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1

Ground rubber\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of ground rubber (GR)\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) composites were developed that contained untreated and various treated rubber particles. The tensile properties of the composite materials were significantly improved over the untreated GR\\/ABS sample either by a two-step treatment process involving surface chlorination of the GR followed by grafting of either amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ATBN) or triethanolamine zirconium chelate (TEAZ) molecules,

Dong Yang Wu; Stuart Bateman; Matthew Partlett

2007-01-01

2

21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

2009-04-01

3

21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

2010-01-01

4

Effect of methyl methacrylate graft acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene on morphology and properties of polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the compatibility of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a new type of reactive compatibilizer, methyl methacrylate graft acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (MABS) tetramer, was synthesized. The structure and properties of PC\\/ABS (70\\/30) blend with various MABS ratios were studied in terms of their mechanical and morphological properties. The results indicated that with the addition of MABS, the glass transition

Bo Zhao; Qiling Wang; Guosheng Hu; Biaobing Wang; Yingchun Li; Jiangfeng Song; Zhongqiang Wang; Qingjiao Li

2012-01-01

5

Mechanical behavior of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene fused deposition materials modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical\\/Computational models for the fused deposition (FD) material stiffness and strength as a function of mesostructural parameters are developed. Effective elastic moduli are obtained using the strength of materials approach and an elasticity approach based on the asymptotic theory of homogenization. Theoretical predictions for unidirectional FD-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene materials are validated with experimentally determined values of moduli and strength. For

José F. Rodríguez; James P. Thomas; John E. Renaud

2003-01-01

6

Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the accelerated thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) due to aging at elevated temperatures (>80 °C). The impact resistance is shown to decrease dramatically beyond a critical aging time at 120 °C and this reduction strongly depends on surface property modifications during aging. Visual examination of specimen cross-sections after aging, verifies that (dis)colouration is limited to a surface layer, which

B. E Tiganis; L. S Burn; P Davis; A. J Hill

2002-01-01

7

Thermal analysis of an acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene\\/SWNT composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were used to study the thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene\\/single-walled carbon nanotube composites under static air and nitrogen. For the dynamic analysis, two-step degradation was observed. Low concentrations of SWNTs (0.5 wt.%) tend to destabilize the first degradation step of ABS but reinforce it at the second step degradation. Further addition of SWNT, destabilizes the

Shuying Yang; Jose Rafael Castilleja; E. V. Barrera; Karen Lozano

2004-01-01

8

Denitrification with acrylonitrile as a substrate using pure bacteria cultures isolated from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to isolate and identify the denitrifying bacteria that utilize acrylonitrile as a substrate from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin wastewater. The performance of the denitrifying bacteria for treating different initial acrylonitrile concentrations was also investigated under anoxic conditions. The results showed that seven strains of denitrifying bacteria that can use acrylonitrile or acrylic acid as a substrate were isolated

Chun Chin Wang; Chi Mei Lee

2001-01-01

9

The thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymei as studied by TGA\\/FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer has been studied by TGA\\/FTIR. The degradation of ABS is compared with that of polystyrene, polybutadiene, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and styreneacrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer. A small amount of acrylonitrile monomer is eliminated from PAN, SAN, and ABS. The grafting of butadiene on to SAN stabilizes the butadiene structure, since the evolution of butadiene begins 50

Masanori Suzuki; Charles A. Wilkie

1995-01-01

10

Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan.  

PubMed

Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 ?g/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 ?g/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 ?g/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 ?g/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed. PMID:24936293

Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

11

Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan  

PubMed Central

Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 ?g/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 ?g/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 ?g/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 ?g/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed.

Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

12

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Commercial Standard is to establish, on a national basis, standard dimensions and significant quality requirements for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic drain, waste, and vent (DWV) pipe and fittings. It is also intended to...

1965-01-01

13

The compatibility of the polystyrene\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene grafted copolymer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of polystyrene (PS)\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) grafted copolymer\\/cyclohexanone or methylene chloride system compatibility both in concentrated solutions and solid state has been carried out by phase separation, viscosimetrical measurements and thermal behaviour.

Cornelia Vasile; Mihaela Sabliovschi; C. N. Ca?caval

1981-01-01

14

Thermal degradation of polysulfones. VI: evaluation of thermal pyrolysis of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation function of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement. The study evaluated its thermal pyrolysis stability applying the invariant kinetic parameter (IKP) method. The kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer can be obtained by dynamic TGA measurement and the IKP method assumes that the kinetic parameters are independent of the experimental conditions.

Hsing-Yuan Yen; Feng-Shyang Lee; Mu-Hoe Yang

2003-01-01

15

Curing Characteristics and Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber\\/Virgin Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (SBR\\/vNBR) and Styrene Butadiene Rubber\\/Recycled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (SBR\\/rNBR) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curing characteristics and mechanical and morphological properties of styrene butadiene rubber\\/virgin acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR\\/vNBR) and styrene butadiene rubber\\/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR\\/rNBR) were investigated. Results indicated that the curing characteristics, such as scorch time, t2, and cure time, t90, of SBR\\/vNBR and SBR\\/rNBR blends decreased with increasing vNBR and rNBR content. At similar blend ratios, particularly up to 15 phr, SBR\\/rNBR blends

N. Z. Noriman; H. Ismail; Azura Rashid

2008-01-01

16

Effect of rubber contents on brittle–tough transition in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were prepared by blending polybutadiene-grafted styrene-acrylonitrile (PB-g-SAN) and SAN resins. The effects of PB-g-SAN content on the mechanical behaviors of ABS blends were investigated with several techniques. The effects of PB-g-SAN content on the brittle–tough transition of ABS blends were studied. As a result, the impact strength of ABS blends was significantly increased with

Fan-Long Jin; Shu-Lai Lu; Zhen-Biao Song; Jian-Xun Pang; Liu Zhang; Ji-De Sun; Xiao-Ping Cai

2010-01-01

17

Impact Behaviors and Thermomechanical Properties of TPP-Filled Polycarbonate\\/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, effects of triphenylphosphate (TPP) flame retardant on the impact characteristics and thermophysical properties of polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends (PC \\/ABS) blends for flame resistant application were investigated. The amount of the TPP additive was varied at 0 to 10 wt%. The results revealed that the value of the impact strength decreased with an increasing content of the TPP. From

Teerapat MATCHIMAPIRO; Potejanee SORNTHUMMALEE; Thanyawat POTHISIRI; Sarawut RIMDUSIT

18

Fabrication optimization of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)\\/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofiltration membrane using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces response surface methodology (RSM) as an efficient approach for modeling and optimization nanofiltration (NF) membrane preparation via phase inversion. RSM statistical design (full factorial) was applied to develop the predictive regression models for optimization. This design provides a model with small prediction error, and permits a judgment of the model adequacy. NF acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)\\/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

S. S. Madaeni; N. Arast; F. Rahimpour; Y. Arast

2011-01-01

19

Solvothermal preparation of maleic anhydride grafted onto acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terpolymer (ABS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grafting copolymerization of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terpolymer (ABS) was carried out through solvothermal process. Infrared (IR) spectra and 1H NMR spectra confirmed that maleic anhydride was successfully grafted onto the ABS backbone. The influences, such as MAH concentration, the initiator's content, reaction temperature and time, comonomer, ABS concentration and different solvents, on the grafting copolymerization were also

Rongrong Qi; Zhefeng Chen; Chixing Zhou

2005-01-01

20

Kinetics and mechanism of grafting of oleic acid onto acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graft copolymerization of oleic acid onto acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer was initiated by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in 1,2-dichloroethane solution. The infrared spectra confirmed that oleic acid was successfully grafted onto ABS backbone. The influences of the concentration of oleic acid, BPO and ABS on grafting were studied. The grafting occurred at the butadiene region of ABS. A reaction mechanism has

Z. F. Zhou; H. Huang; N. C. Liu

2001-01-01

21

A Charpy impact and frozen tongue evaluation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fracture properties of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) are compared with those of Styrene-Acylonitrile (SAN). The SAN material is the same type and grade as used for the matrix material of ABS. The fracture characteristics of ABS are non-linear and those of SAN are linear-elastic. Also, the relationship between crack initiation and crack propagation in ABS differ from those

John P Dear

2000-01-01

22

Simulations of the Interaction of Small Molecules with Styrene-Butadiene and Styrene-Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Polymer Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have simulated atomistically the structure and energetics of Styrene-Butadiene(SB) and Styrene-Butadiene-Acrylonitrile(SBA) random copolymer thin films. The films attain bulk density in their interior region. The surface layer is about 5 ÅThe orientation of the backbone bonds is random in the interior region of the films, while orienting preferentially in the direction of the plane of the film at the surface. The surface energy for the SBA films is significantly higher than for the SB films and the reason was found to be the preferential location of Acrylonitrile groups on the surface. The comparison of density and surface energy with experimental data is very good. We studied the interaction of toluene, water and hexadecane with SB and SBA films. At small concentrations, toluene is found to wet the films and spread uniformly with random structural orientation. Hexadecane also wets the surface, its chains showing an extended conformation. The water molecules are seen to form drops and do not prefer the SB and SBA surfaces. We will present results of wetting and non-wetting interaction energies, surface coverage, and conformational characteristics of these molecules and low molecular weight surfactants at different concentrations of these molecules on the films.

Natarajan, Upendra; Mattice, Wayne

1997-03-01

23

Stability of plastic deformation and toughness of polycarbonate blended with poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability of plastic deformation and toughness of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) blended with poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) copolymer have been studied by three-point bending tests of U-notched bars under plane strain state. The deformation of PC\\/ABS blends was transformed into a stable mode by depression of craze nucleation when the content of modifier was increased beyond a certain critical level which was dependent

Masaru Ishikawa

1995-01-01

24

Degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polycarbonate by UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ultra-violet irradiation on the microstructure of an oxygen free polymer viz., acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and a polymer containing oxygen viz., polycarbonate have been investigated using positron annihilation lifetime measurement. Lifetime results in both polymers in the early stages of irradiation indicate that chain-scission leading to free radical formation is the predominant process. Radiation induced cross-linking becomes dominant in the

R Ramani; C Ranganathaiah

2000-01-01

25

Pretreatment of wastewater from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin manufacturing by microelectrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin wastewater by microelectrolysis system was investigated to improve the biodegradability of the toxic aromatic compounds and organic nitriles. Two experiment systems, (a) control experiment of Fe and carbon and (b) microelectrolysis reactor, were set up to confirm the importance of macroscopic galvanic cells. In addition, the effect of the influent pH and Fe\\/C ratio on

Bo Lai; Yuexi Zhou; Hongke Qin; Changyong Wu; Cuicui Pang; Yu Lian; Jixian Xu

26

Surface modifications of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer by treatment with atmospheric plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two engineering thermoplastic polymers (polycarbonate, PC, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer, ABS) were treated with atmospheric plasma torch using different treatment rates (1, 5 and 10 m\\/min). The modifications produced by the treatment were analysed by contact angle measurements, XPS, SEM and ATR-IR spectroscopy. Particular emphasis was placed on the ageing (up to 30 days) after atmospheric plasma treatment on both polymers.The

Juana Abenojar; Rafael Torregrosa-Coque; Miguel Angel Martínez; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2009-01-01

27

On adhesion mechanisms and interfacial strength in acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene\\/wood sawdust composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion mechanisms and interfacial strengths of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) copolymer\\/wood sawdust composites containing two different silane coupling agents [3-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KBM503) and N-2(aminoethyl)3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (KBM603)] were studied using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technique and mechanical testing. The results suggested that increasing wood sawdust content tended to increase the modulus of the composites, but decreased the strength of the composites. Concentrations

L. Chotirat; K. Chaochanchaikul; N. Sombatsompop

2007-01-01

28

On the applicability of the load separation criterion to acrylonitrile\\/butadiene\\/styrene terpolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Load separation constitutes the basis for the experimental evaluation of the J-integral by using the single-specimen technique. The objective of this present paper is to investigate the applicability of the load separation criterion for evaluating the ductile fracture mechanics parameters of acrylonitrile\\/butadiene\\/styrene (ABS) terpolymers. This criterion allows the load to be represented as the product of two separate functions, namely

C. Bernal; A. Cassanelli; P. Frontini

1996-01-01

29

The thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer under various gas conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the thermal degradation of (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) terpolymer (ABS) was studied under various gas conditions as used by the thermogravimetry analyzer. The activation energies of thermal decomposition were evaluated by using Flynn's and Freeman's models. The experimental results showed that the activation energy of isothermal heating of ABS resin were 32.0, 34.4, and 42.7kcal\\/mole under oxygen, air, and nitrogen,

Mu-Hoe Yang

2000-01-01

30

Epoxy\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer\\/clay ternary nanocomposite as impact toughened epoxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy resins have low impact strength and poor resistance to crack propagation, which limit their many end use applications.\\u000a The main objective of this work is to incorporate both acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) and organically modified\\u000a clay (Cloisite 30B) into epoxy matrix with the aim of obtaining improved material with the impact strength higher than neat\\u000a epoxy, epoxy\\/clay and epoxy\\/ABS hybrids

Abdolreza Mirmohseni; Siamak Zavareh

2010-01-01

31

Numerical simulation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene material’s vacuum forming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a vacuum forming simulation together with the experimental results is presented. In order to establish a material model which could describe the polymers deformation behavior precisely, the authors conducted uniaxial tensile tests using the newest type of Meissner rheometer with an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) material. The tests were conducted for constant strain-rates varying from 0.01 to 1 (1

S Wang; A Makinouchi; T Tosa; K Kidokoro; M Okamoto; T Kotaka; T Nakagawa

1999-01-01

32

Reactivity of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer grafted with long-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactivity of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) grafted with long-chain carboxylic acids, such as undecylenic acid and oleic acid, was investigated and compared with that of ABS grafted with short-chain carboxylic acids by reacting with dodecylamine, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline in solution, and with polyamide (PA) in melt. The overall activation energy of ABS-g-acrylic acid, ABS-g-crotonic acid, ABS-g-undecylenic acid and ABS-g-oleic

Z. F. Zhou; N. C. Liu; H. Huang

2004-01-01

33

Adhesion and adhesion changes at the copper metal–(acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene) polymer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the adhesive strength of metallic films on polymer substrates often changes in the course of time. To study this effect in more detail, the adhesion energy of sputtered and galvanically strengthened copper coatings on acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene polymer substrate was determined as a function of storage time. The adhesion energy is initially only about 6 J\\/m2, because of water

S. Kisin; P. G. Th. van der Varst

2007-01-01

34

Characterization of nickel films deposited by cold remote nitrogen plasma on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold remote nitrogen plasma (CRNP) is used to deposit nickel films from Ni(CO)4 on an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer at room temperature in a primary vacuum system.An XPS study has been realized ex-situ and in three steps: (1) the analysis of the ABS pre-treatment by CRNP, (2) the analysis of the pre-treatment followed by the metallization and the plasma post-treatment and

A. Brocherieux; O. Dessaux; P. Goudmand; L. Gengembre; J. Grimblot; M. Brunel; R. Lazzaroni

1995-01-01

35

Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terpolymer in bean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terpolymer (ABS) in bean oil has been carried out in the temperature 350 and 370°C. The degradation products have been investigated by means of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). With the presence of bean oil, ABS thermally degrades into asphalt-like degradation residue, which is soluble in common organic solvent such as

Dewen Dong; Shigeru Tasaka; Satoru Aikawa; Shingo Kamiya; Norihiro Inagaki; Youji Inoue

2001-01-01

36

Fracture initiation and crack propagation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of organic liquid environments on the fracture behaviour of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) have been investigated. Fracture initiation experiments showed thatKi2, (Ki being the stress intensity factor at crack\\/craze initiation), could be meaningfully correlated with the solvent solubility parameter (ds) of the different liquid environments and had a minimum value atds=dp, wheredp was the solubility parameter of ABS. For the

Y. W. Mai

1976-01-01

37

Denitrogenation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymers using polyethylene glycol\\/hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hydrolysis of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) copolymers has been systematically investigated to demonstrate the use of reaction systems based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)\\/hydroxides for N-elimination from ABS. The structure of denitrogenated ABS has been characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR, and solid state 13C CP-MAS NMR, indicating sequential hydrolysis as a plausible mechanism of elimination of N from ABS. The effects

An-Ke Du; Qian Zhou; Zhi-Bin Wen; Jia-Wei Yang; Johannes M. N. van Kasteren; Yu-Zhong Wang

2011-01-01

38

Characterization of styrene butadiene rubber\\/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR\\/NBRr) blends: The effects of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR50) as a compatibilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) as a compatibilizer on the properties of styrene butadiene rubber\\/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR\\/NBRr) blends were studied. Styrene butadiene rubber\\/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR\\/NBRr) blends were prepared by two-roll mill with five different compositions (i.e., 85\\/5\\/10, 75\\/15\\/10, 65\\/25\\/10, 55\\/35\\/10 and 40\\/50\\/10), with the ENR-50 content fixed at 10 phr. Cure characteristics, mechanical properties, FTIR analysis, differential

N. Z. Noriman; H. Ismail; A. A. Rashid

2010-01-01

39

Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid on to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and thermal analysis of the copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graft copolymerization of acrylic acid on to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) was studied by the use of the anthracene photosensitized formation of hydroperoxides in the butadiene portion of the polymer. The variables that were investigated include concentration of anthracene, concentration of acrylic acid, time of reaction, time of irradiation, and temperature. The grafting reaction proceeds quite similarly to previously reported

Cyarthur Deacon; Charles A. Wilkie

1996-01-01

40

Modification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer by grafting with maleic anhydride in the melt. I. Preparation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graft copolymerization of maleic anhy- dride (MAH) onto acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene terpoly- mer (ABS) was carried out with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the binary initiators and with styrene as the comonomer in the molten state. IR spectra confirmed that MAH was successfully grafted onto the ABS backbone. A reaction mechanism was proposed: the grafting most likely

Rongrong Qi; Junling Qian; Chixing Zhou

2003-01-01

41

Toxicity of the components of styrene polymers: Polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR). Reactants and additives  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of the components of styrene polymers, e.g., polystyrene, ABS and SBR, were reviewed with primary focus on the reactive monomers (except styrene) (e.g., acrylonitrile, butadiene) as well as on impurities and solvents such as benzene, hexane and methylethyl ketone, and additives such as phenyl-2-naphthylamine, di-n-butyl phthalate, and a number of peroxide initiators and flame retardants (e.g., 2,3-dibromopropanol, decadibromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide). It is stressed that toxicity data are generally lacking for the majority of additives employed in the production of styrene polymers. Information is also lacking as to the numbers of individuals at potential risk and the extent of their exposure to the large number of additives employed.

Fishbein, L.

1984-01-01

42

Toxicity of the components of styrene polymers: polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR). Reactants and additives.  

PubMed

The toxicity of the components of styrene polymers, e.g., polystyrene, ABS and SBR, were reviewed with primary focus on the reactive monomers (except styrene) (e.g., acrylonitrile, butadiene) as well as on impurities and solvents such as benzene, hexane and methylethyl ketone, and additives such as phenyl-2-naphthylamine, di-n-butyl phthalate, and a number of peroxide initiators and flame retardants (e.g., 2,3-dibromopropanol, decadibromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide). It is stressed that toxicity data are generally lacking for the majority of additives employed in the production of styrene polymers. Information is also lacking as to the numbers of individuals at potential risk and the extent of their exposure to the large number of additives employed. PMID:6371825

Fishbein, L

1984-01-01

43

Microstructure-based multistage fatigue characterization and modeling of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, fatigue experiments and observations are used to experimentally and computationally quantify fatigue structure-property relationships and then capture these effects through a microstructure-based MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model for a thermoplastic Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer. Completely reversed fatigue experiments were conducted over a range of strain amplitudes at two frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz). Scanning electron microscopy of fatigue fracture surfaces was used to quantify the microstructural notch root or initiating particle size for structure-property relations. Results were then processed in an MSF model sensitive to microstructural effects to capture the fatigue lifetimes for the thermoplastic ABS copolymer.

Fountain, Jason Elvin

44

Fire retardancy mechanisms of arylphosphates in polycarbonate (PC) and PC\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) and PC\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC\\/ABS) with and without arylphosphates (triphenylphosphate\\u000a TPP, resorcinol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) RDP and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) BDP) is investigated by thermal analysis\\u000a as key to understanding the flame retardancy mechanisms and corresponding structure–property relationships. The correspondence\\u000a between the decomposition temperature range of arylphosphates and PC is pointed out as prerequisite for the occurrence of

Birgit Perret; Kristin H. Pawlowski; Bernhard Schartel

2009-01-01

45

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene\\/chitosan blend membranes: Preparation, characterization and performance for the separation of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, an attempt has been made to prepare new blend membranes with different compositions of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and chitosan (CHS) on polyethersulfone (PES) substrate membrane. The new membranes are characterized using, FTIR–ATR, XRD, SEM, EDXA, TGA and swelling behavior. These membranes are used to separate mercury and sodium ions from aqueous solutions at different operating

Alka G. Boricha; Z. V. P. Murthy

2009-01-01

46

Isolation of the ?-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate ?-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and

Chun-Chin Wang; Chi-Mei Lee

2007-01-01

47

Microscopic damage and macroscopic yield in acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resins tested under multi-axial stress states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a transparent acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene polymer alloy was tested in a range of biaxial stress states and a yield locus was generated. The onset of microscopic damage was detected by in situ light transmission measurements. The macroscopic yield locus followed a linear behavior on an octahedral shear stress vs. mean stress plot and the onset of microscopic damage was

S. Ramaswamy; A. J. Lesser

2002-01-01

48

The Effect of the Addition of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Styrene on the Mechanical Properties of Bismaleimide\\/Carbon Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of addition of various weight percentages of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene in to Bismaleimide resin on mechanical properties. Matrix material and their blends were characterized for viscosity and glass transition temperature. Modified and unmodified carbon composites were prepared and tested for tensile, flexural and impact strengths. Tensile (11%) and impact properties (29%) were

Salini. K; M. Krishna; H. N. Narasimha Murthy; K. S. Rai; Satheesh Chandran. M

2010-01-01

49

Synthesis of exfoliated acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) clay nanocomposites: role of clay as a colloidal stabilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) clay nanocomposites were synthesized using two clays (sodium montmorillonite, laponite). Both colloidal stability and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were dependant on aspect ratios of clays. Laponite, a low aspect ratio clay, reduced particle sizes of ABS clay nanocomposite latexes, enhanced colloidal stabilities, and increased viscosity of the latexes. The colloidal stability of ABS clay latexes may

Yeong Suk Choi; Mingzhe Xu; In Jae Chung

2005-01-01

50

Preparation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer nanotubes with array structure in anodic aluminium oxide membrane using wetting techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) nanotubes and their arrays with different structures were prepared successfully using nanoporous Anodic Aluminium Oxide\\u000a (AAO) template through polymer solution and melt wetting method, a simple physical technique. According to the results of\\u000a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), nanotubes can be obtained using either polymer\\u000a solution or polymer melt. As for solution wetting

Jinshan Tan; Xi Lin She; Fang Yuan; Shujing Yang; Di Zhou

2008-01-01

51

Polycarbonate Effects on Selected Mechanical Properties of Polycarbonate\\/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (PC\\/ABS) Binary Blending Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC\\/ABS) binary systems of different blend ratios were prepared in a twin screw extruder. The two ABS (PA-747 and PA-757) differed from each other largely by their flowability (as reflected by their different melt flow rates). Results of the selected mechanical properties tests suggested that the PC\\/ABS-757 system was generally more superior to the PC\\/ABS-747 system. It was

Anthony Chi-Ying Wong

2003-01-01

52

Studies on thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS-Br) containing brominated flame retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS-Br; 10 g) containing brominated flame retardant (Br: 9.59 wt.%) was carried out at 450°C using a semi batch operation using two different temperature programs. The heating rate was found to affect the quality of the degradation oil and yield of products (liquid, gas and residue). Data on the effect of the temperature program

Thallada Bhaskar; Kazuya Murai; Toshiki Matsui; Mihai Adrian Brebu; Akinori Muto; Yusaku Sakata; Katsuhide Murata

2003-01-01

53

The role of temperature program and catalytic system on the quality of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene degradation oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and catalytic degradation of acrylonitrile-butadien-styrene copolymer (ABS) was performed at 450°C by semi-batch operation. Four different temperature programs were used for thermal degradation. SA4 silica alumina and three SA4\\/iron oxide combinations (?-Fe2O3, a Fe3O4-C composite and ?-FeOOH) were used for catalytic degradation. The heating rate affects the quality of the degradation oil, the following heating program giving the lowest

Mihai Brebu; M Azhar Uddin; Akinori Muto; Yusaku Sakata; Cornelia Vasile

2002-01-01

54

Effect of dissolution-based recycling on the degradation and the mechanical properties of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dissolution-based recycling technique for acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) is proposed, and the effects of repeated recycling cycles are studied measuring changes in chemical structure, melt viscosity, and tensile and impact properties. Acetone as solvent, 0.25g\\/ml concentration, room temperature and 40min for dissolution have been found to be the most reliable recycling parameters. FTIR, DSC and MFI results have shown that

A. Arostegui; M. Sarrionandia; J. Aurrekoetxea; I. Urrutibeascoa

2006-01-01

55

Blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with unmodified and maleic anhydride grafted acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile, dynamic mechanical, thermal properties and morphology features of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) blends with the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer were examined at up to 25 wt% content of ABS. Both unmodified and maleic anhydride grafted ABS (ABS-g-MA) were used. PET\\/ABS blends quenched from the melt and tested shortly after, show good mechanical properties—the result of component miscibility in the melt predicted

K. Nikos; Kalfoglou; Dimitrios S. Skafidas; Joannis K. Kallitsis

1996-01-01

56

Development of polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer based composites with functional fillers for car audio chassis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations require the improvement of automobile fuel efficiency. This can be achieved mainly by reducing the weight of automobile components. In this study, polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (PC\\/ABS) based composite mixed with glass fibers and metal fibers was developed and its suitability of application into car audio chassis was investigated. The test materials were prepared with various contents of metal fibers

Seong Ho Jeon; Heon Mo Kim; Tae-Hong Park; Byoung-Ho Choi; Woo Chun Choi

2011-01-01

57

Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Terpolymer: Synthesis and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graft copolymerization of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto a acryloni-trile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer was carried out using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator and toluene as a solvent. The effects of various parameters such as monomer concentration, initiator concentration, reaction time, and temperature on graft yield were studied. Addition occurs in the butadiene region of the polymer, either by the loss

B. Madhusudhan Rao; P. Raghunath Rao; B. Sreenivasulu

1999-01-01

58

Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics  

DOEpatents

An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Arman, Bayram (Amherst, NY); Karvelas, Dimitrios E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A. (Crest Hill, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1997-01-01

59

Characterization of nickel films deposited by cold remote nitrogen plasma on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold remote nitrogen plasma (CRNP) is used to deposit nickel films from Ni(CO) 4 on an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer at room temperature in a primary vacuum system. An XPS study has been realized ex-situ and in three steps: (1) the analysis of the ABS pre-treatment by CRNP, (2) the analysis of the pre-treatment followed by the metallization and the plasma post-treatment and (3) the influence of the post-treatment on the deposited films. During the ABS pre-treatment, in order to enhance the nickel adhesion, nitrogen from plasma creates functionalities on the polymer surface and the oxygen presence is strengthened on the surface. During the metallization, the plasma decomposes Ni(CO) 4 vapor, leading to the nickel deposition on the ABS. The plasma post-treatment cleans the surface of the Ni film. The contaminants rate induced by the process itself is low. The conductive and adhesive properties of this nickel film coated on ABS allow a copper overlayer to be deposited by electrolysis in an acid bath. A structural and morphological observation by SEM, X-ray diffraction in glancing incidence, X-ray reflectometry and atomic force microscopy completes the film description.

Brocherieux, A.; Dessaux, O.; Goudmand, P.; Gengembre, L.; Grimblot, J.; Brunel, M.; Lazzaroni, R.

1995-09-01

60

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic based low cost tissue equivalent phantom for verification dosimetry in IMRT.  

PubMed

A novel IMRT phantom was designed and fabricated using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic. Physical properties of ABS plastic related to radiation interaction and dosimetry were compared with commonly available phantom materials for dose measurements in radiotherapy. The ABS IMRT phantom has provisions to hold various types of detectors such as ion chambers, radiographic/radiochromic films, TLDs, MOSFETs, and gel dosimeters. The measurements related to pre-treatment dose verification in IMRT of carcinoma prostate were carried out using ABS and Scanditronics-Wellhoffer RW3 IMRT phantoms for five different cases. Point dose data were acquired using ionization chamber and TLD discs while Gafchromic EBT and radiographic EDR2 films were used for generating 2-D dose distributions. Treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured doses in ABS plastic and RW3 IMRT phantom were in agreement within +/-2%. The dose values at a point in a given patient acquired using ABS and RW3 phantoms were found comparable within 1%. Fluence maps and dose distributions of these patients generated by TPS and measured in ABS IMRT phantom were also found comparable both numerically and spatially. This study indicates that ABS plastic IMRT phantom is a tissue equivalent phantom and dosimetrically it is similar to solid/plastic water IMRT phantoms. Though this material is demonstrated for IMRT dose verification but it can be used as a tissue equivalent phantom material for other dosimetry purposes in radiotherapy. PMID:20160681

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, S D; Deshpande, Sudesh; Ghadi, Yogesh; Shaiju, V S; Amols, H I; Mayya, Y S

2010-01-01

61

Design and testing of digitally manufactured paraffin Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene hybrid rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel grain. Multiple fuel grains with various ABS-to-Paraffin mass ratios were fabricated and burned with nitrous oxide. Analytical predictions for end-to-end motor performance and fuel regression are compared against static test results. Baseline fuel grain regression calculations use an enthalpy balance energy analysis with the material and thermodynamic properties based on the mean paraffin/ABS mass fractions within the fuel grain. In support of these analytical comparisons, a novel method for propagating the fuel port burn surface was developed. In this modeling approach the fuel cross section grid is modeled as an image with white pixels representing the fuel and black pixels representing empty or burned grid cells.

McCulley, Jonathan M.

62

Flame retardancy mechanisms of aryl phosphates in combination with boehmite in bisphenol A polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nano-dispersed 5wt.% boehmite (AlOOH) and 5wt.% AlOOH combined with bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) in bisphenol A polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (PC\\/ABS)+poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and 1wt.% AlOOH with and without BDP, resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), on PC\\/ABS+PTFE has been investigated. Possible flame retardancy mechanisms are revealed. Thermogravimetry (TG) and evolved gas analysis (TG-FTIR) are used to study

Kristin H. Pawlowski; Bernhard Schartel

2008-01-01

63

[Determination of lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium and arsenic in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer using microwave digestion-ICP-MS].  

PubMed

A method was studied for the analysis of Cr, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer by using ICP-MS. The instrument parameters were optimized and the introduction system was developed systematically. The sample is decomposed by microwave digestion. The digestion condition was optimized concerning digestion system, proportion of acids and digestion procedure, which affords reference for the preparation of the same kinds of polymer samples. The detection limits of the method for all sample elements were 0.7-6.5 ng x g(-1), the recoveries were 89.8%-110.8%, and the RSDs were 2.8%-11.3%. The analytical method presented was characterized with good precision and accuracy, simplicity, rapidness, low limits of detection and no matrix matching requirements. PMID:18422150

Wang, Ying-Feng; Shi, Yan-Zhi; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Yu-Hong; Lau, John; Wilbur, Steven; Li, Ping

2008-01-01

64

Surface discharge and tracking phenomena induced on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer dielectric material by acid rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discharge and tracking phenomena induced on the polymer dielectric materials by acid rain are investigated by the accelerated aging of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer in artificial rainwater in this article. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the artificial rainwater is chosen to agree well with the actual ingredients of precipitation. The influence of hydrophobicity degradation on the surface discharge and tracking is studied. The relations among the surface discharge, tracking, hydrophobicity, and microchemical structure and physical morphology of material are furthermore discussed. Experimental results show that the polymer dielectric materials suffer a large attack and degradation from acid rain. The dielectric surface degrades and becomes rough, and the hydrophobicity decreases so that the surface discharge and tracking may occur on them.

Wang, X.; Yoshimura, N.

1999-05-01

65

Dynamics of phase separation in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)-modified epoxy/DDS system: kinetics and viscoelastic effects.  

PubMed

The dynamics of phase separation and final morphologies of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS)-modified epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) cured with 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) have been monitored in situ throughout the entire curing process by using optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry, and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). The evolution of phase separation and final morphologies with substructures were explored by OM. The final morphologies of the blend cured at 150 and 165 °C are of phase-inverted type and are quite different from the final morphologies of the same blend cured at 180 °C, in which the final morphologies are cocontinuous. AFM observations of the fully cured sample confirmed the existence of three different phases, the epoxy continuous phase, SAN (styrene/acrylonitrile) continuous phase, and PB droplets at the interface, with a strong tendency to stay at SAN continuous phase. Furthermore, the continuous epoxy phase contains SAN particles and the continuous SAN phase contains epoxy particles. Cure kinetics and rheological results correspond well with the viscoelastic phase separation revealed by OM. The SALLS results display clearly that the phase separation takes place according to nucleation and growth mechanism followed by spinodal decomposition. The development of light scattering patterns during the second stage phase separation follows the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal demixing. Furthermore, the evolution of the scattering vector follows a Maxwell-type relaxation equation establishing the viscoelastic behavior of phase separation. The relaxation time of phase separation can be described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation for viscoelasticity. As a whole, the dependence of phase separation on cure temperature and the development of final morphologies and the associated mechanisms were explored in detail for the complex epoxy/ABS system. PMID:20925346

Jyotishkumar, P; Özdilek, Ceren; Moldenaers, Paula; Sinturel, Christophe; Janke, Andreas; Pionteck, Jürgen; Thomas, Sabu

2010-10-28

66

High-capacity carbons prepared from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer for use as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) under different heat treatment conditions. ABS decomposed in a rapid single-step reaction, which was completed around 600°C. X-ray diffraction studies indicated a disordered carbon structure with a large number of single layer carbon sheets. It was found that varying the soak time, pyrolysis temperature and heating rate greatly affected

G. T. K. Fey; D. C. Lee; Y. Y. Lin

2003-01-01

67

Hybridisation effect on flexural properties of single- and double-gated injection moulded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filled with short glass fibres and glass beads particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect of hybridisation on flexural strength and modulus of single-gated (SG) and double-gated\\u000a (DG) injection moulded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer reinforced with both short glass fibres (GF) and spherical\\u000a glass beads (GB). It was observed that flexural strength and modulus of SG and DG ABS\\/GF\\/GB hybrids increased with increasing\\u000a the total concentration of the

S. Hashemi

2008-01-01

68

Electrical, rheological and morphological studies in co-continuous blends of polyamide 6 and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene with multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by melt blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incorporated in melt-mixed co-continuous blends of polyamide 6 (PA6) and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) using a conical twin-screw microcompounder. The state of dispersion of MWNT in the blends was assessed through AC electrical conductivity measurements and melt-rheological investigations. The electrical and rheological percolation threshold in PA6\\/ABS blends was ?3–4 and ?1–2wt% MWNT, respectively. A unique reactive modifier

Suryasarathi Bose; Arup R. Bhattacharyya; Ajit R. Kulkarni; Petra Pötschke

2009-01-01

69

Flame retardancy mechanisms of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) in combination with zinc borate in bisphenol A polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol A polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (PC\\/ABS) with and without bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 5wt.% zinc borate (Znb) were investigated. The pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry (TG), TG-FTIR and NMR, the fire behaviour with a cone calorimeter applying different heat fluxes, LOI and UL 94. Fire residues were examined with NMR.BDP affects the decomposition of PC\\/ABS and acts as a flame

Kristin H. Pawlowski; Bernhard Schartel; Mario A. Fichera; Christian Jäger

2010-01-01

70

An oxygen index evaluation of flammability for zinc hydroxystannate and zinc stannate as synergistic flame retardants for acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study on zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) and zinc stannate (ZS) in combination with 1,2-bis(tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) for increasing flame retardancy and reduced smoke emission in an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer. The combination between BTBPE, synergist and chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) yield a high value of LOI which for some proportions is higher than for commercial ABS.

