Science.gov

Sample records for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

  1. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...1050 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer...section, acrylonitrile/styrene copoly- mer modified with butadiene/styrene...

  6. Constitutive modeling of fused deposition modeling acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 

    E-print Network

    Mamadapur, Monish Shivappa

    2009-05-15

    Fused deposition modeling is a rapid prototyping process that is widely used to create prototypes. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is the most widely used material for fused deposition modeling. The parts are fabricated in a layer by layer fashion...

  7. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 ?g/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 ?g/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 ?g/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 ?g/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed. PMID:24936293

  8. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene and acrylonitrile–styrene resin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 ?g/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 ?g/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 ?g/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 ?g/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed. PMID:24936293

  9. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer. 177.1050 Section 177.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer. 177.1030 Section 177.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food...

  11. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers. PMID:26022280

  12. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  13. Design and testing of digitally manufactured paraffin Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Jonathan M.

    This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel grain. Multiple fuel grains with various ABS-to-Paraffin mass ratios were fabricated and burned with nitrous oxide. Analytical predictions for end-to-end motor performance and fuel regression are compared against static test results. Baseline fuel grain regression calculations use an enthalpy balance energy analysis with the material and thermodynamic properties based on the mean paraffin/ABS mass fractions within the fuel grain. In support of these analytical comparisons, a novel method for propagating the fuel port burn surface was developed. In this modeling approach the fuel cross section grid is modeled as an image with white pixels representing the fuel and black pixels representing empty or burned grid cells.

  14. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  15. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Arman, Bayram (Amherst, NY); Karvelas, Dimitrios E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A. (Crest Hill, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  16. Environmentally benign electroless nickel plating using supercritical carbon-dioxide on hydrophilically modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengsuwan, Siwach; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    Electroless Ni-P plating using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in conjunction with copolymer-based hydrophilic modification was applied to an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate. The surface of ABS substrate was hydrophilically modified by blending with a multi-block copolymer, poly(ether-ester-amide)s (PEEA), in injection molding process. The substrate was then impregnated with Pd(II)-hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Pd(hfa)2, using scCO2, followed by the electroless plating reaction. ABS/PEEA substrates with different PEEA to ABS blend ratios and different volume ratios of butadiene to the styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) matrix were prepared to investigate how the dispersed PEEA and butadiene domains affected the blend morphology and the adhesive strength of the plating metal-to-polymer contact. Increasing the PEEA copolymer to ABS blend ratio increased the mass transfer rate of the plating solution in the ABS substrate. Consequently, the metal-polymer composite layer became thicker, which increased the adhesive strength of the metal-to-polymer contact because of the anchoring effect. The butadiene domains appeared to attract the Pd catalyst precursor, and thus, the proportion of butadiene in the ABS matrix also affected the adhesive strength of the contact between the metal layer and the substrate. The ABS substrate was successfully plated with a Ni-P metal layer with an average adhesive strength of 9.1 ± 0.5 N cm-1 by choosing appropriate ABS/PEEA blend ratios and a Pd(hfa)2 concentration.

  17. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with 250 milliliters of freshly distilled water at reflux temperature for 2 hours. (2) The extracted... of a blend of: (1) 82-88 parts by weight of a matrix copolymer produced by polymerization of 77-82 parts by weight of acrylonitrile and 18-23 parts of styrene; and (2) 12-18 parts by weight of a...

  18. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion. PMID:26284922

  19. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion. PMID:26284922

  20. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... butadiene/styrene elastomer consists of a blend of: (1) 82-88 parts by weight of a matrix copolymer produced... viscosity of the matrix copolymer in butyrolactone is not less than 0.5 deciliter/gram at 35 °C, as determined by the method titled “Molecular Weight of Matrix Copolymer by Solution Viscosity,” which...

  1. Separation of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastics by froth flotation combined with ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, Qun; Fu, Jian-Gang; Liu, You-Nian

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastics combined with ammonia pretreatment. The PC and ABS plastics show similar hydrophobicity, and ammonia treatment changes selectively floatability of PC plastic while ABS is insensitive to ammonia treatment. The contact angle measurement indicates the dropping of flotation recovery of PC is ascribed to a decline of contact angle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates reactions occur on PC surface, which makes PC surface more hydrophilic. Separation of PC and ABS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. At different temperatures, PC and ABS mixtures were separated efficiently through froth flotation with ammonia pretreatment for different time (13 min at 23 °C, 18 min at 18 °C and 30 min at 23 °C). For both PC and ABS, the purity and recovery is more than 95.31% and 95.35%, respectively; the purity of PC and ABS is up to 99.72% and 99.23%, respectively. PC and ABS mixtures with different particle sizes were separated effectively, implying that ammonia treatment possesses superior applicability. PMID:25266156

  2. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Specifications. (1) Nitrogen...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (d) Extractive limitations. ...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (e) Acrylonitrile copolymers...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Specifications. (1) Nitrogen...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (d) Extractive limitations. ...federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (e) Acrylonitrile copolymers...

  4. SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE AND CHROMOSOME ABERRATION ANALYSES IN MICE AFTER IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO ACRYLONITRILE, STYRENE, OR BUTADIENE MONOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of polymers in plastic and rubber products has generated concern that monomers potentially active in biological systems may be eluted from these substances. The authors have evaluated two such monomers, acrylonitrile and styrene, for the induction of chromosome damage in ...

  5. Bacterial colonization and endotoxin content of a new renal dialysis water system composed of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.

    PubMed Central

    du Moulin, G C; Coleman, E C; Hedley-Whyte, J

    1987-01-01

    We measured endotoxin and bacterial levels in tap water, in water purified by reverse osmosis, and in dialysate samples over a 4-month period in a new 10-bed renal dialysis unit. Water treated by reverse osmosis is conducted to the 10 stations through 111 m of piping composed of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). All determinations were made prior to the opening of the unit and after the system was purged for 35 h with all bedside station taps open. Formaldehyde disinfection of the piping system was attempted with a recommended protocol after 11 weeks by feeding 2.5 liters of 37% formaldehyde (0.85%, vol/vol) into the delivery system. Prior to water purging, 24 ng of endotoxin per ml was detected. This level decreased to 2.0 ng of endotoxin after the purging. Levels of endotoxin remained below 1.0 ng of endotoxin per ml throughout the duration of the study. In contrast, the level of viable microorganisms recovered from the treated water was approximately 3.5 X 10(4) CFU/100 ml. Even after disinfection of the system, there was no significant decrease in culturable bacteria from the water even though endotoxin levels were lower. Species isolated from the renal dialysis system were predominately pseudomonads, whereas species isolated from the tap water were Bacillus and Flavobacterium species. ABS provides a surface suitable for long-term colonization and growth of bacteria. Currently recommended decontamination protocols are ineffective in removing potentially pathogenic bacteria from ABS pipes and thus constitute an increased risk to patients undergoing dialysis. Images PMID:3606109

  6. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... composition range as the matrix polymer. (b) Adjuvants. The copolymer identified in paragraph (a) of...

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the toxic and refractory pollutants in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufacturing wastewater by gas chromatography spectrometry with a mass or flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ke

    2012-06-29

    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin manufacturing wastewater is a complicated, toxic and refractory industrial wastewater. Comprehensive and accurate analysis of the typical pollutants in ABS resin manufacturing wastewater is critical to develop cost-effective wastewater treatment technologies. In this paper, a comprehensively qualitative analysis combined with three complementary methods has been developed for the detection of typical pollutants in ABS resin manufacturing wastewater from three production sections, and thirty-seven compounds had been detected and further confirmed by this analysis method with standards. Simultaneous chromatographic separation and quantification of seven representative pollutants, including three mononuclear aromatics, three acrylonitrile dimers and one acrylonitrile derivative, were achieved by GC-FID system. The detection limits of this method for seven representative pollutants were in the range of 0.007-0.89 mg/L. The within-day and between-day precisions of this method were less than 6.5% (RSD, n=6). The recoveries of the representative pollutants reached 90-120%. The ABS resin manufacturing wastewater from E zone was successfully determined by this method, with two mononuclear aromatics and three acrylonitrile dimers accounting for 57.73% and 40.63% of the selected seven compounds, respectively. These results reveal that the removal of mononuclear aromatics and acrylonitrile dimers is a key to treat this wastewater. PMID:22621884

  8. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  12. Synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy for the mapping of photo-oxidation and additives in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model samples and historical objects.

    PubMed

    Saviello, Daniela; Pouyet, Emeline; Toniolo, Lucia; Cotte, Marine; Nevin, Austin

    2014-09-16

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-?FTIR) was used to map photo-oxidative degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and to investigate the presence and the migration of additives in historical samples from important Italian design objects. High resolution (3×3 ?m(2)) molecular maps were obtained by FTIR microspectroscopy in transmission mode, using a new method for the preparation of polymer thin sections. The depth of photo-oxidation in samples was evaluated and accompanied by the formation of ketones, aldehydes, esters, and unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This study demonstrates selective surface oxidation and a probable passivation of material against further degradation. In polymer fragments from design objects made of ABS from the 1960s, UV-stabilizers were detected and mapped, and microscopic inclusions of proteinaceous material were identified and mapped for the first time. PMID:25150697

  13. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption.

  14. Three-dimensional printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene framework coated with Cu-BTC metal-organic frameworks for the removal of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-jun

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption. PMID:25089616

  15. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem. PMID:25413110

  16. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-jun

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200?nm to 900?nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5?mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10?min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption. PMID:25089616

  17. Improvement in the etching performance of the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin by MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenxia; Ding, Jie; Wang, Zenglin

    2013-05-21

    The present study aimed to evaluate the surface etching of the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin in the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid. To enhance the soluble Mn(IV) ion concentration and improve the etching performance of ABS resin, H3PO4 was added as a complexing agent into the MnO2-H2SO4 etching system. The effects of the H2SO4 concentration and etching time on the surface topography, surface roughness, adhesion strength, and the surface chemistry of the ABS substrates were investigated. The optimal oxidation potentials of MnO2 in the colloids decreased from 1.426 to 1.369 V with the addition of H3PO4. Though the etching conditions changed from 70 °C for 20 min to 60 °C for 10 min, the adhesion strength between the ABS substrates and electroless copper film increased from 1.19 to 1.33 KN/m after etching treatment. This could be attributed to the significant increase of the soluble Mn(IV) ion concentration in the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid. The surface chemistry results demonstrated that the oxidation reaction of -C?C- bonds in the polybutadiene phase was accelerated in the etching process by the addition of H3PO4, and the abundant -COOH and -OH groups were formed rapidly on the ABS surface with the etching treatment. These results were in agreement with the results of surface scanning electron microscopic observations and adhesion strength measurement. The results suggested that the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid was an effective surface etching system for the ABS surface roughness. PMID:23611532

  18. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the mechanical properties of the weld seams. This work provides a detailed study concerning the effect of the material microstructure and laser beam quality on the final weld formation and surface integrity.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food...1040 Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. Acrylonitrile/styrene copolymers...section acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mers are basic copolymers meeting the...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 ...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  5. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 ...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  6. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 ...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  7. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 ...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  8. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 ...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  9. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing operations. As for the comparison of the treatments, it was determined that the treatments have statistically significant differences. It was also determined that there is a significant statistical difference between the processes where a surface treatment is performed and the process where no surface treatment is applied to the ETFE. The chemical treatment results in a higher tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of 276.6 N on average, the air ionization treatment has an average of 248.4 N, and the process with no treatment has the lower ultimate tensile strength average of 53 N. This comparison has demonstrated that the best treatment is the chemical treatment with sodium naphthenate under the conditions tested.

  10. Fundamental Scratch Behavior of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Random Copolymers 

    E-print Network

    Browning, Robert Lee

    2011-10-21

    The present study employs a standardized progressive load scratch test (ASTM D7027/ISO 19252) to investigate the fundamental physical and mechanistic origins of scratch deformation in styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) random copolymers. Previous findings...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1020 Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer....

  12. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... temperature for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity at 25 °C (77 °F) is 10cP. 1 3. Acrylonitrile/styrene... average molecular weight, and solution viscosity, titled: “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and... Weights of Acrylonitrile/Styrene Copolymers,” and “Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... temperature for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity at 25 °C (77 °F) is 10cP. 1 3. Acrylonitrile/styrene... average molecular weight, and solution viscosity, titled: “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and... Weights of Acrylonitrile/Styrene Copolymers,” and “Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE/STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of renewable soy protein aggregates as a reinforcement network in Styrene-butadiene rubber composites is investigated by a dynamic mechanical method. The rigid nature of dry protein has a high shear elastic modulus of ~2 GPa and, therefore, is suitable as a reinforcement phase in rubber com...

  15. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...500 Back-end process provisions—carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...shall operate the process such that the carbon disulfide concentration in each...

  16. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...500 Back-end process provisions—carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...shall operate the process such that the carbon disulfide concentration in each...

  17. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...500 Back-end process provisions—carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...shall operate the process such that the carbon disulfide concentration in each...

  18. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...500 Back-end process provisions—carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...shall operate the process such that the carbon disulfide concentration in each...

  19. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...500 Back-end process provisions—carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene...shall operate the process such that the carbon disulfide concentration in each...

  20. Effects of Soy Protein Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on the Viscoelastic Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates were prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of soy protein isolate (SPI). Light scattering measurements indicated a narrow size distribution of SPI aggregates. Nanocomposites were formed by mixing hydrolyzed SPI (HSPI) nanoparticle aggregates with styrene-butadiene (SB...

  1. Diamino Telechelic Polybutadienes for Solventless Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Triblock Copolymer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengxiang; Hoye, Thomas R.; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    High molecular weight, high functionality diamino telechelic polybutadienes (TPBs) were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) in the presence of a chain transfer agent, 1,8-dicyano-4-octene, followed by lithium aluminum hydride reduction. Melt coupling of diamino TPB with anhydride-terminated polystyrene (PS-anh) resulted in the formation of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymers; ca. 80% maximum conversion of PS-anh was achieved within 30 seconds. The results from SAXS, TEM, and rheological measurements of the coupling products confirmed the formation of SBS triblock copolymers having lamellar morphology. A fluororesent-labeled PS-anh was used to study the coupling kinetics by diluting the reactants by the addition of non-functional PS. PMID:19907636

  2. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulphide nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Nihmath, A.; Francis, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Rubber composite based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with nano zinc sulphide (ZnS) have been prepared via vulcanization process and characterized by several techniques. Processing characteristics such as scorch time, optimum cure time decreases with increase in concentration of nano filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength increases with increase in concentration of nano filler up to 7 phr of loading thereafter the value decreases, whereas hardness, and flame resistance increases with the dosage of fillers. These enhanced properties are due to the homogenous dispersion of nano fillers in NBR matrix, which is evidenced from the structure that evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  3. Application of Lignin as Antioxidant in Styrene Butadiene Rubber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shusheng; Cheng, Xiansu

    2010-11-01

    Lignin isolated from enzymatic hydrolyzed cornstalks (EHL) is a renewable natural polymer, and rubber is one of the most important polymer materials. The application of EHL in rubber industry is of great significance. The influence of EHL and antioxidant RD on the vulcanizing characteristics, thermal oxidative aging stability under free condition, and water extraction resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were investigated. The effect of EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant on the thermal oxidative ageing of SBR was also evaluated. Results showed that the protection of SBR from thermal oxidative aging by EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant was superior to that of antioxidant D. This is because EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and have excellent auxiliary antioxidant role with antioxidant D. Moreover, the influence of EHL on the vulcanizing characteristics of SBR compounds was better than that of antioxidant RD, and EHL can reduce the cure rate and increase the optimum cure time. It is because that the EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and methoxy group, which can form a special structure to capture free radical and terminate the chain reaction. The retained tensile strength of SBR compounds with EHL was similar to that of the samples with antioxidant RD, while the retained elongation at break of SBR compounds with EHL was higher than that of the samples with antioxidant RD. In addition, the SBR compounds with EHL have a good water extraction resistance property, which was similar to the samples with antioxidant RD. This is because EHL have large molecular weight, good stability and low solubility in water. In conclusion, due to the low price, abundant resources, non-toxic and pollution-free, etc., EHL will have broad application prospect.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deionized water or reagent grade n-heptane at reflux temperature for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity... viscosity, titled: “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and Styrene Monomers-Gas Chromatographic... Copolymers,” and “Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of Tyril,” which are incorproated by...

  6. Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

  7. Birchwood biochar as partial carbon black replacement in styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birchwood feedstock was used to make slow pyrolysis biochar that contained 89% carbon and < 2% ash. This biochar was blended with carbon black as filler for styrene-butadiene rubber. Composites made from blended fillers of 25/75 biochar/carbon black were equivalent to or superior to their 100% carbo...

  8. Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    [14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks. PMID:16345541

  9. Detection of hydrogen dissolved in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shin; Fujiwara, Hirotada

    2012-01-01

    Rubber materials, which are used for hydrogen gas seal, can dissolve hydrogen during exposure in high-pressure hydrogen gas. Dissolved hydrogen molecules were detected by solid state 1H NMR of the unfilled vulcanized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Two signals were observed at 4.5 ppm and 4.8 ppm, which were assignable to dissolved hydrogen, in the 1H NMR spectrum of NBR after being exposed 100 MPa hydrogen gas for 24 h at room temperature. These signals were shifted from that of gaseous hydrogen molecules. Assignment of the signals was confirmed by quantitative estimation of dissolved hydrogen and peak area of the signals.

  10. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  11. Photocrosslinking of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) networks formed by thiol-ene reactions and their influence on cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gidon, Dogan; Aydin, Derya; Kizilel, Seda

    2015-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymer has been conventionally used as synthetic rubber. However, the potential of SBS for biomedical applications has only been considered in limited earlier reports. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to designing a photocrosslinked SBS network. Rheological analysis has been conducted for the investigation of the storage modulus of the resultant network. Crosslinked SBS networks were synthesized and characterized through optical and electron microscope imaging. The crosslink density of the network, calculated from swelling experiments, was 643?mol m(-3), where higher swelling in a hydrophobic medium was observed compared to the swelling measured in water. Cell survival analysis with HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts revealed that these networks are non-toxic, and that they could be considered for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:26526076

  12. Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

  13. Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Toughened with Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene-Acrylonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Chung, S. Y.; Fedors, R. F.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fracture toughness of an incorporation of a carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) elastomer in diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin was investigated. Measurements of dynamic mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering were carried out to characterize the state of cure, morphology and particle size and size distribution of the neat resins and their graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  14. Droplet-cluster transition in sheared polyamide 6-poly(styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene)-polypropylene ternary blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yutian; Yang, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua; Jiang, Wei

    2010-09-01

    We have used a Linkam CSS 450 stage equipped with an optical microscope to study online the evolution of the morphology and structure of polyamide 6 (PA6)-poly(styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) (SEBS)-polypropylene (PP) ternary blends under shear flow. At a high shear rate (60?s(-1)), large drops of PA6 and SEBS broke up to form small randomly distributed PA6 droplets covered by SEBS in the PP matrix. These droplets aggregated into a well-ordered structure, i.e., parallel clusters, after decreasing the shear rate abruptly to within the range of 1.5-3.5?s(-1). Interestingly, these parallel clusters were aligned perpendicular to the direction of shear flow. An important feature of these parallel clusters is that they can be maintained for a long period of time (several tens of minutes) at the given shear rate or after cessation of flow; this feature allows us to freeze the structure by decreasing the temperature. PMID:21230101

  15. Droplet-cluster transition in sheared polyamide 6-poly(styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene)-polypropylene ternary blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yutian; Yang, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua; Jiang, Wei

    2010-09-01

    We have used a Linkam CSS 450 stage equipped with an optical microscope to study online the evolution of the morphology and structure of polyamide 6 (PA6)-poly(styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) (SEBS)-polypropylene (PP) ternary blends under shear flow. At a high shear rate (60s-1) , large drops of PA6 and SEBS broke up to form small randomly distributed PA6 droplets covered by SEBS in the PP matrix. These droplets aggregated into a well-ordered structure, i.e., parallel clusters, after decreasing the shear rate abruptly to within the range of 1.5-3.5s-1 . Interestingly, these parallel clusters were aligned perpendicular to the direction of shear flow. An important feature of these parallel clusters is that they can be maintained for a long period of time (several tens of minutes) at the given shear rate or after cessation of flow; this feature allows us to freeze the structure by decreasing the temperature.

  16. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  17. Effect of strain rate on mechanical properties of melt-processed soy flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dispersion of soy flour with styrene-butadiene rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders. Upon crosslinking, th...

  18. On the form of the strain energy function for a family of SBR materials. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene materials with varying crosslink densities are analyzed through use of a strain energy function of the type introduced by Valanis and Landel (1967). A form of the strain energy function derived from strip biaxial tests proves to be accurate when checked against uniaxial and other biaxial test results.

  19. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY DEFATTED SOY FLOUR AND CARBON BLACK CO-FILLER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carboxylated styrene-butadiene (SB) composites reinforced by a mixture of defatted soy flour (DSF) and carbon black (CB) were investigated in terms of their dynamic mechanical properties. DSF is an abundant renewable commodity and has a lower cost than CB. DSF contains soy protein, soy carbohydrat...

  20. EFFECT OF PH ON THE COMPOSITE MODULUS OF SOY PROTEIN AGGREGATES AND CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE LATEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) has been reported to have a significant reinforcement effect in styrene-butadiene composites prepared under alkaline condition. SPI is a soy product that remains after soybean oil and soy carbohydrates (both soluble and insoluble) are removed from soybean flakes. SPI is a...

  1. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    PubMed

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ?T was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  2. Barrier properties of hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composites containing modified layered aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemi?ska, S.; Rzymski, W. M.

    2011-12-01

    The resistance to permeation by the selected solvents of flat membranes made of cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR) materials without any fillers and containing 5 phr of layered aluminosilicate nanofiller (bentonite), modified with various types of ammonium salts or N330 type carbon black, was investigated. The barrier properties were assessed on the basis of the breakthrough time of a liquid with low (cyclohexane) or average (butyl acetate) thermodynamic affinity to HNBR, determined according to EN 6529:2001, through a cured elastomer sample. The addition of bentonite, irrespectively of the method of modification of its particles, was found to increase the cured HNBR breakthrough time by 20 - 35 % in the case of slowly permeating non-polar cyclohexane, and by 50 - 130 % in the case of polar butyl acetate permeating more rapidly, in comparison with the barrier material containing no filler. The layered aluminosilicate nanofillers increased the breakthrough time of the material sample for both the tested solvents. In particular, the breakthrough time for polar butyl acetate was even longer than for conventional carbon black. Additionally, the increase of the breakthrough time was observed to depend on the modifier of bentonite particle surface.

