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSIG"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented by LDEF hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. Testing to date was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment were detected by the Systems SIG. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Extensive mechanical galling was observed, but no evidence of coldwelding was identified. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF facility systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The Systems SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=SIG&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSIG','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015770&hterms=SIG&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSIG"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems special <span class="hlt">investigation</span> group overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Systems Special <span class="hlt">Investigation</span> Group (SIG) has undertaken <span class="hlt">investigations</span> in the four major engineering disciplines represented in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. To date, testing was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment have yet been detected. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Mechanical galling was observed unexpectedly, but no evidence of cold welding was identified yet. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. The LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The System SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an <span class="hlt">investigation</span> which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........31D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........31D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigating</span> a computerized scaffolding software for student designed science <span class="hlt">investigations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deters, Kelly M.</p> <p></p> <p>Science standards call for students to develop skills in designing their own <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. However, this is a complex task that is likely to overload the working memory capacities of students, therefore requiring scaffolding. This study <span class="hlt">investigated</span> the effects of a computerized scaffold for student-designed experiments. Students (N = 102) used the computer program to individually design an experiment during the third week of their high school general chemistry course. Students were randomly assigned to one of four software versions to determine the effects and interaction effects of backwards-design scaffolding and reflective prompts on laboratory report scores. Scaffolding the students in a backwards-design process lead to significantly higher student performance scores for all students when they were not provided with reflective prompts (p = 0.01). For students labeled as academically advanced by their eighth grade science teacher, backwards design increased student performance scores with or without reflective prompts (p = 0.002). Using reflective prompts had no effect on advanced students. The use of multiple reflective prompts caused the effect of the backwards-design scaffolding to disappear with lower-level students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441239','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441239"><span id="translatedtitle">Supernumerary Teeth: An <span class="hlt">Investigating</span> Tool in Forensic Crime <span class="hlt">Investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Multani, Rupinder Kaur; Sangeri, Kishore Kumar; Ramalakshmi, M; Pavithra, S; Rajesh, M; Singh, Laiphrakpam Girindra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Supernumerary tooth is an additional entity to the normal series and is seen in all the quadrants of the jaw. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition, reported in the literature, vary between 0.1% and 6.9%. The presence of supernumerary teeth may be part of developmental disorders. As supernumerary tooth is a rare condition, it can be used as identification tool for crime <span class="hlt">investigation</span>. Material and Methods: A total of 30 volunteers with a supernumerary tooth were analyzed and casts were made after taking alginate impression. All the casts were coded and were given to five observers for correct identification of those volunteers with respective prepared cast. Result: Personal identification and the cast identification of volunteers were done (cast of the volunteers). The matching identification is followed as below: Of five observers 1st observer able to detect 25 (83%), 2nd observer 27 (90%), 3rd observer 26 (87%), 4th observer 25 (83%) and 5th observer 28 (91%). Conclusion: As positive matching identification was 87%, supernumerary tooth can be used for crime <span class="hlt">investigation</span> and used as greatest weapon in criminal identification. PMID:26028905</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73704&keyword=criminal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76307776&CFTOKEN=50624701','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73704&keyword=criminal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76307776&CFTOKEN=50624701"><span id="translatedtitle">ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> BRANCH STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Environmental <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> Standard Operating Procedures details standard field protocol in areas of Hazardous Waste <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> under CERCLA and RCRA, Clean Water Act Inspections, Clean Air Act <span class="hlt">investigations</span>, and Criminal <span class="hlt">Investigations</span>. The manual originated in 1980 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol4-sec637-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 637.6 - Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. 637.6 Section 637.6... CRIMINAL <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATIONS</span> MILITARY POLICE <span class="hlt">INVESTIGATION</span> <span class="hlt">Investigations</span> § 637.6 Customs <span class="hlt">investigations</span>. (a) Customs violations will be <span class="hlt">investigated</span> as prescribed in AR 190-41. When customs authorities...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036130"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Investigation</span> of musicality in birdsong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C; Voss, Henning U; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for <span class="hlt">investigating</span> whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music's effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners' emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890027887&hterms=Alkaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAlkaline','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890027887&hterms=Alkaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAlkaline"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkaline fuel cell performance <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017883"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkaline fuel cell performance <span class="hlt">investigation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to <span class="hlt">investigate</span> the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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