A. Petsom; S. Roengsumran; A. Ariyaphattanakul; P. Sangvanich

2003-01-01

71

Surface modification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO 2) for the substitution of the etching stage in the electroless process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) is the most commonly used copolymer in industry for metallizing. The process in solution used for depositing metallic films on non-conductive substrates is known as electroless, which is an autocatalytic procedure. However, the sulfo-chromic admixture used to modify the ABS surface, in the first step of this process, is not environmentally suitable due to the use of

L. Magallón-Cacho; J. J. Pérez-Bueno; Y. Meas-Vong; G. Stremsdoerfer; F. J. Espinoza-Beltrán

2011-01-01

72

Fracture toughness of a polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blend by the ASTM E813 and hysteresis energy J integral methods: Effect of specimen thickness and side groove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed non-conventional J integral based on hysteresis energy and the ASTM E813 methods have been employed to test the fracture toughness of a polycarbonate (PC)\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blend. A systematic study of the effect of the specimen thickness (from B=4 to 15 mm) and the presence of a V-shaped side groove on the resultant J1c has been carried out.

Ming-Luen Lu; Feng-Chih Chang

1995-01-01

73

Sister Chromatid Exchange and Chromosome Aberration Analyses in Mice After In vivo Exposure to Acrylonitrile, Styrene, or Butadiene Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of polymers in plastic and rubber products has generated concern that monomers potentially active in biological systems may be eluted from these substances. The authors have evaluated two such monomers, acrylonitrile and styrene, for the induction...

Y. Sharief A. M. Brown L. C. Backer J. A. Campbell B. Westbrook-Collins

1986-01-01

74

Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.  

PubMed

epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

2007-06-25

75

The catalyzing carbonization properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS)\\/rare earth oxide (La 2 O 3 )\\/organophilic montmorillonite(OMT) nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalyzing carbonization properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) \\/rare earth oxide (La2O3) \\/organophilic montmorillonite(OMT) nanocomposites have been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy\\u000a (TEM),thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), laser raman spectroscopy (LSR) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) are\\u000a used to characterize the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites. The results show that intercalated nanocomposites\\u000a have formed no matter with or without

Shibin Nie; Lei Song; Yuan Hu; Yibing Cai; Jing Zhan; Yuqiang Guo

2010-01-01

76

Comprehensive analysis of the toxic and refractory pollutants in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufacturing wastewater by gas chromatography spectrometry with a mass or flame ionization detector.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin manufacturing wastewater is a complicated, toxic and refractory industrial wastewater. Comprehensive and accurate analysis of the typical pollutants in ABS resin manufacturing wastewater is critical to develop cost-effective wastewater treatment technologies. In this paper, a comprehensively qualitative analysis combined with three complementary methods has been developed for the detection of typical pollutants in ABS resin manufacturing wastewater from three production sections, and thirty-seven compounds had been detected and further confirmed by this analysis method with standards. Simultaneous chromatographic separation and quantification of seven representative pollutants, including three mononuclear aromatics, three acrylonitrile dimers and one acrylonitrile derivative, were achieved by GC-FID system. The detection limits of this method for seven representative pollutants were in the range of 0.007-0.89 mg/L. The within-day and between-day precisions of this method were less than 6.5% (RSD, n=6). The recoveries of the representative pollutants reached 90-120%. The ABS resin manufacturing wastewater from E zone was successfully determined by this method, with two mononuclear aromatics and three acrylonitrile dimers accounting for 57.73% and 40.63% of the selected seven compounds, respectively. These results reveal that the removal of mononuclear aromatics and acrylonitrile dimers is a key to treat this wastewater. PMID:22621884

Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ke

2012-06-29

77

Spatial distribution of stabilizer-derived nitroxide radicals during thermal degradation of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) copolymers: a unified picture from pulsed ELDOR and ESR imaging.  

PubMed

Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) provides information on the spatial distribution of radicals on the length scale of a few nanometres, while Electron Spin Resonance Imaging (ESRI) provides information on a length scale of millimetres with a resolution of about 100 micrometres. Despite the gap between these length scales, results from the two techniques are found to complement and support each other in the characterization of the identity and distribution of nitroxide radicals derived from the Hindered Amine Stabilizer (HAS) Tinuvin 770 in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) copolymers. DEER measurements demonstrate that there is no significant formation of biradicals from the bifunctional HAS, and provide the distributions of local radical concentrations. These distributions are poorly resolved for model-free analysis of the DEER data by the Tikhonov regularization; the resolution was significantly improved by utilizing information obtained by ESRI. DEER data can be fitted with only one adjustable parameter, namely the average radical concentration, if 1D and 2D spectral--spatial ESRI results on both the spatial distribution of nitroxides and their distribution between the acrylonitrile--styrene-rich (SAN) and butadiene-rich (B) microphases are considered. PMID:17028698

Jeschke, Gunnar; Schlick, Shulamith

2006-09-21

78

The strain rate dependence of deformation and fracture behaviour of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer in impact test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact properties and fracture characteristics of acrylonitride-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer are investigated by using a servo-hydraulic machine and a compressive split-Hopkinson bar at room temperature over a strain-rate range of 10?3 s?1 to 4×103 s?1. The effects of strain rate on the stress-strain response, Young's modulus, strain-rate sensitivity and thermal activation volume are evaluated. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the

Woei-Shyan Lee; Huang-Long Lin

2003-01-01

79

Ultrasonic degradation of butadiene, styrene and their copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic degradation of commercially important polymers, styrene–butadiene (SBR) rubber, acrylonitrile–butadiene (NBR) rubber, styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN), polybutadiene rubber and polystyrene were investigated. The molecular weight distributions were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A model based on continuous distribution kinetics approach was used to study the time evolution of molecular weight distribution for these polymers during degradation. The effect of solvent properties

P. S. Sathiskumar; Giridhar Madras

80

High-capacity carbons prepared from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer for use as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) under different heat treatment conditions. ABS decomposed in a rapid single-step reaction, which was completed around 600 °C. X-ray diffraction studies indicated a disordered carbon structure with a large number of single layer carbon sheets. It was found that varying the soak time, pyrolysis temperature and heating rate greatly affected the compositional, structural and electrochemical characteristics of the carbonaceous products. Charge-discharge studies of the product obtained by a 1 h pyrolysis at 600 °C at a heating rate of 20 °C/min exhibited first-cycle lithium insertion and deinsertion capacities of 825 and 564 mAh/g, respectively. Subsequent cycles showed a remarkable improvement in cycling efficiency with a 10th cycle efficiency of 100%.

Fey, G. T. K.; Lee, D. C.; Lin, Y. Y.

81

Ultrasonic degradation of butadiene, styrene and their copolymers.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic degradation of commercially important polymers, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR) rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), polybutadiene rubber and polystyrene were investigated. The molecular weight distributions were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A model based on continuous distribution kinetics approach was used to study the time evolution of molecular weight distribution for these polymers during degradation. The effect of solvent properties and ultrasound intensity on the degradation of SBR rubber was investigated using different pure solvents and mixed solvents of varying volatility and different ultrasonic intensities. PMID:21986515

Sathiskumar, P S; Madras, Giridhar

2012-05-01

82

Acrylic acid removal by acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufactured wastewater treatment system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to isolate the acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system. The bacteria should have the ability to remove acrylic acid and tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity. The aim is also to understand the performance of isolated pure strain for treating different initial acrylic acid concentrations from synthetic wastewater. The results are: twenty strains were isolated from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system and twelve of them could utilize 600 mg/l acrylic acid for growth. Seven of twelve strains could tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity, when the concentration was below 300 mg/l. Bacillus thuringiensis was one of the seven strains and the optimum growth temperature was 32 degrees C. Bacillus thuringiensis could utilize acrylic acid for growth, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 1,690.4 mg/l. Besides this, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 606.8 mg/l, the acrylic acid removal efficiency exceeded 96.3%. Bacillus thuringiensis could tolerate 295.7 mg/l acrylamide and 198.4 mg/l acrylonitrile toxicity but could not tolerate 297.3 mg/l epsilon-caprolactam. PMID:16749456

Wang, C C; Lee, C M

2006-01-01

83

Individual and simultaneous degradation of brominated high impact polystyrene and brominated acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and removal of heteroelements (Br, N, and O) from degradation oil by multiphase catalytic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brominated high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), which contained decabromodiphenyl ether flame retardant, and brominated acrylonitrile\\u000a butadiene styrene (ABS-Br), which contained bromine-containing epoxy-type flame retardant, were degraded at 450C individually\\u000a and in a 1\\/1 mixture by a thermal and catalytic procedure using folded sheet mesoporous (FSM) and ZSM-5 zeolite in liquid\\u000a phase contact mode. The two polymers produced similar degradation oils but at

Nona Merry M. Mitan; Mihai Brebu; Thallada Bhaskar; Yusaku Sakata

2007-01-01

84

Complex phase separation in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)-modified epoxy/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone blends: generation of new micro- and nanosubstructures.  

PubMed

The epoxy system containing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone is modified with poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS) to explore the effects of the ABS content on the phase morphology, mechanism of phase separation, and viscoelastic properties. The amount of ABS in the blends was 5, 10, 15, and 20 parts per hundred of epoxy resin (phr). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the final morphology of ABS-modified epoxy blends. Scanning electron microscopic studies of 15 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends reveal a bicontinuous structure in which both epoxy and ABS are continuous, with substructures of the ABS phase dispersed in the continuous epoxy phase and substructures of the epoxy phase dispersed in the continuous ABS phase. TEM micrographs of 15 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends confirm the results observed by SEM. TEM micrographs reveal the existence of nanosubstructures of ABS in 20 phr ABS-modified epoxy blends. To the best of our knowledge, to date, nanosubstructures have never been reported in any epoxy/thermoplastic blends. The influence of the concentration of the thermoplastic on the generated morphology as analyzed by SEM and TEM was explained in detail. The evolution and mechanism of phase separation was investigated in detail by optical microscopy (OM) and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). At concentrations lower than 10 phr the system phase separates through nucleation and growth (NG). However, at higher concentrations, 15 and 20 phr, the blends phase separate through both NG and spinodal decomposition mechanisms. On the basis of OM and SALLS, we conclude that the phenomenon of complex substructure formation in dynamic asymmetric blends is due to the combined effect of hydrodynamics and viscoelasticity. Additionally, dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior of the cross-linked epoxy/ABS blends. Finally, apparent weight fractions of epoxy and ABS components in epoxy- and ABS-rich phases were evaluated from T(g) analysis. PMID:19331324

Jyotishkumar, P; Koetz, Joachim; Tiersch, Brigitte; Strehmel, Veronika; Ozdilek, Ceren; Moldenaers, Paula; Hässler, Rudiger; Thomas, Sabu

2009-04-23

85

21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

2010-01-01

86

21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

2009-04-01

87

A study of the kinetics of radiational graft polymerization of acrylic monomers on a butadiene-styrene thermoelastomer  

SciTech Connect

The present work was a study of the kinetics of nonstationary radiational copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylic acid (AA) on a butadiene-styrene thermoelastomer (TE) and block-copolymers.

Timofeeva, V.F.; Ryabchikova, G.G.; Pikaev, A.K.; Spitsyn, V.I.

1982-10-20

88

Reactive blending of polypropylene and butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft copolymer of polypropylene and butadiene-acrylonitrile random copolymer was prepared by reactive polymer blending in\\u000a a melt without solvents. The process was performed by preliminary grafting of maleic anhydride groups to polypropylene and\\u000a of isocyanate groups to butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer, followed by blending of the modified polymers. The chemical reactions\\u000a occurring in the process and the fraction composition of the copolymer

D. V. Sugonyako; A. G. Karpov; A. E. Zaikin; R. S. Bikmullin

2010-01-01

89

Polythiophene\\/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber as an artificial muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid)\\/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, NBR\\/P3TAA, were prepared to investigate electrorheological properties, dielectric properties, and electrical conductivities. Electrorheological properties were carried out under an oscillatory shear mode in range of frequency from 0.1 to 100 rad\\/s at various electric field strengths from 0 to 2 kV\\/mm at fixed temperature of 27degC to observe the effects

P. Thipdech; A. Sirivat

2007-01-01

90

Studies on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber\\/Reclaimed Rubber Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cure characteristics and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber\\/reclaimed rubber blends were studied. Minimum torque, (maximum -minimum) torque, scorch time, cure time and cure rate decreased in presence of reclaimed rubber. Tensile strength, elongation at break and compression set increased with increase in reclaim content. Resilience and abrasion resistance decreased with reclaim loading. Heat build up was higher for the

T. D. Sreeja; S. K. N. Kutty

2002-01-01

91

Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR\\/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution-treated

Salwa H. El-Sabbagh; Ola A. Mohamed

2010-01-01

92

Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR? leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated

Salwa H. El-Sabbagh; Ola A. Mohamed

2010-01-01

93

Characterization and development of new hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics were determined for hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR), which is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile made from hydrogenation of the diene segment in acrylonitrile rubber. There was close attention given to the glass transition behavior of HNBR and its tendency to crystallize in the quiescent and in stretching state. The glass transition behavior in HNBR was similar to that

Geralda Severe

1999-01-01

94

Interactions in SMA (Styrene/Maleic Anhydride)-SAN (Styrene/Acrylonitrile) Blends,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymers have previously been shown to form miscible blends when the MA and AN contents do not differ too greatly. It is shown here that this is the result of a weak exothermic interaction b...

D. J. Paul J. H. Kim J. W. Barlow

1989-01-01

95

40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators...producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

2010-07-01

96

40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators...producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

2009-07-01

97

Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene–acrylonitrile rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene–acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene–acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather

A. Przepiórkowska; K. Chro?ska; M. Zaborski

2007-01-01

98

Characterization and development of new hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics were determined for hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR), which is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile made from hydrogenation of the diene segment in acrylonitrile rubber. There was close attention given to the glass transition behavior of HNBR and its tendency to crystallize in the quiescent and in stretching state. The glass transition behavior in HNBR was similar to that of other ethylene copolymers such as for example ethylene vinyl-acetate etc. The crystallinity in HNBR at high acrylonitrile content was due to alternating sequence of acrylonitrile and hydrogenated trans-1,4 butadiene rubber. Furthermore, the structure of HNBR does not have any effect on it rheological properties at the temperature investigated. HNBR exhibits a zero shear viscosity. It is common knowledge that most polymers are immiscible. However, over the years scientists have found numerous miscible polymers. On that basis we investigated miscibility between HNBR with ethylenic copolymers, chlorinated polymers, diene polymers, and hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. HNBR is miscible with high chlorine content chlorinated polymers like chlorinated polyethylene (42% Cl), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (43% Cl), PVC and CPVC. We have also developed dynamically vulcanized blends of HNBR with polychloroprene, epoxydized natural rubber, chlorobutyl, and carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer. Most of the blends at 75/25 composition have promising properties.

Severe, Geralda

99

Styrene-Butadiene Latex Modifiers for Bridge Deck Overlay Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-butadiene (S/B) latex modified concrete overlays are being used to protect new bridge decks from rapid deicer-borne chloride intrusion and also in bridge deck rehabilitation efforts. The purposes of this research were to evaluate several commercia...

B. H. Chollar K. C. Clear

1978-01-01

100

Styrene butadiene rubber-short nylon fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber reinforced styrene butadiene rubber were studied at varying fiber concentration. The plasticity of the composite was adversely affected by nylon short fibers. The minimum torque increased with fiber concentration. Scorch time and cure time showed a reduction in presence of short fibers. The tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break

T. D. Sreeja; S. K. N. Kutty

2003-01-01

101

Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution-treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

2010-06-01

102

Influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modification on bitumen viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of polymer content\\/structure and bitumen type on viscosity characteristics of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer modified bitumens were investigated. The study indicated that SBS polymers were not inert additives and increases in kinematic and dynamic viscosities of the modified bitumens were not directly proportional to polymer content; a marked viscosity increase was observed when the polymer content increased from 3 to

Xiaohu Lu; Ulf Isacsson

1997-01-01

103

Chemical initiation mechanism of maleic anhydride grafted onto styrene–butadiene–styrene block copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of grafting styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) tri-block copolymer with maleic anhydride (MAH) initiated by benzoperoxide (BPO) or 2,2?-azo-bis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) was studied by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The variation of C?C (double bond) content in SBS-g-MAH was used to verify the different graft mechanisms of BPO and AIBN, indicating that the chemical initiation mechanisms of MAH grafted onto SBS of

Zhang Aimin; Li Chao

2003-01-01

104

Fracture mechanisms of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was blended with 5 wt % of an elastomeric block copolymer. The hydrogenated styrene-butadiene-styrene\\u000a (SEBS) elastomers were functionalized with 0–4.5 wt % maleic anhydride grafted on the midblock. Notched tensile tests in the\\u000a temperature range ? 40–55 C differentiated among the blends in terms of their toughness. The least effective elastomer was\\u000a the unfunctionalized SEBS; all the

V Tanrattanakul; W. G Perkins; F. L Massey; A Moet; A Hiltner; E Baer

1997-01-01

105

Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.  

PubMed

The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

Przepiórkowska, A; Chro?ska, K; Zaborski, M

2007-03-01

106

Study of two types of styrene butadiene rubber in tire tread compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of vinyl butadiene and styrene groups in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) structures is a crucial factor that affects the inherent rubber characteristics such as glass transition temperature, Tg, hysteresis, strength, etc. In this paper, two types of SBR (Krynol 1721 and Buna VSL 5025-1) which contain higher ratios of these two groups, were blended with natural rubber (SMR

Pham Thi Hao; Hanafi Ismail; Azanam S Hashim

2001-01-01

107

Study on the thermal stability of styrene butadiene rubber nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the thermal stability of the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites containig surface modified calcium carbonate (MCC). All nanocomposites were produced at various nanofiller contents, utilizing a laboratory scale two-roll mill. The thermal stability parameters including initial decomposing temperature, temperature at maximum rate of weight loss, and char content of the MCC/SBR nanocomposites were then compared. It was found that by increasing the filler content, the decomposition temperature of MCC/SBR nanocomposites increases. Furthermore, the char content at high temperatures rises by increasing nanofiller content.

Saeb, M. R.; Chenari, T. N.; Parast, O. Yazdan; Jafari, B.; Asadi, H.; Safari, M. Arfavi; Holisaz, H.

2012-07-01

108

Determination of microstructure and composition in butadiene and styrene-butadiene polymers by near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared region (1,100-2,500 nm) is used to determine the microstructure and the composition of poly(butadiene) (PBD) polymers and styrene-butadiene (SBR) copolymers in bulk and in carbon tetrachloride solution. The multivariate method of classical least squares (CLS) is used to analyze near-infrared spectra of polymers with NMR-determined microstructures and compositions. Although the near-infrared spectra of the pure analytes (cis-1,4-butadiene, trans-1,4-butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, and styrene) are highly overlapped, the CLS method provides accurate predictions of analyte concentrations, because all available spectral frequencies are used for quantitation. The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy to intermolecular interactions and neighboring-group effects in these polymers is demonstrated.

Miller, C.E.; Eichinger, B.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Gurley, T.W.; Hermiller, J.G. (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, OH (USA))

1990-09-01

109

Non-isothermal kinetics of styrene—butadiene—styrene asphalt combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion characteristics of styrene—butadiene—styrene (SBS) asphalt are studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) at four different heating rates. According to the saturates/aromatics/resins/asphaltenes (SARA) fractionation method, the combustion process of SBS asphalt can be divided by Gaussian peak fitting into three main stages: oil content release, resin pyrolysis, and asphaltene and char combustion. When the heating rate increases, the mass losses of the oil content and resin pyrolysis increase, and less asphaltenes are formed at a higher temperature. The activation energy values are calculated by the Coats—Redfern method to be in the range 61.6 kJ/mol-142.9 kJ/mol. The Popescu method is used for the kinetic analysis, and the result shows that the three stages of asphalt combustion can be explained by the sphere phase boundary reaction model, the second order chemical reaction model, nucleation, and its subsequent growth model, respectively.

Wu, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Han, Jun; Wang, Jin-Chang; Huang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Pei

2013-06-01

110

Molecular modeling studies of interactions between styrene–butadiene latex and sodium polyacrylate polymer surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two important paper coating ingredients, sodium polyacrylate polymer dispersing agent and styrene–butadiene latex binder, was studied using classical force field and quantum chemical methods. The objective was to understand the adsorption of styrene–butadiene latex on the sodium polyacrylate polymer model surfaces at 300K using molecular dynamics simulations. A quantum mechanical ab initio Hartree–Fock method was also used

A. Ylikantola; J. Linnanto; J. Knuutinen; M. Toivakka

2010-01-01

111

Characterization of bound rubber of filled styrene-butadiene rubber compounds using pyrolysis-gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the composition of the bound rubber of filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds was studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography (pyrolysis-GC). The compositions of the bound rubber and the compounded carbon black- and silica-filled SBR rubbers were analyzed and compared. Results of the pyrolysis-GC analysis showed that the ratio of the butadiene\\/styrene components was higher in the bound rubber than in

Sung-Seen Choi

2000-01-01

112

Leukemia and cumulative exposure to butadiene, styrene and benzene among workers in the synthetic rubber industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective, quantitative estimates of exposure to 1,3-butadiene, styrene and benzene were developed for a follow-up study of leukemia mortality among 16610 subjects employed at six North American styrene-butadiene rubber manufacturing plants (418846 person-years, 58 leukemia deaths). The estimation procedure entailed identifying work areas within each manufacturing process, historical changes in exposure potential and specific tasks involving exposure, and using mathematical

Maurizio Macaluso; Rodney Larson; Elizabeth Delzell; Nalini Sathiakumar; Mary Hovinga; Jim Julian; David Muir; Philip Cole

1996-01-01

113

Determination of styrene-butadiene rubber composition by attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid method for determining the composition of styrene-butadiene rubber using attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was proposed. PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and infrared transmission spectroscopy were used as absolute techniques for determining the compositions of calibration samples. It was shown that the method was applicable to a wide range of styrene-butadiene rubbers, did not require additional sample preparation, and was easily reproducible.

Orlov, A. S.; Kiselev, S. A.; Kiseleva, E. A.; Budeeva, A. V.; Mashukov, V. I.

2013-03-01

114

Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†  

PubMed Central

[14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks.

Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

1980-01-01

115

Butadiene production process overview.  

PubMed

Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

White, Wm Claude

2007-03-20

116

Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl-Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes  

SciTech Connect

Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different initial morphologies were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules. The POSS octamers, R{prime}R{sub 7}Si{sub 8}O{sub 12}, were designed to contain a single silane functional group, R{prime}, which was used to graft onto the dangling 1,2-butadienes in the polybutadiene block and seven identical organic groups, R = isobutyl (iBu). Morphology and phase transitions of these iBu-POSS-modified SBS were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and rheological methods. It was observed that when iBu-POSS was grafted to the butadiene segment, the long-range and local order of the morphology were preserved, and the d-spacing showed a small, systematic increase with increasing POSS content. These observations suggest that grafted iBu-POSS were well-distributed within the butadiene domains and did not interact with the styrene domains; effectively, grafting of iBu-POSS to butadiene did not affect the segregation between butadiene and styrene domains. However, addition of iBu-POSS reduces the overall polystyrene volume. Consequently, from a morphology standpoint, this modification effectively shifts the phase diagram to lower styrene content. This was supported with SAXS and transition temperatures measurements made from the different host morphologies.

Drazkowski, Daniel B.; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S. (ERC, Inc.); (MSU)

2008-10-03

117

Chemical characterization of CTBN (carboxyl-terminated butadiene/acrylonitrile) and its epoxy adduct  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the analysis of carbonxyl-terminated butadiene (CTB), carboxyl-terminated butadiene/acrylonitrile (CTBN), and a CTBN adduct prepared by reaction with Epon 828. Data from gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and ion chromatography are presented and discussed. Quantitative methods based on carbon-13 and proton NMR for analyzing CTBN are described. Proton NMR was found to be useful in identifying lots that have an abnormal amount of CTBN protons. One such lot exhibited a phase separation of a polybutadiene impurity. Carbon-13 NMR was found to be capable of determining nitrile content directly. Carbon-13 NMR had a relative standard deviation of 8.3% and a proton NMR of 3.9%. Proton NMR was found to be useful in identifying lots that have 5% more CTBN protons than other lots. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Smith, R.E.

1990-01-01

118

BLENDS OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE TRIBLOCK COPOLYMER AND ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE. REINFORCING EFFECT OF POLYPROPYLENE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymer with isotactic polypropylene (iPP) or maleic anhydride–grafted polypropylene (MAP) were prepared in a twin-screw extruder. Static and dynamic experiments at room temperature in previous works showed that the added homopolymers have a significant influence in the improvement of the general mechanical properties of the SBS when the homopolymer is the dispersed phase. Our aim

A. Alba Pérez; G. Gallego Ferrer; J. L. Gómez Ribelles; M. Monleón Pradas; E. Verdú Sánchez

2001-01-01

119

Treatment of a styrene-butadiene-styrene rubber with corona discharge to improve the adhesion to polyurethane adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A styrene–butadiene–styrene (S6) rubber was treated with corona discharge to increase its surface energy and adhesion to polyurethane (PU) adhesive. The influence of the length of treatment (the speed of the upper plate was varied from 80 to 900cm\\/min) during corona discharge was analyzed. The corona energy applied to S6 rubber surface ranged from 0.4 to 4.6J\\/cm2. The surface modifications

Mar??a D Romero-Sánchez; M Mercedes Pastor-Blas; José Miguel Mart??n-Mart??nez

2003-01-01

120

Mortality of workers in styrene-butadiene polymer production  

SciTech Connect

A total of 13,920 males who had worked in eight styrene-butadiene rubber polymer manufacturing plants in the US and Canada for at least 1 year were followed for deaths from 1943 when the industry began to 1979. Mortality ratios standardized for age, race, and calendar time using US male rates as a comparison revealed no excess mortality in this population for any cause of death. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 0.81. Only the SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease among black males showed a significant excess (SMR = 1.28). Examination of risks by major work areas such as production, utilities, maintenance, and other jobs, as well as by salaried and hourly pay grade, revealed no significant differences in cancer mortality by specific sites. Because the ratios for selected digestive cancers were above the all-cause SMR, this group of neoplasms is under further investigation as is the exposure profile of specific jobs within the industry.

Matanoski, G.M.; Schwartz, L.

1987-08-01

121

Cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene rubber\\/reclaimed rubber blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cure characteristics and mechanical properties of short nylon fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene rubber-reclaimed rubber composites were studied. Minimum torque, (maximum-minimum) torque and cure rate increased with fiber concentration. Scorch time and cure time decreased by the addition of fibers. Properties like tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break, abrasion loss and heat build up were studied in both orientations of

T. D. Sreeja; S. K. N. Kutty

2003-01-01

122

Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several crosslinked poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Junhwa

2013-12-01

123

Analysis of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modified bitumen using fluorescent microscopy and conventional test methods.  

PubMed

This paper presents a laboratory study of modified bitumen containing styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer. Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) samples have been produced by mixing a 50/70 penetration grade unmodified (base) bitumen with SBS Kraton D1101 copolymer at five different polymer contents. The fundamental characteristics of the SBS PMB samples have been determined using conventional methods. The morphology of the samples as well as the percent area (%) distribution of SBS polymers throughout the base bitumen have been characterized and determined by means of fluorescence microscopy and Qwin Plus image analysis program, respectively. The mechanical properties of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) containing SBS PMBs have also been analyzed and compared with HMA incorporating base bitumen. The effect of polymer addition on the short and long term aging characteristics of HMA have been evaluated by indirect tensile strength (ITS) test. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties (penetration, softening point, etc.) and the mechanical properties (Marshall, ITS, etc.) of the base bitumen. It was also concluded that at low polymer contents, the samples revealed the existence of dispersed polymer particles in a continuous bitumen phase, whereas at high polymer contents a continuous polymer phase has been observed. Moreover, it was found out that the polymer addition minimizes the short and long term aging of HMA. PMID:17544580

Sengoz, Burak; Isikyakar, Giray

2008-01-31

124

Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

2014-05-01

125

Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

2010-03-01

126

Fracture morphologies of carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue. [Styrene-butadiene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results, together with an analytical model, related to the loss in tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with carbon black (CB) that had been subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue tests were presented in a prior paper. The drop in tensile strength relative to that of a virgin sample was considered to be a measure of damage induced during

A. Goldberg; D. R. Lesuer; J. Patt

1988-01-01

127

Study of the Radiation-Induced Crosslinking of a Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Polymer in the Presence of n-Para-Bromophenylmaleimide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mixtures of butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer with N-para-bromophenyl-maleimide (crosslinking sensitizer) were irradiated by exposure to the gamma radiation of a exp 60 Co source. The kinetics of crosslinking was evaluated as a function of composition, do...

D. Cavagnat

1976-01-01

128

Dynamic mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber and poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic mechanical behaviour of uncrosslinked and crosslinked styrene butadiene rubber\\/poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)\\u000a (SBR\\/EVA) blends was studied with reference to the effects of blend ratio, crosslinking systems, a compatibilizer viz. maleic-anhydride\\u000a grafted poly [styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS-g-MA), frequency and temperature. The two separate tan ? peaks, obtained during DMA, indicated the immiscibility of SBR\\/EVA system. The damping properties increased with SBR content

C. K. Radhakrishnan; Prajitha Kumari; A. Sujith; G. Unnikrishnan

2008-01-01

129

Use of SBR (Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) Latex for Improvement of Recycled Asphalt Pavement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex was added to cold-milled, recycled hot-mix asphalt concrete in order to improve the fatigue properties of the mix. Samples were tested by repeated load indirect tensile tests and analyzed by the VESYS Structural Subsys...

C. B. Drennon

1984-01-01

130

Increase of Recycled Asphalt Proportion through Use of SBR (Styrene-Butadiene Rubber) Latex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-butadiene rubber latex (SBR) was added to asphalt pavement mixes consisting of 50 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement and 50 percent new aggregate and new asphalt, and to 70 percent reclaimed - 30 percent new mixes, in order to determine improvemen...

C. B. Drennon

1987-01-01

131

Curing Characteristics, Mechanical Properties and Oil Resistance of Styrene Butadiene Rubber\\/Epoxidized Natural Rubber Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)\\/epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) blends were prepared with an internal mixer, Haake Rheomix. The blends were prepared at 60 C at a rotor speed of 60 rpm. Curing characteristics, mechanical properties and oil resistance of the blends were studied. The scorch time, t2 and curing time, t90 were found to decrease with increasing ENR composition in the

H. Ismail; S. Suzaimah; H. M. Hairunezam

2002-01-01

132

Styrene butadiene rubber\\/epoxidized natural rubber blends: dynamic properties, curing characteristics and swelling studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic properties, curing characteristics and swelling behaviour of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) blends were studied. The incorporation of ENR 50 in the blends improved processability, stiffness, resilience and reduced the damping property. In terms of curing characteristics, the scorch time, t2 and curing time, t90 of the SBR\\/ENR blends decrease with increasing ENR content.

H Ismail; S Suzaimah

2000-01-01

133

Cure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Maleic Anhydride Grafted Reclaimed Rubber\\/Styrene Butadiene Rubber Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with maleic anhydride grafted whole tire reclaim (MA-g-WTR) have been prepared and the cure and mechanical properties have been studied with respect to the reclaim content. The grafting was carried out in the presence of dicumylperoxide (DCP) in a Brabender Plasticorder at 150°C. The presence of anhydride group on the WTR was confirmed by

P. A. Nelson; S. K. N. Kutty

2004-01-01

134

NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Study of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Trimer in F344/N Rats (Perinatal and Postnatal Feed Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer) is a by-product formed during the manufacture of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following the report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identifie...

2012-01-01

135

Morphology and dynamic mechanical properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fracture toughness of an incorporation of a carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) elastomer in diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin was investigated. Measurements of dynamic mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering were carried out to characterize the state of cure, morphology and particle size and size distribution of the neat resins and their graphite fiber reinforced composites.

Hong, S. D.; Chung, S. Y.; Fedors, R. F.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

1984-01-01

136

Study of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium methyl cellulose as binder for negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphite and nano-silicon-based negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries with low binder content were evaluated. The effectiveness of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and various types of cellulose containing electrodes were compared to standard electrodes containing PVdF as binder. The cycling performance of lithium-based half cells in EC:DMC (1:1), 1M LiPF6 shows that styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), or

H. Buqa; M. Holzapfel; F. Krumeich; C. Veit; P. Novák

2006-01-01

137

Barrier properties of hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composites containing modified layered aluminosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resistance to permeation by the selected solvents of flat membranes made of cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR) materials without any fillers and containing 5 phr of layered aluminosilicate nanofiller (bentonite), modified with various types of ammonium salts or N330 type carbon black, was investigated. The barrier properties were assessed on the basis of the breakthrough time of a liquid with low (cyclohexane) or average (butyl acetate) thermodynamic affinity to HNBR, determined according to EN 6529:2001, through a cured elastomer sample. The addition of bentonite, irrespectively of the method of modification of its particles, was found to increase the cured HNBR breakthrough time by 20 - 35 % in the case of slowly permeating non-polar cyclohexane, and by 50 - 130 % in the case of polar butyl acetate permeating more rapidly, in comparison with the barrier material containing no filler. The layered aluminosilicate nanofillers increased the breakthrough time of the material sample for both the tested solvents. In particular, the breakthrough time for polar butyl acetate was even longer than for conventional carbon black. Additionally, the increase of the breakthrough time was observed to depend on the modifier of bentonite particle surface.

Krzemi?ska, S.; Rzymski, W. M.