  3. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML) and maximum torque (MH) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties. PMID:26644917

  4. Perinatal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer, a ground water contaminant.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A; Malarkey, David E; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Gerken, Diane K; Chhabra, Rajendra S

    2013-12-01

    Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site's ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN Trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  5. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of StyreneAcrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  6. Thermo-sensitive properties of carbon-black-loaded styrene butadiene rubber composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ying; Wen, Dijiang

    2004-10-01

    Some conducting polymer composite membranes were prepared by using styrene butadiene rubber as matrices and incorporating carbon blacks and a kind of organic crystal (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol, BMP). Several composite membranes whose resistivities showed a critical percolation threshold at room temperature exhibited a thermo-sensitive property and their resistivities increased with increasing temperature, that is, a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect for these membranes was observed. The switching temperature of these composite membranes, which was associated with a sharp variation in resistivity within a certain temperature range, was quite well matched to the melting point of the BMP crystal. A few membranes, loaded with an appropriate amount of Sterling SO-N550 carbon black and the BMP crystal, showed a relatively high PTC intensity.

  7. High-Energy-Density Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Weimin; Ye, Hongjun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric response of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) thin films fabricated by a solution casting process was investigated in this work. Linear dielectric behavior was obtained in PSAN films under an electric field at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature of -50°C to 100°C. The polymer films exhibited an intermediate dielectric permittivity of 4 and low dielectric loss (tan ?) of 0.027. Under 400 MV/m, the energy density of the PSAN films was 6.8 J/cm3, which is three times higher than that of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (about 1.6 J/cm3). However, their charge-discharge efficiency (about 90%) was rather close to that of BOPP. The calculated effective dielectric permittivity of the PSAN films under high electric field was as high as 9, which may be attributed to the improved displacement of the cyanide groups (-CN) polarized at high electric fields. These high-performance features make PSAN attractive for high-energy-density capacitor applications.

  8. Performance of Styrene Butadiene Rubber as a Concrete Repair Material in tropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Prakash, V. Syam; Thampan, C. K.; Varma, Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Deterioration of Concrete due to variety of reasons like corrosion of steel, inferior quality of materials as well as workmanship and exposure to aggressive environment like thermal cycling affect the performance or damage a number of Reinforced cement concrete structures. In order to repair these structures for enhancing the service life, number of methods and materials are available. But the degree of success of any repair in concrete depends mainly on the correct choice and the method of application of repair materials. This paper discusses the details of an experimental investigation on the performance of Styrene ñ Butadiene Rubber (SBR) as a concrete repair material in tropical climatic conditions. Resistance to water penetration and tensile cracking are two important performance criteria for any repair material. Cement mortar cubes of mix proportion 1:3 with SBR added at the rate of 20% of the weight of cement, and control specimens without SBR were made. Compressive strength and sorptivity values of the cubes were determined. Shear Bond strength (by slant shear test) and splitting tensile strength of the repaired cylinder specimens of standard dimensions, in which SBR used as a bonding agent were determined. These values were compared with the values obtained for the similar specimens, in which the bonding agent applied was conventional cement slurry. The influence of thermal cycling on the properties of repaired concrete specimens were also studied. A comparison has also been made with the values required to meet the standard specifications of a repair material.

  9. Stability of thermo-sensitive properties of carbon-black/styrene-butadiene-rubber composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ying; Wen, Dijiang

    2005-10-01

    Conducting composite membranes were prepared by using styrene butadiene rubber as matrices and incorporating carbon blacks and some organic crystals (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol, BMP). A number of composite membranes exhibited a thermo-sensitive property which corresponded to a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect. Their DSC thermograms and x-ray patterns indicated that there were no significant changes in the structure of membranes although these membranes were subjected to discontinuous and repeated thermal cycle measurements of more than 100 runs. The switching characteristic and PTC intensity of membranes showed a satisfyingly reproducible stability. It was also found that the thermal ageing treatment could remarkably influence conductive and PTC properties of composite membranes. When these composite membranes were thermally aged at a temperature of 90 or 100 °C for various times up to 480 h, no essential changes in the resistivity were observed and their PTC intensity and switching characteristic were still effectively maintained. However, when these composite membranes were exposed to an elevated thermal ageing temperature higher than 100 °C over various time intervals from 24 to 480 h, significant changes in resistivity were detected and their original PTC properties could almost totally disappear depending on the thermal ageing temperature and time. The obtained results revealed that these composite membranes could maintain their thermo-sensitive stability for a long term in a thermal environment in which the temperature was lower than 100 °C.

  10. Application of Composite Powders Recycled from Graphite Tailings in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Yun; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Qin, Faxiang; Mei, Lefu; Wei, Yaozu

    2015-11-01

    With styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as matrix and composite powders recycled from graphite tailings as fillers, the influence of the particle size and content of the composite powders on the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the composite powder-filled SBR were studied. The results showed that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings could reinforce SBR, whose tensile strength was significantly increased with reducing the particle size of the composite powder, but it had little effect on the conductivity of the system. With composite powders as fillers in conjunction with conductive carbon black, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the system were greatly improved. The maximum tensile strength of the SBR filled with composite powder and conductive carbon black increased by 47% compared to that of the single composite powder-filled SBR. When the filling content of conductive carbon black was 10 phr and that of composite powder was above 30 phr, the volume resistivity of SBR showed a sharp decline, reaching a minimum about 106 ? cm at 40 phr. All the results indicated that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings can be applied effectively as filler in SBR. It has great economic and environmental benefits.

  11. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansilla, M. A.; Marzocca, A. J.

    2012-08-01

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  12. Preparation and properties of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber/cellulose nanocrystals composites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodong; Xu, Chuanhui; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Yukun

    2013-01-30

    A series of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (XSBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) latex composites were successfully prepared. The vulcanization process, morphology, dynamic viscoelastic behavior, dynamic mechanical property, thermal and mechanical performance of the XSBR/CNs composites were investigated in detail. The results revealed that CNs were dispersed uniformly in the XSBR matrix and formed a strong filler-filler network. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of XSBR matrix was shifted from 48.45 to 50.64 °C with 3 phr CNs, but decreased from 50.64 to 46.28 °C when further increasing CNs content up to 15 phr. The composites exhibited a significant enhancement in tensile strength (from 16.9 to 24.1 MPa) and tear strength (from 43.5 to 65.2 MPa) with loading CNs from 0 to 15 phr. In addition, the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the temperature at 5% weight loss of the XSBR/CNs composites decreased slightly with an increase of the CNs content. PMID:23218267

  13. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baochun; Lei, Yanda; Chen, Feng; Liu, Xiaoliang; Du, Mingliang; Jia, Demin

    2008-12-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  14. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by sorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Lei, Yanda; Liu, Xiaoliang; Wan, Jingjing; Jia, Demin

    2009-05-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed mechanisms for the largely improved performance were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), porosity analysis and crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through SA intermediated linkages. SA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting copolymerization/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and SA was achieved. Formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) was revealed during the vulcanization of the composites. However, in the present systems, the contribution of ZDS to the reinforcement was limited. Effects of SA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of SA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and SA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  15. Application of Composite Powders Recycled from Graphite Tailings in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Yun; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Qin, Faxiang; Mei, Lefu; Wei, Yaozu

    2015-06-01

    With styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as matrix and composite powders recycled from graphite tailings as fillers, the influence of the particle size and content of the composite powders on the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the composite powder-filled SBR were studied. The results showed that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings could reinforce SBR, whose tensile strength was significantly increased with reducing the particle size of the composite powder, but it had little effect on the conductivity of the system. With composite powders as fillers in conjunction with conductive carbon black, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the system were greatly improved. The maximum tensile strength of the SBR filled with composite powder and conductive carbon black increased by 47% compared to that of the single composite powder-filled SBR. When the filling content of conductive carbon black was 10 phr and that of composite powder was above 30 phr, the volume resistivity of SBR showed a sharp decline, reaching a minimum about 106 ? cm at 40 phr. All the results indicated that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings can be applied effectively as filler in SBR. It has great economic and environmental benefits.

  16. Glass Transition and Molecular Mobility in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Modified Asphalt.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Asphalt, a soft matter consisting of more than a thousand chemical species, is of vital importance for the transportation infrastructure, yet it poses significant challenges for microscopic theory and modeling approaches due to its multicomponent nature. Polymeric additives can potentially enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of asphalt, thus helping reduce the road repair costs; rational design of such systems requires knowledge of the molecular structure and dynamics of these systems. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the volumetric, structural, and dynamic properties of the neat asphalt as well as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt systems. The volume-temperature behavior of the asphalt systems exhibited a glass transition phenomenon, akin to that observed in experiments. The glass transition temperature, room temperature density, and coefficient of volume thermal expansion of the neat asphalt systems so evaluated were in agreement with experimental data when the effect of the high cooling rate used in simulations was accounted for. While the volumetric properties of SBR modified asphalt were found to be insensitive to the presence of the SBR additive, the addition of SBR led to an increase in the aggregation of asphaltene molecules. Furthermore, addition of SBR caused a reduction in the mobility of the constituent molecules of asphalt, with the reduction being more significant for the larger constituent molecules. Similar to other glass forming liquids, the reciprocal of the diffusion coefficient of the selected molecules was observed to follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) behavior as a function of temperature. These results suggest the potential for using polymeric additives for enhancing the dynamic mechanical properties of asphalt without affecting its volumetric properties. PMID:26451630

  17. Temperature dependence on free volume in cured natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, W; Somoza, A; Silva, L; Consolati, G; Quasso, F; Mansilla, M A; Marzocca, A J

    2011-05-01

    A systematic study on the evolution of free volume as a function of the temperature in vulcanized at 433 K natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) in 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 NR-SBR (percent content of pure NR and SBR, respectively) blends was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. All samples were prepared with sulfur and TBBS (n-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) as accelerator. The glass transition temperatures of the samples studied were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and from lifetime data. In general, a sigmoidal-like complex behavior of the long-lived lifetime component, linked to the nanohole free volume, as a function of the temperature was found. For SBR, the slope of the ortho-positronium lifetime against temperature curves could be well-fitted using a linear function. For blends and also for NR, two different linear functions were necessary. This last behavior is explained in terms of the supercooled process involving a reconfiguration of the elastomeric chains. In the case of blends, the state of cure of NR and SBR in each NR-SBR sample was also taken into account in the discussion of the results obtained. Besides, thermal expansion coefficients of the free volumes in the transition and glassy region of all compounds were estimated. The differences observed in the values of this parameter are discussed by taking into account the morphology and formulation of each blend, the crosslink densities, and the role of the interphases formed between both NR and SBR elastomers. PMID:21728565

  18. Effect of crosslinking density on biaxial relaxation of SBR by using reduced variables. [Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of reduced variables to account for the effect of crosslinking density in a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) system is demonstrated for general biaxial stress states. Recently published results from stress relaxation tests on five SBR vulcanizates crosslinked to different degrees by tetramethylthiuram disulfide were superposed by using the crosslinking density as a reduction variable. The equilibrium shear modulus calculated from the master relaxation curve at long reduced times was in satisfactory agreement with other results for SBR. The time-axis shifts were related in a linear logarithmic manner to the crosslinking density but had a slope slightly less than values previously reported for elastomer systems.

  19. Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M. L.; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment. PMID:23030654

  20. Volume shrinkage and rheological studies of epoxidised and unepoxidised poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer modified epoxy resin-diamino diphenyl methane nanostructured blend systems.

    PubMed

    George, Sajeev Martin; Puglia, Debora; Kenny, Josè M; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Vijayan P, Poornima; Pionteck, J?rgen; Thomas, Sabu

    2015-05-21

    Styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS) copolymers epoxidised at different epoxidation degrees were used as modifiers for diglycidyl ether of the bisphenol A-diamino diphenyl methane (DGEBA-DDM) system. Epoxy systems containing modified epoxidised styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (eSBS) triblock copolymer with compositions ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared and the curing reaction was monitored in situ using rheometry and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. By controlling the mole percent of epoxidation, we could generate vesicles, worm-like micelles and core-shell nanodomains. At the highest mole percent of epoxidation, the fraction of the epoxy miscible component in the triblock copolymer (epoxidised polybutadiene (PB)) was maximum. This gave rise to core-shell nanodomains having a size of 10-15 nm, in which the incompatible polystyrene (PS) becomes the core, the unepoxidised PB becomes the shell and the epoxidised PB interpenetrates with the epoxy phase. On the other hand, the low level of epoxidation gave rise to bigger domains having a size of ?1 ?m and the intermediate epoxidation level resulted in a worm-like structure. This investigation specifically focused on the importance of cure rheology on nanostructure formation, using rheometry. The reaction induced phase separation of the PS phase in the epoxy matrix was carefully explored through rheological measurements. PVT measurements during curing were carried out to understand the volume shrinkage of the blend, confirming that shrinkage behaviour is related to the block copolymer phase separation process during curing. The volume shrinkage was found to be maximum in the case of blends with unmodified SBS, where a heterogeneous morphology was observed, while a decrease in the shrinkage was evidenced in the case of SBS epoxidation. It could be explained by two effects: (1) solubility of the epoxidised block copolymer in the DGEBA leads to the formation of nanoscopic domains upon reaction induced phase separation and (2) the plasticisation effect of the epoxidised block copolymer in the epoxy resin. PMID:25902727

  1. Acrylonitrile

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylonitrile ; CASRN 107 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1030... available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration... per square inch surface area of the food-contact article when exposed to distilled water, 3...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles... available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration... per square inch surface area of the food-contact article when exposed to distilled water, 3...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...component of articles intended for use with food identified in table 1 of § 176...1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 64 to 69 parts...substances generally recognized as safe in food, substances used in accordance...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...component of articles intended for use with food identified in table 1 of § 176...1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 64 to 69 parts...substances generally recognized as safe in food, substances used in accordance...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...component of articles intended for use with food identified in table 1 of § 176...1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 64 to 69 parts...substances generally recognized as safe in food, substances used in accordance...

  7. The effect of multifunctional monomers/oligomers Additives on electron beam radiation crosslinking of poly (styrene-block-isoprene/butadiene-block-styrene) (SIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinping; Soucek, Mark D.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of multifunctional monomers or oligomers (MFM/O) additives on electron beam (E-beam) radiation induced crosslinking of poly (styrene-block-isoprene/butadiene-block-styrene) (SIBS) was studied. Ten types of MFM/O were investigated, including trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), triallyl cyanurate (TAC), polybutadiene diacrylate (PB-diacrylate), ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA), butylene glycol dimethacrylate (BGDMA), 1,2-polybutadiene. The effects of MFM/O concentration and E-beam radiation dose on properties of SIBS were studied including tensile strength, elongation-at-break, modulus, gel content, equilibrium swelling and crosslink density. TMPTA significantly improved the tensile modulus and crosslink density of SIBS. SIBS with TMPTMA and TMTPMA with inhibitor showed a 50% increase in tensile strength. The solubility of MFM/O in SIBS was also investigated by a selective swelling method. The MFM/O were found to be soluble in both phases of SIBS. The viscosity of SIBS with methacrylate type MFM/O was stable at 200 °C.

  8. Identification of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants leaching from an acrylonitrile butadiene rubber as novel inhibitors of calcineurin activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Noboru; Shibuguchi, Nao; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Tanaka, Susumu; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Hosaka, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase and plays important role in several cellular functions in both higher and lower eukaryotes. Here we report inhibition of CN by linear alkylbenzene sulfonate. The clue to the finding was obtained while identifying the inhibitory material leaching from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber used for packing. Using standard dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12-LAS), we obtained strong inhibition of CN with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.3 µM, whereas analogs such as p-octylbenzene sulfonate and SDS hardly or only slightly affected CN activity. Three alkaline phosphatases, derived from shrimp, bacteria, and calf-intestine, which exhibit similar enzymatic activities to CN, were not inhibited by C12-LAS at concentrations of up to 100 µM. Furthermore, C12-LAS did not inhibit Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase activity when tested at concentrations of up to 36 µM. The results indicate that C12-LAS is a potent selective inhibitor of CN activity. PMID:23649261

  9. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... copolymer is extracted with 250 milliliters of freshly distilled water at reflux temperature for 2 hours. (2... copol-ymer is extracted with 250 milliliters spectral grade n-heptane at reflux temperature for 2 hours... milliliters of 3 percent acetic acid in a Pyrex glass pressure bottle. (3) The pyrex glass pressure bottle...

  10. Genotoxicity of Styrene–Acrylonitrile Trimer in Brain, Liver, and Blood Cells of Weanling F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Cheryl A.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Witt, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    Styrene–acrylonitrile Trimer (SAN Trimer), a by-product in production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics, was identified at a Superfund site in Dover Township, NJ, where childhood cancer incidence rates were elevated for a period of several years. SAN Trimer was therefore tested by the National Toxicology Program in a 2-year perinatal carcinogenicity study in F344/N rats and a bacterial mutagenicity assay; both studies gave negative results. To further characterize its genotoxicity, SAN Trimer was subsequently evaluated in a combined micronucleus (MN)/Comet assay in juvenile male and female F344 rats. SAN Trimer (37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage once daily for 4 days. Micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood were determined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage in blood, liver, and brain cells was assessed using the Comet assay. Highly significant dose-related increases (P < 0.0001) in MN-RET were measured in both male and female rats administered SAN Trimer. The RET population was reduced in high dose male rats, suggesting chemical-related bone marrow toxicity. Results of the Comet assay showed significant, dose-related increases in DNA damage in brain cells of male (P < 0.0074) and female (P < 0.0001) rats; increased levels of DNA damage were also measured in liver cells and leukocytes of treated rats. Chemical-related cytotoxicity was not indicated in any of the tissues examined for DNA damage. The results of this subacute MN/Comet assay indicate induction of significant genetic damage in multiple tissues of weanling F344 male and female rats after oral exposure to SAN Trimer. PMID:22351108

  11. Genotoxicity of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer in brain, liver, and blood cells of weanling F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Chhabra, Rajendra S; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Witt, Kristine L

    2012-04-01

    Styrene-acrylonitrile Trimer (SAN Trimer), a by-product in production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics, was identified at a Superfund site in Dover Township, NJ, where childhood cancer incidence rates were elevated for a period of several years. SAN Trimer was therefore tested by the National Toxicology Program in a 2-year perinatal carcinogenicity study in F344/N rats and a bacterial mutagenicity assay; both studies gave negative results. To further characterize its genotoxicity, SAN Trimer was subsequently evaluated in a combined micronucleus (MN)/Comet assay in juvenile male and female F344 rats. SAN Trimer (37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage once daily for 4 days. Micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) frequencies in blood were determined by flow cytometry, and DNA damage in blood, liver, and brain cells was assessed using the Comet assay. Highly significant dose-related increases (P < 0.0001) in MN-RET were measured in both male and female rats administered SAN Trimer. The RET population was reduced in high dose male rats, suggesting chemical-related bone marrow toxicity. Results of the Comet assay showed significant, dose-related increases in DNA damage in brain cells of male (P < 0.0074) and female (P < 0.0001) rats; increased levels of DNA damage were also measured in liver cells and leukocytes of treated rats. Chemical-related cytotoxicity was not indicated in any of the tissues examined for DNA damage. The results of this subacute MN/Comet assay indicate induction of significant genetic damage in multiple tissues of weanling F344 male and female rats after oral exposure to SAN Trimer. PMID:22351108

  12. An approach based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry to detect diol metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to styrene and 1,3-butadiene

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuijie; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Su; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Styrene and 1,3-butadiene are important intermediates used extensively in the plastics industry. They are metabolized mainly through cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation to the corresponding epoxides, which are subsequently converted to diols by epoxide hydrolase or through spontaneous hydration. The resulting styrene glycol and 3-butene-1,2-diol have been suggested as biomarkers of exposure to styrene and 1,3-butadiene, respectively. Unfortunately, poor ionization of the diols within electrospray mass spectrometers becomes an obstacle to the detection of the two diols by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC/ESI–MS). We developed an LC/ESI–MS approach to analyze styrene glycol and 3-butene-1,2-diol by means of derivatization with 2-bromopyridine-5-boronic acid (BPBA), which not only dramatically increases the sensitivity of diol detection but also facilitates the identification of the diols. The analytical approach developed was simple, quick, and convincing without the need for complicated chemical derivatization. To evaluate the feasibility of BPBA as a derivatizing reagent of diols, we investigated the impact of diol configuration on the affinity of a selection of diols to BPBA using the established LC/ESI–MS approach. We found that both cis and trans diols can be derivatized by BPBA. In conclusion, BPBA may be used as a general derivatizing reagent for the detection of vicinal diols by LC/MS. PMID:19111668

  13. Long-period fiber grating sensor with a styrene-acrylonitrile nano-film incorporating cryptophane A for methane detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Li, Xueming; Zhu, Guangqin; Chen, Weimin

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a novel sensor design and application of long period fiber grating (LPFG) for detection of methane. A styrene-acrylonitrile nano-film incorporating cryptophane A, which is sensitive to methane in close vicinity to the surface, is constructed onto the cladding of long-period grating. For optimal design of the LPFG sensor, the relationship between the resonant wavelength shift and the complex refractive index of sensing film is analyzed based on the coupled-mode theory. The change in refractive index of the sensing film, induced by methane, can easily be obtained as a shift in resonance wavelength. The prepared LPFG sensor with time response of 50 s and good sensitivity (~0.375 nm %-1) suitable for the detection of methane below 3.5 vol. % is demonstrated. The response of the sensor (wavelength shift) is linear with methane concentration within our tested range and a detection limit of about 0.2% is estimated for the new sensor.