2011-12-01

138

Weak boundary layers on vulcanized styrene–butadiene rubber treated with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber (R2) was used in this study. The presence of paraffin wax and zinc stearate in the rubber composition prevented the adhesion of R2 rubber to solvent-based polyester-urethane adhesive. To increase the adhesion properties of R2 rubber, a surface treatment with sulfuric acid (cyclization) was applied, and the length of the immersion in sulfuric acid and

Carmen M. Cepeda-Jiménez; M. Mercedes Pastor-Blas; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2001-01-01

139

Styrene-butadiene rubber\\/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorbic acid (SA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)\\/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed mechanisms for the largely improved performance were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), porosity analysis and crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through SA

Baochun Guo; Feng Chen; Yanda Lei; Xiaoliang Liu; Jingjing Wan; Demin Jia

2009-01-01

140

Carboxylated butadiene–styrene rubber\\/halloysite nanotube nanocomposites: Interfacial interaction and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A co-coagulation process was utilized to prepare carboxylated butadiene–styrene rubber (xSBR)\\/halloysite nanotube (HNT) nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction, morphology, and the mechanical performance of the nanocomposites were investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding between xSBR and HNTs. Lower content of HNTs tends to delay the vulcanization

Mingliang Du; Baochun Guo; Yanda Lei; Mingxian Liu; Demin Jia

2008-01-01

141

Styrene–butadiene rubber\\/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR)\\/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and

Baochun Guo; Yanda Lei; Feng Chen; Xiaoliang Liu; Mingliang Du; Demin Jia

2008-01-01

142

New polymeric blends from hydrogenated styrene–butadiene rubber and polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

New thermoplastic elastomeric blends based on hydrogenated styrene–butadiene rubber (HSBR) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were prepared by the melt blending technique. The rheology, structural and mechanical properties were measured as a function of blend composition. The HSBR\\/LDPE blend had a higher tensile strength, modulus, and work-to-break with low elongation at break compared with those of pure HSBR. X-ray diffraction studies

M. De Sarkar; P. P. De; Anil K. Bhowmick

1998-01-01

143

Physicochemical Characteristics of Styrene-Butadiene Latex modified Mortar Composite vis-à-vis Preferential Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) film and the ions from C2S and C3S hydration of Portland cement mortar composites has been evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and the morphology of the composites characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimen used was cured for 28 days. FTIR spectrum supports the interaction of SBR with cement in the

B. B. Konar; Arpita Das; Prabir K. Gupta; Mausumi Saha

2011-01-01

144

Effect of modified nano-silica on the reinforcement of styrene butadiene rubber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) composites filled with nano-silica has been improved by surface modification of the nano-silica using silane coupling agents. The dispersion of nano-silica in SBR rubber and the bonding force of nano-silica with SBR were significantly improved, and the physical and mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber were greatly improved. The results showed Si69 (bis-(?-

DAOXING SUN; YIHENG ZHANG; YUWEN LI

2011-01-01

145

Influence of maleic anhydride grafting on the rheological properties of polyethylene terephthalate–styrene butadiene blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)–styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blends are studied in this work. The shear viscosity was measured in a special capillary device mounted on an injection-molding machine, which provides data on pressure and flow rate. Comparison of the viscosity of the PET–SBR physical blend with that of the blend of PET with maleic anhydride-functionalized SBR (SBRg)

A Sánchez-Sol??s; F Calderas; O Manero

2001-01-01

146

Effect of crosslink density on some properties of electron beam-irradiated styrene–butadiene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslink densities of electron beam (EB)-irradiated styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) samples were measured by using a novel magnetic resonance crosslink density spectrometer (MRCDS). With 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) loading increasing, the crosslink density of EB-irradiated SBR increases up to a certain level, and then decreases in the irradiation dose range 50–200kGy. Tensile strength, elongation at break, thermal stability and pyrolysis products of

Qingguo Wang; Fenlan Wang; Kuo Cheng

2009-01-01

147

Conductivity and mechanical properties of composites based on MWCNTs and styrene-butadiene-styrene block™ copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites based on multiwall carbon nano- tubes (MWCNTs) and the block copolymer styrene-butadi- ene-styrene with two different contents of styrene have been investigated and their electrical conductivity and mechanical properties have been evaluated. The composites were prepared by a solution casting procedure, using a dis- persant agent for the MWCNTs. Conductivity values of 10 ? 4 and 1.6 S cm

Lucas G. Pedroni; Mauro A. Soto-Oviedo; J. Maurício Rosolen; Maria I. Felisberti; Ana F. Nogueira

2009-01-01

148

Butadiene cancer exposure–response modeling: Based on workers in the styrene–butadiene–rubber industry: Total leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cox regression is used to estimate exposure–response models (with cumulative 1,3-butadiene (BD) ppm-years as the exposure metric) based on the most recent data and validated exposure estimates from UAB’s study of North American workers in the styrene–butadiene–rubber industry. These data are substantially updated from those in USEPA’s 2002 risk assessment.The slope for cumulative BD ppm-years is not statistically significantly different

Robert L. Sielken; Ciriaco Valdez-Flores

2011-01-01

149

Removal of acrylonitrile and styrene mixtures from waste gases by a trickle-bed air biofilter.  

PubMed

The trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) performance for treating acrylonitrile (AN) and styrene (SR) mixtures was evaluated under different influent carbon loadings. In the pseudo steady state conditions, the elimination capacities of AN and SR increased but the removal efficiencies decreased with increased influent carbon loading. The removal efficiencies of AN were higher than those of SR, indicating that AN is a preferred substrate in the ANSR waste gas. More than 80% removal efficiencies were achieved with influent carbon loadings of AN and SR below 28 and 22 g/m(3)/h, respectively. The TBAB appears to be efficient for controlling ANSR emission with low to medium carbon loadings, and the effectiveness could be maintained over 175 days of laboratory operation. The elimination capacities of AN and SR for a pure volatile organic compound (VOC) feed were higher than those for a mixed VOC feed and the differences increased with increased influent VOC loading. PMID:14505021

Lu, C; Lin, M-R; Wey, I

2002-04-01

150

Morphological study and photo-addressing in poly(styrene- b-butadiene- b-styrene) block copolymers with azobenzene groups and polystyrene matrix: Influence of chemical bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this work was the synthesis of new azo-functionalized block copolymers (BCP) from epoxidized poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) modified with azobenzene groups by one-step facile reaction between the epoxy groups and an azo-amine. The epoxy\\/amine reaction was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, we studied the effect of covalent attachment of the azobenzene moieties by analyzing the morphology and

Raquel Fernández; Iñaki Zalakain; José Angel Ramos; Loli Martin; Iñaki Mondragon

2011-01-01

151

Enhanced photorefractive performance in CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the enhanced photorefractive behavior of a CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed less expensive polymer of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The capability of CdSe quantum dots used as photosensitizers and the associated photorefractive performance are characterized through a photocurrent experiment and a two-beam coupling experiment, respectively. An enhanced two-beam coupling gain coefficient of 12.2 cm-1 at 46 V/?m was observed owning to the reduced potential barrier. The photorefractive performance per CdSe quantum dot is three orders of magnitude higher than that in the sample sensitized by trinitrofluorenone in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), and almost ten times higher than that in the CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized poly(N-vinylcarbazole) polymers.

Li, Xiangping; van Embden, Joel; Chon, James W. M.; Evans, Richard A.; Gu, Min

2010-06-01

152

Covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with poly(styrene- co-acrylonitrile) by reactive melt blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small amount of cyano groups in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) was converted to oxazoline groups through reaction with 2-aminoethanol. Reactive melt blending of oxazoline-containing SAN and acidified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) leads to the grafting of polymer chains onto MWCNTs arising from reactions between oxazoline and carboxylic acid groups. Spectroscopic, thermal and microscopic techniques confirmed the successful grafting of SAN onto

Jia-Hua Shi; Bing-Xing Yang; Suat Hong Goh

2009-01-01

153

Grafting of polyamide 6 on a styrene–acrylonitrile maleic anhydride terpolymer: melt rheology at the critical gel state  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we studied the melt rheology of multigraft copolymers with a styrene–acrylonitrile maleic anhydride (SANMA)\\u000a terpolymer backbone and randomly grafted polyamide 6 (PA 6) chains. The multi-grafted chains were formed by interfacial reactions\\u000a between the maleic anhydride groups of SANMA and the amino end groups of PA 6 during melt blending. Because of the phase separation\\u000a of SANMA and PA 6, the

Christian Sailer; Martin Weber; Helmut Steininger; Ulrich A. Handge

2009-01-01

154

Effect of crosslink density on some properties of electron beam-irradiated styrene-butadiene rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crosslink densities of electron beam (EB)-irradiated styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) samples were measured by using a novel magnetic resonance crosslink density spectrometer (MRCDS). With 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) loading increasing, the crosslink density of EB-irradiated SBR increases up to a certain level, and then decreases in the irradiation dose range 50-200 kGy. Tensile strength, elongation at break, thermal stability and pyrolysis products of the EB-irradiated SBR samples with different crosslink densities were also studied in this paper.

Wang, Qingguo; Wang, Fenlan; Cheng, Kuo

2009-11-01

155

Styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer compatibilized carbon black/polypropylene/polystyrene composites with tunable morphology, electrical conduction and rheological stabilities.  

PubMed

We report a facile kinetic strategy in combination with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer compatibilizers for preparing carbon black (CB) filled immiscible polypropylene (PP)/polystyrene (PS) (1/1) blends with finely tuned morphologies and show the important role of location and migration of CB nanoparticles in determining the electrical conductivity and rheological behaviour of the composites. A novel method of mixing a SBS/CB (5/3) masterbatch with the polymers allowed producing composites with CB aggregates dispersed partially in the unfavorable PP phase and partially in the PP side of the interface to exhibit diverse phase connectivity and electrical conductivity depending on the compounding sequences. A cocontinuous morphology with CB enrichment along the interface was formed in the composite prepared by mixing the SBS/CB masterbatch with the premixed PP/PS blend, giving rise to a highest electrical conductivity and dynamic moduli at low frequencies. On the other hand, mixing the masterbatch with one and then with another polymer yielded droplet (PS)-in-matrix (filled PP) composites. The composites underwent phase coalescence and CB redistribution accompanied by marked dynamic electrical conduction and modulus percolations as a function of time during thermal annealing at 180 °C. The composites with the initial droplet-in-matrix morphology progressed anomalously into the cocontinuous morphology, reflecting a common mechanism being fairly nonspecific for understanding the processing of filled multicomponent composites with tailored performances of general concern. PMID:24647801

Song, Yihu; Xu, Chunfeng; Zheng, Qiang

2014-04-21

156

The effect of a compatibilizer on curing characteristics, mechanical properties and oil resistance of styrene butadiene rubber\\/epoxidized natural rubber blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a compatibilizer, styrene–(epoxidized butadiene)–styrene triblock copolymer (ESBS) on curing characteristics, mechanical properties and oil resistance of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) blends was examined. The results indicate that the increasing compositions of ENR and the presence of ESBS improve processability, tensile strength, tear strength and tensile modulus of SBR\\/ENR blends. The scorch time,

Hanafi Ismail; H. M Hairunezam

2001-01-01

157

Effect of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes with Carboxylic Functional Group on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with a carboxylic functional group to enhance the dispersion of CNT in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites. The functionalization of the surface of the MWCNTs were carried out by using nitric acid at 120°C for 48 hours. The FTIR technique was used to characterize the surface of the modified carbon nanotubes to ascertain the

Muataz Ali Atieh

2011-01-01

158

Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly (styrene–butadiene)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous soy flour dispersion and styrene–butadiene rubber latex to form a mixture, which was then dried and cryogenically ground

Lei Jong

2012-01-01

159

On the form of the strain energy function for a family of SBR materials. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Styrene-butadiene materials with varying crosslink densities are analyzed through use of a strain energy function of the type introduced by Valanis and Landel (1967). A form of the strain energy function derived from strip biaxial tests proves to be accurate when checked against uniaxial and other biaxial test results.

Arenz, R. J.

1977-01-01

160

Organic Semiconducting Materials in Film and Powder Forms from a Co-polymeric Elastomer-Styrene Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconducting materials in both film and powder forms are prepared by Antimony Pentachloride (SBCl5) doping in Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). SBR is a synthetic co-polymeric elastomer, insulating in undoped state, is mainly used for manufacturing tires, tubes etc. Synthesized conducting materials are proposed to have tremendous application potentials in optoelectronic, electronic and electrical industries. For example conducting films can be

G. Santhamma; P. Predeep

2008-01-01

161

Fracture morphologies of carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue. [Styrene-butadiene rubber  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results, together with an analytical model, related to the loss in tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with carbon black (CB) that had been subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue tests were presented in a prior paper. The drop in tensile strength relative to that of a virgin sample was considered to be a measure of damage induced during the fatigue test. The present paper is a continuation of this study dealing with the morphological interpretations of the fractured surfaces, whereby the cyclic-tearing behavior, resulting in the damage, is related to the test and material parameters. It was found that failure is almost always initiated in the bulk of a sample at a material flaw. The size and definition of a flaw increase with an increase in carbon-black loading. Initiation flaw sites are enveloped by fan-shaped or penny-shaped regions which develop during cycling. The size and morphology of a fatigue-tear region appears to be independent of the fatigue load or the extent of the damage (strength loss). By contrast, either an increase in cycling load or an increase in damage at constant load increases the definition of the fatigue-region morphology for all formulations of carbon-black. On the finest scale, the morphology can be described in terms of tearing of individual groups of rubber strands, collapsing to form a cell-like structure. 18 refs., 13 figs.

Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Patt, J.

1988-02-01

162

Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater  

PubMed Central

A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M. L.; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

2012-01-01

163

Environmental epidemiologic investigations in the styrene-butadiene rubber production industry.  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature and an update that is in progress of a previous retrospective cohort mortality study of the styrene-1,3-butadiene industry are discussed. The follow-up has now been extended from April 1, 1976, through December 31, 1981, for plant B and December 31, 1982, for plant A. The person-years at risk of death have gone from 34,187 to 43,341 in plant A and from 19,742 to 26,314 in plant B. Among the death certificates received to date, observed deaths have increased in both plants, with increases in cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung and in lymphosarcomas, reticulosarcomas, and cancers of the overall lymphatic and hematopoietic system.

Lemen, R A; Meinhardt, T J; Crandall, M S; Fajen, J M; Brown, D P

1990-01-01

164

Laser heating effect on Raman spectra of styrene-butadiene rubber/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser heating effect on MWCNTs in styrene-butadiene rubber/multiwalled carbon nanotube (SBR/MWCNT) composites were studied by Raman spectra. The intensity ratio of the D band to G band ( ID/ IG) of SBR/MWCNT composites largely decreased with temperature. This indicates the self-rearranging behavior of MWCNTs in the SBR/MWCNTs system during temperature increase. In addition, the temperature-dependent downward shift of the G band of SBR/MWCNT composites was smaller than that of MWCNTs samples. The self-rearrangement of MWCNTs in SBR/MWCNT composites and a mechanical compression were explained as two possible reasons for the different behavior of the G band shift.

Yan, Xinlei; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Sato, Harumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Han, Xiaoxia; Itoh, Tamitake; Bokobza, Liliane; Ozaki, Yukihiro

2012-01-01

165

Sulfur-Free Vulcanization of Modified Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubber SKN-40PVKh-30, Aimed To Obtain Elastomeric Materials Resistant to Aggressive Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the thermal, peroxide, and radiation vulcanization of modified butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber SKN-40PVKh-30 in the presence of a polyhalomethyl compound, 1,4-bis[(4-trichloromethylphenyl)dichloromethyl]benzene, with epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde resins and 4,4?-dithiobis-N-phenylmaleimide (a sensitizer) additionally included in the formulation with the aim to improve the technical properties of the vulcanizates and elastomeric materials. The parameters of the three-dimensional network of the

Sh. M. Mamedov

2005-01-01

166

Epidemiologic investigations of styrene-butadiene rubber production and reinforced plastics production.  

PubMed

The United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) began an epidemiologic study of workers employed in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) industry during 1976. This study was prompted by reports of relatively high numbers of leukemia deaths occurring within SBR production work populations. Simultaneous with the initiation of this investigation, the University of North Carolina released a report associating an excess risk of death due to hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies among workers producing several synthetic rubbers, including SBR. This report presents NIOSH's preliminary mortality observations and a discussion of progress made on the analyses of contaminants found in two SBR production facilities. Currently, NIOSH is determining the feasibility of doing an epidemiologic study in the reinforced plastics industry. Interest in this study developed as part of an effort to determine health hazards associated with occupational exposure to styrene. Most of the technology for the reinforced plastics industry developed in the 1950s, and therefore this process represents a relatively new industry. This report also includes information on environmental conditions observed in the reinforced plastics industry and enumerates some of the complicating characteristics of this industry which increase the complexity of this study. PMID:282663

Meinhardt, T J; Young, R J; Hartle, R W

1978-01-01

167

Effect of strain on the electrical conductivity of a styrene-butadiene rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the carbon black-filled rubbers are stretched, the electrical resistivity increases at lower extension ranges, and then it decreases with further extension. This complex behavior is attributed to the morphology changes of carbon black particles during extension, i.e., breaking and forming conducting paths. In this study, highly conductive carbon blacks were compounded with high styrene content SBR matrix with contents varying from 5phr, 10phr, 15phr and 20phr. All the compounds measured the electrical resistance at room temp., 40°C, 80°C, respectively. The electrical resistances are decreased as the conductive carbon blacks are higher and temperature is increased. The electrical resistivity and tensile behaviors were investigated as a function of stretching at 80°C. The conductive carbon black-filled a styrene-butadiene rubber vulcanizate showed much higher conductivity and the electrical resistivity is more stable by increase of contents. In tensile behaviors, as the contents of conductive carbon blacks increase, it shows the increase of strength.

Kim, Young Hee; Lim, Jee Young; Jose, Jobin; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Gi-Bbeum; Gent, Alan N.; Nah, Changwoon

2010-03-01

168

Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron

Daishuang Li; Haibing Xia; Jing Peng; Maolin Zhai; Genshuan Wei; Jiuqiang Li; Jinliang Qiao

2007-01-01

169

Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.  

PubMed

A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment. PMID:23030654

Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

2012-01-01

170

Fast and robust method for the determination of microstructure and composition in butadiene, styrene-butadiene, and isoprene rubber by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In the tire industry, synthetic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), butadiene rubber (BR), and isoprene rubber (IR) elastomers are essential for conferring to the product its properties of grip and rolling resistance. Their physical properties depend on their chemical composition, i. e., their microstructure and styrene content, which must be accurately controlled. This paper describes a fast, robust, and highly reproducible near-infrared analytical method for the quantitative determination of the microstructure and styrene content. The quantitative models are calculated with the help of pure spectral profiles estimated from a partial least squares (PLS) regression, using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the reference method. This versatile approach allows the models to be applied over a large range of compositions, from a single BR to an SBR-IR blend. The resulting quantitative predictions are independent of the sample path length. As a consequence, the sample preparation is solvent free and simplified with a very fast (five minutes) hot filming step of a bulk polymer piece. No precise thickness control is required. Thus, the operator effect becomes negligible and the method is easily transferable. The root mean square error of prediction, depending on the rubber composition, is between 0.7% and 1.3%. The reproducibility standard error is less than 0.2% in every case. PMID:16808863

Vilmin, Franck; Dussap, Claude; Coste, Nathalie

2006-06-01

171

Mechanical Properties of Melt-Processed Blend of Amorphous Corn Flour Composite Filler and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corn flour composite fillers were prepared by blending corn flour with rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders, which were then melt-blended with rubber polymers in an internal mixer to form composites with enhanced mechanical properties. The composites prepared with melt-blending method were compared to that prepared with freeze-drying method. The composite fillers prepared with styrene-butadiene were compared

Lei Jong

2012-01-01

172

Surface modification of vulcanized styrene–butadiene rubber with trichloroisocyanuric acid solutions of different active chlorine contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two solutions in ethyl acetate (EA) containing 3wt% trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI) from two different suppliers having different active chlorine contents were used as chemical surface treatment of a vulcanized styrene–butadiene (SBR) rubber. The amount of active chlorine in the TCI solutions was evaluated by iodine titration. The changes produced in the SBR rubber were monitored by using ATR-IR spectroscopy, scanning

Carolina García-Martín; Vanesa Andreu-Gómez; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2010-01-01

173

Thermal and mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber\\/lead oxide composites as gamma-radiation shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene-butadiene rubber\\/lead oxide composites were prepared as ?-radiation shields. The composites were prepared with three different types of lead oxide, namely lead mono-oxide (PbO), lead dioxide (PbO2) and red lead oxide (Pb3O4). Concentrations of about 87–88 wt% for the three lead oxides were used. The assessment of the linear attenuation coefficient of the SBR\\/lead oxide composites for ?-rays from different

M. M. Abdel-Aziz; S. E. Gwaily

1997-01-01

174

Effect of concentration and humidity on the formation of porous polymer films using Styrene Butadiene Co-Polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeycomb structured porous materials from complex polymers are formed using water droplet templating method. In the present work microporous films were prepared from styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using emulsion technique. The pore sizes can be easily tuned by changing the concentration and the humidity condition. The pore size is characterized by optical microscope and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). These films can be used for various applications in optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, tissue engineering, bioanalytical purposes etc.

Jose, Renu; Sujith, A.; Predeep, P.

2011-10-01

175

Influence of carbon blacks on butadiene rubber\\/high styrene rubber\\/natural rubber with nanosilica: Morphology and wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fillers on morphology and wear characteristics are studied in butadiene rubber (PBR)\\/high styrene rubber (HSR)\\/natural rubber (NR) blends with different types of carbon black. SAF N110 with SRF N774 type of carbon black shows a significant effect on curing studies and mechanical properties by reacting at the interface between PBR, HSR and NR matrix. Blends containing the

Kaushik Pal; R. Rajasekar; Dong Jin Kang; Zhen Xiu Zhang; Samir K. Pal; Chapal K. Das; Jin Kuk Kim

2010-01-01

176

Synergistic effect of carbon black and nanoclay fillers in styrene butadiene rubber matrix: Development of dual structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based hybrid nanocomposites containing carbon black (CB) and organo-modified nanoclay (NC) was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of intercalated, aggregated, and partially exfoliated structures. Incorporating 10phr NC to the control SBR containing 20phr CB resulted 153% increase in tensile strength, 157% increase in elongation at break and 144% stress

S. Praveen; P. K. Chattopadhyay; P. Albert; V. G. Dalvi; B. C. Chakraborty; S. Chattopadhyay

2009-01-01

177

Magnetic field effect on the photocrosslinking of a butadiene-styrene copolymer modified by benzoyl or phenylacetyl groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A butadiene-styrene copolymer was partially modified by Friedel-Crafts reaction of phenyl groups with benzoyl chloride or phenylacetyl chloride. The resulting benzoylphenyl and phenylacetylphenyl groups served as photosensitizers for a subsequent crosslinking by u.v. irradiation. The extent of crosslinking was measured by sol\\/gel analysis. Crosslinking was carried out without magnetic field and with magnetic field of flux density 1.0 Tesla. The

Klaus Hummel; Raimund Schaller; Michael G. Martl

1987-01-01

178

Influence of interfacial properties of styrene\\/butadiene latex on the interaction with poly(vinyl alcohol) in aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfacial properties of styrene\\/butadiene latex were found to play a substantial role in its interaction with partially hydrolysed polyvinyl acetate (PVOH\\/Ac) in aqueous solutions. In particular, the level of carboxylation of the latex particles governs the adsorption process. A slightly hydrophobic PVOH\\/Ac is weakly adsorbed onto medium carboxylated latex at low equilibrium concentrations, whereas a multilayer adsorption occurs at

Kaj Backfolk; Serge Lagerge; Jarl B. Rosenholm; Dan Eklund

2002-01-01

179

Molecular characterization of solution styrene-butadiene rubber: thermal field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering studies.  

PubMed

Solution styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR) is mainly constituted of a random copolymer of styrene and butadiene. SSBR usually contains microgels, having ultrahigh molecular weight (M>10(7)g/mol), affecting rheological properties of the rubber. Thus, determinations of M and size distribution of these microgels are critical in performance evaluation and control for SSBR. We employ thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF), combined with online multi-angle light scattering (MALS), as most suited for characterization of solutions containing the microgels since they can be characterized in toto without removing the microgels from the solution. ThFFF-MALS was applied for characterization of linear and branched SBR materials from various commercial sources, and the results were compared to those from size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). ThFFF provides higher resolution than SEC for high molecular fractions and allowed gel content to be measured. The gel content was determined by subtracting the amount of sol from total injection mass, and was measured to be 10-15%. We infer from the characterization results that the microgel content may not be correlated to the microstructure, the styrene and vinyl content of butadiene but to the fraction of high molecular weight in SSBR. Finally, the macromolecular structure and the content of microgel (larger than about 100nm) were found to significantly affect various rheological parameters such as viscosity, mechanical and dynamic properties. PMID:24063984

Choi, You Jin; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Seung Hwa; Kim, A-Ju; Kwag, Gwanghoon; Lee, Seungho

2013-11-01

180

Dynamic Evolution of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Subjected to High Strain Rate Compressive Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the present investigation is to better understand the potential energy absorption benefits of components fabricated using fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing. Tensile test specimens were fabricated, according to the ASTM D638 stan...

A. Peterson D. Bolling E. Habtour J. Riddick M. Coatney

2013-01-01

181

Strengthening acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with nano-sized and micron-sized calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS was reinforced by both micron-sized (MCC) and nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC) particles through melt compounding. The MCC\\/ABS composites were found to have higher modulus but lower tensile and impact strength than neat ABS. In contrast, NPCC increased modulus of ABS whilst maintained or even increased its impact strength for a certain NPCC loading range. SEM examinations revealed that

L. Jiang; Y. C. Lam; K. C. Tam; T. H. Chua; G. W. Sim; L. S. Ang

2005-01-01

182

21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

2013-04-01

183

Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by sorbic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorbic acid (SA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed mechanisms for the largely improved performance were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), porosity analysis and crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through SA intermediated linkages. SA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting copolymerization/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and SA was achieved. Formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) was revealed during the vulcanization of the composites. However, in the present systems, the contribution of ZDS to the reinforcement was limited. Effects of SA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of SA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and SA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Lei, Yanda; Liu, Xiaoliang; Wan, Jingjing; Jia, Demin

2009-05-01

184

About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

Mansilla, M. A.; Marzocca, A. J.

2012-08-01

185

Performance of Styrene Butadiene Rubber as a Concrete Repair Material in tropical climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterioration of Concrete due to variety of reasons like corrosion of steel, inferior quality of materials as well as workmanship and exposure to aggressive environment like thermal cycling affect the performance or damage a number of Reinforced cement concrete structures. In order to repair these structures for enhancing the service life, number of methods and materials are available. But the degree of success of any repair in concrete depends mainly on the correct choice and the method of application of repair materials. This paper discusses the details of an experimental investigation on the performance of Styrene ñ Butadiene Rubber (SBR) as a concrete repair material in tropical climatic conditions. Resistance to water penetration and tensile cracking are two important performance criteria for any repair material. Cement mortar cubes of mix proportion 1:3 with SBR added at the rate of 20% of the weight of cement, and control specimens without SBR were made. Compressive strength and sorptivity values of the cubes were determined. Shear Bond strength (by slant shear test) and splitting tensile strength of the repaired cylinder specimens of standard dimensions, in which SBR used as a bonding agent were determined. These values were compared with the values obtained for the similar specimens, in which the bonding agent applied was conventional cement slurry. The influence of thermal cycling on the properties of repaired concrete specimens were also studied. A comparison has also been made with the values required to meet the standard specifications of a repair material.

Radhakrishnan, R.; Prakash, V. Syam; Thampan, C. K.; Varma, Prasad

2012-11-01

186

Cavitation in Filled Styrene-butadiene Rubber: A Real Time SAXS Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation of filled and unfilled elastomers under confinement at the macroscopic scale has been experimentally reported and theoretically modeled. However, cavitation occurring at the nanometer length scale has not yet been demonstrated conclusively in rubbers. Real time SAXS with synchrotron radiation was employed to probe the structure changes in carbon black filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) under uniaxial loading. The scattering invariant was calculated and increased sharply at a critical extension depending on both filler content and crosslinking density around q = 0.1 nm-1, which we attributed to the formation of voids. At very large strains, a sharp and wide streak developed perpendicular to the tensile axis in reciprocal space, suggesting the deformation of the voids in elliptical voids along the tensile direction. In step cycle test, we observed that voids only appeared when the current strain exceeded the maximum historical strain (Mullins effect) and attributed the increase of the scattering invariant outside the Mullins region to the creation of new voids rather than to the reopening of old ones.

Zhang, Huan; Scholz, Arthur K.; Vion-Loisel, Fabien; Kramer, Edward J.; Creton, Costantino

2011-03-01

187

Genotoxicity of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer in brain, liver, and blood cells of weanling F344 rats.  

PubMed

Styrene-acrylonitrile Trimer (SAN Trimer), a by-product in production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics, was identified at a Superfund site in Dover Township, NJ, where childhood cancer incidence rates were elevated for a period of several years. SAN Trimer was therefore tested by the National Toxicology Program in a 2-year perinatal carcinogenicity study in F344/N rats and a bacterial mutagenicity assay; both studies gave negative results. To further characterize its genotoxicity, SAN Trimer was subsequently evaluated in a combined micronucleus (MN)/Comet assay in juvenile male and female F344 rats. SAN Trimer (37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage once daily for 4 days. Micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood were determined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage in blood, liver, and brain cells was assessed using the Comet assay. Highly significant dose-related increases (P < 0.0001) in MN-RET were measured in both male and female rats administered SAN Trimer. The RET population was reduced in high dose male rats, suggesting chemical-related bone marrow toxicity. Results of the Comet assay showed significant, dose-related increases in DNA damage in brain cells of male (P < 0.0074) and female (P < 0.0001) rats; increased levels of DNA damage were also measured in liver cells and leukocytes of treated rats. Chemical-related cytotoxicity was not indicated in any of the tissues examined for DNA damage. The results of this subacute MN/Comet assay indicate induction of significant genetic damage in multiple tissues of weanling F344 male and female rats after oral exposure to SAN Trimer. PMID:22351108

Hobbs, Cheryl A; Chhabra, Rajendra S; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Witt, Kristine L

2012-04-01

188

21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity at 25 °C (77 °F) is 10cP. 1 ...average molecular weight, and solution viscosity, titled: âDetermination of Residual Acrylonitrile...Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of Tyril,â which are...

2013-04-01

189

21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in the range of 17.7-19.8 percent. (2) Intrinsic viscosity of the matrix copolymer in butyrolactone is not less than 0...titled âMolecular Weight of Matrix Copolymer by Solution Viscosity,â which is incorporated by reference. Copies are...

2013-04-01

190

Improved mechanical properties and ozone resistance of radiation-cured SBR. Final report, Dec 88-Jun 91. [Styrene Butadiene Rubber  

SciTech Connect

This report is a continuation and extension of the work of the earlier Army contract, where the superiority of the electron beam cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tank pads to the sulfur cured pads was demonstrated. The focus of the present study is the investigation of the extraordinary ozone resistance of our radiation cured SBR, and also on possible alternatives for SBR, butadiene rubber (BR) in particular, as a tank pad compound. Base formulations of a fully sulfur cured system were established with 5% reproducibility, and results were confirmed by mechanical properties measurements on identical formulations from Belvoir Research Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC). Constant mechanical properties as a function of exposure to ozone indicate either competitive cross-linking and scissioning reactions or a 'protective' effect caused by higher terminal vinyl concentrations in the radiation cured formulations.

Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, J.

1991-08-01

191

Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.  

PubMed

Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires. PMID:23755663

Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

2013-03-01

192

Temperature dependence on free volume in cured natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber blends.  

PubMed

A systematic study on the evolution of free volume as a function of the temperature in vulcanized at 433 K natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) in 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 NR-SBR (percent content of pure NR and SBR, respectively) blends was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. All samples were prepared with sulfur and TBBS (n-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) as accelerator. The glass transition temperatures of the samples studied were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and from lifetime data. In general, a sigmoidal-like complex behavior of the long-lived lifetime component, linked to the nanohole free volume, as a function of the temperature was found. For SBR, the slope of the ortho-positronium lifetime against temperature curves could be well-fitted using a linear function. For blends and also for NR, two different linear functions were necessary. This last behavior is explained in terms of the supercooled process involving a reconfiguration of the elastomeric chains. In the case of blends, the state of cure of NR and SBR in each NR-SBR sample was also taken into account in the discussion of the results obtained. Besides, thermal expansion coefficients of the free volumes in the transition and glassy region of all compounds were estimated. The differences observed in the values of this parameter are discussed by taking into account the morphology and formulation of each blend, the crosslink densities, and the role of the interphases formed between both NR and SBR elastomers. PMID:21728565

Salgueiro, W; Somoza, A; Silva, L; Consolati, G; Quasso, F; Mansilla, M A; Marzocca, A J

2011-05-01

193

Temperature dependence on free volume in cured natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study on the evolution of free volume as a function of the temperature in vulcanized at 433 K natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) in 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 NR-SBR (percent content of pure NR and SBR, respectively) blends was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. All samples were prepared with sulfur and TBBS (n-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) as accelerator. The glass transition temperatures of the samples studied were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and from lifetime data. In general, a sigmoidal-like complex behavior of the long-lived lifetime component, linked to the nanohole free volume, as a function of the temperature was found. For SBR, the slope of the ortho-positronium lifetime against temperature curves could be well-fitted using a linear function. For blends and also for NR, two different linear functions were necessary. This last behavior is explained in terms of the supercooled process involving a reconfiguration of the elastomeric chains. In the case of blends, the state of cure of NR and SBR in each NR-SBR sample was also taken into account in the discussion of the results obtained. Besides, thermal expansion coefficients of the free volumes in the transition and glassy region of all compounds were estimated. The differences observed in the values of this parameter are discussed by taking into account the morphology and formulation of each blend, the crosslink densities, and the role of the interphases formed between both NR and SBR elastomers.

Salgueiro, W.; Somoza, A.; Silva, L.; Consolati, G.; Quasso, F.; Mansilla, M. A.; Marzocca, A. J.

2011-05-01

194

Development of Fibers Containing a Reaction Product of Chloromethylated Styrene Polymer and Diethylenetriamine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fibers with an anion exchange capacity as high as 2.7 meq/g were obtained by preparing ion exchange resins in situ within two phase fiber systems. Initially, blends of polypropylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR) and a styrene containing polymer (ABS)...

M. J. Smith

1974-01-01

195

Effect of crosslinking density on biaxial relaxation of SBR by using reduced variables. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of reduced variables to account for the effect of crosslinking density in a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) system is demonstrated for general biaxial stress states. Recently published results from stress relaxation tests on five SBR vulcanizates crosslinked to different degrees by tetramethylthiuram disulfide were superposed by using the crosslinking density as a reduction variable. The equilibrium shear modulus calculated from the master relaxation curve at long reduced times was in satisfactory agreement with other results for SBR. The time-axis shifts were related in a linear logarithmic manner to the crosslinking density but had a slope slightly less than values previously reported for elastomer systems.

Arenz, R. J.

1974-01-01

196

Polypropylene\\/elastomer\\/poly(styrene- co -acrylonitrile) blends: Manifestation of the critical volume fraction of SAN in dynamic mechanical, tensile and impact properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the critical volume fraction vcr of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) on the mechanical properties of its blends with rubber-toughened polypropylene (RTPP) containing about\\u000a 12% grafted ethylene-propylene copolymer was studied. To encompass a wide spectrum of mechanical properties, blend components\\u000a were selected which are characterized with rather different viscoelastic, tensile and ultimate properties. The SAN volume\\u000a fraction in blends covers

Jan Kola?ík; Alessandro Pegoretti; Luca Fambri; Amabile Penati

2000-01-01

197

A DSC study of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) and poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate) blends produced using different blending techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative and comprehensive studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) and poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate) (VYHH) blends using several blending techniques such as melt-mixing, solution blending and co-precipitation methods by an appropriate non-solvent were performed. The compatibility of the blends was studied by measuring the glass-transition temperatures (Tgs) of the blends and also by measuring the heat capactiy change (?Cp) at the glass transition

Gaurab Das; Amar Nath Banerjee; B. C. Mitra

1996-01-01

198

A 2,6-Bis(phenylamino)pyridinato Titanium Catalyst for the Highly Regioselective Hydroaminoalkylation of Styrenes and 1,3-Butadienes.  

PubMed

The C?C bond forming catalytic hydroaminoalkylation of terminal alkenes, 1,3-dienes, or styrenes allows a direct and highly atom efficient (100?%) synthesis of amines which can result in the formation of two regioisomers, the linear and the branched product. We present a new titanium catalyst with 2,6-bis(phenylamino)pyridinato ligands for intermolecular hydroaminoalkylation reactions of styrenes and 1-phenyl-1,3-butadienes that delivers the corresponding linear hydroaminoalkylation products with excellent regioselectivities. PMID:24938211

Dörfler, Jaika; Preuß, Till; Schischko, Alexandra; Schmidtmann, Marc; Doye, Sven

2014-07-21

199

Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In this paper, a lab-scale strategy is proposed for recycling poly (styrene-co-butadiene) waste by sulfonation with fuming sulfuric acid. Tests of the sulfonation strategy were carried out at various reaction conditions. The results show that 75°C and 2.5 h are the operating conditions that maximize the sulfonation level expressed as number of acid sites. The modified resin is tested as a heterogeneous catalyst in the first step (known as esterification) of biodiesel production from a mixture containing tallow fat and canola oil with 59% of free fatty acids. The preliminary results show that esterification can reach 91% conversion in the presence of the sulfonated polymeric catalyst compared with 67% conversion when the reaction is performed without catalyst. PMID:24098857

Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E

2013-01-01

200

Damage development during low cycle fatigue of carbon-black loaded SBR. [Styrene butadiene rubber containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon black  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue of elastomers is a subject that has received considerable study over the years. This paper explores the problem of damage accumulation in a series of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based compounds containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon-black under conditions in which a limited number of higher stress cycles have been applied to the material (referred to

D. Lesuer; A. Goldberg; D. Hiromoto; J. Patt

1984-01-01

201

Studies on the cure and mechanical properties of blends of natural rubber with dichlorocarbene modified styrene–butadiene rubber and chloroprene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focused on the comparative evaluation of cure characteristics and mechanical properties of blends of natural rubber with dichlorocarbene modified styrene–butadiene rubber and chloroprene rubber with different blend composition. It was found that the Mooney scorch time and cure index shows a negative deviation from the calculated value based on the interpolation between the two component elastomers. However for

M. T. Ramesan; Rosamma Alex; N. V. Khanh

2005-01-01

202

Characterization of functionalized styrene-butadiene rubber by flow field-flow fractionation/light scattering in organic solvent.  

PubMed

Flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) using an organic solvent as mobile phase has been effectively utilized for the separation and characterization of functionalized styrene-butadiene rubbers (SBR) that are polymerized and followed by coupling reaction in solution. Separation of broad molecular weight SBR was accomplished by an asymmetrical FlFFF channel in THF under field programming and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the SBR sample was determined by on-line measurement of light scattering. In this study, FlFFF has been utilized to characterize high-MW functionalized SBR from the low-MW non-functionalized molecules which were used for coupling reaction to produce high-MW functionalized SBRs, and to determine the coupling number of the functionalized SBRs depending on the type of the coupling reagents. The resulting MWD of the SBR samples prepared by the different coupling reagents (SnCl(4) and a polydimethylsiloxane compound) were compared. PMID:17343864

Bang, Dae Young; Shin, Da Young; Lee, Seunghwa; Moon, Myeong Hee

2007-04-20

203

Organic Semiconducting Materials in Film and Powder Forms from a Co-polymeric Elastomer-Styrene Butadiene Rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconducting materials in both film and powder forms are prepared by Antimony Pentachloride (SBCl5) doping in Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). SBR is a synthetic co-polymeric elastomer, insulating in undoped state, is mainly used for manufacturing tires, tubes etc. Synthesized conducting materials are proposed to have tremendous application potentials in optoelectronic, electronic and electrical industries. For example conducting films can be used as active elements for fabrication of organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells etc. Electrical and optical properties of prepared samples are studied by measuring electrical conductivity and analyzing spectroscopic data. Electrical conductivity of samples lies in the range of that of semi-conducting materials. Presence of conjugated sequences in the back bone of prepared conducting materials, which is regarded as pre-requisite condition for a polymer to conductive, is confirmed by studying UV/Vis spectra.

Santhamma, G.; Predeep, P.

2008-04-01

204

Radiation preparation of nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and its toughening effect for polystyrene and high-impact polystyrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (NPSBR) was synthesized based on the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex via gamma radiation crosslinking followed by spray drying. Two functional monomers, 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as crosslinking agents. It was found that both 2-EHA and TMPTA can improve the radiation crosslinking of SBR latex. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the NPSBR has a particle size similar to that of SBR latex with a diameter of 100 nm due to the high degree of crosslinking of SBR. Mechanical testing results showed that NPSBR could toughen polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) effectively. In addition, NPSBR is more suitable to toughen HIPS than PS at low rubber content.

Li, Daishuang; Xia, Haibing; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Genshuan; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang

2007-11-01

205

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid and maleic anhydride onto ultra-fine powdered styrene–butadiene rubber (UFSBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionalization of ultra-fine powdered styrene–butadiene rubber (UFSBR) was carried out using gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid (MA) and maleic anhydride (MAH), respectively. It was found that the graft yield of MA onto UFSBR increased rapidly up to the peak and then decreased with increasing MA content. Moreover, the peak shifted to the direction of lower MA content

Jing Peng; Haibing Xia; Maolin Zhai; Jiuqiang Li; Jinliang Qiao; Genshuan Wei

2007-01-01

206

Influence of storage time and temperature and silane coupling agent on bound rubber formation in filled styrene–butadiene rubber compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bound rubber reflects the filler–polymer interactions involving physical adsorption, chemisorption, and mechanical interaction. For silica-filled rubber compounds, silane coupling agent is used to improve the filler dispersion. In the present work, variation of the bound rubber content with the storage time was studied using styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds filled with silica or carbon black. Influence of the silane content on

Sung-Seen Choi

2002-01-01

207

Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982).  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81] compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

Matanoski, G M; Santos-Burgoa, C; Schwartz, L

1990-01-01

208

Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982).  

PubMed

A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81] compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs. PMID:2401250

Matanoski, G M; Santos-Burgoa, C; Schwartz, L

1990-06-01

209

Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. 85 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Osterman-Golkar, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bond, J.A. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-10-01

210

Denitrification with acrylamide by pure culture of bacteria isolated from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin manufactured wastewater treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide is widely used in industrial applications as cement binder and solidification agent. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, discharge of acrylamide to the natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental impact on water quality and thus endanger public health and welfare. This study attempts to isolate and identify the denitrifying bacteria, which utilize acrylamide as

Chun-Chin Wang; Chi-Mei Lee

2001-01-01

211

Water-responsive mechanically adaptive nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber and cellulose nanocrystals--processing matters.  

PubMed

Biomimetic, stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposites based on a hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix and rigid, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from cotton were prepared by three different approaches, and their properties were studied and related to the composition, processing history, and exposure to water as a stimulus. The first processing approach involved mixing an aqueous SBR latex with aqueous CNC dispersions, and films were subsequently formed by solution-casting. The second method utilized the first protocol, but films were additionally compression-molded. The third method involved the formation of a CNC organogel via a solvent exchange with acetone, followed by infusing this gel, in which the CNCs form a percolating network with solutions of SBR in tetrahydrofuran. The thermomechanical properties of the materials were established by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). In the dry state, all nanocomposites show much higher tensile storage moduli, E', than the neat SBR or the SBR latex. E' increases with the CNC content and depends strongly on the processing method, which appears to influence the morphology of the SBR nanocomposites produced. The highest E' values were observed for the solution cast samples involving an SBR latex, where E' increased from 3 MPa for the neat SBR to ca. 740 MPa for the nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. Upon submersion in deionized water, a dramatic reduction of E' was observed, for example from 740 to 5 MPa for the solution-cast nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. This change is interpreted as a disengagement of the percolating CNC network, on account of modest aqueous swelling and competitive hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the CNCs. It is shown that the method of preparation also influenced the swelling behavior and kinetics of modulus switching, consistent with different arrangements of the CNCs, which serve as channels for water absorption and transport within the hydrophobic SBR matrix. PMID:24354282

Annamalai, Pratheep K; Dagnon, Koffi L; Monemian, Seyedali; Foster, E Johan; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

2014-01-22

212

Quadratic Electro-Optic Effect in the Nonconjugated Conductive Co-polymer Iodine-doped Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber Measured at 633 nm and 1550 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadratic electro-optic effect in the nonconjugated conductive co-polymer film of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) has been measured using field-induced birefringence method. Thin films of styrene-butadiene-rubber have been prepared on various substrates from a chloroform solution and characterized using optical absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and DSC before and after doping with iodine. The optical absorption spectrum at low doping shows two peaks: one at 4.27 eV and the other at 3.2 eV corresponding to the radical cation and charge-transfer transition. FTIR data indicate =C-H vibration bands (964 cm-1 and 910 cm-1) of polybutadiene decrease upon doping due to transformation of the double bonds into radical cations. The Kerr coefficients as measured at 633 nm and at 1550 nm are 3.1x10-10 m/V^2 and 1.3x10-10 m/V^2 respectively. These exceptionally large values have been attributed to the subnanometer metallic domains formed upon doping and charge-transfer involving isolated double-bonds.

Telang, Gurudutt; Thakur, Mrinal

2012-02-01

213

Observations made during stretching, tearing and failure of NR (natural rubber) and SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) loaded with various amounts of carbon black  

SciTech Connect

In order to effectively utilize fractography as an aid in identifying the influence of material and service (or test) parameters on material properties, one must first understand the origin of the morphological features developed during the tearing and fracturing of these elastomers. At our laboratory, we have made extensive fractographic studies while evaluating the effects of material formulations, temperature, and loading rates on the loading response, tearing energy, induced damage, and tearing phenomena in SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) containing different amounts of CB (Carbon Black) filler. We have also examined failures in tank track pads, as well as laboratory-tested samples cut from new track pads. In this paper we report on observations made during the actual stretching, tearing and failure of elastomeric samples pulled in tension at a constraint stroke-diplacement rate. 15 refs., 12 figs.

Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Patt, J.

1988-02-01

214

Novel polymerically-modified clays permit the preparation of intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites of styrene and its copolymers by melt blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new organically-modified clays have been made and used to produce nanocomposites of polystyrene, high impact polystyrene and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene terploymer. At a minimum, intercalated nanocomposites of all of these polymers have been produced by melt blending in a Brabender mixer and, in some cases, exfoliated nanocomposites have been obtained. The systems have all been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron

Shengpei Su; David D. Jiang; Charles A. Wilkie

2004-01-01

215

Contribution made by multivariate curve resolution applied to gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared data for an in-depth characterization of styrene-butadiene rubber blends.  

PubMed

We evaluate the contribution made by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) for resolving gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared (GPC-FT-IR) data collected on butadiene rubber (BR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blends in order to access in-depth knowledge of polymers along the molecular weight distribution (MWD). In the BR-SBR case, individual polymers differ in chemical composition but share almost the same MWD. Principal component analysis (PCA) gives a general overview of the data structure and attests to the feasibility of modeling blends as a binary system. MCR-ALS is then performed. It allows resolving the chromatographic coelution and validates the chosen methodology. For SBR-SBR blends, the problem is more challenging since the individual elastomers present the same chemical composition. Rank deficiency is detected from the PCA data structure analysis. MCR-ALS is thus performed on column-wise augmented matrices. It brings very useful insight into the composition of the analyzed blends. In particular, a weak change in the composition of individual SBR in the MWD's lowest mass region is revealed. PMID:18935830

Ruckebusch, C; Vilmin, F; Coste, N; Huvenne, J P

2008-07-01

216

Investigation of mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) initiated from the thermal degradation of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) in N2 atmosphere.  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to characterize the thermal decomposition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to online GC/MS, and to investigate the formation and ultimate fate of chemical species produced during gasification of SBR. A preliminary mechanistic understanding has been developed to explain the formation and relationship of light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), substituted aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the decomposition of SBR in a N2 atmosphere. Identification and absolute concentrations of over 50 major and minor species (from hydrogen to benzo[ghi]perylene) have been established, and the measurements have been carried out between 300 and 500 at 10 degrees C/min heating rate in a N2 atmosphere. The concentration of styrene reached 120 PPMV and the concentration of other substituted aromatics, such as toluene and ethyl benzene reached 20 and 5 PPMV, respectively. These measurements indicate PAH formation at a relatively lower temperature as compared to conventional fuel, such as coal and diesel. The PAH sequence is not simply the constructing of larger PAHs from smaller ones to achieve the complex polymer structures. It is possible to generate large PAH molecules while circumventing the typical construction pathway. PMID:18409655

Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

2008-03-15

217

Comparative study of the effect of untreated, silanized and grafted alumina nanoparticles on thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the styrene-butadiene rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastomers filled with hard nanoparticles are of great technical importance for the rubber industry. In general, fillers improve mechanical properties of polymer materials, e.g. elastic moduli, tensile strength etc. The smaller the size of the particles the larger is the interface where interactions between polymer molecules and fillers can generate new properties. Using Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), we investigated the properties of the pure styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), SBR/ alumina nanoparticles, SBR/silanized alumina and SBR/alumina grafted to polymer chains. Beside a general reinforcement effect seen in the complex elastic moduli, the studies revealed that: i) small concentrations of nanoparticles (of 1.5-2 wt%) lead to a minimum in the glass transition temperature as a function of nanoparticle content; ii) for the grafted nanocomposites increasing the nanoparticle concentration beyond 4 wt% yields an increase of Tg by 4 K; iii) DMA mastercurves showed that in case of untreated and silanized alumina mechanical behaviour of the composite systems is rather near to the one of the SBR matrix, but the grafting of elastomer molecules to the silanized fillers induces a quasi-solid like response of the system in the low frequency regime.

Sushko, Rymma; Baller, Joerg; Filimon, Marlena; Sanctuary, Roland

2014-05-01

218

Damage development during low cycle fatigue of carbon-black loaded SBR. [Styrene butadiene rubber containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon black  

SciTech Connect

Fatigue of elastomers is a subject that has received considerable study over the years. This paper explores the problem of damage accumulation in a series of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based compounds containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon-black under conditions in which a limited number of higher stress cycles have been applied to the material (referred to here as low cycle fatigue). Damage development in elastomers can take many forms. Generally speaking, one can classify the degradation as mechanical or chemical in origin. The most obvious form of mechanical damage is flaw or cut growth, while typical examples of chemical damage include chain scission or thermal oxidation. The fatigue crack growth relationship given in Equation 1 obviously only applies to flaw growth. However, it does an excellent job of following the data and exhibits the threshold behavior observed in both SBR and SBR-35 at room temperature. At higher temperatures, the damaged material shows an increasing deviation from threshold behavior. The obvious implication is that some thermally activated damage mechanism is degrading the material. In previous work, carbon-black loaded SBR subjected to a high temperature, high stress environment was shown to undergo a thermal-mechanical oxidation process. Certainly, this process is a candidate for a damage mechanism in these studies. 6 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Lesuer, D.; Goldberg, A.; Hiromoto, D.; Patt, J.

1984-06-18

219

Utilizing carbon dioxide as a reaction medium to mitigate production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the thermal decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber.  

PubMed

The CO(2) cofeed impact on the pyrolysis of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to online gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The direct comparison of the chemical species evolved from the thermal degradation of SBR in N(2) and CO(2) led to a preliminary mechanistic understanding of the formation and relationship of light hydrocarbons (C(1-4)), aromatic derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), clarifying the role of CO(2) in the thermal degradation of SBR. The identification and quantification of over 50 major and minor chemical species from hydrogen and benzo[ghi]perylene were carried out experimentally in the temperature regime between 300 and 500 °C in N(2) and CO(2). The significant amounts of benzene derivatives from the direct bond dissociation of the backbone of SBR, induced by thermal degradation, provided favorable conditions for PAHs by the gas-phase addition reaction at a relatively low temperature compared to that with conventional fuels such as coal and petroleum-derived fuels. However, the formation of PAHs in a CO(2) atmosphere was decreased considerably (i.e., ?50%) by the enhanced thermal cracking behavior, and the ultimate fates of these species were determined by different pathways in CO(2) and N(2) atmospheres. Consequently, this work has provided a new approach to mitigate PAHs by utilizing CO(2) as a reaction medium in thermochemical processes. PMID:22950720

Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Castaldi, Marco J

2012-10-01

220

[Analytical method of volatile substances in styrene polymers by head-space gas chromatography using o-dichlorobenzene].  

PubMed

A quantitative analytical method for 8 volatile substances (such as styrene) in styrene polymers that are not soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dimethylformamide was developed. The sample was chopped finely and a 0.1 g portion was weighed in a head-space vial. To this was added 2 mL of o-dichlorobenzene (DCB) including 50 ?g/mL of internal standard. The vial was sealed and heated at 140? for 1 hour and then 1 mL of the head-space gas was injected into a gas chromatograph using an automatic sampler. Samples of syndiotactic polystyrene, styrene block copolymer and modified polyphenylenether were dissolved or dispersed in DCB. Separation and accuracy of the method were satisfactory. Recoveries were 95-113% at the spiked concentration of 300 ?g/g. The method was confirmed to be suitable for general styrene polymers that are soluble in THF. Equivalent results were obtained with this method and the method in "Specifications and Standards for Food, Food Additives, etc. " for general purpose polystyrene, high impact polystyrene, styrene/acrylonitrile resin and acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene resin. PMID:24190292

Miyake, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Kenji; Nomura, Takakazu

2013-01-01

221

HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment was conducted to review the new information that has become available since EPA's 1985 health assessment of 1,3-butadiene. 1,3-Butadiene is a gas used commercially in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber, plastics, and thermoplastic resins. The major...

222

The industrial production and use of 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

This presentation provides a brief overview of the production and use of 1,3-butadiene in the United States. Starting as a coproduct of ethylene, the 1,3-butadiene monomer is extracted and purified, then transferred to consumers. Major uses of 1,3-butadiene include the manufacture of styrene-butadiene rubber, polybutadiene rubber, and adiponitrile.

Morrow, N L

1990-01-01

223

Void formation due to gas evolution during the recycling of Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene copolymer (ABS) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During processing of recycled ABS and ABS\\/HIPS blends, voiding defects can occur within the resulting material which can result in deterioration of mechanical properties. The voids were previously thought to be caused by the evolution of volatile substances during processing. This study investigated the recycling of post-consumer ABS from a variety of types of WEEE. The mechanical properties of the

J. C. Arnold; S. Alston; A. Holder

2009-01-01

224

21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer. Butadiene-acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer. Butadiene-styrene copolymer. Butyl rubber. Butylated reaction product of p -cresol and dicyclopentadiene produced by reacting p -cresol and dicyclopentadiene in an...

2013-04-01

225

40 CFR 63.1312 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1312 Definitions. (a... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene latex resin (ABS latex) means ABS produced...process. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin (ABS) means styrenic...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 63.1312 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1312 Definitions. (a... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene latex resin (ABS latex) means ABS produced...process. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin (ABS) means styrenic...

2012-07-01

227

The Effect of Electron Beam (EB) Irradiation in Presence of TMPTA on Cure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber\\/Recycled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (SBR\\/NBRr) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the cure characteristics and mechanical properties of unirradiated and irradiated SBR\\/NBRr blends were investigated. The SBR\\/NBRr blends were prepared at 95\\/5, 85\\/15, 75\\/25, 65\\/35, and 50\\/50 blend ratio with and without the presence of a polyfunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Results indicated that the scorch time t2, cure time t90 and minimum

N. Z. Noriman; H. Ismail; C. T. Ratnam; A. A. Rashid

2010-01-01

228

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BUTADIENE AT A SYNTHETIC RUBBER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Butadiene emission samples were collected from the process vent stream of a plant manufacturing synthetic rubber from styrene and butadiene. Samples were collected by modification of the evacuated container sampling procedure, outlined in Section 7.1.1 of EPA Method 18. On-site a...

229

NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of styrene.  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for styrene to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Styrene was selected for evaluation because of (1) public concern about styrene exposure and (2) recently available exposure studies. Styrene (ethenylbenzene; CAS RN: 100-42-5) is a high production volume chemical (a million pounds or more produced each year) and is used in the production of polystyrene resins and as a co-polymer with acrylonitrile and 1,3-butadiene. Styrene is found in items such as foam cups, dental fillings, matrices for ion exchange filters, construction materials, and boats. It is also used in protective coatings, reinforced glass fiber, agricultural products, and as a food additive. The Food and Drug Administration regulates styrene for use as a synthetic flavoring substance and as a component of polymers in contact with dry food, and also regulates the amount of residual styrene monomer allowed in polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. The public can be exposed to styrene by ingesting food or drink that has been in contact with styrene polymers or through inhalation of polluted air and cigarette smoke. The results of this evaluation on styrene are published in a NTP-CERHR monograph that includes: (1) the NTP Brief, (2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Styrene, and (3) public comments received on the expert panel report. The NTP reached its conclusion of negligible concern for adverse developmental and reproductive effects resulting from styrene exposures in humans based on information presented in the NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Styrene and the public comments on that report. This conclusion is based on estimated exposures in both the general population and in people whose occupation involves styrene exposure. The expert panel estimated styrene exposure in the general U.S. population to be less than 0.3 microg/kg body weight/day in nonsmokers and 3.51 and 2.86 microg/kg body weight/day in smokers ages 12-19 years and 20-70 years, respectively. Average occupational exposures are estimated to range from 1,400-52,000 microg/kg body weight/day. Studies in humans show no evidence that occupational exposures or exposure of the general population to styrene adversely affect reproduction or development. Further, data from experimental animal studies show no adverse reproductive or developmental effects at styrene doses far above human exposure levels. The NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR monograph on styrene to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and it will be available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov and in printed text or CD-ROM from the CERHR: M.D. Shelby, Ph.D., Director, CERHR, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-32, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, 919-541-3455 [phone], 919-316-4511 [fax], shelby@niehs.nih.gov [email]. PMID:17180169

2006-02-01

230

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... BR EPI EPR HBR HYP NEO NBL NBR PBR/SBRS PSR SBL SBRE Acrylonitrile (107131) â â 1,3 Butadiene...SBRS = Polybutadiene and Styrene Butadiene Rubber by Solution. PSR = Polysulfide Rubber. SBL = Styrene Butadiene...

2009-07-01

231

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... BR EPI EPR HBR HYP NEO NBL NBR PBR/SBRS PSR SBL SBRE Acrylonitrile (107131) â â 1,3 Butadiene...SBRS = Polybutadiene and Styrene Butadiene Rubber by Solution. PSR = Polysulfide Rubber. SBL = Styrene Butadiene...

2010-07-01

232

Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

233

Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F⁠mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice,

1995-01-01

234

Molecular Structure of Acrylonitrile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acrylonitrile is an industrial chemical used to manufacture fibers, resins, plastics, and rubbers to produce various consumer goods. During its production, use, and disposal, it is mainly released to the air, due to a high evaporation rate, but also to soil and water. By inhalation, ingestion, or contact, acrylonitrile is toxic at high levels, severely affecting the nervous system, respiratory system, skin, and eyes. It causes cancer in animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. Although acrylonitrile is produced on a large scale, it reacts with chemicals and sunlight when released to the air, thus has a half-life less than 50 hrs. When released to soil or water, bacteria typically degrade it. Therefore, the environment is not permanently affected when the chemical is regulated.

2002-09-27

235

Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical.

Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

1993-01-01

236

Linear viscoelasticity of styrenic block copolymers–clay nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the rheological behavior of block copolymers with different morphologies (lamellar, cylindrical, spherical,\\u000a and disordered) and their clay-containing nanocomposites was studied using small amplitude oscillatory shear. The copolymers\\u000a studied were one asymmetric starblock styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer and four styrene–ethylene\\/butylenes–styrene copolymers\\u000a with different molecular architectures, one of them being modified with maleic anhydride. The nanocomposites of those copolymers\\u000a were prepared

Danilo Justino Carastan; Nicole Raymonde Demarquette; Alexandre Vermogen; Karine Masenelli-Varlot

2008-01-01

237

Mortality among workers at a butadiene facility.  

PubMed

Several studies of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) workers have reported excess cancers at various sites; however, little could be concluded concerning specific etiologic agents because of the multiple exposures encountered by these groups. The current study examined cause-specific mortality in a cohort of 2,586 male workers employed for at least 6 months between 1943 and 1979 in a butadiene manufacturing plant that supplied butadiene to two SBR plants. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using national (NSMR) and local (LSMR) comparison populations. The all-cause NSMR was 80 (p less than 0.05) and the all-cancer NSMR was 84; the corresponding LSMRs were 96 and 76 (p less than 0.05). No significant excesses were observed for any cause of death except lymphosarcoma and reticulum cell sarcoma (NSMR = 235). When the cohort was subdivided into routine, nonroutine, and low-exposure groups, the SMRs were consistently elevated for this cause of death in all three groups. However, direct comparisons between each of the two exposure groups and the low-exposure group were inconsistent. This suggests butadiene may not be responsible for the excess, but the association deserves close attention in future studies. PMID:3674024

Downs, T D; Crane, M M; Kim, K W

1987-01-01

238

TGA\\/FTIR: an extremely useful technique for studying polymer degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TGA\\/FTIR, has been used to probe the degradation of several polymeric systems. These include poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of various additives, graft copolymers of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and styrene-butadiene with sodium methacrylate and styrene with acrylonitrile, blends of styrene-butadiene block copolymers with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) and poly(vinylsulfonic acid), and cross-linked polystyrenes. Additives may interact

Charles A. Wilkie

1999-01-01

239

1,3-butadiene telomerization with methanol catalyzed by heterogenized palladium complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogenization of palladium complexes on silica as well as on functionalized styrene\\/divinylbenzene crosslinked resins and linear poly(styrene) is described. In particular, palladium (0) and palladium (II) derivatives were anchored to the above polymeric systems through their functionalization with bidentate ligands such as acetylacetonate and 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane moieties. The resulting heterogenized complexes were checked in the catalytic telomerization of 1,3-butadiene with

Federica Benvenuti; Carlo Carlini; Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti; Glauco Sbrana; Mario Marchionna; Renata Patrini

1999-01-01

240

Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Styrene Containing Tri-Block Copolymers for Electromagnetic Wave Interaction Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Styrene containing triblock copolymers, namely poly(styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene) (SEBS) and poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene)] (SBS), were selectively modified by attaching polar groups to facilitate the in-growth of an inorganic component. In case of SEBS, the styrene block was sulfonated, and in SBS, the butadiene block was hydroxylated. The extent of modification was determined by analytical and spectroscopic methods. This presentation shows the morphology and dynamical mechanical properties of both block copolymers before and after modification. Nanocomposites of these block copolymers were prepared by inclusion of magnetic metal oxides via an in-situ precipitation and self assembly processes and their morphology and dynamical mechanical properties were studied. Magnetic properties of these polymers filled with iron oxide nanoparticles were measured using an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) at room temperature to observe the magnetic hysteresis.

Peddini, S.; Mauritz, K.; Nikles, D.; Weston, J.

2008-03-01

241

24 CFR Appendix A to Part 200 - Standards Incorporated by Reference in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing (HUD Handbook...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specification for Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Siding ASTM E 72-80 Standard Methods...Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Piping for...Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe...

2013-04-01

242

Effect of grafting cellulose acetate and methylmethacrylate as compatibilizer onto NBR\\/SBR blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compatibilizer is used for improving of processability, interfacial interaction and mechanical properties of polymer blends. In this study acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends were compatibilized by a graft copolymer of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with cellulose acetate (CA) i.e. (NBR-g-CA) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with methylmethacrylate i.e. (NBR-g-MMA). Compatibilizers were prepared by gamma

A. I. Khalf; D. E. El. Nashar; N. A. Maziad

2010-01-01

243

Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile–butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR\\/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR\\/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney–Rivlin equation was

Lan Lu; Yinghao Zhai; Yong Zhang; Christopher Ong; Sharon Guo

2008-01-01

244

Investigation of Selected Potential Environmental Contaminants: Acrylonitrile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a survey and summary of the literature on acrylonitrile. Major aspects of its biological effects, environmental exposure, chemistry, production and use, and regulations are reviewed and assessed. Acrylonitrile is used in a wide variety of pl...

J. E. Villaume L. M. Miller

1978-01-01

245

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE. FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute acrylonitrile intoxication in humans, like many volatile organic compounds, results in irritation of the eyes and nose, weakness, labored breathing, dizziness, impaired judgement, cyanosis, nausea, and convulsions. Unlike many of these other organics, acrylonitrile causes s...

246

Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies  

SciTech Connect

Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. 22 refs.

Ott, M.G. (BASF Corporation, Parisppany, NJ (USA))

1990-06-01

247

Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.  

PubMed Central

Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans.

Ott, M G

1990-01-01

248

Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.  

PubMed

Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. PMID:2205483

Ott, M G

1990-06-01

249

Biological monitoring for mutagenic effects of occupational exposure to butadiene.  

PubMed

The use of biological markers in the evaluation of human exposure to hazardous agents has increased rapidly in recent years. Because 1,3-butadiene is a mutagenic carcinogen, existing occupational levels of exposure may be appropriately evaluated using somatic cell mutation as a biomarker. Previously, we have described a biomarker study of workers in a butadiene monomer plant (Ward et al., 1994). We now report results from a second study of the same group of workers, conducted after plant modernization, and present preliminary results from a study of exposures in a styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) plant. Air levels of butadiene were determined using either charcoal tubes with air pumps or passive badge dosimeters. The quantity of a butadiene metabolite in the urine was used as a biomarker of exposure and the mutagenic effects of exposure were measured using the autoradiographic hprt mutant lymphocyte assay. In all three studies, the frequencies of hprt mutants were significantly elevated in workers from the areas of highest exposure when compared to workers from lower exposure areas or non-exposed subjects. The concentration of the urinary metabolite was significantly increased in high-exposed workers in the first study of monomer plant workers but not in the second. In the first monomer plant study, historical air concentrations of butadiene were higher in the production units than in the central control unit. While concurrent determined air concentrations were not elevated in the second monomer plant study, they were elevated in high exposure areas in the SBR plant study. Mutant frequencies in the lower-exposure and the non-exposed groups were consistent with historical values for non-smoking individuals who were not exposed to known mutagens. The use of biomarkers, including the hprt mutant lymphocyte assay, may be of great value in determining an appropriate occupational exposure limit for butadiene. PMID:8901886

Ward, J B; Ammenheuser, M M; Whorton, E B; Bechtold, W E; Kelsey, K T; Legator, M S

1996-10-28

250

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

251

Dithiocarbamates as potential confounders in butadiene epidemiology.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been the subject of controversy. This has largely been due to the inconsistent results of epidemiology studies that have reported alternatively no or weak associations between exposure to BD and hematopoietic neoplasms. Moreover, the specificity of association of BD exposure with individual leukemia types remains unclear. In addition, a distinct difference in the pattern of leukemia risk has been observed between workers employed in BD monomer production and those involved in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) production: with no increase in leukemia risk observed for exposure to BD monomer alone. These observations are consistent with an increase in leukemia risk associated with the SBR process but not BD monomer and suggest the possibility that the increase may be the result of exposure to confounding factors previously not considered. In this regard, evidence is accumulating to suggest that SBR studies may be confounded by the presence of an important class of biologically active chemicals employed in the rubber industry, dithiocarbamates. The hematotoxicity and immunotoxicity of dithiocarbamates have been implicated in a wide range of clinical, animal and molecular studies, and an extremely high concordance exists between the risk of developing leukemia in SBR production and opportunity for exposure to this class of agents. Based on these findings additional studies on the epidemiology, carcinogenesis and molecular biology of dithiocarbamates are clearly warranted. PMID:9600335

Irons, R D; Pyatt, D W

1998-04-01

252

Evaluation of tearing energies in styrene-butadiene rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tearing energies were obtained on samples removed from commercial tank-track pads and on a series of SBR laboratory formulations in which the carbon-black content varied from 0 to 40 wt %. The commercial materials were tested at a strain rate of 10⁻¹\\/s with temperatures ranging from 22 to 140°C. The laboratory materials were tested also at both lower and higher

A. Goldberg; D. R. Lesuer; J. C. Stone; J. Patt

1985-01-01

253

Evaluation of tearing energies in styrene-butadiene rubbers  

SciTech Connect

Tearing energies were obtained on samples removed from commercial tank-track pads and on a series of SBR laboratory formulations in which the carbon-black content varied from 0 to 40 wt %. The commercial materials were tested at a strain rate of 10/sup -1//s with temperatures ranging from 22 to 140/sup 0/C. The laboratory materials were tested also at both lower and higher strain rates and at -20/sup 0/C. We evaluated the effect of temperature, strain rate, and carbon-black content on tearing energy, failure stress, and failure strain. The results, including the shape of the stress-strain curves, are discussed in terms of viscoelasticity, uncoiling of the long molecular chains, carbon-black rubber interactions, and knotty tearing. In the absence of knotty tearing and for carbon-black contents of 20 wt % or less the tearing energy, the failure stress, and failure elongation increased with either a decrease in temperature or an increase in carbon-black content. With the first appearance of knotty tearing, which occurred at 20 to 25 wt % carbon black, large increases in tearing energy and failure strength were obtained. Between 25 and 40 wt % carbon black both tearing energy and failure stress varied irregularly with either the carbon-black content or temperature. The trends obtained with the commercial materials are consistent with those exhibited by the laboratory formulations in the 25 to 40% carbon-black range. Results for the 35-wt % formulation fell within the range of results obtained for the commercial materials.

Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Stone, J.C.; Patt, J.

1985-06-25

254

Evaluation of Tearing Energies in Styrene-Butadiene Rubbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tearing energies were obtained on samples removed from commercial tank-track pads and on a series of SBR laboratory formulations in which the carbon-black content varied from 0 to 40 wt %. The commercial materials were tested at a strain rate of 10 exp -1...

A. Goldberg D. R. Lesuer J. C. Stone J. Patt

1985-01-01

255

21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and... § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in this section, containing...

2011-04-01

256

21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and... § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in this section, containing...

2012-04-01

257

Disclosed dielectric and electromechanical properties of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of acrylonitrile content, crosslink density and plasticization on the dielectric and electromechanical performances of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer. It was found that by increasing the acrylonitrile content of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer, the dielectric constant will be improved accompanied with a sharp decrease of electrical breakdown strength leading to a small actuated strain. At a fixed electric field, a high crosslink density increased the elastic modulus of dielectric elastomer, but it also enhanced the electrical breakdown strength leading to a high actuated strain. Adding a plasticizer into the dielectric elastomer decreased the dielectric constant and electrical breakdown strength slightly, but reduced the elastic modulus sharply, which was beneficial for obtaining a large strain at low electric field from the dielectric elastomer. The largest actuated strain of 22% at an electric field of 30 kV mm-1 without any prestrain was obtained. Moreover, the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric actuator showed good history dependence. This proposed material has great potential to be an excellent dielectric elastomer.

Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Liu, Haoliang; Yu, Yingchun; Zhang, Liqun

2012-03-01

258

Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers.  

PubMed

To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:2401253

Acquavella, J F

1990-06-01

259

Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers.  

PubMed Central

To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans.

Acquavella, J F

1990-01-01

260

Future directions in epidemiologic studies of 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

To date, epidemiologic research on 1,3-butadiene has consisted of cohort mortality studies of workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene monomer industries. These studies have been extremely useful both in defining the focus on human health effects to the lymphopoietic cancers and in providing a perspective on which to evaluate the available animal models for human risk assessment. The next step for epidemiologic research will involve a lymphopoietic cancer case control approach to enable a more precise assessment of whether there is a relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and lymphopoietic cancer. In addition, periodic mortality updates of the 1,3-butadiene-exposed worker cohorts will be important to monitor trends in lymphopoietic cancer rates and to ensure that other cancers with long latency do not begin to show elevated rates. This paper describes an industry-sponsored program of case-control and cohort mortality update studies along with the critical elements in research design and analysis for each study. Epidemiological studies will play an important role in testing hypotheses developed from toxicological studies about potential biological mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene carcinogenesis in humans.

Acquavella, J.F. (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-06-01

261

Molecular Structure of Styrene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Styrene is a colorless to yellowish, oily liquid with a sweet, floral odor in the pure form but usually contains aldehydes that produce an extremely penetrating smell, that is sharp and unpleasant. The styrene monomer can be manufacture in many different techniques for commercial production but the most important are dehydrogenation of ethylbezene and the oxidation of ethylbenzene to ethylbenzene hydroperoxide. Styrene is used in the manufacture of plastics, synthetic rubber, polymer resins and protective coatings as insulators. Styrene is also used as a dilutant to reduce viscosity of uncured resin systems. In addition, it is used in dental fillings, as a component in agricultural products, as stabilizing agent and as a chemical intermediate. Styrene polymer is used in the manufacture of photocopier toner. Styrene will corrode copper and copper alloys.