  14. Long-period fiber grating sensor with a styrene-acrylonitrile nano-film incorporating cryptophane A for methane detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchun; Tao, Chuanyi; Li, Xueming; Zhu, Guangqin; Chen, Weimin

    2011-07-18

    This paper presents a novel sensor design and application of long period fiber grating (LPFG) for detection of methane. A styrene-acrylonitrile nano-film incorporating cryptophane A, which is sensitive to methane in close vicinity to the surface, is constructed onto the cladding of long-period grating. For optimal design of the LPFG sensor, the relationship between the resonant wavelength shift and the complex refractive index of sensing film is analyzed based on the coupled-mode theory. The change in refractive index of the sensing film, induced by methane, can easily be obtained as a shift in resonance wavelength. The prepared LPFG sensor with time response of 50 s and good sensitivity (~0.375 nm %(-1)) suitable for the detection of methane below 3.5 vol. % is demonstrated. The response of the sensor (wavelength shift) is linear with methane concentration within our tested range and a detection limit of about 0.2% is estimated for the new sensor. PMID:21934832

  15. Characterization on the phase separation behavior of styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/organoclay ternary blends under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianggui; Dong, Xia; Liu, Wei; Xing, Qian; Zou, Fasheng; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin; Liang, Aimin; Li, Chuanqing; Xie, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigated the influence of organoclay (organo-montmorillonite, OMMT) on the phase separation behavior and morphology evolution of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR)/low vinyl content polyisoprene (LPI) blends with rheological methodology. It was found that the incorporation of OMMT not only reduced the droplet size of the dispersion phase, slowed down the phase separation kinetics, also enlarged the processing miscibility window of the blends. The determination on the wetting parameters indicated that due to the oscillatory shear effect, the OMMT sheets might localize at the interface between the two phases and act as compatibilizer or rigid barrier to prevent domain coarsening, resulting in slow phase separation kinetics, small droplet size, and stable morphology. The analysis of rheological data by the Palierne model provided further confirmation that the addition of OMMT can decrease the interfacial tension and restrict the relaxation of melt droplets. Therefore, a vivid "sea-fish-net" model was proposed to describe the effect of OMMT on the phase separation behavior of SSBR/LPI blends, in which the OMMT sheets acted as the barrier (net) to slow down the domain coarsening/coalescence in phase separation process of SSBR/LPI blends.

  16. Rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber filled with electron beam modified surface treated dual phase fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugharaj, A. M.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with dual phase filler were measured using Monsanto Processability Tester (MPT) at three different temperatures (100°C, 110°C and 130°C) and four different shear rates (61.3, 306.3, 613, and 1004.5 s -1). The effect of electron beam modification of dual phase filler in absence and presence of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide (Si-69) on melt flow properties of SBR was also studied. The viscosity of all the systems decreases with shear rate indicating their pseudoplastic or shear thinning nature. The higher shear viscosity for the SBR loaded with the electron beam modified filler is explained in terms of variation in structure of the filler upon electron beam irradiation. Die swell of the modified filler loaded SBR is slightly higher than that of the unmodified filler loaded rubber, which is explained by calculating normal stress difference for the systems. Activation energy of the modified filler loaded SBR systems is also slightly higher than that of the control filler loaded SBR system.

  17. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Matanoski, G.M.; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Schwartz, L. )

    1990-06-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81) compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

  18. Characterization on the phase separation behavior of styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/organoclay ternary blends under oscillatory shear.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianggui; Dong, Xia; Liu, Wei; Xing, Qian; Zou, Fasheng; Han, Charles C; Wang, Dujin; Liang, Aimin; Li, Chuanqing; Xie, Ximing

    2015-09-21

    The present work investigated the influence of organoclay (organo-montmorillonite, OMMT) on the phase separation behavior and morphology evolution of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR)/low vinyl content polyisoprene (LPI) blends with rheological methodology. It was found that the incorporation of OMMT not only reduced the droplet size of the dispersion phase, slowed down the phase separation kinetics, also enlarged the processing miscibility window of the blends. The determination on the wetting parameters indicated that due to the oscillatory shear effect, the OMMT sheets might localize at the interface between the two phases and act as compatibilizer or rigid barrier to prevent domain coarsening, resulting in slow phase separation kinetics, small droplet size, and stable morphology. The analysis of rheological data by the Palierne model provided further confirmation that the addition of OMMT can decrease the interfacial tension and restrict the relaxation of melt droplets. Therefore, a vivid "sea-fish-net" model was proposed to describe the effect of OMMT on the phase separation behavior of SSBR/LPI blends, in which the OMMT sheets acted as the barrier (net) to slow down the domain coarsening/coalescence in phase separation process of SSBR/LPI blends. PMID:26395734

  19. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid and maleic anhydride onto ultra-fine powdered styrene butadiene rubber (UFSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jing; Xia, Haibing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang; Wei, Genshuan

    2007-11-01

    The functionalization of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) was carried out using gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid (MA) and maleic anhydride (MAH), respectively. It was found that the graft yield of MA onto UFSBR increased rapidly up to the peak and then decreased with increasing MA content. Moreover, the peak shifted to the direction of lower MA content with increasing absorbed dose. Similarly, there was the peak of graft yield with increasing MAH content for grafting of MAH onto UFSBR, whereas the peak of graft yield was achieved at 10 wt% MAH content at different absorbed doses. On the other hand, increasing absorbed dose and decreasing monomer contents are useful to improve the graft efficiency of MA and MAH. At high dose and low monomer content, the graft yield of MAH onto UFSBR is higher than that of MA. FTIR spectra confirmed that both MA and MAH can be grafted successfully onto the UFSBR under gamma irradiation, respectively. Comparing with maleation of rubber by melt grafting, the graft yield of MAH on UFSBR is higher, which can be attributed to the network structure and nanometer size of UFSBR as well as high energy provided by radiation.

  20. The influence of nano silica particles on gamma-irradiation ageing of elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovi?, G.; Marinovi?-Cincovi?, M.; Tanasi?, Lj.; Jovanovi?, V.; Samaržija-Jovanovi?, S.; Vuki?, N.; Budinski-Simendi?, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work was to study gamma irradiation ageing of rubber blends based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) reinforced by silica nano particles. The NBR/CSM compounds (50: 50, w/w) filled with different content of filler (0-100 phr) were crosslinked by sulfur. The vulcanization characteristics were assessed using the rheometer with an oscillating disk. The vulcanizates were prepared in a hydraulic press. The obtained materials were exposed to the different irradiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy). The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling numbers were assessed before and after gamma irradiation ageing.

  1. Styrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Styrene ; CASRN 100 - 42 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  2. Water-responsive mechanically adaptive nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber and cellulose nanocrystals--processing matters.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Pratheep K; Dagnon, Koffi L; Monemian, Seyedali; Foster, E Johan; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2014-01-22

    Biomimetic, stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposites based on a hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix and rigid, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from cotton were prepared by three different approaches, and their properties were studied and related to the composition, processing history, and exposure to water as a stimulus. The first processing approach involved mixing an aqueous SBR latex with aqueous CNC dispersions, and films were subsequently formed by solution-casting. The second method utilized the first protocol, but films were additionally compression-molded. The third method involved the formation of a CNC organogel via a solvent exchange with acetone, followed by infusing this gel, in which the CNCs form a percolating network with solutions of SBR in tetrahydrofuran. The thermomechanical properties of the materials were established by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). In the dry state, all nanocomposites show much higher tensile storage moduli, E', than the neat SBR or the SBR latex. E' increases with the CNC content and depends strongly on the processing method, which appears to influence the morphology of the SBR nanocomposites produced. The highest E' values were observed for the solution cast samples involving an SBR latex, where E' increased from 3 MPa for the neat SBR to ca. 740 MPa for the nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. Upon submersion in deionized water, a dramatic reduction of E' was observed, for example from 740 to 5 MPa for the solution-cast nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. This change is interpreted as a disengagement of the percolating CNC network, on account of modest aqueous swelling and competitive hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the CNCs. It is shown that the method of preparation also influenced the swelling behavior and kinetics of modulus switching, consistent with different arrangements of the CNCs, which serve as channels for water absorption and transport within the hydrophobic SBR matrix. PMID:24354282

  3. Quadratic Electro-Optic Effect in the Nonconjugated Conductive Co-polymer Iodine-doped Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber Measured at 633 nm and 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telang, Gurudutt; Thakur, Mrinal

    2012-02-01

    The quadratic electro-optic effect in the nonconjugated conductive co-polymer film of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) has been measured using field-induced birefringence method. Thin films of styrene-butadiene-rubber have been prepared on various substrates from a chloroform solution and characterized using optical absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and DSC before and after doping with iodine. The optical absorption spectrum at low doping shows two peaks: one at 4.27 eV and the other at 3.2 eV corresponding to the radical cation and charge-transfer transition. FTIR data indicate =C-H vibration bands (964 cm-1 and 910 cm-1) of polybutadiene decrease upon doping due to transformation of the double bonds into radical cations. The Kerr coefficients as measured at 633 nm and at 1550 nm are 3.1x10-10 m/V^2 and 1.3x10-10 m/V^2 respectively. These exceptionally large values have been attributed to the subnanometer metallic domains formed upon doping and charge-transfer involving isolated double-bonds.

  4. 1,3-Butadiene, styrene and lymphohematopoietic cancer among male synthetic rubber industry workers - Preliminary exposure-response analyses.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Brill, Ilene; Leader, Mark; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    We updated the mortality experience of North American synthetic rubber industry workers to include follow-up from 1944 through 2009, adding 11 years of mortality data to previous investigations. The present analysis used Cox regression to examine the exposure-response relationship between 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene (STY) parts per million (ppm)-years and leukemia (N = 114 deaths), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (N = 89) and multiple myeloma (MM) (N = 48). A pattern of largely monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of BD ppm-years and a positive, statistically significant exposure-response trend were observed for BD ppm-years and leukemia. Using continuous, untransformed BD ppm-years the regression coefficient (?) adjusted only for age was 2.6 × 10(-4) (p < 0.01); the regression coefficient adjusted for age, year of birth, race and plant was 2.9 × 10(-4) (p < 0.01). STY ppm-years also displayed a positive exposure-response association with leukemia. STY and BD were strongly correlated, and the separate effects of these two agents could not be estimated. For NHL, a pattern of approximately monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of exposure was seen for STY but not for BD; the test of trend was statistically significant in one of five models that used different STY exposure metrics and adjusted for age and other covariates. BD ppm-years and STY ppm-years were not associated with MM. The present analyses indicated a positive exposure-response relationship between BD cumulative exposure and leukemia. This result along with other research and biological information support an interpretation that BD causes leukemia in humans. STY exposure also was positively associated with leukemia, but its independent effect could not be delineated because of its strong correlation with BD, and there is no external support for a STY-leukemia association. STY, but not BD, was associated positively with NHL. The interpretation of this result is uncertain because the exposure-response data were statistically imprecise and because consistent support for causality from other studies is lacking. The current study provides no support for an association between BD or STY and MM. PMID:26343807

  5. Effect of the morphology on the anisotropic light scattering of polycarbonate (PC)/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)(70/30) blend.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xianming; Xiong, Ying; Chen, Guangshun; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) (70/30) anisotropic light scattering sheet with controllable anisotropic degree was prepared by blending and hot stretching process. The morphological evolution of the dispersed particles for PC/SAN (70/30) blend during hot stretching was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the effect of stretching deformation on the light scattering properties was investigated. The SEM photographs revealed that SAN particles deformed into ellipsoid during hot stretching. The scattering properties analysis results revealed the appearance of anisotropic light scattering for PC/SAN (70/30) blends with various deformations, and with the increase of stretching deformation, the anisotropic scattering degree increased, verifying the correctness of geometrical optical scattering theoretical analysis. PMID:25967766

  6. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (?-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with ?-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, ?-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between ?-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with ?-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  7. Two-dimensional chromatography applied to the study of the thermo-oxidative degradation of poly(styrene-b-butadiene) star block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional chromatography with gradient polymer elution chromatography in the first dimension and gel permeation chromatography in the second dimension was used to characterize a poly(styrene-b-butadiene) star block copolymer. The data evidence several populations that are clues left by the different steps in the sequential reaction employed to make the polymer. The sample was subjected to thermo-oxidative degradation at 180°C and was analyzed at different times during the process. After a relatively long induction period, the two-dimensional chromatograms show how the different populations are progressively degraded via random chain scission of the polybutadiene block to leave essentially polystyrene as the only soluble component. With longer thermal aging times, the polystyrene also degrades via chain scission. PMID:22807356

  8. Scratch Behavior of Multiphase Styrenic Copolymers and Effects of Environmental Conditioning 

    E-print Network

    Moghbelli, Ehsan

    2014-09-05

    OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ANNEALING ON SCRATCH BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLONITRILE STYRENE ACRYLATE COPOLYMERS ............................................................................................................... 48 3.1 Synopsis...

  9. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...articles intended to contact food. (ii) Acrylonitrile/styrene...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food-Simulating Solvents,”...

  10. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...articles intended to contact food. (ii) Acrylonitrile/styrene...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food-Simulating Solvents,”...

  11. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...articles intended to contact food. (ii) Acrylonitrile/styrene...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food-Simulating Solvents,”...

  12. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...articles intended to contact food. (ii) Acrylonitrile/styrene...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food-Simulating Solvents,”...

  13. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...articles intended to contact food. (ii) Acrylonitrile/styrene...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food-Simulating Solvents,”...

  14. Water soluble styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose binder for ZnFe2O4 anode electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongyu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Hailong; Fu, Qiang; Na, Hui; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2015-07-01

    ZnFe2O4 nano particles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries are prepared by the glycine-nitrate combustion method. The mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SBR/CMC) with the weight ratio of 1:1 is used as the binder for ZnFe2O4 electrode. Compared with the conventional polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) binder, the SBR/CMC binder is much cheaper and environment benign. More significantly, this water soluble binder significantly improves the rate capability and cycle stability of ZnFe2O4. A discharge capacity of 873.8 mAh g-1 is obtained after 100 cycles at the 0.1C rate, with a very little capacity fading rate of 0.06% per cycle. Studies show that the SBR/CMC binder enhances the adhesion of the electrode film to the current collector, and constructs an effective three-dimensional network for electrons transport. In addition, the SBR/CMC binder helps to form a uniform SEI film thus prohibiting the formation of lithium dendrite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SBR/CMC binder lowers the ohmic resistance of the electrode, depresses the formation of SEI film and facilitates the charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. These advantages highlight the potential applications of SBR/CMC binder in lithium ion batteries.

  15. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF 1,3-BUTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment was conducted to review the new information that has become available since EPA's 1985 health assessment of 1,3-butadiene.

    1,3-Butadiene is a gas used commercially in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber, plastics, and thermoplastic resins. The major...

  16. CASE-COHORT STUDY OF STYRENE EXPOSURE AND ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE INVESTIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators examined workers exposed to styrene while working in styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing plants between 1943 and 1982. Workers who had died from ischemic heart disease were compared to a subgroup of all men employed in two styrene-butadiene polymer manufac...

  17. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-10-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby-Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system.

  18. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF BUTADIENE AT A SYNTHETIC RUBBER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butadiene emission samples were collected from the process vent stream of a plant manufacturing synthetic rubber from styrene and butadiene. Samples were collected by modification of the evacuated container sampling procedure, outlined in Section 7.1.1 of EPA Method 18. On-site a...

  19. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  20. 1,3-Butadiene

    Cancer.gov

    Exposure to 1,3-butadiene mainly occurs among workers who breath contaminated air on the job. Other sources of exposure include automobile exhaust; tobacco smoke; and polluted air and water near chemical, plastic, or rubber facilities.

  1. 1,3-Butadiene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Butadiene ; CASRN 106 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  2. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  3. Disclosed dielectric and electromechanical properties of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Liu, Haoliang; Yu, Yingchun; Zhang, Liqun

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of acrylonitrile content, crosslink density and plasticization on the dielectric and electromechanical performances of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer. It was found that by increasing the acrylonitrile content of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric elastomer, the dielectric constant will be improved accompanied with a sharp decrease of electrical breakdown strength leading to a small actuated strain. At a fixed electric field, a high crosslink density increased the elastic modulus of dielectric elastomer, but it also enhanced the electrical breakdown strength leading to a high actuated strain. Adding a plasticizer into the dielectric elastomer decreased the dielectric constant and electrical breakdown strength slightly, but reduced the elastic modulus sharply, which was beneficial for obtaining a large strain at low electric field from the dielectric elastomer. The largest actuated strain of 22% at an electric field of 30 kV mm-1 without any prestrain was obtained. Moreover, the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene dielectric actuator showed good history dependence. This proposed material has great potential to be an excellent dielectric elastomer.

  4. Styrene Purification and Recovery Using Freeze Crystallization 

    E-print Network

    Heist, J. A.; Wrobel, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Lab tests have demonstrated the ability to separate styrene from ABS and SAN plastics wastes by cooling the waste until the styrene begins to crystallize. The same process that recovers styrene from these wastes can be used to purify styrene...

  5. Health Assessment Document for Acrylonitrile (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute acrylonitrile intoxication in humans, like many volatile organic compounds, results in irritation of the eyes and nose, weakness, labored breathing, dizziness, impaired judgement, cyanosis, nausea, and convulsions. Unlike many of these other organics, acrylonitrile causes s...

  6. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application. PMID:24695435

  7. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  12. Present and Future Uses of Industrial Absorption Heat Pumps 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Acrylonitrile Amines BTX Butadiene e3' Cit, and, Cs splitters Ethanol Ethylene glycols Isopropanol Methanol Methyl Ethyl Ketone Styrene and Ethylbenzene Terepthalic Acid Vinyl Acetate Monomer Vinyl Chloride Monomer Natural Gas Processing All...

  13. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  14. AMBIENT ACRYLONITRILE LEVELS NEAR MAJOR ACRYLONITRILE PRODUCTION AND USE FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, ambient acrylonitrile (AN) levels were measured in the vicinity of two major AN user facilities and two major AN production facilities. Approximately 100 duplicate air samples were collected on charcoal sorption tubes at different locations at or beyond the fenceli...

  15. Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice, BD was shown to be a potent multiple-site carcinogen at exposure levels of 625 and 1250 ppM. There were increased incidences of neoplasia in the heart, lung, mammary gland, and ovary; malignant lymphomas resulted in early deaths of the mice so that the planned 2-year study was stopped after only 61 weeks of exposure. The second study in mice was conducted at much lower exposure concentrations (6.25, 20, 62.5, 200, and 625 ppM) and lasted 104 weeks. Increased incidences of hemangiosarcomas of the heart and lung neoplasia were observed in males exposed to 62.5 ppM BD, while females had increased lung neoplasia even at the 6.25 ppM exposure level. Early deaths from lymphomas were again observed at the high exposure concentration (625 ppm). A noncancer toxicity observed in mice was a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia.

  16. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  17. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...-contact article containing acrylonitrile copolymers or resins that yield acrylonitrile monomer in...

  18. Computational Investigation of the Competition between the Concerted Diels-Alder Reaction and Formation of Diradicals in Reactions of Acrylonitrile with Non-Polar Dienes

    PubMed Central

    James, Natalie C.; Um, Joann M.; Padias, Anne B.; Hall, H. K.; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data. For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene with acrylonitrile is preferred computationally over the stepwise pathway by 5.9 kcal/mol; experimentally, only the Diels-Alder adduct is formed. For the reactions of (E)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, both cycloaddition and copolymerization were observed experimentally; these trends were mimicked by the computational results, which showed only a 1.2 kcal/mol preference for the concerted pathway. For the reactions of (Z)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, the stepwise pathway is preferred by 3.9 kcal/mol, in agreement with previous experimental findings that only polymerization occurs. M06-2X is known to give more accurate activation and reaction energetics but the energies of diradicals are too high. PMID:23758325

  19. Computational investigation of the competition between the concerted Diels-Alder reaction and formation of diradicals in reactions of acrylonitrile with nonpolar dienes.

    PubMed

    James, Natalie C; Um, Joann M; Padias, Anne B; Hall, H K; Houk, K N

    2013-07-01

    The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data (Hall et al., J. Org. Chem.1993, 58, 7049-7058). For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally, this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene with acrylonitrile is preferred computationally over the stepwise pathway by 5.9 kcal/mol; experimentally, only the Diels-Alder adduct is formed. For the reactions of (E)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, both cycloaddition and copolymerization were observed experimentally; these trends were mimicked by the computational results, which showed only a 1.2 kcal/mol preference for the concerted pathway. For the reactions of (Z)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, the stepwise pathway is preferred by 3.9 kcal/mol, in agreement with previous experimental findings that only polymerization occurs. M06-2X is known to give more accurate activation and reaction energetics (Pieniazek, et al., Angew. Chem. Int.2008, 47, 7746-7749), but the energies of diradicals are too high. PMID:23758325

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy of isotopic acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kra?nicki, Adam; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.

    2011-12-01

    Rotational spectra of four isotopically enriched, singly substituted species of acrylonitrile have been studied up to 1.2 THz. Extensive analysis of the spectra recorded for H 213C dbnd CHCN, H 2C dbnd CH 13CN, H 2C dbnd CHC 15N, and H 2C dbnd CDCN, revealed the presence of the same characteristic perturbations between the ground state and the v11 = 1 excited vibrational state, that have recently been identified in the parent molecule. For this reason transitions in v11 = 1 have also been assigned in each of the four isotopic species and a coupled state analysis of g.s. and v11 = 1 was performed on a total of around 3000 lines for each species. The derived precise values of E( v11 = 1) are found to be consistent with estimates from anharmonic force field calculations. In addition, transitions for six new doubly substituted isotopic species of acrylonitrile, H 213C dbnd 13CHCN, H 213C dbnd CH 13CN, H 2C dbnd 13CH 13CN, H 213C dbnd CHC 15N, H 2C dbnd 13CHC 15N, and H 2C dbnd CH 13C 15N, have been assigned, and their ground state spectroscopic constants have been determined. Rotational constants for all known isotopic species of acrylonitrile have been combined with ab initio calculation of vibration-rotation constants in the first evaluation of the reSE geometry of this molecule.

  1. Ion-Molecule Association in Acrylonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Paul F.; Milligan, Daniel B.; McEwan, Murray J.

    1997-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (propernenitrile or vinyl cyanide) polymerizes readily via a radical mechanism in solution at room temparature. The propensity to polymerize is sufficiently strong that it is usual to add a radical scavenger to the solution to prevent polymerization when oxygen (an inhibitor) is removed. Polymerization of acrylonitrile is also know to occur via nucleophilic addition of an anion by a michael-type reaction.

  2. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22 Acrylonitrile copolymers. Acrylonitrile copolymers may be... uses subject to the denial are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently unlawful. (3)...