2004-11-11

262

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene with vinylic monomers at high dose rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of the following monomer pairs: styrene-acrylonitrile (AN), styrene-methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene-2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine (MVP) and styrene- acrylic acid (AA) onto polyethylene film was studied at room temperature in the range of dose rates 8.10 -2-6.10 3 Gy/s. The grafted copolymer compositions were determined and copolymerization reactivity ratios were calculated. At high dose rates the contribution of the ionic mechanism is proved by the change of the copolymer compositions obtained at essential different dose rates and by different influence of the donor and acceptor solvents on this process. It is established that transition from radical mechanism to ionic one begins in the interval of dose rates 10 2-10 3 Gy/s for styrene-AN, styrene-MMA, styrene-MVP systems but occurs in the interval of dose rates 10 3-6.10 3 Gy/s for styrene-AA system. The formation of the grafted polymer compositions, obtained at high dose rates, must be described by the kinetics which takes into account the presence of ionic process.

Kabanov, V. Ya.; Aliev, R. E.

263

Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

Lu, Lan; Zhai, Yinghao; Zhang, Yong; Ong, Christopher; Guo, Sharon

2008-12-01

264

Toughening of Nylon 6 with Grafted Rubber Impact Modifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent work has shown that nylon 6/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends can be made tough by the addition of some polymer additives that are chemically reactive with nylon 6 and physically compatible with the styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) ...

M. Lu H. Keskkula D. R. Paul

1995-01-01

265

29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...program. (i) The employer shall train each employee exposed to AN above...liquid, and its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures in air. B. Acrylonitrile...flammable liquid. Its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures with air. All ignition...

2013-07-01

266

STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ACRYLONITRILE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report identifies the services and effects of environmental contaminators by acrylonitrile, as well as the health hazards resulting from such contamination. The present manufacturing processes, uses, control technologies, and regulatory actions are described, and areas requi...

267

Blood styrene and urinary metabolites in styrene polymerisation.  

PubMed Central

The results of the analysis of blood and urine samples for styrene and its metabolites in 491 workers in a styrene polymerisation plant in the United States are reported. The levels of exposure to styrene were estimated to be less than 10 ppm, but nevertheless styrene and metabolites were detectable in more than 50% of workers in polymerisation jobs, within 4 h of exposure. Workers involved in the manufacture and purification of styrene from ethyl benzene also had detectable blood styrene and urinary metabolites in 83% of recently exposed subjects. The relationship between styrene in blood and in subcutaneous fat and urinary metabolites as pharmacokinetic variables is discussed.

Wolff, M S; Lorimer, W V; Lilis, R; Selikoff, I J

1978-01-01

268

Computational Investigation of the Competition between the Concerted Diels-Alder Reaction and Formation of Diradicals in Reactions of Acrylonitrile with Non-Polar Dienes  

PubMed Central

The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data. For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene with acrylonitrile is preferred computationally over the stepwise pathway by 5.9 kcal/mol; experimentally, only the Diels-Alder adduct is formed. For the reactions of (E)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, both cycloaddition and copolymerization were observed experimentally; these trends were mimicked by the computational results, which showed only a 1.2 kcal/mol preference for the concerted pathway. For the reactions of (Z)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, the stepwise pathway is preferred by 3.9 kcal/mol, in agreement with previous experimental findings that only polymerization occurs. M06-2X is known to give more accurate activation and reaction energetics but the energies of diradicals are too high.

James, Natalie C.; Um, Joann M.; Padias, Anne B.; Hall, H. K.; Houk, K. N.

2013-01-01

269

Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: Influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.  

PubMed

This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application. PMID:24695435

V, Ramesh; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

2014-05-01

270

Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene ru...

A. N. Solis C. J. Hilado D. A. Kourtides J. A. Parker K. L. Kosola

1977-01-01

271

77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ISRI also mentions acrylonitrile styrene butadiene (ABS...000 tons; nylon (12.4%): 124,000-248,000 tons; PVC (7.9%): 79,000-158,000 tons; ABS...

2012-12-12

272

Neoplasms in Rats Ingesting Acrylonitrile for Two Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Sprague-Dawley rats ingested 0, 20 ppm, or 500 ppm of acrylonitrile in drinking water for 2 years. Rats receiving 500 ppm of acrylonitrile exhibited early mortality and retarded weight gain. Tumors of Zymbal's gland were associated in dose-response fashion with acrylonitrile exposure. Age-associated incidence of pituitary adenomas containing immunoreactive prolactin was decreased in acrylonitrile-treated rats. A decrease in pituitary

G. T. Gallagher; E. A. Maull; K. Kovacs; S. Szabo

1988-01-01

273

Acrylonitrile Potentiates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile, one of the 50 most commonly produced industrial chemicals, has recently been identified as a promoter of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This agent has the potential to produce oxidative stress through multiple pathways. We hypothesize that acrylonitrile potentiates NIHL as a consequence of oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to characterize acrylonitrile exposure conditions that promote permanent

Laurence D. Fechter; Caroline Gearhart; Najeeb A. Shirwany

2004-01-01

274

Irreversible binding of acrylonitrile to nucleic acids.  

PubMed

1. [2,3-14C]Acrylonitrile was incubated with rat-liver microsomes, NADPH and either DNA, RNA or bovine serum albumin. Irreversible binding occurred to the macromolecular targets. Binding was lower when incubations were performed without microsomes. 2. Most of the 14C bound to DNA, RNA or polynucleotides (poly-A, poly-C, poly-G, poly-U) after incubation of [2,3-14C]acrylonitrile with rat-liver microsomes and 'conventional' re-isolation of the nucleic acids was removed from the macromolecular target when subsequently chromatographed on hydroxyapatite. 3. Radioactivity attached to DNA after prolonged non-enzymic incubations with [2,3-14C]acrylonitrile was also removed from the DNA by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. 4. When [2,3-14C]acrylonitrile was administered to rats (i.p.), incorporation of 14C into the natural bases of hepatic RNA was observed. In contrast with previous experiments with [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride, no radioactive [1-N6]etheno-adenine could be detected in RNA. 5. After administration of [2,3-14C]acrylonitrile to rats, hepatic DNA was isolated and hydrolysed by a modified enzymic procedure. Chromatography on PEI-cellulose showed two 14C peaks which did not co-chromatograph with any known standard. The amount of 14C in these presumed alkylation products was too low to allow chemical identification. 6. It is concluded that acrylonitrile, either itself or its metabolites, can alkylate nucleic acids. However, the extent of irreversible nucleic-acid binding is quantitatively much less than that observed with vinyl halides. PMID:6858196

Peter, H; Appel, K E; Berg, R; Bolt, H M

1983-01-01

275

Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene  

SciTech Connect

1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice, BD was shown to be a potent multiple-site carcinogen at exposure levels of 625 and 1250 ppM. There were increased incidences of neoplasia in the heart, lung, mammary gland, and ovary; malignant lymphomas resulted in early deaths of the mice so that the planned 2-year study was stopped after only 61 weeks of exposure. The second study in mice was conducted at much lower exposure concentrations (6.25, 20, 62.5, 200, and 625 ppM) and lasted 104 weeks. Increased incidences of hemangiosarcomas of the heart and lung neoplasia were observed in males exposed to 62.5 ppM BD, while females had increased lung neoplasia even at the 6.25 ppM exposure level. Early deaths from lymphomas were again observed at the high exposure concentration (625 ppm). A noncancer toxicity observed in mice was a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia.

Henderson, R.F.

1995-02-01

276

Critical assessment of epidemiologic studies on the human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene  

SciTech Connect

1,3-Butadiene, a major ingredient of synthetic rubber, has been shown to be carcinogenic in two animal species. To assess the possible human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene, a critical review was undertaken of the epidemiologic literature. An early retrospective study of 8017 males employed in tire manufacturing found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms in production workers (standardized mortality ratio, SMR = 560); these workers were exposed to 1,3-butadiene as well as to styrene and possibly to benzene. A recently updated epidemiologic study of 2568 workers at a butadiene manufacturing plant in Texas reported low mortality overall (SMR = 84) but found excess deaths for lymphosarcoma and reticulum cell sarcoma (SMR = 229). A retrospective study of workers employed at two synthetic rubber plants in Texas found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies in the older of these facilities; the excesses for lymphosarcoma (SMR = 224) and leukemia (SMR = 278) were most significant in wartime workers. A large, recently updated retrospective study of 12,113 workers employed in eight synthetic rubber manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in production workers; the SMR for other lymphatic cancers in white production workers was 230, and the SMR for all lymphatic malignancies in black production workers was 507. These updated epidemiologic results strongly suggest an etiologic association between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and human cancer. It is reasonable, therefore, to conclude that there now exists at least limited evidence for the human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. 27 refs.

Landrigan, P.J. (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1990-06-01

277

Critical assessment of epidemiologic studies on the human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

1,3-Butadiene, a major ingredient of synthetic rubber, has been shown to be carcinogenic in two animal species. To assess the possible human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene, a critical review was undertaken of the epidemiologic literature. An early retrospective study of 8017 males employed in tire manufacturing found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms in production workers (standardized mortality ratio, SMR = 560); these workers were exposed to 1,3-butadiene as well as to styrene and possibly to benzene. A recently updated epidemiologic study of 2568 workers at a butadiene manufacturing plant in Texas reported low mortality overall (SMR = 84) but found excess deaths for lymphosarcoma and reticulum cell sarcoma (SMR = 229). A retrospective study of workers employed at two synthetic rubber plants in Texas found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies in the older of these facilities; the excesses for lymphosarcoma (SMR = 224) and leukemia (SMR = 278) were most significant in wartime workers. A large, recently updated retrospective study of 12,113 workers employed in eight synthetic rubber manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada found excess mortality for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in production workers; the SMR for other lymphatic cancers in white production workers was 230, and the SMR for all lymphatic malignancies in black production workers was 507. These updated epidemiologic results strongly suggest an etiologic association between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and human cancer. It is reasonable, therefore, to conclude that there now exists at least limited evidence for the human carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

Landrigan, P J

1990-01-01

278

International Symposium on the Evaluation of Butadiene and Chloroprene Health Risks.  

PubMed

These proceedings represent nearly all the platform and poster presentations given during the International Symposium on Evaluation of Butadiene and Chloroprene Health Risks, held in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, on September 20-22, 2005. The Symposium was attended by 78 participants representing private industry (37), academia (21), government (11), not-for-profit organizations (5), and consulting (4). The program followed the format of previous symposia on butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene in London UK (2000) and butadiene and isoprene in Blaine, Washington USA (1995). This format enabled the exchange of significant new scientific results and discussion of future research needs. Isoprene was not evaluated during the 2005 Symposium because of lack of new data. For background information, the reader is referred to the proceedings of the London 2000 meeting for a thorough historical perspective and overview of scientific and regulatory issues concerning butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene [Chem.-Biol. Interact. (2001) 135-136:1-7]. The Symposium consisted of seven sessions: (1) Introduction and Opening Remarks, (2) Butadiene/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)--Process Overview, Exposure and Health Effects/Human Studies; (3) Chloroprene--Process Overview, Exposure and Health Effects/Human Studies; (4) Mode of Action/Key Events; (5) Risk Assessment; (6) Poster Presentations; and (7) Panel Discussion and Future Directions. The Symposium concluded with a discussion by all participants of issues that arose throughout the course of the Symposium. The Proceedings of the Symposium published in this Special Issue are organized according to the Sessions outlined above. The purpose of this foreword is to summarize the presentations and their key findings and recommend future research directions for each chemical. PMID:17336954

Himmelstein, Matthew W; Baan, Robert A; Albertini, Richard J; Bird, Michael G; Lewis, R Jeffrey

2007-03-20

279

Wastewater Treatment of MTC Acrylonitrile Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We selected a wet oxidation process as a method of treating COD and HCN in acrylonitrile plant waste water efficiently and simultaneously and in 1972 constructed a 670 m sup 3 /d wet oxidation treatment plant which has been working well since that time. (...

Y. Iwai

1976-01-01

280

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ACRYLONITRILE MANUFACTURE (AIR EMISSIONS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of atmospheric emissions from propylene-based acrylonitrile manufacturing plants. Uncontrolled and controlled emission factors are given for each species emitted to the atmosphere from each source within a typical plant, based on field samp...

281

A review of the epidemiology of 1,3-butadiene and chloroprene.  

PubMed

Butadiene epidemiologic research has focused primarily on one cohort of workers in the North American styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) industry and on the largest cohort of workers in the United States butadiene monomer industry. The most recent studies of these populations are characterized by carefully enumerated study populations, extremely long and high quality mortality follow-up, accurate job categorizations, detailed exposure assessments, and comprehensive statistical analyses. Leukemia was clearly associated with increasing estimated butadiene exposure in the SBR study, but not in the monomer industry study. This has lead to hypotheses about exposure differences between these two industries and the presence of co-factors or confounders in the SBR industry. Research presented at this symposium should shed some light on these hypotheses. The chloroprene epidemiologic literature, on the other hand, is in an early stage of development. The existing studies are limited by poor exposure characterization, lack of control of potential confounding factors, incompleteness in cohort enumeration, short follow-up periods, and small numbers of cancer cases. The state of the science for chloroprene would be advanced by arranging more comprehensive studies than those that have been conducted to date. PMID:11397380

Acquavella, J F; Leonard, R C

2001-06-01

282

Thermal stability, flammability and fire hazard of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the effect of the method of NBR cross linking on the thermal properties, flammability and fire hazard\\u000a of its nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite (NanoBent or Nanofil), using test results obtained by means of a\\u000a derivatograph, oxygen index and cone calorimetry. It has been found that the thermal stability and flammability of the nanocomposites\\u000a investigated depend on both

Gra?yna Janowska; Agnieszka Kucharska-Jastrz?bek; Przemys?aw Rybi?ski

2011-01-01

283

21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

2013-04-01

284

PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR ACRYLONITRILE  

SciTech Connect

Application of PAL protocols was performed for acrylonitrile, as experimental data permitted. Human data were limited to inhalation exposures. The animal experimental data set for this chemical was robust for inhalation and oral studies, with the exception of appropriate data for inhalation 30-d, 90-d, and 2-yr PAL 3 values. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in October 2007. Oral 24-hr PALs for acrylonitrile are: PAL 1 = 7 mg/L; PAL 2 = 23 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 88 mg/L. Oral 30-d and 90-d PALs are: PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 7 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 17 mg/L. Oral 2-yr PALs are: PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 3.5 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 12 mg/L. Acrylonitrile inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 0.17 ppm; PAL 2 = 3.5 ppm; and PAL 3 = 5.1 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.15 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.60 ppm. The 2-yr inhalation values are: PAL 1 = 0.014 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.12 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d, 90-d, and 2-yr are not recommended due to insufficient data.

Goldhaber, Susan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Dorman, David [College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina University; Gardner, Donald [Inhalation Toxicology Associates; Adeshina, Femi [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Ross, Robert Hord [ORNL

2009-01-01

285

Environmental stress cracking of rubber-modified styrenic polymers in Freon vapour * * Dedicated to Professor Tae Oan Ahn on the occasion of his 65th Birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of incorporation of rubber particles on the environmental stress cracking (ESC) behaviour of rubber modified polystyrene (PS) and styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) in Freon vapour have been investigated in view of the rubbery particle size and rubber content. Core-shell particles such as poly(n-butyl acrylate) rubber core\\/PS or poly(methyl methacrylate) shell particles of 0.2–2 ?m in rubbery core diameter were

Kilwon Cho; Min Soo Lee; Chan Eon Park

1997-01-01

286

ABSORPTION OF CO2 IN HIGH ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT COPOLYMERS: DEPENDENCE ON ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT. (R829555)  

EPA Science Inventory

In continuation of our goal to determine the ability of CO2 to plasticize acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers and facilitate melt processing at temperatures below the onset of thermal degradation, a systematic study has been performed to determine the influence of AN cont...

287

Effect of Addition of HDPE and LDPE on Rheological, Mechanical, Elastic and Compatibility Behavior of SBR\\/NBR Rubber Blend System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of adding low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) to different ratios of styrene butadiene copolymer (SBR) and acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR) rubber blend has been studied. The experimental methods performed are based on measurements of rheological, mechanical, elastic properties, phase morphology, density, ultrasonic studies, thermal stability and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed that rheological

N. A. Darwish; N. Abd El-Aal; A. A. Abd El-Megeed

2007-01-01

288

The Effect of Leather Fibers on the Properties of Rubber-Leather Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finished leather waste resulting from footwear production is mainly managed by landfilling, thus wasting the contained resources. Recycling by incorporating these wastes in new composites would be a more sustainable option. In this work, styrene butadiene rubber and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber based compounds were charged with ?1 mm leather fibers in the range of 12.5-300 parts per hundred parts of

Maria J. Ferreira; Fernanda Freitas; Manuel F. Almeida

2010-01-01

289

Butenes and butadiene in urban air.  

PubMed

Samples of urban air hydrocarbons were taken on specifically made adsorbent cartridges and analysed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. The four isomeric butenes and 1,3-butadiene were favourably resolved and separated from the abundant alkanes on an aluminium oxide PLOT column. The concentrations of butadiene, reflecting outdoor urban exposure, were in the range of 0.5-5 micrograms/m3. An approximate 1:4 ratio was observed between butadiene and propene which both originate predominantly from vehicle exhaust. The four butenes made up approximately 50% of the propene concentration in exhaust-polluted air, with methylpropene greater than 1-butene greater than trans-2-butene greater than cis-2-butene. Petrol vapour contributed less than exhaust but about five times more to the 2-butenes than to methylpropene and 1-butene. The highest exposure levels of butadiene and butenes were consistently observed in the vicinity of exhaust pipes and petrol-fuelled vehicles. PMID:1384124

Löfgren, L; Petersson, G

1992-05-01

290

Mechanical spectroscopy in carbon nanotube reinforced ABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical spectroscopy has been used to qualify possible improvements of the mechanical properties of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene–carbon nanotubes (ABS–CNTs) composites. The properties of ABS matrix are first investigated. Two relaxations that mark the glass transition of the polybutadiene and the styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) phases of the polymer are identified. Composite samples with ABS matrix and CNT reinforcement were processed by blending and injection

D. Mari; R. Schaller

2009-01-01

291

Reactive compatibilization of PBT\\/ABS blends by methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate terpolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact resistance of poly(butylene terephthalate), PBT, has been improved by blending with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymers, ABS, as a minor dispersed phase; however, extensive coarsening of the dispersed phase in the blends occurs under certain heat fabrication conditions. The incorporation of certain reactive polymers (compatibilizers) that are miscible with the styrene\\/acrylonitrile (SAN) matrix of ABS should result in more stable morphologies.

Wesley Raymond Hale

1998-01-01

292

Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile–styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile–styrene–butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared

Rui Yang; Yan Zhang; Xin Wang; Yinping Zhang; Qingwu Zhang

2009-01-01

293

Melt-processable high acrylonitrile copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High acrylonitrile homo- and copolymers (PAN) are unique because of chemical, ultraviolet, and corrosion resistances. Historically, because of the atypical processing and thermal behavior of solution-processable PAN, consensus regarding the actual microstructure and paracrystalline order was elusive -- it has been described as `two-dimensional liquid crystalline-like structure with many defects.' New, sequence-structured copolymers rendered PAN for the first time melt-processable before degradation and are providing new insight into the solid state conformation. Solution ^13C nuclear magnetic resonance was used to compare the new and historical comonomer sequence lengths. Optimal processing conditions were obtained using capillary rheometry as a function of dwell time and melt temperature. A filament extrusion investigation was conducted and wide angle x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and mechanical properties of the filaments were used to characterize the nonequilibrium melt transitions and paracrystal morphology as a function of processing parameters.

Hutchinson, Shawn R.; Hinestroza, Juan; Gupta, Bhupender S.; Buchanan, David R.; Tonelli, Alan E.

2006-03-01

294

Styrene exposure and risk of cancer  

PubMed Central

Styrene is widely used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, resins, polyesters and plastics. Styrene and the primary metabolite styrene-7,8-oxide are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis bioassays showed that styrene caused lung cancers in several strains of mice and mammary cancers in rats and styrene-7,8-oxide caused tumours of the forestomach in rats and mice and of the liver in mice. Subsequent epidemiologic studies found styrene workers had increased mortality or incidences of lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukaemia or lymphoma or all), with suggestive evidence for pancreatic and esophageal tumours. No adequate human studies are available for styrene-7,8-oxide although this is the primary and active epoxide metabolite of styrene. Both are genotoxic and form DNA adducts in humans.

Huff, James; Infante, Peter F.

2011-01-01

295

Flammability of diene rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of testing the flammability and fire hazard of butadiene (BR), butadiene-acrylonitrile (NBR)\\u000a and butadiene- styrene (SBR) rubbers with the use of oxygen index test, ignition temperature measurement, cone calorimetry\\u000a and inverse liquid chromatography. Toxicometric indices, RTFH CO\\/CO2, WLC50SM and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been determined. The results obtained have been interpreted

Gra?yna Janowska; Agnieszka Kucharska-Jastrz?bek; Przemys?aw Rybi?ski; Dorota Weso?ek; Iwona Wójcik

2010-01-01

296

Kinetics of Cl atom reactions with butadienes including isoprene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique was used to determine the rate constants for the reactions of Cl atoms with 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3 butadiene (isoprene) and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene in the pressure range 15-60 Torr and T=(298±2) K. The obtained rate constants (in units of 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1) were as follows: 1,3-butadiene (3.48±0.10), isoprene (3.61±0.10) and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (3.63±0.14). These kinetic data are discussed.

Notario, Alberto; Le Bras, Georges; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

1997-12-01

297

Facilities, testing, and continuing studies on carbon-black loaded styrene-butadiene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been involved with investigations dealing with the response of the rubber in tank track pads to various loading scenarios, both in the field and in the laboratory. In the laboratory, numerous studies were also performed on a number of other rubber formulations primarily involving a range of carbon-black loadings in SBR and NR.

A. Goldberg; R. J. Sanchez; J. D. LeMay; J. Patt

1988-01-01

298

Multi?Wall Carbon Nanotubes\\/Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC?CVD) method was designed and fabricated to produce high?quality and ?quantity carbon nanotubes. The design parameters like the hydrogen flow rate; reaction time and reaction temperature were optimized to produce high yield and purity of Multi?Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs). Multi?Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) were used to prepare natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites. Our first efforts

Nazlia Girun; Suraya Abndul Rashid; Muataz Ali Atieh

2007-01-01

299

Morphology and vulcanizate properties of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber/ styrene-butadiene rubber blends.  

PubMed

Morphology and vulcanizate properties of EPDM/SBR blends were investigated. AAHR (a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon resins) was used as a compatibilizer and bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide (TESPT) was used as a coupling agent. The vulcanizate properties and the morphological studies revealed that EPDM and SBR were incompatible, and the addition of AAHR was very effective to enhance the compatibility between EPDM and SBR. The weight percent of bound rubbers was increased with increasing SBR contents. The addition of an AAHR increased the amounts of bound rubbers, and hence the vulcanizate properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the EPDM/SBR blends were improved. The dynamic mechanical analysis and the morphological studies revealed that the addition of TESPT increased the weight of bound rubbers and provided better dispersion of carbon black, resulting in good mechanical properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the vulcanized EPDM/SBR blends. The smaller particle of zinc oxide (i.e., 50 nm > 100 nm > 1000 nm) yielded to the better blending properties of the polymer blend. PMID:20359035

Park, Gayoung; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong Soo; Ko, Young Chun

2010-05-01

300

Stearyl Amine Ethoxylate (SAM) Grafted Montmorillonite Clay - Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study describes the modification montmorillonite clay (kunipia F) surface by grafting Stearyl Amine Ethoxylate (SAM). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provided the evidences of formation of nanocomposite. The inter layer spacing of the kunipia clay was increased from 1.22 nm (unmodified) to 1.53 nm (modified). TEM study revealed the intercalated and partially exfoliated nature of the

Sugata Chakraborty; Partha Protim Mallick; Saikat Dasgupta; Rabindra Mukhopadhyay

2012-01-01

301

Facilities, testing, and continuing studies on carbon-black loaded styrene-butadiene rubber  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been involved with investigations dealing with the response of the rubber in tank track pads to various loading scenarios, both in the field and in the laboratory. In the laboratory, numerous studies were also performed on a number of other rubber formulations primarily involving a range of carbon-black loadings in SBR and NR. Reference is made to reports and papers addressing each of the studies involved in this program. Work performed during the final stages of this program is described. These studies were directed primarily at developing an understanding of the effects of cycling and notching histories, notch radius, notch depth, and specimen thickness on the deformation behavior, strain distributions, hysteresis, and residual strength of SBR containing various amounts of carbon black. Significant improvements were realized in our testing methodology, computer-controlled facilities, and data-acquisition system, and in our ability to obtain continuous photomicrographic documentation in ''real time'' of the tearing improvements, as they relate to the various studies, are detailed in this document. Results obtained in these studied involve (1) the fabrication and testing of thick tensile specimens, (2) the effect of notching under load on the residual strength, (3) the effect of cycling on residual strength of notched and notch-free specimens, (4) the effect of cycling on hysteresis, (5) the effect of notch radius for various notch depths on loss of strength, and (6) evaluation of strain at a notch tip and remote from the notch tip at various specimen extensions by analyzing the specimen grid markings, which were obtained with the microscope-video-Polaroid system. 15 refs., 27 figs.

Goldberg, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; LeMay, J.D.; Patt, J.

1988-09-15

302

Ultrasonic studies on polystyrene/styrene butadiene rubber polymer blends filled with glass fiber and talc.  

PubMed

The compatibility of solid blends: PS/SBR, PS/SBR filled with glass fiber and PS/SBR filled with talc were studied using ultrasonic pulse echo technique. Measurements were carried out at room temperature (298 K) and a frequency of 3 MHz. The ultrasonic velocity for the compressional wave and that for shear wave have been measured to obtain the elastic moduli data by knowing of density. The variation of ultrasonic wave velocities and elastic moduli with weight percent of the blend was found to be linear in PS/SBR blend, indicating some degree of compatibility but the drawback of elastic moduli indicate incompatibility of the system blend, while it deviates from linearity in blends of PS/SBR filled with glass fiber and talc but the increase in elastic moduli indicates that there is an increase in degree of compatibility between PS and SBR due to adding of glass fiber or talc. The ultrasonic absorptions for longitudinal wave in the temperature range from 298 to 423 K in the studied system were measured using ultrasonic pulse echo technique. Typical results showing the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic absorption at frequencies of 1, 2, 3 and 5 MHz are illustrated for all samples of the different compositions. The study of compositional and temperature dependence of the ultrasonic absorption in the present studied blends reveals the same behavior of the compatibility degree of the blends. Density data of the blends confirmed the ultrasonic results. Also the correlation between hardness and elastic moduli for the present blend systems has been studied. PMID:16842835

Higazy, A A; Afifi, H; Khafagy, A H; El-Shahawy, M A; Mansour, A M

2006-12-22

303

Assessment of 1,3-butadiene exposure in polymer production workers using HPRT mutations in lymphocytes as a biomarker.  

PubMed Central

1,3-Butadiene (BD), which is used to make styrene-butadiene rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a probable carcinogen, associated with leukemia, in humans. We have previously used HPRT mutation as a biomarker to evaluate exposures to BD in a monomer production plant. We now report on a study of 49 workers in a styrene-butadiene rubber plant in which we used the concentration of the BD metabolite 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)-butane (M1) in urine as a biomarker of exposure and the frequency of HPRT variant (mutant) lymphocytes (Vf) as a biomarker of effect. Workers were assigned to high- and low-exposure groups based on historical information about work areas and jobs. Personal exposure to BD for one work shift was measured using a passive badge dosimeter. Each participant provided a urine specimen and blood sample at the end of the work shift and completed a questionnaire providing information on lifestyle, health, and work activities. The average BD exposures in the high- and low-exposure groups were significantly different, even after excluding two extreme values, (high 1.48 ppm; low 0.15 ppm, p < 0.002). This study was done in 1994 and 1995 before the establishment, in 1996, of the new permissible exposure limit of 1 ppm. Both the mean M1 and the HPRT Vf were more than three times greater in the high-exposure group than in the low-exposure group (p < 0.0005). The three end points correlated with each other, with sample correlation coefficients between 0.4 and 0.6. The correlations among BD exposure and the biomarkers of internal exposure and genotoxicity suggest that occupational exposure to BD, in the range of 1-3 ppm, may be associated with adverse biological effects.

Ammenheuser, M M; Bechtold, W E; Abdel-Rahman, S Z; Rosenblatt, J I; Hastings-Smith, D A; Ward, J B

2001-01-01

304

1,3-Butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene: reviews by the IARC monographs programme, outstanding issues, and research priorities in epidemiology.  

PubMed

1,3-Butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene have all been evaluated more than once by the IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, most recently in February 1998 (Volume 71). Summaries are available on-line at http://monographs.iarc.fr. 1,3-Butadiene is currently classified in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), on the basis of limited evidence for increased occupational cancer risk in humans plus sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity at multiple organ sites in rats and especially in mice exposed by inhalation. Four epidemiologic studies are available on cancer risk among workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene, one large study among styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) workers, and one large and two small studies among 1,3-butadiene production workers. The results of the study of SBR workers suggest an association between butadiene exposure and leukaemia risk, which is consistent with the results of the large study of production workers. This latter study also suggested an increased risk of lymphoreticulosarcoma (ICD-8, 200). The major factors hampering the assessment of the available results are (i) possible misclassification of lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms, (ii) limitations in the assessment of past exposure (with the exception of the study of SBR workers) and (iii) a potential confounding effect of agents other than butadiene. Future research priorities include (i) the incorporation of newly developed biomarkers of exposure, (ii) the possible application of intermediate biomarkers, (iii) the replication of the study among SBR workers, possibly in Europe, and (iv) reanalysis of existing data in light of revisions of the classifications of leukaemias and lymphomas in the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition (2000). Isoprene is classified in Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans), on the basis of sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity at multiple organ sites in both mice and rats, especially male mice, exposed by inhalation. No epidemiologic studies are available on cancer risk from occupational exposure to isoprene. Such studies could be conducted within the framework of existing or future studies of SBR workers, assuming that isoprene exposure can be disentangled from butadiene and styrene exposure. Chloroprene is classified in Group 2B on the basis of sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity at multiple organ sites in both mice and rats exposed by inhalation. Studies of chloroprene exposed workers now include chemical workers from the United States, China and Armenia as well as shoe workers from Russia. The results of the studies from China, Armenia and Russia suggest an excess risk of liver cancer. The risk of other neoplasms was not consistently increased. Limitations of available studies include possible bias from cohort enumeration, follow-up, and choice of reference population. In most studies the exposure assessment was poor, the possible confounding effect of co-exposures was not addressed and the statistical power was low. The pathology of the cases of liver cancer should be reviewed. Future research priorities include a replication of available studies in well-defined populations and the development of biomarkers of exposure. PMID:11397378

Rice, J M; Boffetta, P

2001-06-01

305

Synthesis of (Z)-3-aryloxy-acrylonitriles, (E)-3-aryloxy-acrylonitriles and 3-cyanobenzofurans through the sequential reactions of phenols with propiolonitriles.  

PubMed

A Na(2)CO(3)-promoted addition of phenols to propiolonitriles generated (Z)-3-aryloxy-acrylonitriles in nearly quantitative yields with exclusively Z-isomers, and a DABCO-promoted addition reaction of phenols with propiolonitriles afforded mainly (E)-3-aryloxy-acrylonitriles with high yields. The obtained (E)-3-aryloxy-acrylonitriles underwent intramolecular cyclization to give 3-cyanobenzofurans in good yields through palladium-catalyzed direct C-H bond functionalization. PMID:22847603

Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yicheng; Li, Pinhua; Wang, Lei

2012-09-21

306

46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154.1750 Section 154.1750...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride...

2011-10-01

307

46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154.1750 Section 154.1750 Shipping...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must...

2010-10-01

308

46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154.1750 Section 154.1750 Shipping...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must...

2009-10-01

309

Modification of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber\\/Natural Rubber (NBR\\/NR) Blends with Tetrachloro Phthalic Anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrachloro phthalic anhydride (TCPA) was found to enhance the dielectric and mechanical properties of (NBR\\/NR) blends. Introducing halogen atoms into polymer blends usually leads to increased flame resistance, which could be very useful in electric applications of such blends as in cables, wires, and insulating purposes. This study led to a conclusion that the blend 25\\/75 NBR\\/NR with 3 phr TCPA

D. E. El-Nashar; S. L. Abd-El-Messieh; M. A. M. Eid

2004-01-01

310

The role of acrylonitrile in controlling the structure and properties of nanostructured ionomer films.  

PubMed

Ionomers are polymers which contain ionic groups that are covalently bound to the main chain. The presence of a small percentage of ionic groups strongly affects the polymer's mechanical properties. Here, we examine a new family of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell polymer nanoparticles containing acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (Bd) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Three new AN-containing dispersions were investigated in this study. The core-shell nanoparticles contained a PBd core. The shells contained copolymerised Bd, AN and MAA, i.e., PBd-AN-MAA. Three types of crosslinking were present in these films: covalent crosslinks (from Bd); strong physical crosslinks (involving ionic bonding of RCOO(-) and Zn(2+)) and weaker physical crosslinks (from AN). We examined and compared the roles of AN and ionic crosslinking (from added Zn(2+)) on the structure and mechanical properties of the films. The FTIR spectroscopy data showed evidence for RCOOH-nitrile hydrogen bonding with tetrahedral geometry. DMTA studies showed that AN copolymerised within the PBd-AN-MAA phase uniformly. Tensile stress-strain data showed that inclusion of AN increased elasticity and toughness. Analysis showed that about 33 AN groups were required to provide an elastically-effective chain. However, only 1.5 to 2 ionically bonded RCOO(-) groups were required to generate an elastically-effective chain. By contrast to ionic bonding, AN inclusion increased the modulus without compromising ductility. Our results show that AN is an attractive, versatile, monomer for increasing the toughness of nanostructured ionomers and this should also be the case for other nanostructured polymer elastomers. PMID:24852137

Tungchaiwattana, Somjit; Musa, Muhamad Sharan; Yan, Junfeng; Lovell, Peter A; Shaw, Peter; Saunders, Brian R

2014-06-11

311

Poly(acrylonitrile) based ultrafiltration membranes: Optimization of preparation parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported ultrafiltration (UF) membranes based on poly(acrylonitrile) were prepared while varying crucial parameters responsible for controlling membrane porosity, viz.; polymer concentration, solvent and additives in the dope solution. Insight into membrane porosity and morphology was obtained by water flux, solute rejection, bubble point, pore size distribution, SEM and AFM analyses. It was found that merely increasing polymer concentration does not

Harshada Lohokare; Yogesh Bhole; Suyog Taralkar; Ulhas Kharul

2011-01-01

312

IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (2011 Interagency Science Consultation Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

On June 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

313

Retardation of Permanganate-Initiated Polymerization of Acrylonitrile by Phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism and kinetics of the retardation of the permanganate-initiated polymerization of acrylonitrile by phenol have been studied in the temperature range of 30 to 45°C. The effect of monomer, metal ion, phenol, sulfuric acid, organic solvents, and some inorganic salts on the polymerization has been studied. The most remarkable observation in the present investigation was the negative intercept obtained

S. S. Tripathy; S. Jena; S. B. Misra; B. C. Singh

1983-01-01

314

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps  

SciTech Connect

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps has been studied using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The effect of order of reactants addition on grafting was examined: three methods were studied. Addition of the pulp to a mixture of initiator and monomer (method A) resulted in more efficient grafting than the other two methods. The reaction produced more grafting at 50/sup 0/C than at 30/sup 0/C or at 40/sup 0/C. The results showed that the monomer and initiator concentrations are the major factors influencing the grafting rate of acrylonitrile. Increasing the acrylonitrile or initiator concentration was accompanied by a substantial increase in graft yields. Increasing the initiator concentration is more effective on polymerization rate than the increase in monomer concentration. The extent of grafting of this monomer can best be controlled by reaction time. Water swelling of pulps significantly affected the grafting rate of acrylonitrile as well as the ceric consumption during grafting. The reactivity of bagasse pulp towards grafting of acrylonitrile is higher than that of wood pulp due to a more open structure of cellulose in bagasse pulp as well as the presence of some lignin which accelerates grafting. Ceric consumption during grafting depends on the nature of the pulp as well as the monomer and initiator concentrations, time, temperature, and the method of grafting. More Ce(IV) is consumed during grafting than during oxidation of the pulps under identical reaction conditions, due to homopolymer formation which accompanied grafting. The ceric consumption by bagasse during grafting or oxidation is somewhat greater than that consumed by wood pulp under similar reaction conditions.

Heikal, S.O.; El-Kalyoubi, S.F.

1982-08-01

315

40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

2010-07-01

316

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BUTADIENE AT A NEOPRENE PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document details a field study to validate a method for the sampling and analysis of butadiene emissions from a plant manufacturing neoprene from butadiene/chlorine mixtures. aseous samples were collected from the process vent of one such plant using a modification of the ev...

317

REDUCING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM SPRAYED FILLED RESINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Styrene emissions are coming under increasing study as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops maximum achievable control technology standards. During the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composites products, styrene, a volatile organic compound and a haz...

318

Shape memory polymer networks from styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned about the synthesis of shape memory styrene copolymer and the investigation of the influence of cross-linking degree on its shape memory effect. As one of novel actuators in smart materials, shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been investigated intensively. Styrene copolymer with proper cross-linking degree can exhibit shape memory effect (SME). In this paper, the influence of

Dawei Zhang; Xiaoguang Wang; Wuyi Zhang; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng

2007-01-01

319

Case-cohort study of styrene exposure and ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiologic studies have consistently reported increased daily mortalities and hospital admissions associated with exposure to particulate air pollution. Ischemic heart disease (IHD*, International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision [ICD-8], codes 410-414) is among those diseases that contribute in large measure to this excess mortality. Some occupational studies have suggested elevated risk of IHD among workers exposed for short periods to styrene, which can be emitted from fossil fuel combustion, aircraft exhausts, and motor vehicle exhausts. Styrene is found in ambient air at average concentrations of a few micrograms per cubic meter or less but may reach very high concentrations at particular locations and times. Unmeasured aerosols of styrene may also increase population exposures. This case-cohort study explored a possible association and dose-response relation between styrene exposure and risk of acute IHD in an occupational setting. The population under study was 6587 male workers employed between 1943 and 1982 in two US plants manufacturing styrene-butadiene polymers used in synthetic rubber. The study assessed all 498 subjects who died from IHD along with a subcohort of twice that size, 997 subjects, selected as a 15% random sample of the full target cohort. IHD deaths during the study led to some overlap between cases and the subcohort, leaving 1424 unique subjects. Job histories were collected for all subjects. Industrial hygienists and engineers from the industry estimated relative exposures for all jobs. Exposure data were collected for many of the jobs from different sources. For any job with no available exposure measurements, z scores were used to estimate job exposure in each plant from the relative exposure level for that job in similar plants and the measurement distribution parameters of the study plant. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analyses were used to examine the overall risk of dying from IHD among study subjects compared with the US general population. A significantly elevated SMR of 1.47 with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.17 to 1.77 for chronic IHD was found among black workers who had left the plants. A modification of the Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to control for confounders and examine dose-response relations between styrene exposure and the risk of IHD. Employment time-weighted average (TWA) styrene concentration intensity for the most recent 2 years was found significantly associated with death from acute IHD among active workers with a relative hazard of 3.26 to 6.60, depending on duration of employment. In this analysis, the highest relative hazard of 6.60 (95% CI, 1.78-24.54) was among active workers who had been employed for at least 5 years. The results suggest that the exposure intensity was more important than duration of exposure. On the basis of the dose-response relation established in this study, we estimate that for each 10 microg/m3 increase in ambient styrene, acute IHD mortality might increase 0.4%. At normal ambient styrene levels, the relative risk would be increased, at most, 0.1% compared with no exposure. At certain locations and times, however, ambient styrene could reach levels that would result in a relative hazard for acute IHD mortality as high as 3.386-fold the risk at no exposure. PMID:12214600

Matanoski, Genevieve M; Tao, Xuguang

2002-05-01

320

Evaluation of Possible Genotoxic Mechanisms for Acrylonitrile Tumorigenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile (ACN) exposure is associated with tumors in rat brain, Zymbal gland, and mammary gland. Adducts affecting base pairing were formed in isolated DNA exposedin vitroto the ACN metabolite cyanoethylene oxide (CNEO). DNA from liver, which is not a cancer target organ in ACN-exposed rats, contained low levels of 7-(2-oxoethyl)guanine, an adduct believed not to interfere with base pairing. No

J. Whysner; P. M. Ross; C. C. Conaway; L. K. Verna; G. M. Williams

1998-01-01

321

Antibacterial and absorbent acrylonitrile-vinylidene chloride copolymer fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of antibacterial and absorbent acrylonitrile (AN)-vinylidene chloride (VDC) copolymer fibres were fabricated by adding micro- or nano-sized silver-impregnated activated carbon (Ag-AC) powders in AN-VDC copolymer-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, and then extruded through a spinneret into a coagulation bath of DMF-water. The fibres containing less than 25 wt% of Ag-AC were spun smoothly. The structure and properties of the fibres

C. Chen; H. Zhang; X. X. Zhang; X. C. Wang

2010-01-01

322

Comparative toxicity of dithiocarbamates and butadiene metabolites in human lymphoid and bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Apparent differences in the pattern of leukemia risk have been observed between workers employed in 1,3-butadiene (BD) monomer production and those working in styrene-butadiene rubber production (SBR). There are a number of possible explanations for these discrepancies, including differences in disease classification and diagnosis as well as possible quantitative and qualitative differences in occupational exposure between these two industries. This led us to evaluate the possibility that the pattern of disease observed in SBR might be influenced by the presence of an important class of biologically reactive chemicals, dithiocarbamates (DTC), that were present in SBR but not BD monomer production. Therefore, we compared the immunotoxic and hematotoxic activities of DTC and BD metabolites in human immune and hematopoietic cells. Relative to the mouse, human CD34+ bone marrow cells are relatively resistant to the direct effects of BD metabolites, with only the bis-oxide producing any evidence of suppression of clonogenic response at concentrations between 1 and 10 microM. Similarly, treatment of human CD4+ lymphocytes with known (2,3-epoxybutene) and putative BD metabolites (D,L-butane-bis-oxide, (2S,3R)-3-epoxybutane-1,2-diol) does not result in appreciable T-cell toxicity at concentrations likely to be encountered in vivo. In contrast, treatment of human cells with DTC at concentrations as low as 100 nM results in significant suppression of hematopoietic clonogenic response and T-lymphocyte function. Additional studies in our laboratory and others suggest a role for copper in DTC toxicity in both human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, although the pattern of altered transcriptional regulation observed is markedly different in these two cell populations. These results are consistent with the pattern of DTC toxicity previously observed in clinical and molecular studies. PMID:11397416

Irons, R D; Stillman, W S; Pyatt, D W; Yang, Y; Le, A; Gustafson, D L; Hua Zheng, J

2001-06-01

323

24 CFR 3280.604 - Materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...demonstrated; (2) When a plastic material or component is not...must be certified as non-toxic in accordance with ANSI/NSF...ASME B16.15-1985. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Standard...Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent...

2011-04-01

324

24 CFR 3280.604 - Materials.  

...demonstrated; (2) When a plastic material or component is not...must be certified as non-toxic in accordance with ANSI/NSF...ASME B16.15-1985. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Standard...Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent...

2014-04-01

325

24 CFR 3280.604 - Materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...demonstrated; (2) When a plastic material or component is not...must be certified as non-toxic in accordance with ANSI/NSF...ASME B16.15-1985. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Standard...Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent...

2012-04-01

326

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH IMPACT ABS\\/PC BLENDS - EFFECT OF BLEND RATIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer blends are capable of providing materials which extend the useful properties beyond the range that can be obtained from single polymer equivalents. Blends of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene- Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) were prepared in different ratios by melt blending technique which was carried out using a twin screw extruder. A super high impact ABS at different weight ratios was incorporated

Azman Hassan; Wong Yean Jwu

327

THE EFFECT OF BLENDING ACRYLIC GRAFTED PVC AND PVC K-66 WITH ABS ON IMPACT AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were studied. The blends were prepared in different ratios by melt blending technique. High rigidity, medium impact and super high impact ABS were used as the base polymer. Acrylic grafted PVC and PVC K-66 were incorporated into the blends. Particular emphasis was on Izod impact test. The impact strength of

CHEW SAU YEN; AZMAN HASSAN; SHAHRIR HASHIM

328

Preparation and characterization of magnetic thermoplastic-based nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a facile method for the preparation of magnetic nanocomposites based on the popular thermoplastic, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The nanocomposites were produced by liquid blending of ABS and Ni nanorods (NRs), followed by solvent evaporation. The characterizations showed that the nanocomposites were magnetic and Ni NRs were uniformly distributed in polymer matrix.

Thu, T. V.; Takamura, T.; Tsetserukou, D.; Sandhu, A.

2014-02-01

329

Perforation of ABS pipes by boring bivalve Martesia striata: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes are considered to be immune for boring organisms. However, inspection of the offshore cooling water conduits of Lumut combined cycle power plant, Malaysia show that ABS pipes may not necessarily be immune for wood boring pholads, Martesia striata. M. striata caused heavy damage by drilling holes in ABS pipes used (about 5 years) for transportation

H. A. Jenner; S. Rajagopal; G. Van der Velde; M. S. Daud

2003-01-01

330

An evaluation of artificial substrates for monitoring the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) in Lake Mead, Nevada–Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to determine if quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) settle and grow on different types of artificial substrates preferentially in Lake Mead, Nevada–Arizona, one of the first known populations of the mussel in the western United States. Six substrates, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic, concrete underlayment board (CUB), aluminum, stainless steel and fiberglass

Sara A. Mueting; Shawn L. Gerstenberger; Wai Hing Wong

2010-01-01

331

Influence of ABS Type on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of PC/ABS Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphology and the mechanical properties of polycarbonate (PC) blends with different acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) materials were investigated. PC/ABS blends based on a mass-made ABS with 16% rubber and large (0.5-1 micrometer) rubber particle...

B. S. Lombardo H. Keskkula D. R. Paul

1994-01-01

332

Optimized sensitive coatings for MIR fiber optic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, novel coating materials for MIR fiber-optic sensors have been investigated, in order to assess the possibilities and limitations associated with introducing materials of higher molecular complexity as coating materials. Two materials -- poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) -- could be found that show increased sorption coefficients for substances such as chlorinated phenols and anilines together with only moderately narrowed spectral windows.

Jakusch, Michael; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kellner, Robert A.; Katzir, Abraham

1997-05-01

333

Controlled Release Formulations from SBR\\/NBR Rubber Blend. 1. Dielectric and Thermal Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene Rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) blends were prepared with different concentration ratios, namely, 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20 and 100:0. The blends were mixed with multifunctional monomer (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and copper sulphate monohydrate. The blends obtained were vulcanized with ?-radiation at a dose of rate 7.51 rad\\/sec. The thermal properties of the blends obtained were

M. M. El-awady; A. M. Ghoneim

2001-01-01

334

The use of montmorillonite as a reinforcing and compatibilizing filler for NBR\\/SBR rubber blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montmorillonite clay was added at different ratios to some polymer blends of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR) and styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR). Both the reinforcing and compatibilizing performance of the filler were investigated using rheometric measurements, physico-mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). There was a remarkable decrease in the optimum cure time (tc90) and the scorch time (ts2),

Hisham Essawy; Doaa El-Nashar

2004-01-01

335

ENGINEERING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STYRENE IN YEAST  

EPA Science Inventory

The strategy pursued was to insert genes for phenylalanine ammonia lysase (pal) and phenolic acid decarboxylase (pad) into the yeast that would convert phenylalanine to styrene through a cinnamic acid intermediate. ...

336

Iron-catalyzed intermolecular hydroamination of styrenes.  

PubMed

An iron-catalyzed formal hydroamination of alkenes has been developed. It features O-benzoyl-N,N-dialkylhydroxylamines as the electrophilic nitrogen source and cyclopentylmagnesium bromide as the reducing agent for intermolecular hydroamination of styrene and derivatives with good yield and excellent Markovnikov regioselectivity. The reaction presumably proceeds through the iron-catalyzed hydrometalation of styrene followed by electrophilic amination with the electrophilic O-benzoylhydroxylamine. PMID:24983840

Huehls, C Bryan; Lin, Aijun; Yang, Jiong

2014-07-18

337

Polyaromatic Amides Containing 1,3--Butadiene Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention concerns itself with the synthesis of novel polyaromatic amides containing 1,3-butadiene groups. These polyamides have been found to be especially useful as laminating resins for a variety of laminating applications. The synthesis is...

C. S. Marvel

1981-01-01

338

Mortality patterns among styrene-exposed boatbuilders  

SciTech Connect

In order to test the hypothesis that leukemia and lymphoma may be associated with exposure to styrene, cause-of-death patterns were studied at two reinforced plastic boatbuilding facilities. There were 5,021 workers who met the criterion of having worked at the two plants between 1959 and 1978. Based on industrial hygiene surveys conducted at the two plants, 2,060 individuals were determined to have worked in departments classified as having high exposure to styrene. There were 176 deaths observed among the total cohort, in comparison to 195.3 deaths expected. Among the high styrene exposure group, 47 deaths were observed in comparison to 41.5 deaths expected. No leukemia or lymphoma deaths were observed in either the high exposure group or the total cohort. An excess of accidental deaths among the high exposure group (18 observed vs 12.4 expected) did not appear to be due to styrene's acute central nervous system effects, since none of the individuals were employed at the facilities at the time of their death. However, the possibility of a chronic effect could not be dismissed. While leukemia and lymphoma did not appear to be related to styrene exposure, the study had little statistical power to detect excesses of these diseases, due to the short length of observation and the young age of most cohort members. It was concluded that the cohort should provide increasingly useful information on chronic styrene toxicity as the population ages and the observation period increases.

Okun, A.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Meinhardt, T.J.; Crandall, M.S.

1985-01-01

339

Shape memory polymer networks from styrene copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned about the synthesis of shape memory styrene copolymer and the investigation of the influence of cross-linking degree on its shape memory effect. As one of novel actuators in smart materials, shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been investigated intensively. Styrene copolymer with proper cross-linking degree can exhibit shape memory effect (SME). In this paper, the influence of cross-linking degree on shape memory effect of styrene copolymer was investigated through altering the dosage of cross-linking agent. The cross-linking degree of styrene copolymer was determined by measuring the gel content. The glass transition temperature (T g) of styrene copolymer, which is determined the cross-linking degree, was measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The shape memory performance of styrene copolymer with different cross-linking degrees was also evaluated. Results indicated that the shape memory polymer (SMP) was synthesized successfully. The T g increased from 35°C to 55°C followed by increasing the gel content from 0% to 35% through increasing the dosage of cross-linking agent from 0% to 1%. Moreover, the SMP experienced good SME and the largest reversible strain of the SMP reached as high as 150%. When heating above T g+30°C (different copolymers performed different T g), the shape recovery speed of the copolymers increased with increasing the gel content. However, the recovery speed decreased with increasing the gel content at the same temperature of 80°C.

Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Wuyi; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2007-10-01

340

Cooxidation of styrene by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and 4-methylphenol  

SciTech Connect

Styrene is cooxidized to styrene oxide in a system containing HRP/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and 4-methylphenol. Styrene oxide is not formed in the absence of any of these components, or if the reaction is run under anaerobic conditions. Styrene oxide formation is inhibited by ascorbic acid and catalase but not mannitol or superoxide dismutase. Incubation with /sup 18/O/sub 2/ resulted in more than 90% incorporation of label into styrene oxide. The epoxidation of trans-(1-/sup 2/H)styrene occurred with partial loss of stereochemistry. The products expected from addition of the phenoxy radical to styrene were synthesized and shown not to be formed. Finally, EPR evidence was obtained for formation of 4-methyl catechol in the presence, but not absence, of styrene. The results imply that a peroxy radical is formed by addition of oxygen to the HRP-generated 4-methylphenoxy radical, and that this peroxy radical then cooxidizes styrene.

Grab, L.A.; Ortiz, P.R.

1987-05-01

341

In vitro genotoxicity of polychlorinated butadienes (Cl4-Cl6).  

PubMed

Tetrachlorinated butadienes (TetraCBDs), pentachlorinated butadienes (PentaCBDs) and hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (hexachlorobutadiene or HexaCBD) are environmental contaminants that can occur in groundwater and drinking water at specific sites. While some toxicological data exist for HexaCBD, only few or no toxicity data are available for TetraCBDs and PentaCBDs. In view of structural alerts for potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of these substances was examined in the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. All of the tested polychlorinated butadienes induced chromosome aberrations. Such an effect of HexaCBD is reported here for the first time. In addition, 1,1,3,4-TetraCBD and 1,2,3,4-TetraCBD were positive in the Ames test while the other polychlorinated butadienes including HexaCBD were negative. From these findings it is concluded that certain incompletely chlorinated butadienes have a different genotoxic profile than the completely halogenated HexaCBD, which is of relevance for the risk assessment of these compounds. PMID:20417308

Brüschweiler, Beat J; Märki, Wolfgang; Wülser, Richard

2010-06-17

342

New dual-phase polymer electrolytes prepared from NBR\\/SBR lattices. [polyacryloNitrile-Butadiene Rubber\\/poly(Styrene-Butadiene) copolymer Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of Li[sup +] ion conducting polymer electrolytes consisting of two phases, one of which is a highly polar region (impregnated with lithium salt solution), forming ion-conductive channels, while the other is a nonpolar region, forming supporting polymer matrices have been prepared from NBR\\/SBR lattices. TEM measurement and EDX analysis show evidence that dual-phase structure is constructed in

Morihiko Matsumoto; Toshihiro Ichino; J. S. Rutt; Shiro Nishi

1993-01-01

343

New dual-phase polymer electrolytes prepared from NBR/SBR lattices. [polyacryloNitrile-Butadiene Rubber/poly(Styrene-Butadiene) copolymer Rubber  

SciTech Connect

A new type of Li[sup +] ion conducting polymer electrolytes consisting of two phases, one of which is a highly polar region (impregnated with lithium salt solution), forming ion-conductive channels, while the other is a nonpolar region, forming supporting polymer matrices have been prepared from NBR/SBR lattices. TEM measurement and EDX analysis show evidence that dual-phase structure is constructed in the electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of the electrolyte increases with increase of lithium salt solution content. Maximum ionic conductivity of 2.2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] S/cm is obtained at the lithium salt solution content of 60.5% (w/w). The electrolyte retains rubber-like film with good mechanical strength despite the presence of the solution.

Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan). NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)

1993-10-01

344

Microbial transformations of styrene and [14C] styrene in soil and enrichment cultures.  

PubMed Central

Two different mechanisms were responsible for the disappearance of styrene in enrichment cultures: (i) a mixed population of microorganisms, capable of utilizing styrene as a sole carbon source, oxidized this substrate to phenylethanol and phenylacetic acid; (ii) the culture also mediated polymerization of the monomer to low-molecular-weight styrene oligomers. This chemical reaction probably occurred as the result of microbial degradation of butylcatechol, an antioxidant polymerization inhibitor present in commercial styrene. The resultant polymer material was subsequently metabolized. In soil incubation studies, 14CO2 evolution from applied [8-14C] styrene was used to estimate microbial degradation. Approximately 90 percent of the labeled carbon was evolved from a 0.2 percent addition, and about 75 percent was lost from the 0.5 percent application over a 16-week period.

Sielicki, M; Focht, D D; Martin, J P

1978-01-01

345

Halogen-free Intumescent Flame Retardant for ABS\\/PA6\\/SMA Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intumescent flame-retardant system of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer\\/polyamide 6 (PA6)\\/styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA) alloys (ratio 80\\/20\\/6) with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 tests. Furthermore, the different effects of various synergistic charring agents on the flame retardancy of the ABS\\/PA6\\/SMA alloys were also investigated, including caged bicyclicphosphates (PEPA), thermoplastic phenolic resin (TPPFR), epoxy resin

Chengxiang Lu; Tan Chen; Xufu Cai

2009-01-01

346

Comparison of the depletion of glutathione in mouse liver and lung following administration of styrene and its metabolites styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene is hepatotoxic and pneumotoxic in mice. Its major metabolite styrene oxide and its minor, but potent, metabolite 4-vinylphenol cause similar toxicities. Styrene and styrene oxide cause decreases in reduced glutathione levels in tissues. The current studies examined styrene and styrene oxide in a time and dose-dependent manner and 4-vinylphenol in a time dependent fashion. Styrene (600mg\\/kg, 5.8mmol\\/kg ip) caused

Meredith Turner; Nancy A. Mantick; Gary P. Carlson

2005-01-01

347

Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

1990-01-01

348

Degradation of chlorinated butenes and butadienes in granular iron columns.  

PubMed

Manufacturing facilities for production of chlorobutyl rubber have the potential to release a mixture of at least 5 chlorinated butenes and butadienes including trans-1,4-dichlorobutene-2 (1,4-DCB-2), 3,4-dichlorobutene-1 (3,4-DCB-1), 2,3,4-trichlorobutene-1 (TCB), 2-chlorobutadiene-1,3 (chloroprene) and 2,3-dichlorobutadiene-1,3 (DCBD) into groundwater environment. To evaluate the potential of using granular iron in the remediation of the above contaminants, a series of column experiments were conducted. Degradation of all 5 compounds followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The three chlorinated butenes degraded much faster (surface area normalized half-lives, t(1/2)', ranged from 1.6 to 5.2 min m2/mL) than the 2 chlorinated butadienes (t(1/2)' ranged from 102 to 197 min m2/mL). All contaminants fully dechlorinated by granular iron to 1,3-butadiene as a common reaction intermediate that then degraded to a mixture of relatively non-harmful end products consisting of 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene and n-butane. Based on the kinetic data, product distributions, and chlorine mass balances, reaction pathways for these compounds are proposed. For the chlorinated butenes, 3,4-DCB-1 and TCB, undergo reductive beta-elimination reactions resulting in 1,3-butadiene and chloroprene intermediates. Dechlorination of 1,4-DCB-2 to 1,3-butadiene occurs through a reductive elimination similar to reductive beta-elimination. For dechlorination of the two chlorinated butadienes, chloroprene and DCBD, dechlorination occurs through a hydrogenolysis pathway. The common non-chlorinated intermediate, 1,3-butadiene, undergoes catalytic hydrogenation resulting in a mixture of butane isomers and n-butane. The results suggest that granular iron is an effective material for treatment of groundwater contaminated with these compounds. PMID:19847707

Hughes, Rodney; Gui, Lai; Gillham, Robert W

2009-10-01

349

Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I.  

PubMed

Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32±0.16 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.34±0.15 s(-1), respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1±0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a "peroxygenase"-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min(-1) at pH 6.0. PMID:24291498

Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B; Erman, James E

2014-01-01

350

BIOMARKERS IN CZECH WORKERS EXPOSED TO 1,3-BUTADIENE: A TRANSITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

All the biomarkers of exposure were correlated with the measurements of butadiene recorded by the air samplers. Although the correlation between hemoglobin adducts and exposure levels was strongest, urinary metabolites were also found to be very useful measures of butadiene...

351

Texture and Properties of Acrylonitrile–Ammonium Itaconate Copolymer Precursor Fibers and Carbon Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile–ammonium itaconate copolymer {P[AN-co-(NH4)2IA]} was fabricated by free-radical solution copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and ammonium itaconate [(NH4)2IA]. The copolymer was confected into a spinning solution (dope) and spun into precursor fibers. Then the precursor fibers\\u000a were converted to carbon fibers by stabilization and carbonization processes. Another copolymer of acrylonitrile–itaconic\\u000a acid [P(AN-co-IA)] and its resultant fibers were studied in contrast. Due

He-yi Ge; Jian-jun Liu; Juan Chen; Cheng-guo Wang

2007-01-01

352

Rational design of styrene monooxygenase mutants with altered substrate preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene monooxygenase catalyzes the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene but displays significantly decreased activity\\u000a toward styrene derivatives with an ?- or ?-substituent. Based on the X-ray crystal structure of the oxygenase subunit of styrene monooxygenase, molecular docking of\\u000a ?-ethylstyrene was performed to identify adjacent residues. Four amino acid substitutions (R43A, L44A, L45A, and N46A) were\\u000a introduced into the enzyme by site-directed

Abeer Ahmed Qaed; Hui Lin; De-Fang Tang; Zhong-Liu Wu

2011-01-01

353

Solubilization of Styrene and Acrylamide Monomers in Microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase diagrams of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (DS)\\/n?butanol\\/styrene\\/water systems with variable amounts of styrene were constructed at 40°C, and the effects of styrene on microemulsion stability were studied. The solubilization of styrene in these O\\/W microemulsion systems was investigated by H NMR methods. The results show that the solubilization site shifts from the palisade layer to the inner core of microemulsion

2003-01-01

354

Viscoelastic Properties of Homogeneous Triblock Copolymers of Styrene/alpha-Methyl Styrene and Their Polyblends with Homopolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven triblock copolymers of styrene/alpha-methyl styrene were prepared via anionic polymerization. Two types of block structures, ASA and SAS, were made. By the use of Time Temperature Superposition Principle, stress relaxation isotherms of these block c...

D. R. Hansen M. Shen

1975-01-01

355

The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment that Makes a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The iodochlorination of styrene, involving the addition of iodine monochloride to styrene, followed by the sodium methoxide-initiated dehydrohalogenation of the product results in a variable mixture of substituted styrenes by way of various substitution and elimination reaction mechanisms. As a result individual results are obtained for each…

Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia

2008-01-01

356

Preparation, structure, and properties of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer\\/clay nanocomposites: Part II fracture behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS)\\/clay nanocomposites were prepared via a melt mixing technique. Various amounts of two types of maleated compatibilizers, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer grafted maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) and polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), were incorporated to improve the dispersion of commercial organoclay (denoted as 20A), respectively. PP-g-MA compatibilized system conferred higher tensile strength and tear strength (initiation condition) than SEBS-g-MA

S.-M. Lai; Wen-Chih Chen; C.-M. Chen

2008-01-01

357

40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section...Gasoline § 80.55 Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be...

2013-07-01

358

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR 1,3-BUTADIENE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene, a gas used commercially in the production of various resins and plastics, concludes that 1,3-butadiene is a known human carcinogen, based on three types of evidence: 1) excess leukemias in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (by ...

359

Evolution of properties in ABS\\/PA6 blends compatibilized by fixed weight ratio SAGMA copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and Nylon 6 (PA6) incorporating styrene-acrylonitrile-glycidyl methacrylate\\u000a (SAGMA) copolymer as compatibilizer have been studied across five different compositions by varying the PA6 ratio from 15 wt%\\u000a to 55 wt%. The evolution of morphology from discrete dispersed PA6 particles to phase inversion to co-continuous phases effected\\u000a due to the compatibilizer have been studied vis-à-vis preliminary melt flow analysis, viscoelastic

Hema Singh; Neeraj K. Gupta

360

Vapor-liquid equilibria of copolymer + solvent and homopolymer + solvent binaries: New experimental data and their correlation  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-four isothermal data sets for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for polymer + solvent binaries have been obtained using a gravimetric sorption technique, in the range of 23.5--80 C. Solvents studied were acetone, acetonitrile, 1-butanol, 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroform, cyclohexane, hexane, methanol, octane, pentane, and toluene. Copolymers studied were poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), poly(styrene-co-butadiene), poly(styrene-co-butyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl acetate-co-ethylene), and poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl chloride). All copolymers were random copolymers. Some homopolymers were also studied: polyacrylonitrile, polybutadiene, poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(ethylene oxide), polystyrene, and poly(vinyl acetate). The composition of the copolymer may have a surprising effect on VLE. Normally, deviation from ideal behavior lies between those of the constituent homopolymers, according to the copolymer composition, as observed for cyclohexane + poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and chloroform + poly(styrene-co-butyl methacrylate). However, the strong nonideal behavior observed for systems containing hydrocarbons and poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) shows that the effect of acrylonitrile is in excess of that expected form the copolymer composition. The perturbed hard-sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state was used to represent VLE of the copolymer solutions studied here.

Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-07-01

361

Development and validation of a test method for acrylonitrile emissions  

SciTech Connect

Acrylonitrile (AN) has been identified as a suspected carcinogen and may be regulated in the future as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. A method was validated that utilizes a midget impinger containing methanol for trapping AN vapors followed by a charcoal tube for detecting any AN lost from the impinger. The analysis was performed by capillary gas chromatography with a nitrogen selective detector. The accuracy of the method was determined to be 100 + or - 4.6% from 11 tests performed in the laboratory covering the range of 10.6 to 1038 ppm AN and 0 to 40% moisture. The overall precision was 3.3%. Field testing of the method was conducted at two different sites.

Fulcher, J.N.; Howe, G.B.; Jayanty, R.K.M.; Peterson, M.R.

1989-03-01

362

Photolysis of astrophysically relevant acrylonitrile: a matrix experimental study.  

PubMed

This report documents the photochemical study of H2C ? C(H)CN (acrylonitrile) trapped in low-temperature argon matrices and irradiated with a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (? > 120 nm). We succeeded in identifying H2C ? C(H)NC (isoacrylonitrile) as a photoproduct. HC3N (cyanoacetylene), C2H2:HCN (acetylene:hydrogen cyanide), and C2H2:HNC (acetylene:hydrogen isocyanide) complexes, which are molecules detected in molecular clouds or in the Titan atmosphere, were also identified. No imine product was observed, but other compounds coming from the HC3N photolysis have been found. Fourier transform infrared measurements and (2)H substitution experiments coupled with density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/6-31G**) were performed to confirm the spectral assignments of the photochemical products and intermediate species. PMID:24621153

Toumi, A; Couturier-Tamburelli, I; Chiavassa, T; Piétri, N

2014-04-01

363

ABSORPTION OF CO2 AND SUBSEQUENT VISCOSITY REDUCTION OF AN ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. (R829555)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers (AN content greater than about 85 mol%) are traditionally solution processed to avoid a cyclization and crosslinking reaction that takes place at temperatures where melt processing would be feasible. It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO...

364

The development of a novel strategy for the microbial treatment of acrylonitrile effluents.  

PubMed

Effluent from the manufacture of acrylonitrile is difficult to biodegrade. It contains nine major organic components: acetic acid, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, acrylic acid, acrolein, cyanopyridine, fumaronitrile, succinonitrile, and maleimide. A range of bacteria have been isolated that can grow on, or convert all of the organic components of effluent from the manufacture of acrylonitrile. These bacteria can be used as the basis of a mixed culture system to treat the effluent. The bacteria were utilised in batch and continuous cultures to degrade a synthetic wastewater containing acrylonitrile, acrylamide, acrylic acid, cyanopyridine and succinonitrile. The mixed microbial population was adapted by varying the growth rate and switching from continuous to batch and back to continuous growth, to degrade these five compounds as well as acrolein, fumaronitrile and maleimide. PMID:7772945

Wyatt, J M; Knowles, C J

1995-06-01

365

The Rotational Spectrum of Acrylonitrile to 1.67 THz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) is an astrophysical molecule of sufficient abundance for detection of its ^{13}C isotopologues. In fact this molecule has been identified as one of the 'weed' species, that will contribute a plethora of lines in broadband submillimetre spectra from the new tools of radioastronomy, such as the Herschel Space Observatory or ALMA. We presently report the first stage in extending the knowledge of the rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile well into the THz region. The spectrum was recorded with the jpl cascaded harmonic multiplication instrument in the form of several broadband segments covering 390-540, 818-930, 967-1160, and 1576-1669 GHz. The analysis of the ground state spectrum has been extended up to J=128, K_a=29, and a combined data set of over 3000 fitted lines. It is found that transitions in all measurable vibrational states, inclusive of the ground state, show evidence of perturbations with other states. Several different perturbations between the ground state and v_{11}=1 at 228 cm^{-1} were identified and have been successfully fitted, resulting in E_{11}=228.29994(3) cm^{-1}, to compare with a direct far-infrared value of 228.83(18) cm^{-1}. H.S.P.Müller et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251, 319-325 (2008). B.J.Drouin, F.W.Maiwald, J.C.Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 093113-1-10 (2005). A.R.H.Cole, A.A.Green, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 48, 246-253 (1973).

Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.

2009-06-01

366

Selective hydrogenation of crude high-butadiene C4 cuts  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to butenes in the liquid phase or trickle phase in contact with a fixed-bed supported noble metal catalyst, wherein a C[sub 4] stream having a 1,3-butadiene content of from 20 to 80% w/w, based on the weight of the C[sub 4] stream, is hydrogenated in a cascade of two reaction zones wherein each of the two reaction zones is operated at reaction temperatures ranging from 40 C to 120 C, pressures ranging from 5 to 50 bar wherein the pressure in the second reaction zone is lower than the pressure in the first reaction zone, and liquid hourly space velocities of the C[sub 4] stream ranging from 0.1 to 30 h[sup [minus]1], such that the hydrogenation product from the first reaction zone has a 1,3-butadiene content of from 0.1 to 20% w/w and the hydrogenation product from the second reaction zone has a 1,3-butadiene content of from 0.005 to 1% w/w, based in both cases on the weight of the C[sub 4] stream, wherein the 1,3-butadiene content of the hydrogenation product from the second reaction zone is at least 5 times smaller than that of the hydrogenation product from the first reaction zone, and wherein the selectivity achieved for the conversion of 1,3-butadiene in the direction of butenes is at least 96%.

Polanek, P.; Posselt, D.; Schreyer, P.