  3. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE (REVISED DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile is readily absorbed in animals following ingestion or inhalation, while dermal absorption is poor (1%) compared to that of the lungs. Acrylonitrile is metabolized to cyanide, which is transformed to thiocyanic acid and by cyanoethylation of sulfhydryl groups to S-(2...

  4. Bacterial degradation of styrene involving a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent styrene monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmans, S; Van Der Werf, M.J.; De Bont, J.A.M. )

    1990-05-01

    By using styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy in concentrations of 10 to 500 {mu}M, 14 strains of aerobic bacteria and two strains of fungi were isolated from various soil and water samples. In cell extracts of 11 of the bacterial isolates, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-requiring styrene monooxygenase activity that oxidized styrene oxide (phenyl oxirane) was detected. In one bacterial strain (S5), styrene metabolism was studied in more detail. In addition to styrene monooxygenase, cell extracts from strain S5 contained styrene oxide isomerase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. A pathway for styrene degradation via styrene oxide and phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid is proposed.

  5. Lowest Vibrational States of Acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of the broadband rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile, H_2C=CHC?N, revealed the presence of multiple resonances between rotational levels in different vibrational states. The resonances affect even the ground state transitions and their analysis allowed determination of vibrational term values for the first three excited states above the ground state and of vibrational energy differences in several polyads above these states. At that time there was no infrared data of sufficient resolution to assess the reliability of the resonance based vibrational energy determinations. We presently report results based on a 40-700 cm-1 high-resolution spectrum of acrylonitrile recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. This spectrum was reduced by using the AABS packagea, and allowed assignment of vibration-rotation transitions in four fundamentals, five hot bands, and one overtone band. The infrared data and previous measurements made with microwave techniques have been combined into a single global fit encompassing over 31000 measured transitions. Precise vibrational term values have been determined for the eight lowest excited vibrational states. The new results validate the previous estimates from rotational perturbations and are also compared with results of ab~initio anharmonic force field calculations. Z. Kisiel, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 134 (2012). A. López, et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 572, A44 Z. Kisiel, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233 231 (2005).

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylonitrile was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous con...

  7. STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report identifies the services and effects of environmental contaminators by acrylonitrile, as well as the health hazards resulting from such contamination. The present manufacturing processes, uses, control technologies, and regulatory actions are described, and areas requi...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to assure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin. D. Change or...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to assure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin. D. Change or...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to assure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin. D. Change or...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to assure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin. D. Change or...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents are also to be provided to assure the effective removal of acrylonitrile from the skin. D. Change or...

  13. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these... (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial... (2) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium...

  14. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these... (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial... (2) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium...

  15. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...intended for use in contact with food, in accordance with the following...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by a method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food Simulating Solvents,”...

  16. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...intended for use in contact with food, in accordance with the following...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by a method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food Simulating Solvents,”...

  17. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...intended for use in contact with food, in accordance with the following...monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by a method of analysis titled “Gas-Solid Chromatographic...Acrylonitrile-Containing Polymers and Food Simulating Solvents,”...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    [UPDATE] New Schedule for IRIS Acrylonitrile Assessment

    In May 2012, EPA developed a new schedule for completing the IRIS acrylonitrile assessment. Acrylonitrile is primarily used in the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic fibers, plastics, and nitrile rubbers. It ...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... safely used as an article or component of articles intended for use with all foods, except those... available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration... per square inch surface area when the finished food contact article is exposed to distilled water,...

  20. Bacterial degradation of styrene involving a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, S; van der Werf, M J; de Bont, J A

    1990-01-01

    By using styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy in concentrations of 10 to 500 microM, 14 strains of aerobic bacteria and two strains of fungi were isolated from various soil and water samples. In cell extracts of 11 of the bacterial isolates, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-requiring styrene monooxygenase activity that oxidized styrene to styrene oxide (phenyl oxirane) was detected. In one bacterial strain (S5), styrene metabolism was studied in more detail. In addition to styrene monooxygenase, cell extracts from strain S5 contained styrene oxide isomerase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. A pathway for styrene degradation via styrene oxide and phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid is proposed. PMID:2339888

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylonitrile. 1915.1045 Section 1915.1045 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylonitrile. 1915.1045 Section 1915.1045 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  3. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these analytical methods... repeated use: (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial batch usage... quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium extractions, utilizing solvents and...

  4. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... analytical methods used to determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of... articles intended for repeated use: (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent... use. (2) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium...

  5. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these analytical methods... repeated use: (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial batch usage... quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium extractions, utilizing solvents and...

  6. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these analytical methods... repeated use: (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial batch usage... quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium extractions, utilizing solvents and...

  7. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determine the complex and the acrylonitrile migration, and validation studies of these analytical methods... repeated use: (1) Qualitative and quantitative migration values at a time equivalent to initial batch usage... quantitative migration values at the time of equilibrium extractions, utilizing solvents and...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 7 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Acrylonitrile. ? 1915.1045 ? Section 1915.1045 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  9. 40 CFR 721.505 - Halogenated acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated acrylonitrile, (PMN P-90-299) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group Bl under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. vidence, on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is @'Limited." he potenc...

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ACRYLONITRILE MANUFACTURE (AIR EMISSIONS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of atmospheric emissions from propylene-based acrylonitrile manufacturing plants. Uncontrolled and controlled emission factors are given for each species emitted to the atmosphere from each source within a typical plant, based on field samp...

  12. Mortality of United Kingdom acrylonitrile polymerisation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, J B; Carter, J T

    1981-01-01

    The mortality of 1111 men who worked on the polymerisation of acrylonitrile and the spinning of acrylic fibre from 1950 to 1968 was surveyed up to the end of 1978. Seventy-nine deaths were identified. The population was drawn from six factories, where polymerisation started before 1968, in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. In the group of men exposed to acrylonitrile for at least one year the total number of deaths was smaller than expected. An excess of deaths from all cancers was found, arising mainly from cancers of the lung, stomach, colon, and brain, but the excess was not statistically significant. Significant excesses of stomach cancer overall and in those aged 55-64, and of lung cancer in those aged 15-44 were found. Consideration of deaths according to factory indicated that the excesses of stomach cancer may have been due to regional factors. The excess of lung cancer was investigated further in view of the fact that, unusually, it occurred in relatively young men, but no consistent difference between the duration of exposure to acrylonitrile of the three young patients with lung cancer and matched controls was found. The study is limited and further analysis in the future is needed. The results are not conclusive and neither add to nor detract from existing suspicions that acrylonitrile is a human carcinogen but, taken together with evidence from other studies, indicate the necessity for the continuing surveillance of the exposed population in the United Kingdom. PMID:7272237

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1145 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    29 ? Labor ? 8 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Acrylonitrile. ? 1926.1145 ? Section 1926.1145 ? Labor ? Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) ? OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ? SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION ? Toxic...

  14. Metabolism of acrylonitrile by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M S; Franklin, W; Campbell, W L; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

    1991-01-01

    A gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium capable of utilizing acrylonitrile as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from industrial sewage and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolate was capable of utilizing aliphatic nitriles containing 1 to 5 carbon atoms or benzonitrile as the sole source of nitrogen and either acetamide or propionamide as the sole source of both carbon and nitrogen. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses of culture filtrates indicated that K. pneumoniae was capable of hydrolyzing 6.15 mmol of acrylonitrile to 5.15 mmol of acrylamide within 24 h. The acrylamide was hydrolyzed to 1.0 mmol of acrylic acid within 72 h. Another metabolite of acrylonitrile metabolism was ammonia, which reached a maximum concentration of 3.69 mM within 48 h. Nitrile hydratase and amidase, the two hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the sequential metabolism of nitrile compounds, were induced by acrylonitrile. The optimum temperature for nitrile hydratase activity was 55 degrees C and that for amidase was 40 degrees C; both enzymes had pH optima of 8.0. PMID:1953306

  15. Effect of soy protein and carbohydrate ratio on the viscoelastic properties of styrene-butadiene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When soy products including soy protein isolate (SPI), defatted soy flour, soy protein concentrate, and soy spent flakes (SSF) were incorporated into rubber latex to form composites, they showed substantial reinforcement effects as measured by rheological and mechanical methods. It was observed tha...

  16. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  17. Reinforcement effect of soy protein/carbohydrate ratio in styrene-butadiene polymer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein and carbohydrate at different ratios were blended with latex to form composites. The variation of protein to carbohydrate ratio has a sifnificant effect on the composite properties and the results from dynamic mechanical method showed a substantial reinforcement effect. The composites ...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section...10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exposed to distilled water and 3 pct acetic acid for 10 d at 66 °C (150 °F)The extracted copolymer shall... 3 pct acetic acid for 10 d at 66 °C (150 °F) 1 Minimum number average molecular weight is 30,000. 1... Sieve No. 10 is extracted with 250 mil of deionized water or reagent grade n-heptane at...

  9. Interactive Stereoscopic Installation: A Photographic Collage 

    E-print Network

    Kannapurakkaran, Shyam

    2010-10-12

    the power to complete things honestly. vi NOMENCLATURE 3D Three-Dimensional ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Scierosis CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CPU Central Processing Unit DIY Do It Yourself FAT Free Art...(Printed Circuit Board) of the camera. This resulted in the octagonal shape. Both the housing and the glasses were modeled in Maya and printed on a 3D printer in ABS(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) plastic material(Figure 20). Fig. 20. The Camera Housing Being...

  10. Metabolism of styrene oxide and 2-phenylethanol in the styrene-degrading Xanthobacter strain 124X

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmans, S.; Smits, J.P.; Van Der Werf, M.J.; Volkering, F.; De Bont, J.A.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Styrene oxide and 2-phenylethanol metabolism in the styrene-degrading Xanthobacter sp. strain 124X was shown to proceed via phenylacetaldehyde and phenylacetic acid. In cell extracts 2-phenylethanol was oxidized by a phenazine methosulfate-dependent enzyme, probably a pyrroloquinoline quinone enzyme. Xanthobacter sp. strain 124X also contains a novel enzymatic activity designated as styrene oxide isomerase. Styrene oxide isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of styrene oxide to phenylacetaldehyde. The enzyme was partially purified and shown to have a very high substrate specificity. Of the epoxides tested, styrene oxide was the only substrate transformed. The initial step in styrene metabolism in Xanthobacter sp. strain 124X is oxygen dependent and probably involves oxidation of the aromatic nucleus.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154...154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression...

  16. REDUCING STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM SPRAYED FILLED RESINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Styrene emissions are coming under increasing study as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops maximum achievable control technology standards. During the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastics/composites products, styrene, a volatile organic compound and a haz...

  17. Improved Dipole Moments for Acrylonitrile and Propionitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Kra?nicki, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Previous determinations of the electric dipole moment of acrylonitrile, while in agreement on the total dipole moment, showed an appreciable difference in the value of the smaller ?_b component. The value of this component is important for intensity considerations in the THz spectrum of this molecule, which is dominated by b-type transitions. We decided to update the dipole moment determination of acrylonitrile, and also of propionitrile (ethyl cyanide) by making Stark measurements in supersonic expansion. We used the Stark electrode arrangement developed in our laboratory and the program QSTARK for fitting Stark measurements on resolved nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. The results for acrylonitrile show a further, significant difference in the value of ?_b, while those for propionitrile, while more precise, are essentially consistent with previous values. The evidence from ab initio calculations and from relative intensity measurements supporting the current dipole moment determinations is presented. W.S.Wilcox, J.H.Goldstein, J.W.Simmons, J.Chem.Phys., 22, 516 (1954) M.Stolze, D.H.Sutter, Z.Naturforsch., 40a, 998 (1985) Z.Kisiel, L.Pszczó?kowski, B.J.Drouin, C.S.Brauer, S.Yu, J.C.Pearson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 258, 26 (2009). Z.Kisiel, J.Kosarzewski, B.A.Pietrewicz, L.Pszczó?kowski, Chem.Phys.Lett. 325, 523 (2000). H.M.Heise, H.Lutz, H.Dreizler, Z.Naturforsch., 29a, 1345 (1974)

  18. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, Susan; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for acrylonitrile, as experimental data permitted. Human data were limited to inhalation exposures. The animal experimental data set for this chemical was robust for inhalation and oral studies, with the exception of appropriate data for inhalation 30-d, 90-d, and 2-yr PAL 3 values. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in October 2007. Oral 24-hr PALs for acrylonitrile are: PAL 1 = 7 mg/L; PAL 2 = 23 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 88 mg/L. Oral 30-d and 90-d PALs are: PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 7 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 17 mg/L. Oral 2-yr PALs are: PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 3.5 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 12 mg/L. Acrylonitrile inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 0.17 ppm; PAL 2 = 3.5 ppm; and PAL 3 = 5.1 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.15 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.60 ppm. The 2-yr inhalation values are: PAL 1 = 0.014 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.12 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d, 90-d, and 2-yr are not recommended due to insufficient data.

  19. Styrene Aziridination by Iron(IV) Nitrides.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Salvador B; Lee, Wei-Tsung; Dickie, Diane A; Scepaniak, Jeremiah J; Subedi, Deepak; Pink, Maren; Johnson, Michael D; Smith, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    Thermolysis of the iron(IV) nitride complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe?N] with styrene leads to formation of the high-spin iron(II) aziridino complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)]. Similar aziridination occurs with both electron-rich and electron-poor styrenes, while bulky styrenes hinder the reaction. The aziridino complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)] acts as a nitride synthon, reacting with electron-poor styrenes to generate their corresponding aziridino complexes, that is, aziridine cross-metathesis. Reaction of [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)] with Me3SiCl releases the N-functionalized aziridine Me3SiN(CH2CHPh) while simultaneously generating [PhB(tBuIm)3FeCl]. This closes a synthetic cycle for styrene azirdination by a nitride complex. While the less hindered iron(IV) nitride complex [PhB(MesIm)3Fe?N] reacts with styrenes below room temperature, only bulky styrenes lead to tractable aziridino products. PMID:26179563

  20. ABSORPTION OF CO2 IN HIGH ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT COPOLYMERS: DEPENDENCE ON ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT. (R829555)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In continuation of our goal to determine the ability of CO2 to plasticize acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers and facilitate melt processing at temperatures below the onset of thermal degradation, a systematic study has been performed to determine the influence of AN cont...

  1. (Z)-3-Ferrocenyl-2-phenyl­acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu-Yang; Ye, Heng-Yun

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C14H10N)], the unsubstituted cyclo­penta­diene (Cp) ring is disordered over two positions, with site-occupancy factors 0.76?(2) and 0.24?(2). The dihedral angles between the substituted Cp ring and the major and the minor components of the disordered ring are 0.9?(5) and 6(2)°, repectively. The plane of the acrylonitrile unit makes dihedral angles of 6.1?(18) and 6.5?(4)° with the substituted Cp ring and the phenyl ring planes, respectively. PMID:21202505

  2. Mortality patterns among styrene-exposed boatbuilders

    SciTech Connect

    Okun, A.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Meinhardt, T.J.; Crandall, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that leukemia and lymphoma may be associated with exposure to styrene, cause-of-death patterns were studied at two reinforced plastic boatbuilding facilities. There were 5,021 workers who met the criterion of having worked at the two plants between 1959 and 1978. Based on industrial hygiene surveys conducted at the two plants, 2,060 individuals were determined to have worked in departments classified as having high exposure to styrene. There were 176 deaths observed among the total cohort, in comparison to 195.3 deaths expected. Among the high styrene exposure group, 47 deaths were observed in comparison to 41.5 deaths expected. No leukemia or lymphoma deaths were observed in either the high exposure group or the total cohort. An excess of accidental deaths among the high exposure group (18 observed vs 12.4 expected) did not appear to be due to styrene's acute central nervous system effects, since none of the individuals were employed at the facilities at the time of their death. However, the possibility of a chronic effect could not be dismissed. While leukemia and lymphoma did not appear to be related to styrene exposure, the study had little statistical power to detect excesses of these diseases, due to the short length of observation and the young age of most cohort members. It was concluded that the cohort should provide increasingly useful information on chronic styrene toxicity as the population ages and the observation period increases.

  3. Cooxidation of styrene by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and 4-methylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Grab, L.A.; Ortiz, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    Styrene is cooxidized to styrene oxide in a system containing HRP/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and 4-methylphenol. Styrene oxide is not formed in the absence of any of these components, or if the reaction is run under anaerobic conditions. Styrene oxide formation is inhibited by ascorbic acid and catalase but not mannitol or superoxide dismutase. Incubation with /sup 18/O/sub 2/ resulted in more than 90% incorporation of label into styrene oxide. The epoxidation of trans-(1-/sup 2/H)styrene occurred with partial loss of stereochemistry. The products expected from addition of the phenoxy radical to styrene were synthesized and shown not to be formed. Finally, EPR evidence was obtained for formation of 4-methyl catechol in the presence, but not absence, of styrene. The results imply that a peroxy radical is formed by addition of oxygen to the HRP-generated 4-methylphenoxy radical, and that this peroxy radical then cooxidizes styrene.

  4. Gas Phase Raman Spectra of Butadiene and BUTADIENE-d_{6} and the Internal Rotation Potential Energy Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar; Laane, Jaan; Craig, Norman C.

    2009-06-01

    The Raman spectrum of butadiene has been previously reported by Carreira and by Engeln and co-workers. Both studies reported a series of bands corresponding to double quantum jumps of ?_{13}, the internal rotation vibration, of the trans rotamer. Both studies also reported weaker bands assigned to the higher energy conformer. Carriera assigned these to the cis form while Engeln assigned them to the gauche form. Recent high level calculations by Feller and Craig also assign the higher energy form as gauche. In the present study we report the gas phase Raman spectrum of butadiene and its d_{6} isotopomer at both 25^°C and 260^°C. Several new spectral features in the 330 to 210 cm^{-1} region were observed and the effect of heating on the band intensities was studied. In addition, combination bands were observed in the 630 to 690 cm^{-1} (?_{12} + ?_{13}) and 1130 to 1180 cm^{-1} (?_{10} + ?_{13}) regions. A periodic potential energy function with V_{1}, V_{2}, V_{3}, V_{4}, and V_{6} terms was utilized to fit the data. This function was compared to the results from previous work and to the theoretical calculation. L. Carreira, J. Phys. Chem. 62, 3851 (1975). R. Engeln, D. Consalvo, and J. Reuss, J. Chem. Phys. 160, 427 (1992). D. Feller and N. C. Craig, J. Phys. Chem. 113, 1601 (2009).

  5. Cytogenetic effects of styrene and styrene oxide on human lymphocytes and Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Linnainmaa, K; Meretoja, T; Sorsa, M; Vainio, H

    1978-01-01

    Styrene and styrene oxide induce cytogenetic effects already at very low concentrations (0.01% v/v or even less); the effects are similar in both in vitro human lymphocytes and in vivo onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.). It is characteristic that styrene treatment is more potent in causing chromosome breakage in both systems. In Allium styrene induced inhibition of mitotic spindle action as revealed by a strong c-mitotic effect. Also the number of micronuclei and nuclear bridges increased in both test systems, especially after styrene oxide treatment. Furthermore, the metaphase chromosome morphology in the cells treated with styrene oxide was strongly affected. In both systems, chromosome destruction was observed, or else the chromosome material was decondensed and resulted in a characteristic fuzzy appearance of Allium chromosomes or a banded appearance of human lymphocyte chromosomes. A specific effect of styrene oxide on the chromosomal proteins is thus suggested. The data obtained from the autoradiographic studies with Allium support the idea that [7--3H] styrene oxide binds irreversibly to the cytoplasmic and nuclear macromolecules. PMID:734401

  6. Laser transmission welding of ABS: Effect of CNTs concentration and process parameters on material integrity and weld formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Gadea, C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports a study of the laser transmission welding of polymeric joints composed by two ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) sheets, one transparent (natural ABS) and the other absorbent (filled by different percentages of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)). The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of process parameters and CNTs concentrations on weld formation and mechanical resistance of the weld joints.

  7. The privileged access model of 1,3-butadiene disposition.

    PubMed

    Kohn, M C; Melnick, R L

    2000-10-01

    In previous attempts to model disposition of 1,3-butadiene in mice and rats, parameter values for 1,2-epoxybut-3-ene metabolism were optimized to reproduce elimination of this gas from closed chambers. However, each of these models predicted much higher concentrations of circulating epoxybutene than were subsequently measured in animals exposed to butadiene. To account for this discrepancy, a previous physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of butadiene disposition was modified to describe a transient complex between cytochrome P450 and epoxide hydrolase on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. In this model the epoxide products are directly transferred from the P450 to the epoxide hydrolase in competition with release of products into the cytosol. The model includes flow-restricted delivery of butadiene and epoxides to gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, kidney, fat, other rapidly perfused tissues, and other slowly perfused tissues. Blood was distributed among compartments for arterial, venous, and capillary spaces. Oxidation of butadiene and epoxybutene and hydrolysis and glutathione conjugation of epoxides were included in liver, lung, and kidney. The model reproduces observed uptake of butadiene and epoxybutene from closed chambers by mice and rats and steady-state concentrations of butadiene, epoxybutene, and 1,2;3,4-diepoxybutane concentrations in blood of mice and rats exposed by nose only. Successful replication of these observations indicates that the proposed privileged access of epoxides formed in situ to epoxide hydrolase is a plausible mechanistic representation for the metabolic clearance of epoxide-forming chemicals. PMID:11036000

  8. Isolation and characterization of styrene metabolism genes from styrene-assimilating soil bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    Styrene metabolism genes were isolated from styrene-assimilating bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10. Strain ST-5 had a gene cluster containing four open reading frames which encoded styrene degradation enzymes. The genes showed high similarity to styABCD of Pseudomonas sp. Y2. On the other hand, strain ST-10 had only two genes which encoded styrene monooxygenase and flavin oxidoreductase (styAB). Escherichia coli transformants possessing the sty genes of strains ST-5 and ST-10 produced (S)-styrene oxide from styrene, indicating that these genes function as styrene degradation enzymes. Metabolite analysis by resting-cell reaction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that strain ST-5 converts styrene to phenylacetaldehyde via styrene oxide by styrene oxide isomerase (styC) reaction. On the other hand, strain ST-10 lacked this enzyme, and thus accumulated styrene oxide as an intermediate. HPLC analysis showed that styrene oxide was spontaneously isomerized to phenylacetaldehyde by chemical reaction. The produced phenylacetaldehyde was converted to phenylacetic acid (PAA) in strain ST-10 as well as in strain ST-5. Furthermore, phenylacetic acid was converted to phenylacetyl-CoA by the catalysis of phenylacetate-CoA ligase in strains ST-5 and ST-10. This study proposes possible styrene metabolism pathways in Rhodococcus sp. strains ST-5 and ST-10. PMID:21996027

  9. The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment that Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The iodochlorination of styrene, involving the addition of iodine monochloride to styrene, followed by the sodium methoxide-initiated dehydrohalogenation of the product results in a variable mixture of substituted styrenes by way of various substitution and elimination reaction mechanisms. As a result individual results are obtained for each…

  10. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. 177.1830... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1830 Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers identified in this section may be safely used...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810...) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene block polymers identified in paragraph...