1993-07-13

367

Thermal and crystallisation behaviours of blends of polyamide 12 with styrene–ethylene\\/butylene–styrene rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamide 12 (PA12)\\/styrene–ethylene\\/butylene–styrene (SEBS) and PA12\\/maleic anhydride grafted SEBS (SEBS-g-MA) blends were prepared in a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Thermal and crystallisation behaviours of these blends were evaluated. Thermal properties and morphology of the blends were estimated using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The phase structure of the blends was interpreted by dynamic

Seno Jose; P. Selvin Thomas; Sabu Thomas; J. Karger-Kocsis

2006-01-01

368

Medical applications of poly(styrene- block-isobutylene- block-styrene) (“SIBS”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(Styrene-block-IsoButylene-block-Styrene) (“SIBS”) is a biostable thermoplastic elastomer with physical properties that overlap silicone rubber and polyurethane. Initial data collected with SIBS stent-grafts and coatings on metallic stents demonstrate hemocompatibility, biocompatibility and long-term stability in contact with metal. SIBS has been used successfully as the carrier for a drug-eluting coronary stent; specifically Boston Scientific's TAXUS® stent, and its uses are being

Leonard Pinchuk; Gregory J. Wilson; James J. Barry; Richard T. Schoephoerster; Jean-Marie Parel; Joseph P. Kennedy

2008-01-01

369

Medical applications of poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (''SIBS'')  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(Styrene-block-IsoButylene-block-Styrene) (''SIBS'') is a biostable thermoplastic elastomer with physical properties that overlap silicone rubber and polyurethane. Initial data collected with SIBS stent-grafts and coatings on metallic stents demonstrate hemocompatibility, biocompatibility and long-term stability in contact with metal. SIBS has been used successfully as the carrier for a drug-eluting coronary stent; specifically Boston Scientific's TAXUSs stent, and its uses are being

Leonard Pinchuka; Gregory J. Wilsonb; James J. Barryc; Richard T. Schoephoersterd; Jean-Marie Parele; Joseph P. Kennedyg

370

Biodegradation of styrene in waterlogged soils and aquifer solids  

SciTech Connect

The biodegradation of styrene in waterlogged soils and aquifer solids was initially rapid, but the rate then declined. Significant amounts of styrene persisted under waterlogged conditions. Trace amounts of phenylethanol, phenylacetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and benzoic acid appeared in soils but not in aquifer solids. Styrene oxide was not detected. Addition of nitrate did not stimulate styrene degradation in aquifer solids and Lima Loam. Because many waste sites are anoxic, the persistence of styrene under waterlogged conditions may be of environmental importance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

Fu, Min Hong; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1996-12-01

371

Three-generation reproduction study of rats receiving acrylonitrile in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile, a high volume organic chemical, was tested for reproductive effects in a three generation drinking water study with two matings per generation. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to acrylonitrile in drinking water at 0, 100, or 500 ppm. This corresponds to 0, 11±5 and 37±10 mg\\/kg, respectively, for males and 0, 20±3 and 40±8 mg\\/kg per day for the females,

M. A. Friedman; R. P. Beliles

2002-01-01

372

Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous medium by nano poly acrylonitrile particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concerns the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye using nano-poly Acrylonitrile (PAN) and hydroximated nano-poly Acrylonitrile (HPAN) particles prepared by precipitation polymerization technique. The effect of the process variables including contact time, pH, initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption characters for PAN and HPAN was studied. The removal percentage varied from 100% to 60% with MB

Mohamed Samir Mohy Eldin; S. A. El-Sakka; M. M. El-Masry; I. I. Abdel-Gawad; S. S. Garybe

2012-01-01

373

Effects of interfacial interaction on the properties of poly(vinyl chloride)/styrene-butadiene rubber blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PVC/SBR blends---new thermoplastic elastomer material---were developed. They have potential applications due to low costs and low-temperature elasticity. A unique compatibilization method was employed to enhance the mechanical properties of the materials a compatibilizer miscible with one of the blend components can react chemically with the other component(s). Improvements in tensile and impact behavior were observed as a result of the compatibilization. A novel characterization technique to study the interface of PVC/SBR blends was developed. This technique involves the observation of the unstained sample under electron beam irradiation by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enrichment of rubber at the interface between PVC and SBR was detected in the compatiblized PVC/SBR blends. Magnetic relaxation measurements show that the rubber concentration in the proximity of PVC increases with the degree of covulcanization between NBR and SBR. The interface development and the rheological effect during processing were investigated. The interfacial concentration profile and the interfacial thickness were obtained by grayscale measurements on TEM micrographs, evaluation of SIMS images, and measurements of micromechanical properties.

Zhu, Shuihan

374

Influence of notch depth on tearing morphology and tearing energy in carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene butadiene rubber)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tearing energies (T) have been evaluated for carbon-black-reinforced SBR tested in uniaxial tension. The influence of notch depth on T and fracture morphology have also been determined. The influence of notch depth on the stress-strain behavior and on the failure stress and failure strain is also illustrated. The ratio of recovered-to-input energy as a function of both stress and strain

A. Goldberg; J. D. LeMay; R. J. Sanchez; J. C. Stone; J. Patt

1987-01-01

375

Influence of notch depth on tearing morphology and tearing energy in carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene butadiene rubber)  

SciTech Connect

Tearing energies (T) have been evaluated for carbon-black-reinforced SBR tested in uniaxial tension. The influence of notch depth on T and fracture morphology have also been determined. The influence of notch depth on the stress-strain behavior and on the failure stress and failure strain is also illustrated. The ratio of recovered-to-input energy as a function of both stress and strain was determined for notched and notch-free samples.

Goldberg, A.; LeMay, J.D.; Sanchez, R.J.; Stone, J.C.; Patt, J.

1987-01-30

376

Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, physico-mechanical properties of NR/SBR blends cured by electron beam irradiation and sulfur were compared. The NR/SBR blends were prepared using a two-roll mill. Electron beam irradiations of 100-400 kGy were applied to cure the blends and changes in physico-mechanical properties were studied as a function of irradiation. Also, oil resistance and the effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. The results show that the irradiated blends have better mechanical properties than those cured by sulfur system. The irradiation cured samples also exhibited better heat stability than the sulfur cured samples. The blend cured by the highest dose shows the lowest swelling and high oil resistance compared with the other samples cured by irradiation.

Manshaie, R.; Nouri Khorasani, S.; Jahanbani Veshare, S.; Rezaei Abadchi, M.

2011-01-01

377

STYRENE–BUTADIENE RUBBER\\/EPOXIDIZED NATURAL RUBBER BLENDS: THE EFFECT OF VULCANIZATION SYSTEM ON BLENDS PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behavior of the blends cured using two types of vulcanization systems [i.e., conventional vulcanization (CV) and semiefficient vulcanization (semi-EV)] were investigated. Results indicate that the maximum elastic torque (S? @MH) and the torque difference, S? @MH–S? @ML (maximum elastic torque minus minimum elastic torque) increased with the increasing epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) composition

HANAFI ISMAIL; S. SUZAIMAH

2000-01-01

378

Health Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Health Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene has been prepared to serve as a source document for Agencywide use. The exposure information included is an overview of the ambient exposures and exposure to populations adjacent to emission sources, without an...

1998-01-01

379

Hydrogenation of nitrile-butadiene rubber latex with diimide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenation of nitrile-butadiene rubber latex via utilization of diimide was investigated by examining hydrogenation efficiency and hydrogenation degree. It has been found that the hydrogenation efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of hydrogen peroxide consumed for the hydrogenation to the total amount of hydrogen peroxide reacted, varies with both the type of catalyst and degree of

Xinwang Lin; Qinmin Pan; Garry L. Rempel

2004-01-01

380

Cancer risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene. The assessment focuses on estimation of increased cancer risk to populations living near industrial sources of 1,3-butadiene emissions rather than occupationally exposed populations. Incremental cancer risk estimates based on extrapolation from laboratory animal data are presented. Pharmacokinetic data published since the EPA's 1985 assessment are incorporated, which somewhat alters the earlier assessment of cancer risk. Characterization of emission sources, estimates of ambient air concentrations, and population exposure are also discussed. The estimate presented in this paper of excess cancer cases resulting from point source exposure to 1,3-butadiene is decreased to approximately 40% of the estimate published in 1985 from 6.4 in 10 to 2.5 chances in 10 for a lifetime exposure to 1 ppm. The current estimate is no more than eight additional cancer incidences in the general population. Increased risk to the most exposed individuals is not anticipated to be greater than 1 in 10. This reduction in the risk estimate is due to a change in the estimate of 1,3-butadiene potency (i.e., incremental unit risk estimate) based on incorporation of new pharmacokinetic data.

Cote, I L; Bayard, S P

1990-01-01

381

KINETIC MODELING OF COUNTERFLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF BUTADIENE. (R828193)  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive, semi-detailed kinetic scheme was used to simulate the chemical structures of counterflow diffusion and fuel-rich premixed 1,3-butadiene flames, to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results showed that model predicti...

382

Styrene-oxide N-terminal valine haemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of occupational exposure to styrene.  

PubMed

Styrene is widely used in the production of various plastics, synthetic rubber and resins. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation and relatively high exposure occurs due to its use in manual application techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate if SO-Hb adducts are a suitable biomarker for assessing occupational exposure to styrene. Seventy-five reinforced plastic workers and 77 control subjects were studied. In the selected population the main urinary styrene metabolites and the styrene oxide N-terminal valine (SO-Hb) adducts in human globin were quantified. The levels of SO-Hb adducts were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the exposed subjects (5.98pmol/g globin) when compared with controls (2.59pmol/g globin) and a significant difference was found in levels of SO-Hb adducts between non-smokers and smokers among the control group. From our data we conclude that SO-Hb adduct measurement is a sensitive and specific means of assessing exposure to styrene at the occupational and environmental level. PMID:17572151

Teixeira, J P; Silva, S; Torres, J; Gaspar, J; Roach, J; Farmer, P B; Rueff, J; Mayan, O

2008-03-01

383

Simple Replica Micromolding of Biocompatible Styrenic Elastomers†  

PubMed Central

In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene fractions. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric fraction simplifies fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured.

Bielawski, Kevin S.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Jenkel, Colin F.; Vogt, Bryan D.; Posner, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

384

Cell sealant  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte disposed within an open ended cylindrical metallic cell container, with an insulative cell top member being positioned within the open end of a sealant at the interface between the cell top member and the metallic cell container. The sealant is a mixture of a Type 2 BUR asphalt and an elastomeric material selected from the group consisting of (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), neoprene (poly-chloprene), acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPR), butyl rubber (copolymers of isobutylene), urethane, nitrile (polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polysulfide, polyacrylate, silicone, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and EPDM (terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and diene monomers), and mixtures thereof, and wherein the elastomeric material is substantially inert to the electrolyte and is present in an amount between 0.5% to 10% by weight of the asphalt.

Markin, C.; Book, R.J.; James, D.A.

1988-04-26

385

Evaluation of possible genotoxic mechanisms for acrylonitrile tumorigenicity.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile (ACN) exposure is associated with tumors in rat brain, Zymbal gland, and mammary gland. Adducts affecting base pairing were formed in isolated DNA exposed in vitro to the ACN metabolite cyanoethylene oxide (CNEO). DNA from liver, which is not a cancer target organ in ACN-exposed rats, contained low levels of 7-(2-oxoethyl)guanine, and adduct believed not to interfere with base pairing. No adducts have been detected in brain DNA from ACN-exposed rats, suggesting that brain tumors may have arisen by mechanisms other than ACN-DNA reactivity. Genotoxicity assays of ACN have indicated no particular carcinogenic mechanism. Positive reverse mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium HisG46 base substitution tester strains by ACN is attributable to CNEO. Other in vitro genotoxicity test assays of ACN have yielded mixed results, without consistent effect of metabolic activation. Some positive genotoxicity data for ACN appear to result from artifacts or from non-DNA-reactive mechanisms. In vivo micronucleus, chromosome aberration, and autoradiographic unscheduled DNA synthesis assays were negative for ACN. The comparative genotoxicity of vinyl chloride and ACN indicates that despite other similarities, they cause rodent tumors by different mechanisms. Also, they absence of ACN-DNA adduct formation in the rat brain suggests the operation of epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:9693074

Whysner, J; Ross, P M; Conaway, C C; Verna, L K; Williams, G M

1998-06-01

386

Neurobehavioral alterations in rats exposed to acrylonitrile in drinking water.  

PubMed

This study was carried out on rodents, to explore the neurobehavioral effects of acrylonitrile (AN) administered in drinking water. Thirty, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: two exposure groups (50 and 200 ppm AN), and one control group (tap water without AN). Three tests, including the open field test, rotarod test and spatial water maze, were applied to evaluate locomotor activities, motor co-ordination and learning and memory, respectively, prior to initiation of the treatment, and at Week 4, 8 and 12 postexposure. There were no consistent changes in the open field test, except for locomotion and grooming episodes. In the rotarod test, AN significantly decreased the latencies to fall in a dose and time-dependent manner. In the spatial water maze test, rats exposed to AN for 12 weeks had significantly more training times and longer escape latencies than control animals. These findings indicate that oral exposure to AN induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats. PMID:17439920

Rongzhu, L; Suhua, W; Guangwei, X; Fangan, H; Ziqiang, C; Fusheng, J; Kacew, S

2007-03-01

387

Assessment of the acute acrylonitrile-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile (VCN) is an aliphatic nitrile which is used extensively in manufacturing of synthetic fibers, plastics, and rubber. Although the neurotoxicity of VCN is recognized, no thorough characterization of this effect has been reported. Current studies were designed to quantitatively characterize the acute phase of VCN-induced cholinomimetic neurotoxicity, and to determine the effects of dose, route of administration, and atropine on such toxicity. Administration of a single gavage or subcutaneous doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg VCN/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats causes two distinctive phases of acute neurotoxic effects. Signs observed in the early phase had a rapid onset, and were cholinomimetic in nature. They included salivation, lacrimation, chromodacryorrhea, polyuria, miosis, vasodilatation in face, ears and extremities, increased gastric secretion, and diarrhea. A late phase developed hours after VCN dosing, and the toxic signs included depression, convulsions, and respiratory failure followed by death at high doses. These results revealed that the cholinomimetic toxicity induced by VCN was dose related regardless of the route of administration. In another study, rats were pretreated with atropine (1 mg/kg, IP) prior to VCN (40 mg/kg) in order to investigate the role of the cholinergic system. Atropine protected rats against VCN-induced cholinomimetic neurotoxicity, suggesting possible involvement of the cholinergic system. Finally, this work provides essential basic information for studying the biochemical, pharmacological, and neurological basis of VCN-induced neurotoxicity in the rat. PMID:1758402

Ghanayem, B I; Farooqui, M Y; Elshabrawy, O; Mumtaz, M M; Ahmed, A E

1991-01-01

388

Differential Gene Expression by Styrene in Rat Reproductive Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene is an important industrial chemical that is extensively used in the production of resins, rubbers and fiberglass-reinforced plastics. Exposing male rats to high doses of styrene may produce sperm abnormalities or infertility. To determine the mechanism underlying styrene-mediated toxicity in male reproductive organs, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology was employed using annealing control primers (ACPs) to identify

Jee Hye Han; Chang-Su Choi; Mie Young Kim; Young-Jin Chun

2007-01-01

389

Styrenic block copolymers for biomaterial and drug delivery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of styrenic block copolymers has undergone a renaissance as a biomaterial and drug delivery matrix. The early promise posed by the physical and biological properties of these block copolymers for implantable medical devices was not met. However, there has been an increased understanding of the role of microphase separation on the mediation of the biological response. Poly (styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene)

Shrirang V. Ranade; Robert E. Richard; Michael N. Helmus

2005-01-01

390

21 CFR 173.70 - Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. 173.70 Section 173.70 Food...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene...the weight of the solids in the original resin dispersion. (c) The additive is...

2012-04-01

391

21 CFR 173.70 - Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. 173.70 Section 173.70 Food...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene...the weight of the solids in the original resin dispersion. (c) The additive is...

2011-04-01

392

21 CFR 177.2710 - Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. 177.2710 Section...177.2710 Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer resins may be safely used as articles...

2012-04-01

393

21 CFR 177.2710 - Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. 177.2710 Section...177.2710 Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer resins may be safely used as articles...

2011-04-01

394

21 CFR 173.70 - Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. 173.70 Section 173.70 Food...Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin. Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene...the weight of the solids in the original resin dispersion. (c) The additive is...

2010-01-01

395

21 CFR 177.2710 - Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. 177.2710 Section...177.2710 Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked. Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer resins may be safely used as articles...

2010-01-01

396

40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 ...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (P-90-364) is subject to...

2010-07-01

397

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800 ...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN P-90-360) is subject to...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800 ...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant...with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN P-90-360) is subject to...

2009-07-01

399

40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine...styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine...degrade the substance, the number of kilograms per day per...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic...styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (PMN...

2012-07-01

402

Telomerization of amino acids with butadiene, catalyzed by palladium complexes  

SciTech Connect

The telomerization of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, ..gamma..-, and epsilon-amino acids having various structures with butadiene under the influence of the three-component palladium catalyst Pd(acac)/sub 2/-PPh/sub 3/-AlEt/sub 3/ was investigated in DMSO-toluene solution. The ..cap alpha..- and epsilon-aliphatic and also the ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-aromatic amino acids react with butadiene, giving the products from octadienylation at the amino group exclusively. Under the conditions of telomerization aliphatic ..beta..-amino acids are cleaved with the formation of unsaturated tertiary amines. In the case of aliphatic ..gamma..-amino acids it is possible to obtain telomers alkylated at the carbonyl group.

Dzhemilev, U.M.; Fakhretdinov, R.N.; Telin, A.G.

1987-01-10

403

Toxicokinetics of inhaled 1,3-butadiene in monkeys: comparison to toxicokinetics in rats and mice.  

PubMed

1,3-Butadiene is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weaker carcinogen in rats. People are exposed to butadiene through its industrial use--largely in rubber production (over 3 billion pounds of butadiene were produced in 1989)--and because it is common in the environment, occurring in cigarette smoke, gasoline vapor and in the effluents from fossil fuel incineration. Epidemiological studies have provided some evidence for butadiene carcinogenicity in people. Differences in the uptake and metabolism of inhaled butadiene between rodents and primates, including people, might be reflected in differences in its toxicity. In order to compare uptake and metabolism in primates to that in rodents--for which data were already available--we exposed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to 14C-labeled butadiene at concentrations of 10.1, 310 or 7760 ppm for 2 hr. Exhaled air and excreta were collected during exposure and for 96 hr after exposure. The uptake of butadiene as a result of metabolism was much lower in monkeys than in rodents. For equivalent inhalation exposures, the concentrations of total butadiene metabolites in the blood were 5-50 times lower in monkey than in the mouse, the more sensitive rodent species, and 4-14 times lower than in the rat. If the toxicokinetics of butadiene in people is more like that of the monkey than that of rodents, then our data suggest that people will receive lower doses of butadiene and its metabolites than rodents following equivalent inhalation exposures to butadiene. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of butadiene exposure based on animal studies. PMID:1908146

Dahl, A R; Sun, J D; Birnbaum, L S; Bond, J A; Griffith, W C; Mauderly, J L; Muggenburg, B A; Sabourin, P J; Henderson, R F

1991-08-01

404

High Performance Light-Colored Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of Iin situ\\/I formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The Iin situ\\/I formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that

Yanda Lei; Baochun Guo; Feng Chen; Lixin Zhu; Wenyou Zhou; Demin Jia

2011-01-01

405

Butadiene inhalation accelerates arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gas widely used in the rubber industry, is also present in automotive exhaust and in the vapor phase of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; ~ 400 ?g\\/cigarette). The threshhold limit value (TLV) for BD which was 10 ppm, has now been reduced to 2 ppm. Extensive investigations of workers have identified very few statistically significant increases in BD-associated

Arthur Penn; Carroll A. Snyder

1996-01-01

406

Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan-g-poly acrylonitrile/silver nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Chitosan-grafted-poly acrylonitrile silver nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAN/Ag) were prepared via in-situ chemical reduction of Ag ions in graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan. Graft copolymerization process was provided by FTIR and gravimetric methods. UV spectra and TEM images show silver nanoparticles with average 15-20nm dispersed homogeneously in CS-g-PAN/Ag nanocomposite-ray and TGA evident the change in crystallography and thermal stability in consequence of presence Ag nanoparticles. Cs-g-PAN/Ag nanocomposite showed excellent antimicrobial performance towards bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24768973

Hebeish, A A; Ramadan, M A; Montaser, A S; Farag, Ahmed M

2014-07-01

407

Effects of Dynamic Vulcanization on Tensile Properties, Morphology and Natural Weathering of Polypropylene\\/Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (PP\\/NBRr) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dynamic vulcanization on properties of PP\\/NBRr blends has been investigated. Natural weathering has been carried out for period of 3 months and 6 months. It has been observed that tensile properties and oil resistance of the blends improved by dynamic vulcanization. SEM results indicate that dynamic vulcanization can be employed as a technique to get finer and

H. Ismail; D. Galpaya; Z. Ahmad

2009-01-01

408

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR STYRENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on styrene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of styrene, Toxicokinetics and human exposur...

409

Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of styrene, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, and benzonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra of styrene, benzaldehyde, acetophenone and benzonitrile have been measured in the wavelength region of 1500 to 2200 Å. The absorption bands in the vacuum ultraviolet region appear at 200, 196, 189, 180 and 163 mµ for styrene; at 195,186, 178 and 165 mµ for benzaldehyde; at 196, 191, 179 and 167 mµ for acetophenone; at

Katsumi Kimura; Saburo Nagakura

1965-01-01

410

STYRENE IMPAIRS SERIAL SPATIAL REVERSAL LEARNING IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Occupational exposure to styrene monomer has been implicated in the etiology of solvent-induced cognitive dysfunction. o evaluate the effects of styrene exposure on learning, rats were trained on a series of reversals of a spatial discrimination, permitting repeated evaluation of...

411

Oxidation of gaseous styrene by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the absorbed dose, background gases, relative humidity, and initial concentrations were selected as control factors to discover decomposition characteristics of styrene using electron beam irradiation. It was confirmed that a considerable amount of styrene was removed by primary electrons as well as radicals and ions, which were produced after the electron beam irradiation. Moreover, the removal efficiencies of styrene were observed to rise when the initial concentration was lower, moisture content was higher, and the absorbed dose increased. For instance, 50 ppmv styrene showed extremely high removal efficiency (over 98%) at a condition of 2.5 kGy. A small amount of styrene oxide, benzaldehyde, aerosol, CO, and CO2 were produced as by-products after EB irradiation.

Son, Youn-Suk; Son, Yeong-Sik; Park, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Pillheon; Kim, Jo-Chun

2012-06-01

412

Species differences in the metabolism and disposition of inhaled 1,3-butadiene and isoprene  

SciTech Connect

Species differences in sensitivity to carcinogenic effects from inhaled 1,3-butadiene might stem, at least in part, from differences in uptake, metabolism, and distribution of 1,3-butadiene. To examine this possibility, rats, mice, and monkeys were exposed to stepped concentrations of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,3-butadiene and the chemically related compound, isoprene. Respiratory data were collected during exposure and were used to determine fractional uptake. Rates and routes of excretion of retained radioactivity were also determined and blood levels of potentially toxic metabolites were measured. Some results from these continuing studies to date are: (a) mice achieve higher blood concentrations of reactive metabolites than do rats; (b) blood levels of toxic metabolites are lower in monkeys than in rodents; (c) uptake and retention of 1,3-butadiene is nonlinear in the range where long-term toxicity studies have been conducted; (d) the efficiency of production of reactive metabolites decreases with increased inhaled concentrations of 1,3-butadiene; (e) repeated exposure to 1,3-butadiene does not induce the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene in rodents; (f) hemoglobin adducts of 1,3-butadiene are potential dosimeters of exposure; and (g) rats inhaling isoprene produce reactive metabolites analogous to those produced during inhalation of 1,3-butadiene. The availability data indicate that major differences in the biological fate of inhaled 1,3-butadiene occur among species, and these differences, at least in part, account for those in species sensitivity to the toxicity of inhaled 1,3-butadiene.

Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E.; Bond, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Sun, J.D. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Birnbaum, L.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-06-01

413

Activity of sulphate reducing bacteria according to COD/SO4(2-) ratio of acrylonitrile wastewater containing high sulphate.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the biodegradability of acrylonitrile wastewater, microbial inhibition effect of acrylonitrile wastewater on removal efficiency and the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) according to COD/sulphate ratio. Acrylonitrile wastewater was hardly biodegradable in a biodegradability test, however, SRB activity was 57% for overall consumption of electron donor and it was relatively high value compared to 17% of reference test with glucose. COD removal of acrylonitrile wastewater was improved to 57% and 61% from 20% as the COD/sulphate ratio were 0.5 and 0.3 by sulphate addition to acrylonitrile wastewater. First order reaction rate constants k on organic removal of acrylonitrile wastewater were 0.001, 0.004 and 0.004 at each COD/sulphate ratio of 0.9, 0.5 and 0.3. Thus it was suggested that the activity of SRB was a significant factor for removing organics and sulphate simultaneously in acrylonitrile wastewater. PMID:15137428

Byun, I G; Lee, T H; Kim, Y O; Song, S K; Park, T J

2004-01-01

414

Tissue-specific genotoxic effects of acrylamide and acrylonitrile.  

PubMed

Acrylamide (AA) has been reported to induce dominant lethal mutations in male rat germ cells and tumors in a variety of organs, including the scrotum, thyroid and mammary glands, but not the liver of rats. The structurally similar vinyl monomer acrylonitrile (ACN) does not induce dominant lethal mutations but does induce tumors of the brain, Zymbal gland, forestomach and mammary gland, but not the liver of rats. Several in vitro and/or in vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assays were employed to examine the potential tissue-specific genotoxic activity of these compounds. Neither AA nor ACN induced DNA repair in either the in vitro or in vivo hepatocyte DNA repair assays. Glycidamide (GA), a mutagenic metabolite of AA, induced DNA repair in the in vitro hepatocyte DNA repair assay. Cyanoethylene oxide (CEO), a mutagenic metabolite of ACN, did not yield a DNA repair response in the in vitro hepatocyte DNA repair assay, but was highly toxic and could not be tested at doses equivalent to GA. AA, but not ACN, produced a DNA repair response in the in vivo spermatocyte DNA repair assay. AA produced a slight response in the in vitro human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) DNA repair assay in normal cells derived from discarded surgical samples from five different women. GA produced a strong UDS response in all cases in the same assay. CEO, but not its parent compound ACN, produced a response in the HMEC DNA repair assay. These results show a highly tissue-specific pattern of genotoxic activity for AA and ACN that correlates, to the extent that it has been examined, with the tissue-specific pattern of carcinogenic and dominant lethal activity. The induction of DNA repair by GA and CEO confirms the genotoxic potential of these metabolites. While the observation of genotoxic activity of AA in the HMEC DNA repair assay suggests that mammary cells might be a target for carcinogenic activity of this compound in humans, other factors such as pharmacokinetics and epidemiology must be evaluated to establish that effect. PMID:1396605

Butterworth, B E; Eldridge, S R; Sprankle, C S; Working, P K; Bentley, K S; Hurtt, M E

1992-01-01

415

Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in

BenoIt. Pouyatos; Caroline A. Gearhart; Laurence D. Fechter

2005-01-01

416

Kinetics of acrylonitrile adsorption from an aqueous solution using Dowex Optipore L-493  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption is widely applied in water treatment and activated carbon is the most common adsorbent. Slow intraparticle mass transfer and incomplete regeneration of the activated carbon form drawbacks in adsorption processes. Recently the use of polymeric sorbents as an alternative for activated carbon has been increasing. In this study the kinetics of the adsorption of acrylonitrile from an aqueous solution

C. Wegmann; E. Suárez García; P. J. A. M. Kerkhof

2011-01-01

417

Radiation Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Polyester Fiber as the Reinforcing Filler for Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been carried out on radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile onto polyester fiber and on the properties of the grafted fiber in an attempt to increase the strength of polyester fiber reinforced soft poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheet by imp...

K. Kaji I. Ando

1985-01-01

418

77 FR 40087 - 1,3-Butadiene Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2012-0027] 1,3-Butadiene Standard; Extension of...collection requirements specified by the 1,3-Butadiene Standard (29 CFR 1910...S.C. 657). In this regard, the 1,3-Butadiene Standard requires...

2012-07-06

419

SOME INSIGHTS INTO THE MODE OF ACTION OF BUTADIENE BY EXAMINING THE GENOTOXICITY OF ITS METABOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

1,3-Butadiene (BTD) is an important commodity chemical and air pollutant that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen in mice, and to a lesser extent, a carcinogen in rats. To better assess butadiene's carcinogenic risk to humans, it is important to understand its mode of action...

420

Phosphonium salts as catalysts for additive chlorination of 1,3-butadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorination of 1,3-butadiene in carbon tetrachloride was investigated by catalyzing the reaction by quaternary phosphonium salts. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide, tetrabutylphosphonium bromide, triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride, triethylbenzylphosphonium chloride, and tributylbenzylphosphonium chloride were used. It was shown that, being efficient catalysts of the additive chlorination of 1,3-butadiene, phosphonium salts direct chlorine preferentially into 1,2 positions.

S. S. Savanov; G. A. Tolstikov; F. Kh. Nizamutdinov; V. D. Komissarov

1988-01-01

421

Phosphonium salts as catalysts for additive chlorination of 1,3-butadiene  

SciTech Connect

The chlorination of 1,3-butadiene in carbon tetrachloride was investigated by catalyzing the reaction by quaternary phosphonium salts. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide, tetrabutylphosphonium bromide, triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride, triethylbenzylphosphonium chloride, and tributylbenzylphosphonium chloride were used. It was shown that, being efficient catalysts of the additive chlorination of 1,3-butadiene, phosphonium salts direct chlorine preferentially into 1,2 positions.

Savanov, S.S.; Tolstikov, G.A.; Nizamutdinov, F.Kh.; Komissarov, V.D.

1988-02-20

422

Amperometric study of hydrogen peroxide biosensor with butadiene rubber as immobilization matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon paste electrode bound by butadiene rubber has been newly constructed and its electrochemical properties have been investigated to test the practicability of the enzyme electrode. The binder of carbon powder was butadiene rubber dissolved in toluene and ground cabbage tissue was embedded in the matrix as an enzyme source. The electrode, which showed a mechanical robustness after volatilization

Beom-Gyu Lee; Keun-Bae Rhyu; Kil-Joong Yoon

2010-01-01

423

40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...The chemical substance identified as benzene ethenyl-, polymer with...

2013-07-01

424

A Practical, Two-Step Synthesis of 2-Substituted 1,3-Butadienes  

PubMed Central

A two-step procedure for preparing 2-alkyl-1,3-butadienes is described. Cuprate addition to commercially available 1,4-dibromo-2-butene yields 3-alkyl-4-bromo-1-butene, a product of SN2? substitution. Dehydrohalogenation gives 2-alkyl-1,3-butadienes.

Sen, Sushmita; Singh, Swapnil; Sieburth, Scott McN.

2009-01-01

425

Influence of radiation dose on shape memory effect of styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned about the influence of radialization dosage on performance of shape memory styrene copolymer. In this paper, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of styrene copolymer was measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The shape memory performance of styrene copolymer before and after radiation was also evaluated. Results indicated, the gel content of radiated styrene copolymer decreased by

Dawei Zhang; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng

2009-01-01

426

Sulfonated Styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene/Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Morphology, and Properties  

PubMed Central

Sulfonated styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene triblock copolymer (SSEBS) was synthesized by reaction of acetyl sulfate with SEBS. SSESB-clay nanocomposites were then prepared from hydrophilic Na-montmorillonite (MT) and organically (quaternary amine) modified hydrophobic nanoclay (OMT) at very low loading. SEBS did not show improvement in properties with MT-based nanocomposites. On sulfonation (3 and 6 weight%) of SEBS, hydrophilic MT clay-based nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and thermal properties, and also controlled water–methanol mixture uptake and permeation and AC resistance. Microstructure determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy due to better dispersion of MT nanoclay particles and interaction of MT with SSEBS matrix was responsible for this effect. The resulting nanocomposites have potential as proton transfer membranes for Fuel Cell applications.

2008-01-01

427

Sulfonated Styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene/Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Morphology, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfonated styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene triblock copolymer (SSEBS) was synthesized by reaction of acetyl sulfate with SEBS. SSESB-clay nanocomposites were then prepared from hydrophilic Na-montmorillonite (MT) and organically (quaternary amine) modified hydrophobic nanoclay (OMT) at very low loading. SEBS did not show improvement in properties with MT-based nanocomposites. On sulfonation (3 and 6 weight%) of SEBS, hydrophilic MT clay-based nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and thermal properties, and also controlled water-methanol mixture uptake and permeation and AC resistance. Microstructure determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy due to better dispersion of MT nanoclay particles and interaction of MT with SSEBS matrix was responsible for this effect. The resulting nanocomposites have potential as proton transfer membranes for Fuel Cell applications.

Ganguly, Anirban; Bhowmick, Anil K.

2008-01-01

428

Occupational-hazard control options for chemical process unit operations, preliminary survey report for the site visit of October 19, 1981 to Borg-Warner Chemicals Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted to investigate techniques used to control worker exposures to acrylonitrile at the Woodmar Facility of the Borg-Warner Chemicals Company in Washington, West Virginia. At this facility, many products were made including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins, methyl-methacrylate butadiene styrene resins, and other modifier and reinforcing resins used to process other polymers. Personal protective equipment was used when doing certain jobs to prevent possible skin or eye contact with the chemicals. Operators and maintenance personnel were trained in each operation and task they might encounter so as to minimize possible exposures. Safety standards were in existence which address health hazards of chemicals, mode of emission of chemicals, and control techniques to be used. Management follow-up and monitoring programs were designed to ensure consistent application of work practices throughout the facility.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-05-25

429

A critical review of the neurotoxicity of styrene in humans.  

PubMed

Styrene monomer is an aromatic industrial solvent. It is used to make polystyrene, resins, rubber, reinforced material and boats. Humans are exposed to styrene in occupational situations mostly during spraying processes at work, most of which is inhaled. The major neurotoxic effects of styrene as reviewed are prenarcotic effects, electroencephalographic abnormalities, slowing of motor, sensory and distribution nerve conduction velocities that reveal the possibility of polyneuropathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, slowing of reaction times, and centrally-controlled otoneurotoxicity. In acute exposure situations reversal of adverse effects has been observed; however, the impact of long-term exposure needs further studies. Dopamine depletion has been reported as a neurochemical basis of the neurotoxicity of styrene. Styrene epoxide, a toxic intermediate metabolite, has also been reported to deplete glutathione and cause lipid peroxidation, possibly leading to neuronal membrane damage. Raised concentrations of glial fibrillary acidic protein has been reported as an indicator of neurotoxicity in rats, which may damage the brain through astrogliosis phenomenon. This damage is also correlated to the toxic effects of styrene epoxide. Recently decreased monoamine oxidase type B activity in peripheral blood cells has been investigated as biochemical indicator of neurotoxicity of styrene in workers. There is a need for long-term studies, consideration of confounding factors (smoking, alcohol, diet, drugs, working environment and exposure to other solvents), and the effects on different ethnic and racial groups. More electroencephalographic studies and computer tomographic investigations are desired. Further reduction of the exposure limit to below 50 ppm is recommended. PMID:7980742

Pahwa, R; Kalra, J

1993-12-01

430

Hemoglobin adducts as a marker of exposure to chemical substances, especially PRTR class I designated chemical substances.  

PubMed

Many new biomarkers are being studied, in addition to classical biomarkers, such as chemical substances and their metabolites in blood and urine and modified enzymes. Among these new biomarkers, hemoglobin adducts are thought to be especially useful for the estimation of chemical exposures. We review here the use of biomarkers for monitoring exposures to nine substances, mainly focusing on PRTR class I designated chemical substances, styrene, phenyloxirane (styrene oxide), 4,4'-methylendiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), 4,4'-methylendianiline (MDA), 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Hemoglobin adduct levels were elevated after exposures to styrene, MDI, MDA, 1, 3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile. Moreover, hemoglobin adducts of butadiene, ethylene oxide, acrylamide and acrylonitrile have several useful advantages. For example, the hemoglobin adduct of 1,3-butadiene is an even more useful biomarker of exposure than urinary metabolites, and in the case of ethylene oxide, even though the concentration of ethylene oxide-Hb in the blood of workers did not exceed the value of the German exposure equivalent, a significant difference in it was found between workers and a control group. Also hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and acrylonitrile can reflect their exposures because there are no urinary metabolites of acrylamide and acrylonitrile that are useful for exposure assessment. In addition to these advantages, hemoglobin adducts are superior to DNA adducts with respect to the availability of large amounts, availability of methods for chemical identification, and well-defined life spans due to the absence of repair. Hemoglobin adducts can be effective biomarkers for assessing exposure to and the effects of chemicals. PMID:17053297

Ogawa, Masanori; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Yamaguchi, Tetsunosuke; Murakami, Tomoe; Endo, Yoko; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

2006-09-01

431

[The airborne 1,3-butadiene concentrations in rubber and plastic processing plants].  