  12. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    E-print Network

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have ...

  13. Localized and Delocalized Wave Functions for Butadiene Frank Rioux

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    Localized and Delocalized Wave Functions for Butadiene Frank Rioux The generation of localized wave functions present a problem for chemists who are accoustomed to localizing the -electrons the delocalized, canonical wave functions by invoking the quantum mechanical superposition principle

  14. Rh-catalyzed linear hydroformylation of styrene.

    PubMed

    Boymans, Evert; Janssen, Michèle; Müller, Christian; Lutz, Martin; Vogt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Usually the Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of styrene predominantly yields the branched, chiral aldehyde. An inversion of regioselectivity can be achieved using strong ?-acceptor ligands. Binaphthol-based diphosphite and bis(dipyrrolyl-phosphorodiamidite) ligands were applied in the Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of styrene. High selectivities up to 83% of 3-phenylpropanal were obtained with 1,1-bi-2-naphthol-based bis(dipyrrolyl-phosphorodiamidite) with virtually no hydrogenation to ethyl benzene. The coordination chemistry of those ligands towards Rh(I) was investigated spectroscopically and structurally. PMID:23104326

  15. Mechanism of Selective Ammoxidation of Propene to Acrylonitrile on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of Selective Ammoxidation of Propene to Acrylonitrile on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum ammoxidation of propene to acrylonitrile by bismuth molybdates, we report quantum mechanical studies (using stages of this industry, acrylonitrile was produced by propene on simple bismuth and molybdenum oxide

  16. Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/manganous tungstate (MnWO4) nanocomposites: Characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Abdu Raheem V., P.; Jayakrishnan, P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocomposites of NBR with manganous-tungstate nanoparticles were prepared through vulcanization process. The extent of interaction of nanoparticles with the polymer was studied by FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA and AC conductivity. FTIR and XRD ascertain the interaction of NBR with MnWO4 nanoparticles. SEM analysis established that the nanopartilces were well dispersed in the macromolecular chain of NBR. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were studied as a function of filler loading. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced thermal stability as seen in TGA. Conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites increase with increase in concentration of MnWO4 nanoparticles (7phr) and thereafter the value decreases.

  17. Biodegradation of styrene in waterlogged soils and aquifer solids

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Min Hong; Alexander, M.

    1996-12-01

    The biodegradation of styrene in waterlogged soils and aquifer solids was initially rapid, but the rate then declined. Significant amounts of styrene persisted under waterlogged conditions. Trace amounts of phenylethanol, phenylacetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and benzoic acid appeared in soils but not in aquifer solids. Styrene oxide was not detected. Addition of nitrate did not stimulate styrene degradation in aquifer solids and Lima Loam. Because many waste sites are anoxic, the persistence of styrene under waterlogged conditions may be of environmental importance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. ENGINEERING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF STYRENE IN YEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy pursued was to insert genes for phenylalanine ammonia lysase (pal) and phenolic acid decarboxylase (pad) into the yeast that would convert phenylalanine to styrene through a cinnamic acid intermediate.

    The role of acrylonitrile in controlling the structure and properties of nanostructured ionomer films.

    PubMed

    Tungchaiwattana, Somjit; Musa, Muhamad Sharan; Yan, Junfeng; Lovell, Peter A; Shaw, Peter; Saunders, Brian R

    2014-07-14

    Ionomers are polymers which contain ionic groups that are covalently bound to the main chain. The presence of a small percentage of ionic groups strongly affects the polymer's mechanical properties. Here, we examine a new family of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell polymer nanoparticles containing acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (Bd) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Three new AN-containing dispersions were investigated in this study. The core-shell nanoparticles contained a PBd core. The shells contained copolymerised Bd, AN and MAA, i.e., PBd-AN-MAA. Three types of crosslinking were present in these films: covalent crosslinks (from Bd); strong physical crosslinks (involving ionic bonding of RCOO(-) and Zn(2+)) and weaker physical crosslinks (from AN). We examined and compared the roles of AN and ionic crosslinking (from added Zn(2+)) on the structure and mechanical properties of the films. The FTIR spectroscopy data showed evidence for RCOOH-nitrile hydrogen bonding with tetrahedral geometry. DMTA studies showed that AN copolymerised within the PBd-AN-MAA phase uniformly. Tensile stress-strain data showed that inclusion of AN increased elasticity and toughness. Analysis showed that about 33 AN groups were required to provide an elastically-effective chain. However, only 1.5 to 2 ionically bonded RCOO(-) groups were required to generate an elastically-effective chain. By contrast to ionic bonding, AN inclusion increased the modulus without compromising ductility. Our results show that AN is an attractive, versatile, monomer for increasing the toughness of nanostructured ionomers and this should also be the case for other nanostructured polymer elastomers. PMID:24852137

  19. Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

    1990-06-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

  1. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  3. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR 1,3-BUTADIENE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene, a gas used commercially in the production of various resins and plastics, concludes that 1,3-butadiene is a known human carcinogen, based on three types of evidence: 1) excess leukemias in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (by ...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  7. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section...Gasoline § 80.55 Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be...

  8. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section...Gasoline § 80.55 Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be...

  9. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section...Gasoline § 80.55 Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be...

  10. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section...Gasoline § 80.55 Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be...

  11. Simple Replica Micromolding of Biocompatible Styrenic Elastomers†

    PubMed Central

    Bielawski, Kevin S.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Jenkel, Colin F.; Vogt, Bryan D.; Posner, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene fractions. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric fraction simplifies fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured. PMID:23670166

  12. 40 CFR 721.10389 - Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic...Styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (generic...styrene, copolymer with acrylic acid, salt with alkoxylated alkenylamine (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...Substances § 721.6920 Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...substance identified as butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...Substances § 721.6920 Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...substance identified as butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...Substances § 721.6920 Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...substance identified as butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...Substances § 721.6920 Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl...substance identified as butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl...

  2. Mechanical properties of melt-processed polymer blend of amorphous corn flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn flour composite fillers were prepared by blending corn flour with rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders, which were then melt-blended with rubber polymers in an internal mixer to form composites with enhanced mechanical properties. The composites prepared with melt-blen...

  3. CARBOXYLATED STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY DEFATTED SOY FLOUR AND CARBON BLACK CO-FILLER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rubber composites reinforced by a mixture of defatted soy flour (DSF) and carbon black (CB) are investigated in terms of their dynamic shear modulus. DSF is an inexpensive and plentiful renewable material from soybean after soybean oil is removed. DSF contains soy protein and soy carbohydrate....

  4. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  5. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  6. Aggregate structure and effect of phthalic anhydride modified soy protein on the mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene copolymer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aggregate structure of phthalic anhydride (PA) modified soy protein isolate (SPI) was investigated by estimating its fractal dimension from the equilibrated dynamic strain sweep experiments. The estimated fractal dimensions of the filler aggregates were less than 2, indicating that these partic...

  7. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as required, shall be used for selection of the sampling sites. (ii) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60... paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall use Method 18 or Method 25A of 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as required, shall be used for selection of the sampling sites. (ii) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60... paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall use Method 18 or Method 25A of 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as required, shall be used for selection of the sampling sites. (ii) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60... paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall use Method 18 or Method 25A of 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as required, shall be used for selection of the sampling sites. (ii) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60... paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall use Method 18 or Method 25A of 40 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or 1A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as required, shall be used for selection of the sampling sites. (ii) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60... paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall use Method 18 or Method 25A of 40 CFR part...

  12. Gender differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene to butadiene diepoxide in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gaseous compound used in the production of rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats. The mechanism of BD-induced carcinogenicity is thought to involve genotoxic effects of its reactive epoxide metabolites butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO{sub 2}). Studies in our laboratory have shown that levels of the epoxides, particularly BDO{sub 2}, are greater in mice-the more sensitive species-than rats. While both epoxides are genotoxic in a number of assays, BDO{sub 2} is mutagenic in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than BDO. Species differences in carcinogenicity of BD have posed a dilemma to investigators deciding which animal model is most appropriate for BD risk assessment.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR ACRYLONITRILE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile (AN) has been identified as a suspected carcinogen and may be regulated in the future as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. A method was validated that utilizes a midget impinger containing methanol for trapping AN vapors followed by a...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  15. Cell sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, C.; Book, R.J.; James, D.A.

    1988-04-26

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte disposed within an open ended cylindrical metallic cell container, with an insulative cell top member being positioned within the open end of a sealant at the interface between the cell top member and the metallic cell container. The sealant is a mixture of a Type 2 BUR asphalt and an elastomeric material selected from the group consisting of (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), neoprene (poly-chloprene), acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPR), butyl rubber (copolymers of isobutylene), urethane, nitrile (polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polysulfide, polyacrylate, silicone, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and EPDM (terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and diene monomers), and mixtures thereof, and wherein the elastomeric material is substantially inert to the electrolyte and is present in an amount between 0.5% to 10% by weight of the asphalt.

  16. Cancer risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, I L; Bayard, S P

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene. The assessment focuses on estimation of increased cancer risk to populations living near industrial sources of 1,3-butadiene emissions rather than occupationally exposed populations. Incremental cancer risk estimates based on extrapolation from laboratory animal data are presented. Pharmacokinetic data published since the EPA's 1985 assessment are incorporated, which somewhat alters the earlier assessment of cancer risk. Characterization of emission sources, estimates of ambient air concentrations, and population exposure are also discussed. The estimate presented in this paper of excess cancer cases resulting from point source exposure to 1,3-butadiene is decreased to approximately 40% of the estimate published in 1985 from 6.4 in 10 to 2.5 chances in 10 for a lifetime exposure to 1 ppm. The current estimate is no more than eight additional cancer incidences in the general population. Increased risk to the most exposed individuals is not anticipated to be greater than 1 in 10. This reduction in the risk estimate is due to a change in the estimate of 1,3-butadiene potency (i.e., incremental unit risk estimate) based on incorporation of new pharmacokinetic data. PMID:2205485

  17. KINETIC MODELING OF COUNTERFLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF BUTADIENE. (R828193)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, semi-detailed kinetic scheme was used to simulate the chemical structures of counterflow diffusion and fuel-rich premixed 1,3-butadiene flames, to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results showed that model predicti...

  18. Catalytic transformation of ethanol into 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene is an important constituent of many products that we rely upon. It is currently prepared from non-sustainably derived sources. However, in the early part of the 20(th) Century the use of ethanol as a source of 1,3-butadiene has been reported. With the arrival of a cheap and bountiful supply of crude-oil derived sources the need for the sustainable route was deemed unnecessary. In recent years the conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene has undergone somewhat of a mini resurgence as the chemical industry looks to try to find a sustainable and secure route to this important building block. This review will emphasise some of the most recent work in the field and look ahead to what needs to be achieved to make this research a reality. Graphical AbstractThis review focusses on the recent progress in the area of the conversion of ethanol to 1, 3-butadiene. PMID:25254071

  19. Density-functional study of the cycloaddition of acrylonitrile on the Si(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobian, M.; Ilakovac, V.; Carniato, S.; Capron, N.; Boureau, G.; Hirschl, R.; Hafner, J.

    2004-05-01

    Using a density functional approach, we have explored the cycloaddition of acrylonitrile on the Si(100) surface. The buckling of the surface dimers characteristic for the (2×1) reconstructed surface is shown to favor structures with a dipolar moment such as the resonant form of acrylonitrile with cumulative double bonds. The bond of acrylonitrile via a single C atom is a possible intermediate leading to the nitrile structure of the adsorbed molecule.

  20. Acrylonitrile-Induced Oxidative Stress and Oxidative DNA Damage in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Klaunig, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether blood can serve as a valid surrogate for the biomonitoring of oxidative stress induced by acrylonitrile in the exposed population. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 3, 30, 100, and 200 ppm acrylonitrile in drinking water for 28 days. One group of rats were also coadministered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.3% in diet) with acrylonitrile (200 ppm in drinking water) to examine whether antioxidant supplementation was protective against acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress. Direct DNA strand breakage in white blood cells (WBC) and brain was measured using the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay and with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. No significant increase in direct DNA strand breaks was observed in brain and WBC from acrylonitrile-treated rats. However, oxidative DNA damage (fpg comet and 8?hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) in brain and WBC was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in rats administered acrylonitrile. Dietary supplementation with NAC prevented acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in brain and WBC. A slight, but significant, decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio was seen in brain at acrylonitrile doses > 30 ppm. These results provide additional support that the mode of action for acrylonitrile-induced astrocytomas involves the induction of oxidative stress and damage. Significant associations were seen between oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain, ROS formation in plasma, and the reported tumor incidences. Since oxidative DNA damage in brain correlated with oxidative damage in WBC, these results suggest that monitoring WBC DNA damage maybe a useful tool to assess acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in humans. PMID:19546159

  1. Physiological modeling of butadiene disposition in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Kohn, M C; Melnick, R L

    2001-06-01

    The earliest physiological models of 1,3-butadiene disposition reproduced uptake of the gas from closed chambers but over-predicted steady-state circulating concentrations of the mutagenic intermediates 1,2-epoxybut-3-ene and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane. A preliminary model based on the observation of a transient complex between cytochrome P450 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane reproduced the blood epoxide concentrations as well as the chamber uptake data. This model was enhanced by the addition of equations for the production and detoxication of 3,4-epoxybutane-1,2-diol in the liver, lungs, and kidneys. The model includes flow-restricted delivery of butadiene and its metabolites to compartments for lungs, liver, fat, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, other rapidly perfused tissues, and other slowly perfused tissues. Blood was distributed among compartments for arterial, venous, and tissue capillary spaces. Channeling of the three bound epoxides to epoxide hydrolase and their release from the endoplasmic reticulum are competing processes in this model. Parameters were estimated to fit data for chamber uptake of butadiene and epoxybutene, steady-state blood concentrations of epoxybutene and diepoxybutane, and the fractions of the inhaled dose of butadiene that appears as various excreted metabolites. The optimal values of the apparent K(m)s of membrane-bound epoxides for epoxide hydrolase were only 5% of the values for the cytosolic substrate, consistent with the observation of a transient complex between epoxide hydrolase and the cytochrome P450 that produces the epoxide. This proximity effect corresponds to the notion that epoxides produced in situ have privileged access to epoxide hydrolase. The model also predicts considerable accumulation of epoxybutanediol, in agreement with the observation that most of the DNA adducts in animals exposed to butadiene arise from this metabolite. PMID:11397397

  2. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Specifications: Styrene-maleic copolymers Molecular weight (minimum number average) Residual styrene monomer Residual maleic anhydride monomer Maximum extractable fraction in distilled water at specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in n-heptane at specified temperatures, times,...

  8. STYRENE IMPAIRS SERIAL SPATIAL REVERSAL LEARNING IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational exposure to styrene monomer has been implicated in the etiology of solvent-induced cognitive dysfunction. o evaluate the effects of styrene exposure on learning, rats were trained on a series of reversals of a spatial discrimination, permitting repeated evaluation of...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. Toxicokinetics of inhaled 1,3-butadiene in monkeys: Comparison to toxicokinetics in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Sun, J.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Bond, J.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Mauderly, J.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Sabourin, P.J.; Henderson, R.F. )

    1991-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weaker carcinogen in rats. People are exposed to butadiene through its industrial use--largely in rubber production (over 3 billion pounds of butadiene were produced in 1989)--and because it is common in the environment, occurring in cigarette smoke, gasoline vapor and in the effluents from fossil fuel incineration. Epidemiological studies have provided some evidence for butadiene carcinogenicity in people. Differences in the uptake and metabolism of inhaled butadiene between rodents and primates, including people, might be reflected in differences in its toxicity. In order to compare uptake and metabolism in primates to that in rodents--for which data were already available--the authors exposed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to 14C-labeled butadiene at concentrations of 10.1, 310 or 7760 ppm for 2 hr. Exhaled air and excreta were collected during exposure and for 96 hr after exposure. The uptake of butadiene as a result of metabolism was much lower in monkeys than in rodents. For equivalent inhalation exposures, the concentrations of total butadiene metabolites in the blood were 5-50 times lower in monkey than in the mouse, the more sensitive rodent species, and 4-14 times lower than in the rat. If the toxicokinetics of butadiene in people is more like that of the monkey than that of rodents, then our data suggest that people will receive lower doses of butadiene and its metabolites than rodents following equivalent inhalation exposures to butadiene. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of butadiene exposure based on animal studies.

  14. Styrene oxide isomerase of Sphingopyxis sp. Kp5.2.

    PubMed

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Zimmerling, Juliane; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) catalyses the isomerization of styrene oxide to phenylacetaldehyde. The enzyme is involved in the aerobic styrene catabolism via side-chain oxidation and allows the biotechnological production of flavours. Here, we reported the isolation of new styrene-degrading bacteria that allowed us to identify novel SOIs. Out of an initial pool of 87 strains potentially utilizing styrene as the sole carbon source, just 14 were found to possess SOI activity. Selected strains were classified phylogenetically based on 16S rRNA genes, screened for SOI genes and styrene-catabolic gene clusters, as well as assayed for SOI production and activity. Genome sequencing allowed bioinformatic analysis of several SOI gene clusters. The isolate Sphingopyxis sp. Kp5.2 was most interesting in that regard because to our knowledge this is the first time it was shown that a member of the family Sphingomonadaceae utilized styrene as the sole carbon source by side-chain oxidation. The corresponding SOI showed a considerable activity of 3.1 U (mg protein)(-1). Most importantly, a higher resistance toward product inhibition in comparison with other SOIs was determined. A phylogenetic analysis of SOIs allowed classification of these biocatalysts from various bacteria and showed the exceptional position of SOI from strain Kp5.2. PMID:25187627

  15. Biocompatibility and characterization of polylactic acid/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene composites.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Kao, Bo-Jyue; Yang, Ming-Chien; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Yao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Shang-Ming; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Hsien; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song

    2015-08-17

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) composites were prepared by melt blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to characterize PLA and PLA/SEBS composites in terms of their melting behavior and crystallization. Curves from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that thermostability increased with SEBS content. Further morphological analysis of PLA/SEBS composites revealed that SEBS molecules were not miscible with PLA molecules in PLA/SEBS composites. The tensile testing for PLA and PLA/SEBS composites showed that the elongation at the break was enhanced, but tensile strength decreased with increasing SEBS content. L929 fibroblast cells were chosen to assess the cytocompatibility; the cell growth of PLA was found to decrease with increasing SEBS content. This study proposes possible reasons for these properties of PLA/SEBS composites. PMID:26405910

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchilla, Diana Kilheeney, Heather Vitello, Lidia B. Erman, James E.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) binds acrylonitrile in a pH-independent fashion. •The spectrum of the CcP/acrylonitrile complex is that of a 6c–ls ferric heme. •The acrylonitrile/CcP complex has a K{sub D} value of 1.1 ± 0.2 M. •CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover rate of 0.61 min{sup ?1}. -- Abstract: Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} and 0.34 ± 0.15 s{sup ?1}, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min{sup ?1} at pH 6.0.

  17. 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas and its role in photochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, Beata; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatially and temporally resolved observations of 1,3-butadiene for an episodic period during Summer 2006. Relative contributions of different type of emissions and chemical reactions to 1,3-butadiene concentrations were examined, the highest contribution was found to be from industrial emission sources. 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios in the urban area were found to be lower than in the industrial area. Although emissions of 1,3-butadiene peak during daytime its mixing ratios are lower during daytimes as compared to nighttime. 1,3-butadiene is removed from the surface through vertical upward transport (~90%) and chemical reactions (~10%). During daytime 1,3-butadiene reacts mainly with the OH radical (90%), during nighttime this reaction pathway is still significant in the industrial area (57% of all reaction pathways). Reaction with NO3 during nighttime contributes 33% in industrial and 56% in urban areas, where high NOx emissions occur. Reaction with ozone contributes 10% and 13% in industrial and urban areas, respectively. Analysis of measured data revealed that episodically very high emissions spikes of 1,3-butadiene occur. CMAQ often underpredicts 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios when sites are exposed to sporadic releases from industrial facilities. These releases are not accounted for in the emission inventory. It also appears that emissions of 1,3-butadiene from point sources have much more variability than those listed in the emission inventory.

  18. Modeling of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czader, Beata H.; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    1,3-butadiene is an important pollutant in terms of public health and important driver for photochemical processes influencing ozone formation in the area of Houston. Ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) including the SAPRC99-extended mechanism and the results were compared to spatially and temporally resolved observations of 1,3-butadiene for an episodic period during Summer 2006. Relative contributions of different type of emissions and chemical reactions to 1,3-butadiene concentrations were examined, the highest contribution was found to be from industrial emission sources. 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios in the urban area were found to be lower than in the industrial area. Although emissions of 1,3-butadiene peak during daytime its mixing ratios are lower during daytimes as compared to nighttime. 1,3-butadiene is removed from the surface through vertical upward transport (?90%) and chemical reactions (?10%). During daytime 1,3-butadiene reacts mainly with the OH radical (90%), during nighttime this reaction pathway is still significant in the industrial area (57% of all reaction pathways). Reaction with NO3 during nighttime contributes 33% in industrial and 56% in urban areas, where high NOx emissions occur. Reaction with ozone contributes 10% and 13% in industrial and urban areas, respectively. Analysis of measured data revealed that episodically very high emissions spikes of 1,3-butadiene occur. CMAQ often underpredicts 1,3-butadiene mixing ratios when sites are exposed to sporadic releases from industrial facilities. These releases are not accounted for in the emission inventory. It also appears that emissions of 1,3-butadiene from point sources have much more variability than those listed in the emission inventory.

  19. Substituent effects in surface-initiated ATRP of substituted styrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sampa; Baker, Gregory L.

    2015-12-01

    Surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of substituted styrenes leads to rapid synthesis of uniform and thick substituted polystyrene brushes (>100 nm in 1 h) from gold surface. High growth rates were observed for styrenes substituted with electron withdrawing groups in meta/para positions. The effects seen in surface and solution polymerizations are similar for styrenes with electron withdrawing groups, and for electron donors in ortho and para positions. However, electron donors at meta sites have surprisingly fast growth rates, which may be due to steric inhibition of termination. The overall surface polymerization rates for substituted styrenes was analyzed and found to follow the Hammett relation with ? = 0.51. The ratio of kp to kt, is as an indicator of the likelihood that a reaction will reach high degrees of polymerization before termination.

  20. NMR Investigation of Dynamics in Styrene-Isoprene Tetrablocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yiyong; Lutz, Thomas R.; Ediger, M. D.

    2002-03-01

    C-13 and H-2 NMR relaxation time measurements were performed on four linear styrene-isoprene tetrablock copolymers (SISI) of overall molecular weight about 12, 000 g/mol in order to characterize the segmental dynamics. A wide range of temperature (from Tg + 50K to 470K) and several compositions (mass fraction of styrene: 23%, 42%, 60%, 80%)were investigated. The two isoprene blocks are equal in length as are the two perdeuterated styrene blocks. Previous neutron scattering results by Lodge et al. show that these materials are homogenous on length scales larger than the radius of gyration. The segmental correlation times and their distributions for each component were extracted. The styrene and isoprene blocks show substantially different segmental dynamics (greater than an order of magnitude even far above T_g). Comparison with dynamic light scattering measurements will be presented.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in...specified temperatures, times, and particle size 1. Styrene-maleic anhydride...reflux temperature for 1 hr utilizing particles of a size that will pass through a...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in...specified temperatures, times, and particle size 1. Styrene-maleic anhydride...reflux temperature for 1 hr utilizing particles of a size that will pass through a...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in...specified temperatures, times, and particle size 1. Styrene-maleic anhydride...reflux temperature for 1 hr utilizing particles of a size that will pass through a...

  4. Synaptic contacts impaired by styrene-7,8-oxide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, P. D'Aprile, A.; Nico, B.; Costa, G.L.; Assennato, G.

    2007-10-01

    Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a chemical compound widely used in industrial applications, is a potential hazard for humans, particularly in occupational settings. Neurobehavioral changes are consistently observed in occupationally exposed individuals and alterations of neurotransmitters associated with neuronal loss have been reported in animal models. Although the toxic effects of styrene have been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms responsible for SO-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. A possible dopamine-mediated effect of styrene neurotoxicity has been previously demonstrated, since styrene oxide alters dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Thus, the present study hypothesizes that styrene neurotoxicity may involve synaptic contacts. Primary striatal neurons were exposed to styrene oxide at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM) for different time periods (8, 16, and 24 h) to evaluate the dose able to induce synaptic impairments. The expression of proteins crucial for synaptic transmission such as Synapsin, Synaptophysin, and RAC-1 were considered. The levels of Synaptophysin and RAC-1 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, morphological alterations, observed at the ultrastructural level, primarily involved the pre-synaptic compartment. In SO-exposed cultures, the biochemical cascade of caspases was activated affecting the cytoskeleton components as their target. Thus the impairments in synaptic contacts observed in SO-exposed cultures might reflect a primarily morphological alteration of neuronal cytoskeleton. In addition, our data support the hypothesis developed by previous authors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating events of SO cytotoxicity.

  5. Discovery of a Novel Styrene Monooxygenase Originating from the Metagenome?

    PubMed Central

    van Hellemond, Erik W.; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygenases form an interesting class of biocatalysts, as they typically perform oxygenations with exquisite chemo-, regio-, and/or enantioselectivity. It has been observed that, once heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, some oxygenases are able to form the blue pigment indigo. We have exploited this characteristic to screen a metagenomic library derived from loam soil and identified a novel oxygenase. This oxygenase shows 50% sequence identity with styrene monooxygenases from pseudomonads (StyA). Only a limited number of homologs can be found in the genome sequence database, indicating that this biocatalyst is a member of a relatively small family of bacterial monooxygenases. The newly identified monooxygenase catalyzes the epoxidation of styrene and styrene derivatives and forms the corresponding (S)-epoxides with excellent enantiomeric excess [e.g., (S)-styrene oxide is formed with >99% enantiomeric excess, ee] and therefore is named styrene monooxgenase subunit A (SmoA). SmoA shows high enantioselectivity towards aromatic sulfides [e.g., (R)-ethyl phenyl sulfoxide is formed with 92% ee]. This excellent enantioselectivity in combination with the moderate sequence identity forms a clear indication that SmoA from a metagenomic origin represents a new enzyme within the small family of styrene monooxygenases. PMID:17644649

  6. Ordered, microphase-separated, noncharged-charged diblock copolymers via the sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, ZX; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Gin, DL

    2014-12-15

    A series of imidazolium-based noncharged-charged diblock copolymers (1) was synthesized by the direct, sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonamide monomers with methyl, n-butyl, and n-decyl side-chains. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on initial examples of 1 with a total of 50 repeat units and styrene:imidazolium-styrene repeat unit ratios of 25:25, 20:30, and 15:35 showed that their ability to form ordered nanostructures (i.e., sphere and cylinder phases) in their neat states depends on both the block ratio and the length of the alkyl side-chain on the imidazolium monomer. To our knowledge, the synthesis of imidazolium-based BCPs that form ordered, phase-separated nanostructures via direct ATRP of immiscible co-monomers is unprecedented. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A brief survey of butadiene health effects: A role for metabolic differences

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, L.S.

    1993-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene is a major monomer in the rubber and plastics industry and is one of the highest-production industrial chemicals in the United States. Although not highly acutely toxic to rodents, inhalation of concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm causes tumors in mice. Butadiene is oncogenic in rats, but much higher exposure concentrations are required than in mice. Chronic toxicity targets the gonads and hematopoetic system. Butadiene is also a potent mutagen and clastogen. Differences in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of butadiene appear to be relatively minor between rats and mice, although mice do retain more butadiene and its metabolites after exposure to the same concentration and have a higher rate of metabolic elimination. Recent studies have demonstrated that major species differences appear to occur in the rate of detoxication of the primary metabolite, 3-epoxybutene (butadiene monoepoxide [BDMO]). Mice have the greatest rate of production of BDMO as compared to other species, but the rate of removal of BDMO appears to be less than in other species. Mice have low levels of epoxide hydrolase; rats have intermediate levels; monkeys and humans appear to have high levels of this detoxifying enzyme. Thus, while only low levels of butadiene exposure may result in an accumulation of BDMO in the mouse, much higher levels would be required to result in an elevation of circulating BDMO in other species. The level of this reactive metabolite may be correlated with the species differences in butadiene sensitivity. 65 refs.

  8. SOME INSIGHTS INTO THE MODE OF ACTION OF BUTADIENE BY EXAMINING THE GENOTOXICITY OF ITS METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,3-Butadiene (BTD) is an important commodity chemical and air pollutant that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen in mice, and to a lesser extent, a carcinogen in rats. To better assess butadiene's carcinogenic risk to humans, it is important to understand its mode of action...

  9. BIOMARKERS IN CZECH WORKERS EXPOSED TO 1,3-BUTADIENE: A TRANSITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    All the biomarkers of exposure were correlated with the measurements of butadiene recorded by the air samplers. Although the correlation between hemoglobin adducts and exposure levels was strongest, urinary metabolites were also found to be very useful measures of butadiene...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...The chemical substance identified as benzene ethenyl-, polymer with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene...The chemical substance identified as benzene ethenyl-, polymer with...

  12. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values for benzene and 1,3-butadiene in bag samples for the baseline fuel are 4.0 ppm and 0.30...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is...

  14. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, brominated (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is...

  16. Influence of genetic polymorphisms of styrene-metabolizing enzymes on the levels of urinary biomarkers of styrene exposure.

    PubMed

    Carbonari, Damiano; Mansi, Antonella; Proietto, Anna Rita; Paci, Enrico; Bonanni, Rossana Claudia; Gherardi, Monica; Gatto, Maria Pia; Sisto, Renata; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2015-03-01

    Styrene exposure is still present in different occupational settings including manufacture of synthetic rubber, resins, polyesters and plastic. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of polymorphic genes CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 on the urinary concentrations of the styrene metabolites mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) and on the concentration ratios between (MA+PGA) and urinary styrene (U-Sty) and airborne styrene (A-Sty), in 30 workers from two fiberglass-reinforced plastic manufacturing plants and 26 unexposed controls. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring results revealed that sometimes exposure levels exceeded both the threshold limit value (TLV) and the biological exposure index (BEI) suggested by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. A significantly reduced excretion of styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) in individuals carrying the CYP2E1*5B and CYP2E1*6 heterozygote alleles, with respect to the homozygote wild type, was observed only in the exposed group. A reduction was also detected, in the same group, in subjects carrying the slow allele EPHX1 (codon 113), through the lowering of (MA+PGA)/urinary styrene concentration ratio. In addition, the ratio between MA+PGA and the personal airborne styrene concentration appeared to be modulated by the predicted mEH activity, in the exposed group, as evidenced by univariate linear regression analysis. Our results confirm some previous hypotheses about the role of the polymorphism of genes coding for enzymes involved in the styrene detoxification pathway: this may significantly reduce the levels of excreted metabolites and therefore it must be taken into account in the interpretation of the biological monitoring results for occupational exposure. PMID:25562543

  17. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e. styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. Dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes, relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes. However, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knock–out and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed similar susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene as the wild-type animals. However, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene. PMID:24320693

  18. Health risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene as a Priority Substance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Meek, M E; Walker, M

    2001-06-01

    1,3-Butadiene was included in the second list of Priority Substances to be assessed under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Potential hazards to human health were characterized on the basis of critical examination of available data on health effects in experimental animals and occupationally exposed human populations, as well as information on mode of action. Based on consideration of all relevant data identified as of April 1998, butadiene was considered highly likely to be carcinogenic to humans, and likely to be a somatic and germ cell genotoxicant in humans. In addition, butadiene may also be a reproductive toxicant in humans. Estimates of the potency of butadiene to induce these effects have been derived on the basis of quantitation of observed exposure-response relationships for the purposes of characterization of risk to the general population in Canada exposed to butadiene in the ambient environment. PMID:11397385

  19. Index of Subjects Abbreviations ix,203-6

    E-print Network

    Hall, Christopher

    Acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene ABS 2-5, 41-2,76, 78,136,154,156, 203, 209-10, 224 Addition reaction 23-5, 33,180,189, 211 Cement 134,192,195 dental 193 Ceramics 18, 54, 56-7, 84,153,162,193 Chain extension 174 Chain reaction 23-5,132 Charpy impact test 76-9, 84 Chemical bond 6, 9-12, 20-3, 52, 56, 102-3, 110

  20. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  1. Vibrations of acrylonitrile in N 1s excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilakovac, V.; Carniato, S.; Gallet, J.-J.; Kukk, E.; Horvati?, D.; Ilakovac, A.

    2008-01-01

    The N 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of acrylonitrile gas are accurately reproduced by a complete ab initio multidimensional vibrational analysis. The role of ?? -orbital localization and hybridization on vibrations accompanying core excitation is discussed. Transition to the ???(C=C-C?N) delocalized orbital excites mostly stretching vibrations of the whole spinal column of the molecule. Promoting a core electron to the localized ???(C?N) produces C?N stretching vibration combined with two strong bending modes of the C-C?N end of the molecule, related to the change of carbon hybridization.

  2. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Richard J; Srám, Radim J; Vacek, Pamela M; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A; van Sittert, Nico J; Boogaard, Peter J; Henderson, Rogene F; Swenberg, James A; Tates, Ad D; Ward, Jonathan B; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H

    2003-06-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD facilities in the Czech Republic. Institutions that collaborated in the study were the University of Vermont (Burlington, Vermont, USA); the Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology (Prague, the Czech Republic); Shell International Chemicals, BV (Amsterdam, The Netherlands); the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA); University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (Galveston, Texas, USA); Leiden University (Leiden, The Netherlands); and the Health and Safety Laboratory (Sheffield, United Kingdom). Male volunteer workers (83) participated in the study: 24 were engaged in BD monomer production, 34 in polymerization activities, and 25 plant administrative workers served as unexposed control subjects. The BD concentrations experienced by each exposed worker were measured by personal monitor on approximately ten separate occasions for 8-hour workshifts over a 60-day exposure assessment period before biological samples were collected. Coexposures to styrene, benzene, and toluene were also measured. The administrative control workers were considered to be a homogeneous, unexposed group for whom a series of 28 random BD measurements were taken during the exposure assessment period. Questionnaires were administered in Czech to all participants. At the end of the exposure assessment period, blood and urine samples were collected at the plant; samples were. fractionated, cryopreserved, and kept frozen in Prague until they were shipped to the appropriate laboratories for specific biomarker analysis. The following biomarkers were analyzed: * polymorphisms in genes involved in BD metabolism (Prague and Burlington); * urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxy-2-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-3-butene and 2-hydroxy-1-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-3-butene (M2 [refers to an isomeric mixture of both forms]) (Amsterdam); * urinary concentrations of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-butane (M1) (Amsterdam); * concentrations of the hemoglobin (Hb) adducts N-(1-[hydroxymethyl]-2-propenyl)valine and N-(2-hydroxy-3-butenyl)valine (HBVal [refers to an isomeric mixture of both forms]) (Amsterdam); * concentrations of the Hb adduct N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal) (Chapel Hill); * T cell mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene (autoradiographic assay in Galveston with slide review in Burlington; cloning assay in Leiden with mutational spectra determined in Burlington); and * chromosomal aberrations by the conventional method and by fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]), and cytogenetic changes (sister chromatid exchanges [SCEs] (Prague). All assay analysts were blinded to worker and sample identity and remained so until all work in that laboratory had been completed and reported. Assay results were sent to the Biometry Facility in Burlington for statistical analyses. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed that the three exposure groups were balanced with respect to age and years of residence in the district, but the control group had significantly more education than the other two groups and included fewer smokers. Group average BD exposures were 0.023 mg/m3 (0.010 ppm) for the control group, 0.642 mg/m3 (0.290 ppm) for the monomer group, and 1.794 mg/m3 (0.812 ppm) for the polymer group; exposure levels showed considerable variability between and within individuals. Styrene exposures were significantly higher in the polymer group than in the other two groups. We found no statistically significant differences in the distributions of metabolic genotypes over the three exposure groups; genotype frequencies were consistent with those previously reported for this ethnic and national population. Although some specific genotypes were associated with quantitative differences in urinary metabolite concentrations

  3. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Pouyatos, B.; Gearhart, C. A.; Nelson-Miller, A.; Fulton, S.; Fechter, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile + noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN) was centered at 8?kHz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4?kHz, 110?dB and 8 or 16?kHz at 97?dB) for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50?mg/kg/day). The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile + noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16?kHz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile + noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical contaminant. PMID:20130768

  4. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200?l). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers. PMID:25727266

  5. In vivo comet assay of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate and ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Sui, Hajime; Ohta, Ryo; Kumagai, Fumiaki; Usumi, Kenji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamakage, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined the ability of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate (9-AA), and ethanol to induce DNA damage in the liver and glandular stomach of male rats. Acrylonitrile is a genotoxic carcinogen, 9-AA is a genotoxic non-carcinogen, and ethanol is a non-genotoxic carcinogen. Positive results were obtained in the liver cells of male rats treated with known genotoxic compounds, acrylonitrile and 9-AA. PMID:26212299

  6. A Study of Acrylonitrile Poisoning in Relation to Methaemoglobin-CN Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Magos, Ladislaus

    1962-01-01

    Observations are recorded on methaemoglobin-CN complex formation in rats poisoned with acrylonitrile, potassium cyanide, and acetone cyanohydrin. For information on methaemoglobin-CN formation, the methaemoglobin level was increased by sodium nitrite. The results show that the rate of methaemoglobin-CN formation in rats killed by acrylonitrile is lower than in animals surviving potassium cyanide or acetone cyanohydrin poisoning, and much lower than in animals killed by potassium cyanide. These findings indicate that the toxicity of acrylonitrile cannot be solely due to the liberation of cyanide.

  7. Radical-initiated controlled synthesis of homo- and copolymers based on acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, D. F.; Grishin, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    Data on the controlled synthesis of polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile copolymers with other (meth)acrylic and vinyl monomers upon radical initiation and metal complex catalysis are analyzed. Primary attention is given to the use of metal complexes for the synthesis of acrylonitrile-based (co)polymers with defined molecular weight and polydispersity in living mode by atom transfer radical polymerization. The prospects for using known methods of controlled synthesis of macromolecules for the preparation of acrylonitrile homo- and copolymers as carbon fibre precursors are estimated. The major array of published data analyzed in the review refers to the last decade. The bibliography includes 175 references.

  8. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M?1s?1 and 0.34 ± 0.15 s?1, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min?1 at pH 6.0. PMID:24291498

  9. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B; Erman, James E

    2014-01-01

    Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32±0.16 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.34±0.15 s(-1), respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1±0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a "peroxygenase"-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min(-1) at pH 6.0. PMID:24291498

  10. [Lymphocyte subpopulations in workers exposed occupationally to styrene].

    PubMed

    Mutti, A; Buzio, C; Perazzoli, F; Bergamaschi, E; Bocchi, M C; Selis, L; Mineo, F; Franchini, I

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 32 workers occupationally exposed to styrene, the distribution of lymphocyte subsets was investigated by automated flow cytometry. The group under study consisted of 22 male and 10 female workers aged 39.7, D.S. = 10 years and employed for 6.8 years in factories manufacturing glass fibre-reinforced plastics. A control group (12 males and 7 females) recruited according to the same selection criteria was simultaneously examined. Environmental and biological monitoring was used to characterize styrene exposure. In styrene-exposed workers, phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a reduced proportion of T helper lymphocytes and a relative increase in the T suppressor subset, leading to a significant inversion of the helper/suppressor ratio (0.92) among heavily exposed workers (greater than 50 ppm, 8h-TWA) as compared to less exposed workers and controls (1.37 and 1.43 respectively). The proportion of natural killer (NK) T lymphocytes was significantly increased among styrene workers. The proportion of B lymphocytes was unchanged as compared to the control group. Dose-response relationships were clearly apparent for the observed increases in the prevalence of abnormalities: none of control subjects showed more than 2 (out of 8) abnormal values as compared to 20 and 40% of styrene workers belonging respectively to the low and high exposure group (p less than 0.007). Only a minority of controls exhibited abnormally high levels of both NK and suppressor T lymphocytes (0-5%), the corresponding figures for styrene workers being 7-10% (low exposure) and 45% (high exposure). As a whole, the findings support the hypothesis of the immunotoxicity of styrene, which could be due either to direct effects on lymphocytes or to indirect mechanisms possibly mediated by neuroendocrine changes. PMID:1630405

  11. Neuropharmacological and cochleotoxic effects of styrene. Consequences on noise exposures.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Thomas, Aurélie; Cour, Chantal; Brochard, Céline; Cosnier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure can damage workers' hearing, particularly when combined with exposure to cochleotoxic chemicals such as styrene. Although styrene-induced cochlear impairments only become apparent after a long incubation period, the pharmacological impact of styrene on the central nervous system (CNS) can be rapidly measured by determining the threshold of the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MER) trigger. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a noise (both continuous and impulse), and a low concentration of styrene [300ppm<(threshold limit value×10) safety factor] on the peripheral auditory receptor, and on the CNS in rats. The impact of the different conditions on hearing loss was assessed using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions, and histological analysis of cochleae. Although the LEX,8h (8-hour time-weighted average exposure) of the impulse noise was lower (80dB SPL sound pressure level) than that of the continuous noise (85dB SPL), it appeared more detrimental to the peripheral auditory receptors. A co-exposure to styrene and continuous noise was less damaging than exposure to continuous noise alone. In contrast, the traumatic effects of impulse noise on the organ of Corti were enhanced by co-exposure to styrene. The pharmacological effects of the solvent on the CNS were discussed to put forward a plausible explanation of these surprising results. We hypothesize that CNS effects of styrene may account for this apparent paradox. Based on the present results, the temporal structure of the noise should be reintroduced as a key parameter in hearing conservation regulations. PMID:24929234

  12. Broadband rotational spectroscopy of acrylonitrile: Vibrational energies from perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Fortman, Sarah; Neese, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    The coverage of the room-temperature rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile has been expanded to a total of 1170 GHz, by recording broadband spectral segments at frequencies ranging 90-1900 GHz. This corresponds, in total, to 61.6% coverage of the rotational spectrum up to 1.9 THz and facilitated an in depth study of rotational transitions in the lowest vibrational states of acrylonitrile and up to large values of rotational quantum numbers. Multiple perturbations between the four lowest vibrational states of the molecule have been identified and successfully fitted within the framework of a coupled four state Hamiltonian. The fit encompasses over 12 500 measured transition frequencies, and delivers precise wavenumbers for the three lowest excited vibrational states entirely on the basis of perturbations in the rotational spectrum: ?11 = 228.29986(2), ?15 = 332.67811(2), and 2?11 = 457.17496(2) cm-1. The new results are compared with ab initio anharmonic force field calculations and the techniques used to deal in an efficient manner with a broadband, high-resolution spectrum of this type are also described in some detail.