PubMed

Environment pollution by 1,3-butadiene had considerably increased in Japan. The main cause of the pollution is the automotive exhaust gas, and leaks from factories, smoking, and burning of rubber and plastic products are considered to be minor sources. The object of this study was to determine the contamination levels of airborne 1,3-butadiene in factories processing rubber and plastics containing 1,3-butadiene. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene were measured in 21 plants (10 rubber processing plants and 11 plastics processing plants) in Osaka. 1,3-Butadiene in air was collected for 10 minutes with a charcoal tube and a portable small pump adjusted to a 250 ml/min flow rate. In each plant, indoor air samples at five points and an outdoor air sample at one point outside the plant were collected. The samples were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after thermal desorption from the charcoal. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene in the rubber processing plants and the plastics processing plants were 0.14-2.20 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.48 microgram/m3) and 0.23-4.51 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.80 microgram/m3), respectively. In all plants examined, indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were higher than the outdoor concentrations around the plants. Therefore, 1,3-butadiene was considered to arise from the processing of rubber or plastics, but the indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were much lower than the PEL-TWA (1 ppm = 2.21 mg/m3) of OSHA and the TLV-TWA (2 ppm) of ACGIH. The concentrations in the plants with closed room conditions without ventilation were higher than the concentrations in the other plants. It was suggested that ventilation affected the 1,3-butadiene concentration in the plants. PMID:11993233

Yoshida, Toshiaki; Tainaka, Hidetsugu; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Goto, Sumio

2002-03-01

432

The effect of different impact modifiers in halogen-free flame retarded polycarbonate blends – II. Fire behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this second of a series of two papers, the fire behaviour of halogen-free flame retarded polycarbonate (PC) blends with different impact modifiers was studied. The impact modifiers were acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS), a poly(n-butyl acrylate) rubber (PBA) with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell and two silicone–acrylate rubbers consisting of PBA with different amounts of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and different shell materials (PMMA

Birgit Perret; Bernhard Schartel

2009-01-01

433

The effect of different impact modifiers in halogen-free flame retarded polycarbonate blends – I. Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first of two papers, the thermal decomposition of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate)-flame retarded polycarbonate (PC) blends with different impact modifiers was studied. The impact modifiers were an acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS), a poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) rubber with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell and two silicone–acrylate rubbers consisting of PBA with different amounts of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and different shells (PMMA and

Birgit Perret; Bernhard Schartel

2009-01-01

434

Warpage and structural analysis of thin shell plastic in the plastic injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the cell thin shell phone cover produced with polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC\\/ABS) thermoplastic were decided as a model. First, the effects of the injection parameters on warpage for different thickness values were examined using Taguchi method. The warpage values were found by analyses which were done by moldflow plastic insight (MPI) 4.0 software. The most influential parameter

Babur Ozcelik; Ibrahim Sonat

2009-01-01

435

Localized plastic deformation in ternary polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of localized plastic strain in polycarbonate (PC)\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) polymer blends are investigated numerically with respect to their dependence on the blend microstructure as well as their interrelation to toughening mechanisms in these materials. Modeling of the blends consists of two steps: the representation as a two-phase material of ABS particles embedded in a PC matrix and the development of

Th. Seelig; E. van der Giessen

2002-01-01

436

Runaway reaction and thermal hazards simulation of cumene hydroperoxide by DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified self-heating rate equation was developed to simulate the adiabatic thermal hazards of 88mass% cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in cumene. CHP has been predominantly used in producing phenol and acetone by catalytic cleavage and as initiator in the acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) copolymer polymerization process. In this study, we acquired experimental data, such as the heat of decomposition (?Hd) and exothermic onset

Kun-Yue Chen; Sheng-Hung Wu; Yih-Wen Wang; Chi-Min Shu

2008-01-01

437

The role of dispersed phase morphology on toughening of epoxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of structural core\\/shell latex particles as toughening agents provides a model system which allows independent control of several key factors that influence the fracture toughness of modified plastics. This paper focuses on varying the shell composition of poly(butadiene-co-styrene) [P(B-S)] core\\/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PPMA) shell particles by incorporating acrylonitrile (AN) comonomer into the PMMA shell at various AN\\/MMA ratios and

Julie Y. Qian; Raymond A. Pearson; Victoria L. Dimonie; Olga L. Shaffer; Mohamed S. El-Aasser

1997-01-01

438

Synthesis of a new sulphonated cation exchange resin and its application in catalysed hydrolysis of esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of an acidic cation exchanger have been prepared by sulphonation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer previously cross-linked with phenol-formaldehyde resin. The samples having a cation exchange capacity of 3.48 meqg-1, are being introduced as new catalysts in the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. The synthesized cation exchanger shows good thermal and chemical stability. Hydrolysis rate constants (Kr values) for the

M. S. Metwally; M. F. El-Hadi; M. A. El-Wardany; A. Abdel Razik

1990-01-01

439

Adhesion Improvement of ABS Resin to Electroless Copper by H2SO4–MnO2 Colloid with Ultrasound-Assisted Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion strength between electroless copper and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin can be improved significantly by an environmentally friendly etching system containing H2SO4–MnO2 colloid as a replacement for conventional chromic acid etching solutions. In this paper, the effects of the H2SO4 concentration and ultrasound-assisted treatment (UAT) on the surface roughness and adhesion strength were investigated. When the H2SO4 concentration was 11.8?12.7

Zhifeng Yang; Yue He; Zhun Li; Na Li; Zenglin Wang

2011-01-01

440

Acidic electroless copper deposition on aluminum-seeded ABS plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu) was successfully deposited onto aluminum (Al)-seeded acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) plastics in acidic electroless baths containing 15 wt.% copper sulfate and 5 wt.% of any of the acids including sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), nitric acid (HNO3), or acetic acid (CH3COOH). Cu crystals were formed on the Al-seeded ABS surfaces deposited from all of the four acidic baths. Electroless Cu deposition

Dapeng Li; Chen-Lu Yang

2009-01-01

441

Electroless copper deposition on aluminum-seeded ABS plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a method of converting non-conductive plastic surfaces into conductive by coating either aluminum or aluminum-carbon\\u000a black containing enamel pastes onto acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastics to create aluminum-seeded surfaces for\\u000a a subsequent copper deposition. Through a simple electroless procedure, copper ions were reduced on the Al seeds and deposited\\u000a on the ABS surface to develop a conductive layer in about

Dapeng Li; Kate Goodwin; Chen-Lu Yang

2008-01-01

442

Improved ABS plastic activating treatment for electroless copper plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is described for the electroless deposition of copper onto acrylonitrile—butadiene—styrene (ABS) plastic. Etched ABS plastic was dipped directly into PdSO4 solution instead of the usual sensitization followed by activation. Experimental results show that the Pd2+ ions from PdSO4 solution are coordinated to the polar groups (i.e. ?COOH, ?SO3H?—, etc.) on the surface of the etched ABS, resulting

Pei-Chi Yen

1995-01-01

443

Evaluation of respiratory effects of thermal decomposition products following single and repeated exposures of guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of guinea pigs were exposed to the thermal decomposition products (TDP) released from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene\\u000a (ABS), polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer (CP), polypropylene homopolymer (HP), or plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC).\\u000a In single 50-min exposures to the TDP, guinea pigs exhibited sensory irritation, coughing, and airways constriction. Significant\\u000a decreases in respiratory frequency (f) occurred during TDP exposure which were magnified during CO2

Katherine Detwiler-Okabayashi; Michelle Schaper

1995-01-01

444

PVC\\/ABS Blends: Thermal and Morphological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl chloride) and acrylonitrile?butadiene?styrene terpolymer blends made via melt blending were studied with respect to property enhancement, morphology, and physicochemical characterization. Blends were characterized by various thermal, morphological, and spectro?chemical methods of analysis. Two distinct glass transitions were recorded by differential scanning calorimetry. This suggested the need for a compatibilizer. Thermal decomposition behavior of blends was analysed by thermogravimetric analysis.

Amit R. Gawade; A. V. Lodha; P. S. Joshi

2007-01-01

445

Using metallic resin and aluminum alloy molds to manufacture propellers with RP\\/RT technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this study is to investigate an effective method to manufacture propellers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The investment casting process and injection molding process have been applied separately to the rapid prototyping\\/rapid tooling (RP\\/RT) to obtain metal (Al-Si alloy) propellers and plastic (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene – ABS) propellers. The two different manufacturing processes were compared following the same

C. Y. Hsu; C. K. Huang; G. J. Tzou

2008-01-01

446

Determination of Cd and Cr in an ABS candidate reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

In order to practically better cope with technical barriers to trade (TBT) of a great number of resin goods, our research presents first-ever results for the determination of Cd and Cr in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) candidate reference material using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) recently recognized as a candidate primary ratio method with a particular attention to the estimation of involved measurement uncertainties. PMID:18715790

Park, Kwangwon; Kang, Namgoo; Cho, Kyunghaeng; Lee, Jounghae

2008-12-01

447

Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

1977-01-01

448

Blends of polycarbonate with unmodified and maleic anhydride grafted ABS: fracture mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical blends of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) at two different weight fractions were made (PC35\\/ABS65 and P75\\/ABS25). Reactive blended similar compositions of PC with maleic anhydride grafted ABS (MABS) were also made at the same compositions. The crack resistance behaviour of these two types of blends and feedstocks (PC and ABS) were studied. The generalized locus method was

S. Balakrishnan; N. R. Neelakantan

1999-01-01

449

Properties and preparation of compatibilized nylon 6 nanocomposites\\/ABS blends: Part II – Physical and thermal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and thermal properties of nanoclay filled nylon 6 (nano-nylon 6) blended with poly(acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene)terpolymers (ABS) were investigated using metallocene polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (POE-g-MA) or polybutadiene grafted maleic anhydride (PB-g-MA) as a compatibilizer. Cooling conditions significantly affected the crystalline structure of nano-nylon 6. No clear effect of both compatibilizers on the dispersion of clay has been observed via transmission

S.-M. Lai; H.-C. Li; Y.-C. Liao

2007-01-01

450

Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and bac advanced treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of degradation\\/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30min

Chi-Kang Lin; Tsung-Yueh Tsai; Jiunn-Ching Liu; Mei-Chih Chen

2001-01-01

451

Fracture resistance of unfilled and calcite-particle-filled ABS composites reinforced by short glass fibers (SGF) under impact load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer, unfilled and filled with calcium carbonate (calcite) particles, was used as a matrix for reinforcement with short glass fibers (SGF). All of the materials were prepared by injection molding and the fibers in the specimens were oriented preferentially in the flow direction (i.e. the axial direction of the specimens). The composites were studied with respect to the

Shao-Yun Fu; Bernd Lauke

1998-01-01

452

Characterization of tensile behaviour of hybrid short glass fibre\\/calcite particle\\/ABS composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile properties of hybrid, injection molded, short glass fibre (SGF)\\/calcite particle\\/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) composites have been investigated. To gain an insight into some possible combined effect of the SGF\\/ABS interfacial adhesion strength and the calcite particle\\/ABS adhesion strength on the tensile properties of the hybrid composites, the glass fibres employed in the investigation were as-received and sized with an aminosilane\\/polyurethane

Shao-Yun Fu; Bernd Lauke

1998-01-01

453

The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

1978-01-01

454

Distribution and characteristics of pyrolysis products from automobile shredder residue using an experimental semi-batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobile shredder residue (ASR) generated by end-of-life vehicles, comprises more than 20% of a new vehicle by weight. Significant\\u000a amounts of polymers in ASR, such as Poly Propylene (PP), Poly Ethylene (PE), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Ethylene\\u000a Propylene Ethylidene Nobomene (EPDM), rubber, Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Poly Amide (PA), and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC),\\u000a can be used as energy or chemical

Hyun Tae Joung; Yong Chil Seo; Ki Heon Kim; John Hee Hong; Tae Wook Yoo

2007-01-01

455

Complex permittivity measurements of common plastics over variable temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present complex permittivity data at microwave frequencies (approximately 10 GHz) for many common plastics over a temperature range of 122 to 375 K. The measurements were made with a TE01? dielectric resonator placed inside an environmental chamber. Data are presented for the following materials: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polytetrafluoroethylene, cross-linked polystyrene, tetrafluorethylene-perfluorpropylene, polypropylene, polysulfone, polymethylmethacrylate, polyvinyl chloride,

Bill Riddle; James Baker-Jarvis; Jerzy Krupka

2003-01-01

456

Effect of cyclic loading on tensile properties of PC and PC\\/ABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cyclic loading on tensile fracture properties of polycarbonate (PC) and the alloy of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (PC\\/ABS) are experimentally investigated in the paper. Two digital cameras are used to record simultaneously the tensile deformation of specimens and the large deformation and the necking process of these polymers are discussed. Two lateral contractions are not identical at the

Qin-Zhi Fang; T. J. Wang; H. G. Beom; H. M. Li

2008-01-01

457

Effect of Modified Intumescent Flame Retardant via Surfactant\\/Polyacrylate Latex on Properties of Intumescent Flame Retardant ABS Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prepare intumescent flame retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) composites with only a small decrease in their mechanical properties, we investigated the effect of adding an elastomeric polyacrylate latex and the surfactant TX-10 phosphate to modify the ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, and calcium 3-hydroxy-2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propyl phosphate normally used, which resulted in an intumescent flame retardant composite (IFRC) powder with the

Pei-Bang Dai; Xiu-Li Wang; De-Yi Wang; Li Chen; Yu-Zhong Wang

2008-01-01

458

Kinetics study of thermal oxidative degradation of ABS containing flame retardant components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of pure acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) and the flame-retarded ABS materials\\u000a with intumescent flame retardant (IFR) were investigated using Kissinger, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, and Horowitz–Metzger methods.\\u000a The results showed that the degradation of all samples included two stages, the activation energy at the first stage decreased\\u000a by the incorporation of these flame retardant components, while increased at the second

Jun Wang; Xu-fu Cai

459

Weather-Induced Degradation of Plastic Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of plastic materials, such as unplasticized poly(viny1 chloride) (uPVC), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), poly-(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and chlorinated poly(viny1 chloride) (cPVC), are available for numerous applications. uPVC and HDPE pipes are used in pressurized piping systems in Saudi Arabia for industrial, agricultural, domestic, and general-purpose applications. Some studies have been carried out to investigate the causes of

F. S. Qureshi; S. H. Hamid; A. G. Maadhah; Mohamad B. Amin

1989-01-01

460

Preparation and Characterization of ABS Resin\\/Clay Nanocomposite by Melt Compounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocomposite of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) resin and clay was prepared by melt compounding using a twin screw extruder. The state of dispersion and microstructure in ABS resin\\/clay nanocomposite were observed by XRD. The mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposite were also investigated. When ABS resin was intercalated to the silicate layer in clay, the separation distance between the layers increased

Nobuya Yamada; Takashi Ogihara; Nobuo Ogata; Shuichi Saito; Akihiko Ueyama; Tomokazu Maekawa; Tsunemune Unryu

2009-01-01

461

Thermal stability, flame retardancy and rheological behavior of ABS filled with magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whisker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Halogen-free and flame-retardant acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (ABS) composites were prepared using magnesium\\u000a hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whisker as a flame retardant, and the effect of zinc stearate (ZnSt2) as a dispersion additive on the morphology and properties of the ABS\\/MHSH composites was studied. The morphology observation\\u000a by using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) indicates that the addition of zinc stearate could improve

Bo Liu; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Zhang; Rongxun Li; Guangye Liu

2007-01-01

462

Study of the viscoelastic properties of PC\\/ABS blend containing triphenyl phosphate and nanoclay and its correlation with morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), commonly used as flame retardant, also montmorillonite nanoclay and hybrid of them, on the morphology and rheological characteristic of PC\\/ABS (Polycarbonate\\/ Acrylonitrile-butadiene-Styrene) blends are investigated. The blends were prepared via a direct melt blending process in a twin-screw extruder. Morphological properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission

E. a b Feyz; Y. b Jahani; M. b Esfandeh; M. a Ghafelehbashi; S.H.c Jafari

2010-01-01

463

Synergistic effect of carbon nanotube and clay for improving the flame retardancy of ABS resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synergistic effect between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and clay on improving the flame retardancy of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin was studied. Flammability properties measured by a cone calorimeter revealed that incorporation of clay and MWNTs into ABS resin significantly reduced the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and slowed down the whole combustion process compared to the individually filled system based on

Haiyun Ma; Lifang Tong; Zhongbin Xu; Zhengping Fang

2007-01-01

464

Effect of Lignin Incorporation and Reactive Compatibilization on the Morphological, Rheological, and Mechanical Properties of ABS Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop the potential application of industrial alkali lignin, its acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) composites were fabricated via melt blending in the absence\\/presence of a compatibilizer. The lignin can uniformly disperse in the ABS matrix with number-average dispersed-phase domains of sub-micron scale, ranging from 150–250 nm, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that strong intermolecular interactions, mainly

Pingan Song; Zhenhu Cao; Qingrong Meng; Shenyuan Fu; Zhengping Fang; Qiang Wu; Jiewang Ye

2012-01-01

465

Preparation and characterization of flame retardant ABS\\/montmorillonite nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame retardant acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS)\\/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by direct melt intercalation of ABS, organophilic clay and conventional fire retardants (decabromodiphenyl oxide (DB) and antimony oxide (AO)). Morphology and flammability properties were characterized by X-ray power diffractionmeter (XRD), high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, UL-94 test and cone

Shaofeng Wang; Yuan Hu; Ruowen Zong; Yong Tang; Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan

2004-01-01

466

Subcellular distribution of styrene oxide in rat liver  

SciTech Connect

The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-styrene-7,8-oxide was studied in the rat liver. The compound was added to liver homogenate to give a final concentration of 2 X 10(-5); 2 X 10(-4) and 2 X 10(-3) M. Subcellular fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. Most of styrene oxide (59-88%) was associated with the cytosolic fraction. Less than 15 percent of the compound was retrieved in each of the nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions. A considerable percentage of radioactivity was found unextractable with the organic solvents, suggesting that styrene oxide reacted with the endogenous compounds. The intracellular distribution of this epoxide was also studied in the perfused rat liver. Comparable results with those previously described were obtained. The binding of styrene oxide to the cytosolic protein was investigated by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. Only a small percentage of the compound was bound to protein.

Pacifici, G.M.; Cuoci, L.; Rane, A.

1984-01-01

467

Adsorption of styrene at a binary solution-gas interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface tension isotherms of styrene solutions in 2-propanol-water solvents are obtained experimentally. Isotherms of excess and absolute adsorption at the liquid-gas interfaces are also obtained. A thermodynamic model for the adsorption of styrene from 2-propanol-water binary solvent at the solutiongas interfaces is proposed on the basis of the stoichiometric approach. The isosteric adsorption heats are calculated using the experimental isotherms of surface tension and excess adsorption of styrene from 2-propanol-water binary solvent, and it is shown that the formation of the surface layer occurs according to a mechanism combining the processes of displacement adsorption between molecules of the components of the solvent, styrene, and 2-propanol.

Fedorova, A. A.; Ulitin, M. V.

2011-10-01

468

Dissolution Rates of Copolymers Based on 4-Hydroxystyrene and Styrene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Copolymers were synthesized by free-radical polymerization using 4-acetoxystyrene and styrene in various ratios. These polymers then were hydrolyzed to the corresponding 4-hydroxystyrene (phenol) copolymers. The dissolution rates of the copolymers (using ...

C. P. Lei F. Rodriguez S. K. Obendorf T. Long

1991-01-01

469

Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated, using a screening test method. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acrylonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions, and carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

Hilado, C. J.; Kosola, K. L.; Solis, A. N.

1977-01-01

470

Styrenation of triglyceride oil by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrenated oil was obtained by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) method in the presence of 2,2?,6,6?-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO). For this purpose, firstly, macroinitiator having thermally unstable azo groups was obtained with reaction of partial glycerides (PGs) mixture and 4,4?-azobis-4-cyanopentanoyl chloride (ACPC). Then, the macroinitiator was subjected to polymerization with styrene in the presence of TEMPO in order to obtain a copolymer

Neslihan Alemdar; A. Tuncer Erciyes; Yusuf Yagci

2009-01-01

471

Microencapsulation of styrene with melamine-formaldehyde resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin-walled microcapsules containing styrene were prepared by in situ polymerization in an oil-in-water\\u000a emulsion. In response to the characteristics of styrene (i.e., high volatility, non-polarity, low molecular weight, and low\\u000a viscosity), the synthesis method was improved by optimizing the reaction conditions accordingly. It was found that utilization\\u000a of macromolecular emulsifier of lower molecular weight, moderate dispersion rate, and

Haiping Wang; Yanchao Yuan; Minzhi Rong; Mingqiu Zhang

2009-01-01

472

Synaptic contacts impaired by styrene-7,8-oxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a chemical compound widely used in industrial applications, is a potential hazard for humans, particularly in occupational settings. Neurobehavioral changes are consistently observed in occupationally exposed individuals and alterations of neurotransmitters associated with neuronal loss have been reported in animal models. Although the toxic effects of styrene have been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms responsible for SO-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. A possible dopamine-mediated effect of styrene neurotoxicity has been previously demonstrated, since styrene oxide alters dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Thus, the present study hypothesizes that styrene neurotoxicity may involve synaptic contacts. Primary striatal neurons were exposed to styrene oxide at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM) for different time periods (8, 16, and 24 h) to evaluate the dose able to induce synaptic impairments. The expression of proteins crucial for synaptic transmission such as Synapsin, Synaptophysin, and RAC-1 were considered. The levels of Synaptophysin and RAC-1 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, morphological alterations, observed at the ultrastructural level, primarily involved the pre-synaptic compartment. In SO-exposed cultures, the biochemical cascade of caspases was activated affecting the cytoskeleton components as their target. Thus the impairments in synaptic contacts observed in SO-exposed cultures might reflect a primarily morphological alteration of neuronal cytoskeleton. In addition, our data support the hypothesis developed by previous authors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating events of SO cytotoxicity. PMID:17662326

Corsi, P; D'Aprile, A; Nico, B; Costa, G L; Assennato, G

2007-10-01

473

Synaptic contacts impaired by styrene-7,8-oxide toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a chemical compound widely used in industrial applications, is a potential hazard for humans, particularly in occupational settings. Neurobehavioral changes are consistently observed in occupationally exposed individuals and alterations of neurotransmitters associated with neuronal loss have been reported in animal models. Although the toxic effects of styrene have been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms responsible for SO-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. A possible dopamine-mediated effect of styrene neurotoxicity has been previously demonstrated, since styrene oxide alters dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Thus, the present study hypothesizes that styrene neurotoxicity may involve synaptic contacts. Primary striatal neurons were exposed to styrene oxide at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM) for different time periods (8, 16, and 24 h) to evaluate the dose able to induce synaptic impairments. The expression of proteins crucial for synaptic transmission such as Synapsin, Synaptophysin, and RAC-1 were considered. The levels of Synaptophysin and RAC-1 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, morphological alterations, observed at the ultrastructural level, primarily involved the pre-synaptic compartment. In SO-exposed cultures, the biochemical cascade of caspases was activated affecting the cytoskeleton components as their target. Thus the impairments in synaptic contacts observed in SO-exposed cultures might reflect a primarily morphological alteration of neuronal cytoskeleton. In addition, our data support the hypothesis developed by previous authors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating events of SO cytotoxicity.

Corsi, P. [Dip. di Farmacologia e Fisiologia Umana, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Bari, 70124 Italy (Italy)], E-mail: pcorsi@fisiol.uniba.it; D'Aprile, A. [Dip. di Medicina Interna e Pubblica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy); Nico, B. [Dip. di Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy); Costa, G.L. [Dip. di Anatomia, Farmacologia e Scienze Medico Forensi, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Parma (Italy); Assennato, G. [Dip. di Medicina Interna e Pubblica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy)

2007-10-01

474

Characterization of a Poly(styrene-block-methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) Shape Memory ABA Triblock Copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ABA triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-block- methylacrylate-random-octadecylacrylate-block-styrene) (PS-b- PMA-r-PODA-b-PS) was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The triblock copolymer can generate a three-dimensional, physically crosslinked network by self-assembly, where the glassy PS domains physically crosslink the midblock chains. The side chain crystallization of the polyoctadecylacrylare (PODA) side chain generates a second reversible network enabling shape memory properties.

Pengzhan Fei; Kevin Cavicchi

2011-01-01

475

Polyalkylation of primary polyols by 1,4-addition to tert-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very hydrophilic primary polyols pentaerythritol (PE), 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS), can be polyetherified in satisfactory yield by 1,4-addition to tert-butyl acrylate using phase-transfer catalysis. Polycyanoethylation of these polyols can also be accomplished with acrylonitrile. Preliminary results of chelation between some polyether-acids with samarium (III) are presented.

Agnès Dupraz; Philippe Guy; Claude Dupuy

1996-01-01

476

Improvement of the water purification capability of poly(acrylonitrile) ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafiltration membranes used for drinking water treatment need to have high rejection for microbial species. The effect of various inorganic halides added to a casting solution of poly(acrylonitrile) in N,N-dimethyl formamide was examined by measuring changes in the intrinsic viscosity, concentrated solution viscosity and the ternary phase boundary. Both mono- and divalent salts decreased polymer–solvent affinity; the higher viscosity in

M. H Shinde; S. S Kulkarni; D. A Musale; S. G Joshi

1999-01-01

477

Three-generation reproduction study of rats receiving acrylonitrile in drinking water.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile, a high volume organic chemical, was tested for reproductive effects in a three generation drinking water study with two matings per generation. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acrylonitrile in drinking water at 0, 100, or 500 ppm. This corresponds to 0, 11+/-5 and 37+/-10 mg/kg, respectively, for males and 0, 20+/-3 and 40+/-8 mg/kg per day for the females, respectively. Water consumption was reduced in F0 rats in the 100 and 500 ppm groups. At 500 ppm, acrylonitrile reduced body weight gain and food intake of the first generation parental rats (F0). These parameters were not investigated at subsequent generations. The pup survival (both viability and lactation indices) was reduced at the 500 ppm treatment level in both matings of all three generations. Fostering the 500 ppm pups onto untreated mothers following the second mating lessened mortality, suggesting a maternal effect consistent with decreased water consumption. There was no remarkable change in the reproductive capacity in any of matings in rats at the 100 ppm concentration. In contrast, in all three generations, the body weights of the pups of the 500 ppm treatment level were reduced on Day 21 at both matings. No adverse findings were observed in the tissues of a limited number of third generation weanlings (F3b) upon gross and microscopic evaluation. No effect on the sciatic nerve was evident among the adult female rats held for 20 weeks after weaning of the second litter. There was a dose-related effect of acrylonitrile on gross masses in female rats at each parental generation held 20 weeks after the weaning of the second litter. Histopathological evaluation of these dams showed an increase in astrocytomas and zymbal gland tumors. PMID:12044706

Friedman, M A; Beliles, R P

2002-06-24

478

Two-year toxicity and oncogenicity study with acrylonitrile incorporated in the drinking water of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprague–Dawley rats (80 per sex per control and 48 per sex in each treatment group) were given drinking water formulated to contain 0, 35, 100, or 300 ppm acrylonitrile (AN) for up to 2-years. An additional ten rats per sex per group were added for a 1-year interim necropsy. The equivalent doses of AN consumed were 0, 3.4, 8.5, and

John F. Quast

2002-01-01

479

Antifouling performance of poly(acrylonitrile)-based membranes: From green synthesis to application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop clean ultrafiltration membranes able to prevent the fouling of biological compounds in filtration processes, poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) was grafted to poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) by free-radical polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and the grafted copolymer was blended with PAN to fabricate porous membranes using scCO2-induced phase inversion method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, 1H

Telma Barroso; Márcio Temtem; Teresa Casimiro; Ana Aguiar-Ricardo

2011-01-01

480

Electrorheological properties of poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) particles coated with functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (fMCNTs) were prepared and applied to electrorheological (ER) fluids. First, carboxylic acid groups were introduced on the multiwall carbon nanotubes by chemical oxidation method. Then, nitrile groups on the surface PAN particles were modified to amine groups by Co catalysis reaction. Finally, fMCNTs were anchored on the surface of polymer particles

Seung-Jin Han; Bumsu Kim; Kyung-Do Suh

2007-01-01

481

Sorption studies on Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution using cellulose grafted with acrylonitrile monomer.  

PubMed

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on to cellulosic material derived from sisal fiber can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The grafting conditions were optimized by changing the concentration of initiator and monomer. The change in crystallinity of the grafted polymeric samples was concluded from the XRD patterns. The prepared cellulose grafted acrylonitrile copolymer was used as an adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the variation in the percentage of adsorption with contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. From the observed results it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of Cr (VI) from the aqueous solution. The results of the Langmuir, Freundlich, and pseudo first- and second-order studies revealed that the adsorption was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm and follows pseudo second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous waste generated from industries. PMID:24560947

Hajeeth, T; Sudha, P N; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T

2014-05-01

482

Simple, low-cost styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene microdevices for electrokinetic applications.  

PubMed

Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymers combine thermoplastic and elastomeric properties to provide microdevices with the advantageous properties of hard thermoplastics and ease of fabrication similar to PDMS. This work describes the electrical surface properties of SEBS block copolymers using current monitoring experiments to determine zeta potential. We show that SEBS exhibits a stable and relatively high zeta potential magnitude compared to similar polymers. The zeta potential of SEBS is stable when stored in air over time, and no significant differences are observed between different batches and devices, demonstrating reproducibility of results. We show zeta potential trends for varying pH and counterion concentration and demonstrate that SEBS has a repeatable surface potential comparable to glass. Oxygen plasma treatment greatly increases the zeta potential magnitude immediately following treatment before undergoing a moderate hydrophobic recovery to a stable zeta potential. SEBS copolymers also offer simple rapid prototyping fabrication and mass production potential. The presented electrokinetic properties combined with simple, low-cost fabrication of microdevices make SEBS a quality material for electrokinetic research and application development. PMID:24245911

Borysiak, Mark D; Yuferova, Evgenia; Posner, Jonathan D

2013-12-17

483

Medical applications of poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) ("SIBS").  

PubMed

Poly(Styrene-block-IsoButylene-block-Styrene) ("SIBS") is a biostable thermoplastic elastomer with physical properties that overlap silicone rubber and polyurethane. Initial data collected with SIBS stent-grafts and coatings on metallic stents demonstrate hemocompatibility, biocompatibility and long-term stability in contact with metal. SIBS has been used successfully as the carrier for a drug-eluting coronary stent; specifically Boston Scientific's TAXUS stent, and its uses are being investigated for ophthalmic implants to treat glaucoma, synthetic heart valves to possibly replace tissue valves and other applications. At present, researchers developing medical devices utilizing SIBS have found the following: (1) SIBS does not substantially activate platelets in the vascular system; (2) polymorphonuclear leukocytes in large numbers are not commonly observed around SIBS implants in the vascular system or in subcutaneous implants or in the eye; (3) myofibroblasts, scarring and encapsulation are not clinically significant with SIBS implanted in the eye; (4) embrittlement has not been observed in any implant location; (5) calcification within the polymer has not been observed; and (6) degradation has not been observed in any living system to date. Some deficiencies of SIBS that need to be addressed include creep deformation in certain load-bearing applications and certain sterilization requirements. The reason for the excellent biocompatibility of SIBS may be due to the inertness of SIBS and lack of cleavable moieties that could be chemotactic towards phagocytes. PMID:17980425

Pinchuk, Leonard; Wilson, Gregory J; Barry, James J; Schoephoerster, Richard T; Parel, Jean-Marie; Kennedy, Joseph P

2008-02-01

484

Current Intelligence Bulletin 41, 1,3-Butadiene CH2=CH-CH=CH2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inhalation exposure of rats and mice to 1,3-butadiene induced a carcinogenic response at multiple sites. Mammary fibroadenomas/carcinomas, uterine sarcomas, Leydig cell adenomas of the testes, thyroid follicular cell adenomas, exocrine tumors of the pancr...

1984-01-01

485

Morphological and physical characterization of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers and ionomers thereof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers made by living cationic polymerization using a difunctional initiator and the sequential monomer addition technique were analyzed using curve-resolution software in conjunction with high-resolution GPC. Fractional precipitation and selective solvent extraction were applied to a representative sample in order to confirm the identity of contaminating species. The latter were found to be low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymer, diblock copolymer, and higher molecular weight segmented block copolymers formed by intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution linking reactions occurring late in the polymerization of the styrene outer blocks. Solvent-cast films of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (PS-PIB-PS) block copolymers and block ionomers were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four block copolymer samples with center block molecular weights of 52,000 g/mol and PS volume fractions (o sbPS) ranging from 0.17 to 0.31 were studied. All samples exhibited hexagonally packed cylinders of PS within the PIB matrix. Cylinder spacing was in the range 32 to 36 nm for most samples, while cylinder diameters varied from 14 to 21 nm. Porod analysis of the scattering data indicated the presence of isolated phase mixing and sharp phase boundaries. PS-PIB-PS block copolymers and ionomers therefrom were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile testing. The study encompassed five block copolymer samples with similar PIB center blocks with molecular weights of approx52,000 g/mol and PS weight fractions ranging from 0.127 to 0.337. Ionomers were prepared from two of these materials by lightly sulfonating the PS outer blocks. Sulfonation levels varied from 1.7 to 4.7 mol % and the sodium and potassium neutralized forms were compared to the parent block copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the block copolymer films indicated the existence of a third phase attributed to PIB chains near the PS domain interface which experience reduced mobility due to their firm attachment to the hard PS domain. The relative amount of this phase decreased in samples with larger PS blocks, while the temperature of the associated transition increased. Tensile testing showed increased tensile strength but decreased elongation at break with larger PS blocks. DMA of the ionomers indicated improved dynamic modulus at temperatures above 100spcirc$C. Tensile testing of the ionomers indicated slight improvements in tensile strength with little loss in elongation at break. PS-PIB-PS block copolymer ionomer (BCP01, center block molecular weight = 53,000 g/mole; 25.5 wt % polystyrene, 4.7% sulfonation of phenyl units, 100% neutralized with KOH) was compounded with various organic and inorganic acid salts of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethyl aminobenzoate (ODAB) to explore the efficacy of these compounds as ionic plasticizers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Baugh, Daniel Webster, III

486

Stereospecific dihydroxylation of the styrene vinyl group by purified naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.  

PubMed Central

Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 adds both atoms of the dioxygen molecule to styrene to form (R)-l-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. Product formation is tightly coupled to dioxygen consumption and NADH oxidation. NDO oxidizes styrene-d8 at almost the same initial rate as styrene. The results indicate that dioxygen activation by NDO is different from that by cytochrome P-450 and other monooxygenases, which oxidize styrene to styrene 1,2-oxide.

Lee, K; Gibson, D T

1996-01-01

487

Hydrogenation of 1-butene and 1,3-butadiene mixtures over Pd\\/ZnO catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several palladium catalysts supported on ZnO with different loadings and dispersions have been prepared, characterized, pretreated, and tested for the selective hydrogenation of small amounts of 1,3-butadiene in 1-butene. Hydrogen treatment at temperatures above 423 K caused a marked decrease in catalytic activity and a simultaneous increase in selectivity for reduction of butadiene primarily to olefins. Such treatment also caused

A. Sarkany; Z. Zsoldos; L. Guczi; B. Furlong; J. W. Hightower

1993-01-01

488

Cyanocobalamin Enables Activated Sludge Bacteria to Dechlorinate Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene to Nonchlorinated Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of activated sludge obtained from a local wastewater treatment plant to dechlorinate hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD) in the presence of either