  13. Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Kosola, K. L.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated, using a screening test method. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acrylonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions, and carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  14. Morphological and physical characterization of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers and ionomers thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, Daniel Webster, III

    Poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers made by living cationic polymerization using a difunctional initiator and the sequential monomer addition technique were analyzed using curve-resolution software in conjunction with high-resolution GPC. Fractional precipitation and selective solvent extraction were applied to a representative sample in order to confirm the identity of contaminating species. The latter were found to be low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymer, diblock copolymer, and higher molecular weight segmented block copolymers formed by intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution linking reactions occurring late in the polymerization of the styrene outer blocks. Solvent-cast films of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (PS-PIB-PS) block copolymers and block ionomers were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four block copolymer samples with center block molecular weights of 52,000 g/mol and PS volume fractions (o sbPS) ranging from 0.17 to 0.31 were studied. All samples exhibited hexagonally packed cylinders of PS within the PIB matrix. Cylinder spacing was in the range 32 to 36 nm for most samples, while cylinder diameters varied from 14 to 21 nm. Porod analysis of the scattering data indicated the presence of isolated phase mixing and sharp phase boundaries. PS-PIB-PS block copolymers and ionomers therefrom were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile testing. The study encompassed five block copolymer samples with similar PIB center blocks with molecular weights of approx52,000 g/mol and PS weight fractions ranging from 0.127 to 0.337. Ionomers were prepared from two of these materials by lightly sulfonating the PS outer blocks. Sulfonation levels varied from 1.7 to 4.7 mol % and the sodium and potassium neutralized forms were compared to the parent block copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the block copolymer films indicated the existence of a third phase attributed to PIB chains near the PS domain interface which experience reduced mobility due to their firm attachment to the hard PS domain. The relative amount of this phase decreased in samples with larger PS blocks, while the temperature of the associated transition increased. Tensile testing showed increased tensile strength but decreased elongation at break with larger PS blocks. DMA of the ionomers indicated improved dynamic modulus at temperatures above 100spcirc$C. Tensile testing of the ionomers indicated slight improvements in tensile strength with little loss in elongation at break. PS-PIB-PS block copolymer ionomer (BCP01, center block molecular weight = 53,000 g/mole; 25.5 wt % polystyrene, 4.7% sulfonation of phenyl units, 100% neutralized with KOH) was compounded with various organic and inorganic acid salts of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethyl aminobenzoate (ODAB) to explore the efficacy of these compounds as ionic plasticizers. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. An evaluation of styrene levels emitted during cast polymer production of cultured marble building materials 

    E-print Network

    Bell, Lewis Ray

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate and evaluate the concentration levels of styrene emitted during the production of cultured marble building materials. The manufacture of styrene monomer is generally carried out in closed systems...

  16. Synthesis of macroporous poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres by surfactant reverse micelles swelling method

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Synthesis of macroporous poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres by surfactant reverse micelles poly(styrene-divinyl benzene) microspheres with pore size of about 500 nm were prepared by a new method

  17. Hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide using biocatalyst in a membrane dispersion microreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiahui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Guangsheng; Yu, Huimin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a membrane dispersion microreactor was utilized for the hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide. Through observation using a microscopy, it was found that the acrylonitrile was dispersed into the continuous phase (the aqueous phase contains nitrile hydratase (NHase)) as droplets with a diameter ranged from 25 to 35 ?m, hence the mass transfer specific surface area was significantly increased, and the concentration of acrylamide reached 52.5 wt% within 50 min. By contrast, in stirred tanks, the concentration of acrylamide only got 39.5 wt% within 245 min. Moreover, only a few amounts of acrylonitrile were accumulated in this microreactor system. Through optimizing the flow rate, the concentration of acrylamide reached 45.8 wt% within 35 min, the short reaction time greatly weakened the inhibition of acrylonitrile and acrylamide on the enzyme activity, which is suitable for prolonging the life of free cell. PMID:25079206

  18. Electric dipole moments of acrylonitrile and of propionitrile measured in supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kra?nicki, Adam; Kisiel, Zbigniew

    2011-11-01

    New determinations of the ground-state electric dipole moments of acrylonitrile and propionitrile have been made from Stark effect measurements at conditions of supersonic expansion. The measurements were made on selected Stark lobes of fully resolved hyperfine components of several lowest- J rotational transitions. The results are ?a = 3.821(3) D, ?b = 0.687(8) D, ?tot = 3.882(3) D for acrylonitrile, and ?a = 3.816(3) D, ?b = 1.235(1) D, ?tot = 4.011(3) D for propionitrile. The new value of ?b for acrylonitrile is appreciably different from those reported previously and it has been substantiated by both ab initio calculations and relative intensity measurements. The new dipole moment implies a considerable revision in the calculated intensities of the strongest THz-region rotational transitions of acrylonitrile, to 59% of previous values.

  19. 76 FR 77267 - Acrylonitrile Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    OSHA solicits public comments concerning its proposal to extend the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements specified by the Acrylonitrile Standard (29 CFR...

  20. SINGLE LABORATORY VALIDATION OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD 8030: ACROLEIN, ACRYLONITRILE, AND ACETONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA Method 8030 was modified and evaluated with revised chromatographic conditions for the determination of acrolein, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile in groundwater, solid, and organic liquid matrices. Groundwater was analyzed by the heated purge-and-trap method; a solid waste ...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...locations.html. (iii) Residual acrylonitrile monomer content is not more than 11 parts per million as determined by gas chromatography. (iv) Acetonitrile-soluble fraction after refluxing the base polymer in acetonitrile for 1 hour is not greater...

  2. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers. PMID:18990742

  3. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Canning, John; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md. Arafat; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    We report the first optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform. An air-structured polymer preform is printed using a modified butadiene plastic called Bendlay as opposed to the more-common Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The preform is subsequently drawn to fibre form at a relatively low temperature of 160 °C and maintains its air-structured cladding holes. Such ability to freely-design and 3D-print complex preform structures, such as photonic bandgap and photonic crystal structures, opens up an exciting new front in optical fibre fabrication.

  4. Cesium promotion in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Gorin, Craig F; Madix, Robert J

    2010-01-20

    The adsorption of a small amount of cesium on Ag(110) redirects the partial oxidation products of styrene from phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene to styrene oxide. The cesium stabilizes the oxametallacycle intermediate and hinders its transformation to the intermediate that leads to the other products. Cesium does not appear to create any electronic effects on the bonding of the intermediates. Low coverages of cesium induce a (1 x 2) missing-row reconstruction of the entire clean Ag(110) surface and a (3 x 5) surface oxide structure on the cesium-reconstructed Ag(110) surface. This (3 x 5)-ordered surface oxide is superimposed on the Ag(111) microfacets produced by the cesium-induced reconstruction, which leads to selectivity and reactivity very similar to those of the extended (111) surface. These studies provide insight into the microscopic origins of the structural effects of cesium in styrene epoxidation on silver catalysts. PMID:20020743

  5. Evaluation of a liquid chemical scrubber system for styrene removal

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.; Merritt, R.; Williamson, A.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives results of a study of the styrene removal efficiency of a pilot-scale version of the QUAD Chemtact scrubber, quantified by continuously measuring the total hydrocarbon (THC) content of spray booth exhaust air entering and exiting the device with THC analyzers and, for some tests, by collecting EPA Method 18 samples (adsorption tube procedure) at the inlet and exit of the device. Average styrene removal efficiencies approached but were never >55%. The test was carried out at a facility (Eljer Plumbingware in Wilson, NC) that manufactures polyester bathtubs and shower stalls by spraying styrene-based resins onto molds in vented, open spray booths. A side stream of air, exhausted from one of the spray booths in the gel coating part of the process, was used for the test.

  6. Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2773 Simple replica micromolding of biocompatible styrenic

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface of high- fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS, SEBS42). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit

  7. POTENTIAL FOR REDUCING STYRENE EXPOSURES FROM COPIED PAPER THROUGH USE OF LOW-EMITTING TONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of tests, conducted using 53-L chambers to determine styrene emission rates from freshly copied paper produced on a single photocopier using two toners manufactured for the copier having different styrene contents. Copied-paper styrene emissions with bot...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate... generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate (PMNs...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9492 - Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate and substituted methacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9492 Polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...) The chemical substances identified generically as polymers of styrene, cyclohexyl methacrylate...

  13. Effect of acrylonitrile on trehalase, phosphorylase and acetylcholinesterase activities in Tribolium castaneum Herbst and Trogoderma granarium Everts.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Muthu, M

    1981-01-01

    Acrylonitrile inhibited trehalase and phosphorylases in larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum. In Trogoderma granarium larvae phosphorylases alone were inhibited. Acetylcholinesterase was not affected. PMID:7286145

  14. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K.; Walker, Douglas I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis conditions resulted in an ion-exchange capacity of 2.39?meq/g. Ion-exchange fibers were used in a packed-bed column to selectively remove heavy-metal cation from the background of a benign, competing cation at a much higher concentration. The material can be efficiently regenerated and used for multiple cycles of exhaustion and regeneration. PMID:24963270

  15. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K; Walker, Douglas I

    2014-06-01

    A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis conditions resulted in an ion-exchange capacity of 2.39?meq/g. Ion-exchange fibers were used in a packed-bed column to selectively remove heavy-metal cation from the background of a benign, competing cation at a much higher concentration. The material can be efficiently regenerated and used for multiple cycles of exhaustion and regeneration. PMID:24963270

  16. Health effects of acrylonitrile in acrylic fibre factories.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, H; Onodera, M; Utsunomiya, T; Minakuchi, H; Iwai, H; Matsumura, H

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in 102 workers whose exposure period exceeded five years, and in 62 matched controls, all of whom had been randomly sampled from six acrylic fibre factories in Japan. The six factories were classified into three groups on the basis of AN concentration at workplaces. The most highly exposed group of subjects showed an eight-hour average AN concentration of 4-2 ppm by personal sampling, a mean urinary AN concentration of 360 microgram/1 and a mean urinary thiocyanate concentration of 11-4 mg/1. Medical examination, including the indocyanine green excretion test and multiple clinical chemistry determinations, failed to detect any health effect attributable to AN. Slight liver damage may possibly occur in more highly exposed workers. Urinary AN and thiocyanate determinations may provide more accurate estimates of low-grade exposure (less than 5 ppm). PMID:698135

  17. Multisubstituted indole-acrylonitrile hybrids as potential cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shaoyong; Yang, Ziwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Liang, Ying; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Shi, Liqiao

    2014-04-15

    A series of multisubstituted indole-acrylonitrile hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potential cytotoxic activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 3a, 3f, 3k, 3n) exhibited good to moderate cytotoxic effect on HepG2, BCG-823, BEL-7402, and HL-7702 cell lines. Especially, the compounds 3a and 3k also exhibited high cytotoxic activities (3a, 19.38±3.38 ?M; 3k, 15.43±3.54 ?M) against the BEL-7402 cell line resistant to Taxol (>25?M) and 5-FU (>500 ?M), which might be developed as novel lead scaffold for potential anticancer agents. PMID:24684840

  18. Photolysis of astrophysically relevant acrylonitrile: a matrix experimental study.

    PubMed

    Toumi, A; Couturier-Tamburelli, I; Chiavassa, T; Piétri, N

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the photochemical study of H2C ? C(H)CN (acrylonitrile) trapped in low-temperature argon matrices and irradiated with a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (? > 120 nm). We succeeded in identifying H2C ? C(H)NC (isoacrylonitrile) as a photoproduct. HC3N (cyanoacetylene), C2H2:HCN (acetylene:hydrogen cyanide), and C2H2:HNC (acetylene:hydrogen isocyanide) complexes, which are molecules detected in molecular clouds or in the Titan atmosphere, were also identified. No imine product was observed, but other compounds coming from the HC3N photolysis have been found. Fourier transform infrared measurements and (2)H substitution experiments coupled with density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/6-31G**) were performed to confirm the spectral assignments of the photochemical products and intermediate species. PMID:24621153

  19. The Rotational Spectrum of Acrylonitrile to 1.67 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    Acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) is an astrophysical molecule of sufficient abundance for detection of its ^{13}C isotopologues. In fact this molecule has been identified as one of the 'weed' species, that will contribute a plethora of lines in broadband submillimetre spectra from the new tools of radioastronomy, such as the Herschel Space Observatory or ALMA. We presently report the first stage in extending the knowledge of the rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile well into the THz region. The spectrum was recorded with the jpl cascaded harmonic multiplication instrument in the form of several broadband segments covering 390-540, 818-930, 967-1160, and 1576-1669 GHz. The analysis of the ground state spectrum has been extended up to J=128, K_a=29, and a combined data set of over 3000 fitted lines. It is found that transitions in all measurable vibrational states, inclusive of the ground state, show evidence of perturbations with other states. Several different perturbations between the ground state and v_{11}=1 at 228 cm^{-1} were identified and have been successfully fitted, resulting in E_{11}=228.29994(3) cm^{-1}, to compare with a direct far-infrared value of 228.83(18) cm^{-1}. H.S.P.Müller et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251, 319-325 (2008). B.J.Drouin, F.W.Maiwald, J.C.Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 093113-1-10 (2005). A.R.H.Cole, A.A.Green, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 48, 246-253 (1973).

  20. Rotary concentrator followed by thermal or catalytic oxidation - a hybrid approach to economical styrene abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.

    1997-12-31

    There are varied challenges in deciding appropriate technology for styrene abatement. Due to high costs of using RTOs for styrene abatement the small businesses, which form the bulk of styrene emitters, are faced with economically difficult choices. The proposed Rotary Concentrator technology can reduce operating cost up to six times and reduce CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions by more than half over the currently preferred RTO technology. It is also less expensive in capital expenditure and its viability for styrene abatement has been sufficiently demonstrated by pilot studies in the US and existing installations overseas. In both cases styrene destruction of more than 95% was achieved.

  1. Cloning and characterization of styrene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, A.M.; Solinas, F.; Galli, E.; Bestetti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Styrene is used in large quantities in the manufacturing of plastics, synthetic rubber, and resins. Styrene-utilizing microorganisms have been isolate in consideration of their potential applications as biocatalysts in the removal of styrene in industrial wastes. However, data conserving styrene catabolism in bacteria are not abundant. In this paper the isolated of the Pseudomonas fluorescens ST genes involved in the first steps of styrene degradation are reported as well as the identification of the intermediates accumulated by single recombinant clones. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values...

  3. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values...

  4. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values...

  5. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values...

  6. Photodegradation Mechanisms of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Coatings for Liquid Argon Detectors

    E-print Network

    B. J. P. Jones; J. K. VanGemert; J. M. Conrad; A. Pla-Dalmau

    2012-11-30

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone (BP). We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  7. EVALUATION OF A LIQUID CHEMICAL SCRUBBER SYSTEM FOR STYRENE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the styrene removal efficiency o a pilot-scale version of the QUAD Chemtact scrubber, quantified by continuously measuring the total hydrocarbon (THC) content of spray both exhaust air entering and exiting the device with THC analyzers and, ...

  8. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF MICE EXPOSED TO STYRENE BY INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published data for the in vivo genotoxicity of styrene (STY) are equivocal. o evaluate the clastogenicity and sister chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing potential of STY in vivo under carefully controlled conditions, 36C3F1 female mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 hours/day...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... weight percent of polymer units derived from styrene. (b) The finished plastic food-contact article, when... temperature characterizing the conditions of intended use as determined from tables 1 and 2 of § 176.170(c) of... tested. (2) Potassium permanganate oxidizable distilled water and 8 and 50 percent alcohol...

  10. Development of Enantioselective Polyclonal Antibodies to Detect Styrene Oxide Protein

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Development of Enantioselective Polyclonal Antibodies to Detect Styrene Oxide Protein Adducts)-enantiomer was more toxic than the (S)-enantiomer. The purpose of this study was to develop polyclonal antibodies enantiomers. Polyclonal antibodies were raised by immunization of rabbits with the chiral immunogens

  11. Metabolism of styrene by Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13259.

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, A M; Clarke, K F; Hill, R A; Holt, R A; Fewson, C A

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13259 grows on styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene as sole carbon sources. Simultaneous induction tests with cells grown on styrene or toluene showed high rates of oxygen consumption with toluene cis-glycol and 3-methylcatechol, suggesting the involvement of a cis-glycol pathway. 3-Vinylcatechol accumulated when intact cells were incubated with styrene in the presence of 3-fluorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity. Experiments with 18O2 showed that 3-vinylcatechol was produced following a dioxygenase ring attack. Extracts contained a NAD-dependent cis-glycol dehydrogenase, which converted styrene cis-glycol to 3-vinylcatechol. Both catechol 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase activities were present, and these were separated from each other and from the activities of cis-glycol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde hydrolase by ion-exchange chromatography of extracts. 2-Vinylmuconate accumulated in the growth medium when cells were grown on styrene, apparently as a dead-end product, and extracts contained no detectable muconate cycloisomerase activity. 3-Vinylcatechol was cleaved by catechol 2,3-dioxygenase to give a yellow compound, tentatively identified as 2-hydroxy-6-oxoocta-2,4,7-trienoic acid, and the action of 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde hydrolase on this produced acrylic acid. A compound with the spectral characteristics of 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate was produced by the action of 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde hydrolase on the 2,3-cleavage product of 3-methylcatechol. Extracts were able to transform 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate into acetaldehyde and pyruvate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017910

  12. Structure-toxicity relationship study of para-halogenated styrene analogues in CYP2E1 transgenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jou-Ku; Shen, Shuijie; Jiang, Zhiteng; Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Styrene is one of the most important industrial intermediates consumed in the world and is mainly used as a monomer for reinforced plastics and rubber. Styrene has been found to be hepatotoxic and pneumotoxic in humans and experimental animals. The toxicity of styrene is suggested to be metabolism-dependent. Styrene-7,8-oxide has been considered as the major metabolite responsible for styrene-induced cytotoxicity. The objective of the study was to investigate the correlation between cytotoxicity of styrene and chemical and biochemical properties of the vinyl group of styrene by development of structure activity relationships (SAR). 4-Fluorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene and 4-bromostyrene were selected for the SAR study. Cytotoxicity of styrene and the halogenated styrene derivatives with an order of 4-bromostyrene > 4-chlorostyrene > 4-fluorostyrene ? styrene was observed in CYP2E1 transgenic cells. Similar orders in the efficiency of the metabolism of styrene and the halogenated styrene analogues to their oxides and in the electrophilicity of the corresponding oxides were observed. Additionally, the order of the potency of cellular glutathione depletion and the degree of protein adduction induced by styrene and the halogenated styrenes were consistent with that of their cytotoxicities. The wild-type cells were less susceptible to the toxicity of the corresponding model compounds than CYP2E1 cells. The present study provided insight into the roles of the biochemical and chemical properties of styrene in its cytotoxicity. PMID:22366341

  13. CNS tumors and exposure to acrylonitrile: inconsistency between experimental and epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. J.; Strother, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is a potent CNS tumorigen in rats leading to concern that it may be a tumorigen in humans. There have been 12 epidemiology studies of 37,352 workers exposed to acrylonitrile which evaluate CNS cancers. We summarize and evaluate these epidemiology studies for CNS cancers using the methods of meta-analysis. Our analyses indicate that workers with acrylonitrile exposure have null findings for CNS cancer (relative risk = 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.5), which are in stark contrast to the projected risk to humans using the rat findings (relative risk = 3.5, 95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0). We discuss several explanations for the inconsistency between animal and human findings, including the possibility that the acrylonitrile-induced rat CNS tumors may not be relevant to humans. Given the rarity of CNS tumors in humans and a lack of understanding of the causal mechanisms of these tumors in rats, however, a more definitive conclusion will have to await additional experimental and observational data. Nevertheless, the epidemiology evidence indicates that acrylonitrile is not a potent CNS tumorigen. PMID:11550315

  14. Metabolism and hepatorenal toxicity due to repeated exposure to styrene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Decarie, S.; Chakrabarti, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Groups of adult make rats (5 rats per group), either normotensive (WKY) or spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), were exposed by inhalation to 0, 821, and 3018 ppm styrene, 5h per day for 3 consecutive days. After the exposure, the urines were collected for 24h and the animals were then sacrificed. The various biochemical parameters of henatorenal toxicity due to styrene as well as its urinary metabolites were measured. Hepatotoxicity due to styrene was not further increased at any exposure level due to hypertension. However, repeated exposure of SHR rats to 3018 ppm styrene showed significant increases in the urinary excretion of {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase, proteins, and volume of urine, compared to WKY treated rats, whereas no such changes were observed due to repeated exposure to 821 ppm styrene. Studies of in vivo metabolism of styrene at higher exposure level showed significant decrease in the urinary excretion of mandelic, phenylglyoxylic, and hippuric acids in SHR rats compared to WKY-treated rats, suggestion an inhibition of deactivation of styrene reactive intermediate involving the epoxide hydrase pathway due to hypertension. At the same time, a significant increase in the urinary excretion of a potential nephrotoxic metabolite of styrene (e.g., mercapturates or thioethers) was observed in SHR-treated rats when compared to WKY-treated rats. These results demonstrate the spontaneous hpertension has the potential to further increase the nephrotoxicity due to repeated exposure to styrene, and the metabolism of styrene plays an important role in modifying such toxicity in the hypertensive state.

  15. New sulfonated polystyrene and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymers for applications in electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Franciélli; Ferreira, Carlos A; Franco, Lourdes; Puiggalí, Jordi; Alemán, Carlos; Armelin, Elaine

    2012-09-27

    In this study we prepared blends of polystyrene (PS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) with poly(styrene-ethylene-butylene) (SEBS) triblock copolymer. After sulfonation, blends were used to fabricate ion-exchange membranes by solvent-casting and subsequent thermal treatment to obtain homogeneous packing densities. The morphology and structure of the blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thermal transitions and stability of all the blends were characterized using calorimetric techniques and compared with those of the individual polymers. Analyses of the physical properties (i.e., ionic conductivity, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, dimensional stability, mechanical properties, etc.) showed that the performance of the PS-containing membranes is, in general, higher than that of the HIPS containing one. Furthermore, the highest sulfonation degree was also found for the PS/SEBS membranes. The capabilities of the membranes were tested by investigating the extraction of Na(+) by electrodyalisis. Comparison of the percentage of extracted ions indicates that the incorporation of SEBS results in a significant improvement with respect to membranes made of individual polymers. PMID:22991943

  16. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  17. Inhalation pharmacokinetics of 1,3-butadiene and 1,2-epoxybutene-3 in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laib, R.J.; Kreiling, R.; Vangala, R.R.; Bolt, H.M. ); Filser, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    Studies were conducted on inhalation pharmacokinetics of 1,3-butadiene and of its primary reactive metabolic intermediate 1,2-epoxybutene-3 in rates (Sprague-Dawley) and mice (B6C3F{sub 1}). Investigations of inhalation pharmacokinetics of 1,3-butadiene revealed saturation kinetics of 1,3-butadiene metabolism in both species. For rats and mice linear pharmacokinetics apply at exposure concentrations below 1,000 ppm 1,3-butadiene; saturation of 1,3-butadiene metabolism is observed at atmospheric concentrations of about 2,000 ppm. The estimated maximal metabolic elimination rates were 400 {mu}mole/hr/kg for mice and 200 {mu}mole/hr/kg for rats. This shows that 1,3-butadiene is metabolized by mice at about twice the rate of rats. Investigations of inhalation pharmacokinetics of 1,2-epoxybutene-3 revealed major differences in metabolism of this compound between both species. After exposure of rats and mice to (1,4-{sup 14}C)1,3-butadiene, covalent binding of ({sup 14}C)butadiene-derived radioactivity could be detected. In both species, comparable amounts of radioactivity were associated with liver DNA. Covalent binding to nucleoproteins was twice as high in mice when compared to rats, and thus it paralleled the higher metabolic rate for 1,3-butadiene in this species. The authors conclude, that in addition to the higher metabolism of 1,3-butadiene in mice, limited detoxification and thus accumulation of its primary reactive intermediate 1,2-epoxybutene-3 must be a major determinant for the higher susceptibility of mice to 1,3-butadiene-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Reaction Between CH2 and HCCN: A Theoretical Approach to Acrylonitrile Formation in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivani; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

    2014-04-01

    Acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) was first detected in dense molecular cloud SgrB2. The synthesis of this interstellar molecule is reported to be quite difficult. Therefore, in the present work an attempt has been made to explore the possibility of formation of acrylonitrile from some simple molecules and radicals detected in interstellar space by radical-radical interaction scheme, both in the gas phase and in the icy grains. All calculations are performed using quantum chemical methods with density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2/6-311G (d,p) level. In the discussed chemical pathway, the reaction is found to be totally exothermic and barrier less giving rise to a high probability of acrylonitrile formation in Interstellar space.

  19. Reaction between CH2 and HCCN: a theoretical approach to acrylonitrile formation in the interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Shivani; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

    2014-04-01

    Acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) was first detected in dense molecular cloud SgrB2. The synthesis of this interstellar molecule is reported to be quite difficult. Therefore, in the present work an attempt has been made to explore the possibility of formation of acrylonitrile from some simple molecules and radicals detected in interstellar space by radical-radical interaction scheme, both in the gas phase and in the icy grains. All calculations are performed using quantum chemical methods with density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2/6-311G (d,p) level. In the discussed chemical pathway, the reaction is found to be totally exothermic and barrier less giving rise to a high probability of acrylonitrile formation in Interstellar space. PMID:25416678

  20. Comparison of genotoxic potency of styrene 7,8-oxide with gamma radiation and human cancer risk estimation of styrene using the rad-equivalence approach.

    PubMed

    Godderis, Lode; Aka, P; Kirsch-Volders, M; Veulemans, H

    2007-05-01

    Styrene is suspected to cause lympho-hematopoietic malignancies through the formation of styrene 7,8-oxide. However, we are still unable to calculate the cancer risk for workers exposed to styrene using epidemiological data. The aims of this study were to determine the blood dose after styrene exposure and to compare the genotoxic potency of styrene 7,8-oxide and gamma radiation in order to calculate the cancer risk by means of the rad-equivalence approach. Leucocytes of 20 individuals were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 mM styrene 7,8-oxide (1 h) or 1, 2 or 3 gray (=100, 200, 300 rad) gamma radiation. Genotoxicity was evaluated with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Comparison of the two slopes of the regression lines between micronuclei and dose revealed a genotoxic potency for styrene 7,8-oxide of 37 rad/mMh, corresponding with a median value derived from mutagenicity studies (1, 37, 208 rad/mMh). At exposure levels of 1 ppm styrene, a blood styrene 7,8-oxide concentration between 0.03 x 10(-)(6) and 0.42 x 10(-)(6) mM is to be expected using data of toxicokinetic models and human exposure studies. With the cancer risk per unit dose of gamma radiation as benchmark, we calculated a lifetime risk of acquiring a fatal lympho-hematopoietic cancer of 0.17 in 10(3) workers (between 0.037 x 10(-)(3) and 5.0 x 10(-)(3)) exposed to 20 ppm styrene during 40 years. PMID:17311804

  1. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. PMID:25051483

  2. Formation and Characteristics of Acrylonitrile/Urea Inclusion Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jun-ting; Wang, Yu-song; Pang, Wen-min; Shi, Lei; Lu, Fei

    The formation process and composition of the acrylonitrile/urea inclusion compounds (AN/UIC) with different aging times and AN/urea molar feed ratios are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is suggested that DSC could be one of the helpful methods to determine the guest/host ratio and the heat of decomposition. Meanwhile, the guest/host ratio and heat of deformation are obtained, which are 1.17 and 5361.53 J/mol, respectively. It is suggested AN molecules included in urea canal lattice may be packed flat against each other. It is found that the formation of AN/UIC depends on the aging time. XRD results reveal that once AN molecules enter urea lattice, AN/UIC are formed, which possess the final structure. When AN molecules are sufficient, the length of AN molecular arrays in urea canals increases as aging time prolonging until urea tunnels are saturated by AN.

  3. The influence of co-exposure to dimethyldithiocarbamate on butadiene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Green, T; Toghill, A; Moore, R

    2001-06-01

    Treatment of rats and mice with a single oral dose of dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC; 250 mg/kg) had a marked effect on hepatic CYP2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, measured in vitro, for up to 24 h after dosing. The same treatment did not affect CYP2A6, glutathione S-transferase, epoxide hydrolase, alcohol dehydrogenase activities or hepatic glutathione levels. As a consequence of the loss of CYP2E1 activity, butadiene metabolism in liver fractions from DMDTC treated rats and mice was markedly reduced, as was the metabolism of the mono-epoxide to the di-epoxide in mouse liver. The conversion of the mono-epoxide to the diol by epoxide hydrolases was not affected by DMDTC treatment. Urinary excretion of radioactivity, following dosing with DMDTC and exposure to 200 ppm C-14 butadiene for 6 h, was markedly reduced in rats, but increased in mice. The profiles of urinary metabolites were qualitatively similar from mice exposed to butadiene to those exposed after dosing with DMDTC. In the rat, pre-dosing with DMDTC resulted in the formation of three additional urinary metabolites following exposure to butadiene. Overall, DMDTC appears to impact qualitatively and quantitatively on the metabolism of butadiene. The nature and full significance of these changes has yet to be characterised. PMID:11397414

  4. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan-g-poly acrylonitrile/silver nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, A A; Ramadan, M A; Montaser, A S; Farag, Ahmed M

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan-grafted-poly acrylonitrile silver nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAN/Ag) were prepared via in-situ chemical reduction of Ag ions in graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan. Graft copolymerization process was provided by FTIR and gravimetric methods. UV spectra and TEM images show silver nanoparticles with average 15-20nm dispersed homogeneously in CS-g-PAN/Ag nanocomposite-ray and TGA evident the change in crystallography and thermal stability in consequence of presence Ag nanoparticles. Cs-g-PAN/Ag nanocomposite showed excellent antimicrobial performance towards bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24768973

  5. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Linfan; Jiang, Haiqing; Li, Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  6. Segmental dynamics of disordered styrene-isoprene tetrablock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doxastakis, M.; Chrissopoulou, K.; Aouadi, A.; Frick, B.; Lodge, T. P.; Fytas, G.

    2002-03-01

    The local segmental dynamics of four styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene-b-isoprene (SISI) tetrablock copolymers with different styrene composition fs and constant total degree of polymerization N?120 has been studied in the disordered state in the nano-picosecond time scale, by incoherent quasielastic neutron (QENS), and Brillouin (BS) and depolarized Rayleigh (DRS) light scattering. Far above the glass transition temperature, all three techniques demonstrate the presence of two distinct time scales from which the fast segmental relaxation was quantitatively resolved. This process is associated with the mobility of the polyisoprene (PI) component, and is moderately slower and possesses a broader distribution of relaxation times than in bulk PI. The comparison between the correlation times of DRS and the characteristic times of QENS suggest that segment (hydrogen nucleus) diffusion over a distance of ?0.8 nm suffices for the loss of local orientation correlations. The faster times of the BS experiment correspond to shorter displacements, ?0.3 nm. These results demonstrate that the segmental dynamics of the PI are much faster than would be inferred from the monomeric friction factor of PI previously extracted by diffusion and viscosity measurements in the same tetrablock matrices. This, in turn, indicates a substantial local spatial heterogeneity in the segmental dynamics. The slow process is due to the PS segments, which do not relax, appreciably on the time scales accessible here.

  7. Studies on photodissociation dynamics of butadiene monoxide at 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SenGupta, Sumana; Indulkar, Yogesh; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D.; Bajaj, Paramanand

    2008-01-01

    Butadiene monoxide (BMO) undergoes the S0?S1 transition, involving the excitation of both ? and n electrons to ?* orbital, at 193nm. After relaxing to the ground electronic state via internal conversion, BMO molecules undergo intramolecular rearrangement and subsequently dissociate to form unexpected OH radicals, which were detected state selectively by laser-induced fluorescence technique, and the energy state distribution was measured. OH is produced vibrationally cold, OH(? ?=0,J?), with the rotational population characterized by a rotational temperature of 456±70K. The major portion (˜60%) of the available energy is partitioned into internal degrees of the photofragments, namely, vibration and rotation. A considerable portion (25%-35%) also goes to the relative translation of the products. The ? doublet and spin-orbit ratios of OH were measured to be nearly unity, implying statistical distribution of these states and, hence, no preference for any of the ? doublet (?+ and ?-) and spin-orbit (?3/2 and ?1/2) states. Formation time of the nascent OH radical was measured to be <100ns. Different products, such as crotonaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone, were detected by gas chromatography as stable products of photodissociation. A reaction mechanism for the formation of all these photoproducts, transient and stable, is proposed. The multiple pathways by which these products can be formed have been theoretically optimized, and energies have been calculated. Absorption cross section of BMO at 193nm was measured, and quantum yield of OH generation channel was also determined.

  8. 77 FR 40087 - 1,3-Butadiene Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...requirements specified by the 1,3-Butadiene Standard (29 CFR 1910.1051). DATES: Comments must be submitted (postmarked, sent...collection. Title: 1,3-Butadiene Standard (29 CFR 1910.1051). OMB Control Number: 1218-0170. Affected Public:...

  9. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF 1,3-BUTADIENE WITH OH AND NO3 RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,3-Butadiene is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of sources
    including combustion sources and is listed in the United States as a hazardous
    air pollutant. In the atmosphere, 1,3-butadiene reacts with OH radicals,
    NO3 radicals, and O3 ...

  10. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS ASSESSMENT GROUP'S REPORT ON THE MUTAGENICITY OF 1.3-BUTADIENE AND ITS REACTIVE METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major data gap for assessing heritable risk from exposure to 1,3-butadiene is the lack of mammalian mutagenicity data. The data base on the mutagenic potential of 1,3-butadiene is limited to three bacterial studies from the same laboratory. Two of these studies were positive on...

  11. 77 FR 40087 - 1,3-Butadiene Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... monitor employee exposure to 1,3-Butadiene; develop and maintain compliance and exposure goal programs if employee exposures to 1,3- Butadiene are above the Standard's permissible exposure limits or action level... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912). Signed...

  12. Poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane-b-styrene) Membranes in Pervaporation for In Situ Product Recovery during Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chaeyoung; Baer, Zachary; Ozcam, Ali Evren; Clark, Douglas; Balsara, Nitash

    2014-03-01

    In situ product recovery was investigated in fermentation experiments to enable the development of a continuous fermentation process. Our pervaporation membranes are based on poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane-b-styrene) (SDS) block copolymers. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the best known organophilic pervaporation membrane material and was utilized as the transporting phase for selective permeation of organic molecules. The polystyrene (PS) block added structural integrity to the membrane due to the high modulus of PS. SDS membranes were found to have both the enhanced robustness as well as comparable pervaporation performance to that of cross-linked PDMS membranes. The permeabilities of water and organic components through SDS membranes were studied to elucidate the sorption and transport phenomena in this system. Furthermore, experiments combining fermentation with pervaporation were performed, and continuous fermentation by using pervaporation as the sole means of removing products was successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  13. Design of a metal-promoted oxide catalyst for the selective synthesis of butadiene from ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sushkevich, Vitaly L; Ivanova, Irina I; Ordomsky, Vitaly V; Taarning, Esben

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of buta-1,3-diene from ethanol has been studied over metal-containing (M=Ag, Cu, Ni) oxide catalysts (MO(x)=MgO, ZrO2, Nb2O5, TiO2, Al2O3) supported on silica. Kinetic study of a wide range of ethanol conversions (2-90%) allowed the main reaction pathways leading to butadiene and byproducts to be determined. The key reaction steps of butadiene synthesis were found to involve ethanol dehydrogenation, acetaldehyde condensation, and the reduction of crotonaldehyde with ethanol into crotyl alcohol. Catalyst design included the selection of active components for each key reaction step and merging of these components into multifunctional catalysts and adjusting the catalyst functions to achieve the highest selectivity. The best catalytic performance was achieved over the Ag/ZrO2/SiO2 catalyst, which showed the highest selectivity towards butadiene (74?mol%). PMID:25123990

  14. Identification of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and other volatile organics from wok oil emissions.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, E D; Michael, L C; Thomas, K W; Shields, P G; Harris, C

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program to determine the underlying factors responsible for genotoxicity and perhaps lung cancer risk in Chinese women, we qualitatively identified the volatile components emitted during the heating of cooking oils to 265 degrees C. 1,3-Butadiene, benzene, and a series of aldehydes, olefins, and saturated hydrocarbons were elucidated in vapors from Chinese rapeseed oil. On a relative basis, the intensity of 1,3-butadiene vapors from this were 15.7-, 6.3-, and 1.4-fold greater than in the vapors from peanut, soybean, and Canola oils, respectively. Thus, the Chinese rapeseed oil yielded a higher emission rate of 1,3-butadiene than the other three oils investigated. The benzene formation rate followed a similar trend, i.e., its intensity in Chinese rapeseed oil was 14-, 6.6-, and 1.7-fold greater than in vapors from peanut, soybean, and Canola oils, respectively. PMID:7663151

  15. The migration of styrene butadiene latex during the drying of coating suspensions: when and how does migration of colloidal particles occur?

    PubMed

    Zang, Yong-Hua; Du, Juan; Du, Yanfen; Wu, Zhenjuan; Cheng, Shaoling; Liu, Yuping

    2010-12-01

    Surface elemental compositions of model latex clay coatings on an impervious substrate consolidated under various conditions were measured using the XPS technique, in order to clarify when and how colloidal latex particles migrate to the surface during drying. Under similar drying conditions, surface carbon content decreased with the addition of a water-soluble polymer to the coating colors, while remaining virtually unchanged for coatings of different coat weights made with a given color, indicating that surface carbon content variation is mainly caused by migration of latex rather than of water-soluble polymer. The results also showed that for coatings made with a given suspension, surface carbon content decreased with increasing delay time between coating and heating. For coatings frozen during consolidation and dried by sublimation, surface carbon content increased with increasing drying time before freezing. These results suggest that for the model coatings studied, latex migration mainly occurs after coating application before capillary formation during the initial drying stage when coatings are in the liquid phase, contradicting both the conventional capillary transport and boundary wall migration mechanisms. An alternative mechanism which attributes latex migration to surface trapping effect and to higher Brownian mobility of the smaller latex particles compared with pigment appears to provide a systematically consistent explanation to those phenomena. The new particle migration mechanism implies that segregation of colloidal particles is a ubiquitous phenomenon that would occur not only during the drying of paper coatings but also during consolidation of colloidal films containing particles of different sizes. This is of great importance in the control of surface compositions of nanocomposite coatings. PMID:21043465

  16. Mechanical Properties and Vulcanization Characteristics of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (sbr) Based Compounds Filled with Eggshell Powder as a Bio-Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Dakhel, Hadi Ramezani; Ghaffari, Akbar

    2008-08-01

    Egg shell is an ordered bioceramic composite with five different layers [1, 2]. In this study, the effect of using various types of eggshell powder including after and before hatching eggshell and boiled eggshell on the mechanical properties and vulcanization characteristics of SBR compounds has been investigated. The obtained results were compared with calcium carbonate filled compounds. Evaluation of mechanical properties exhibited that incorporation of eggshell increased almost all of the mechanical properties of the compounds. BET test demonstrated higher specific area of eggshell powders compare with calcium carbonate. Some of the observed results attributed to higher specific area of eggshell powder. However, there is no definitive reason for some other results at this time. Vulcanization characteristics of the compounds showed that incorporation of eggshell powder had no considerable effect on curing time. The results of this research showed that all kinds of eggshell powders can be used in SBR based compounds successfully.

  17. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  18. Biotransformation of acrylonitrile to acrylamide using immobilized whole cells of Brevibacterium CH1 in a recycle fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Chang, H N

    1989-07-01

    Acrylamide was produced from acrylonitrile using immobilized Brevibacterium CH1 cells that were isolated from soil and found to possess nitrile hydratase activity. The reaction conditions and stability of the enzyme activity were studied. The conversion yield was nearly 100%, including a trace amount of acrylic acid. This strain showed strong activity of nitrile hydratase toward acrylonitrile and extremely low activity of amidase toward acrylamide. A packed bed reactor was operated in a fed-batch manner for acrylamide production of high concentration. The acrylonitrile concentration was maintained below 3% and the operating temperature at 4 degrees C to minimize enzyme deactivation. PMID:18588114

  19. Enantioselective C-H Crotylation of Primary Alcohols via Hydrohydroxyalkylation of Butadiene

    PubMed Central

    Zbieg, Jason R.; Yamaguchi, Eiji; McInturff, Emma L.; Krische, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The direct, by-product–free conversion of basic feedstocks to products of medicinal and agricultural relevance is a broad goal of chemical research. Butadiene is a product of petroleum cracking and is produced on an enormous scale (about 12 × 106 metric tons annually). Here, with the use of a ruthenium catalyst modified by a chiral phosphate counterion, we report the direct redox-triggered carbon-carbon coupling of alcohols and butadiene to form products of carbonyl crotylation with high levels of anti-diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity in the absence of stoichiometric by-products. PMID:22442385

  20. GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE ONTO STARCH-COATED POLYETHYLENE FILM SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When starch-coated polyethylene (PE) films were allowed to react with acrylonitrile in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate initiator, graft polymerization occurred to produce starch-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) coatings that contained about 25% grafted PAN, by weight. The graft copolymer coatings adh...

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous and acrylonitrile-induced brain tumors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kolenda-Roberts, Holly Meredith; Harris, Nancy; Singletary, Emily; Hardisty, Jerry F

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-eight spontaneously occurring glial tumors (previously diagnosed as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and gliomas) and eleven granular cell tumors (GCTs) were selected for evaluation using a panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains (Ricinus communis agglutinin type 1 [RCA-1], ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 [Iba-1], OX-6/major immunohistocompatibility complex class II, oligodendrocytes transcription factor 2 [Olig2], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], S100 beta, glutamine synthetase, neurofilament, proliferating cell nuclear antigen). In addition, nine brain tumors from a 2-year drinking water study for acrylonitrile were obtained from the Acrylonitrile Group, Inc. Based on IHC staining characteristics, Olig2+ oligodendrogliomas were the most commonly diagnosed spontaneous tumor in these animals. Many of the spontaneous tumors previously diagnosed as astrocytomas were RCA-1+, Iba-1+ and negative for GFAP, S100beta, and glutamine synthetase; the diagnosis of malignant microglial tumor is proposed for these neoplasms. Three mixed tumors were identified with Olig2+ (oligodendrocytes) and Iba-1+ (macrophage/microglia) cell populations. The term mixed glioma is not recommended for these tumors, as it is generally used to refer to oligoastrocytomas, which were not observed in this study. GCT were positive for RCA-1 and Iba-1. All acrylonitrile tumors were identified as malignant microglial tumors. These results may indicate that oligodendrogliomas are more common as spontaneous tumors, while acrylonitrile-induced neoplasms are microglial/histiocytic in origin. No astrocytomas (GFAP, S100 beta, and/or glutamine synthetase-positive neoplasms) were observed. PMID:22821367

  2. ABSORPTION OF CO2 AND SUBSEQUENT VISCOSITY REDUCTION OF AN ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. (R829555)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers (AN content greater than about 85 mol%) are traditionally solution processed to avoid a cyclization and crosslinking reaction that takes place at temperatures where melt processing would be feasible. It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO

  3. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  8. The emissions of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from small polymeric toys placed in chocolate food products.

    PubMed

    Mar?, Mariusz; Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Namie?nik, Jacek; Zabiega?a, Bo?ena

    2015-10-15

    The article presents findings on the emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from children's toys placed in chocolate food products. The emission test system involved the application of a new type of microscale stationary emission chamber, ?-CTE™ 250. In order to determine the type of the applied polymer in the manufacture of the tested toys, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry were used. It was found that the tested toy components or the whole toys (figurines) are made of two main types of polymers: polyamide and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Total number of studied small polymeric toys was 52. The average emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from studied toys made of polyamide were as follows: benzene: 0.45 ± 0.33 ng/g; toluene: 3.3 ± 2.6 ng/g; ethylbenzene: 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/g; p,m-xylene: 2.5 ± 4.5 ng/g; and styrene: 8.2 ± 9.9 ng/g. In the case of studied toys made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer the average emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbeznene, p,m-xylene and styrene were: 0.31 ± 0.29 ng/g; 2.5 ± 1.4 ng/g; 4.6 ± 8.9 ng/g; 1.4 ± 1.1 ng/g; and 36 ± 44 ng/g, respectively. PMID:26047863

  9. Acid-catalyzed ortho-alkylation of anilines with styrenes: an improved route to chiral anilines with bulky substituents.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Anna E; Domski, Gregory J; Rose, Jeffrey M; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2005-11-10

    [reaction: see text] Reaction of para-substituted anilines with styrene derivatives at elevated temperatures, when catalyzed by CF3SO3H, results in highly chemoselective ortho-alkylation of the aniline. When R = H, dialkylation can be achieved by varying the ratio of styrene to aniline. Several different substituted anilines and styrenes were examined, and good yields (42-87%) were obtained, except in the case where electron-withdrawing substituents are present on the styrene. PMID:16268521

  10. POTENTIAL FOR REDUCING INDOOR STYRENE EXPOSURE FROM COPIED PAPER THROUGH USE OF LOW-EMITTING TONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were conducted, using 53-L dynamic chambers, to determine airborne styrene emission rates over time from freshly copied paper. Copies were produced on a single photocopier, using two toners manufactured for this copier but having different styrene contents. The resulting em...

  11. Letter to the Editor: Styrene-producing microbes in food-stuff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An article was published in Journal of Food Science, August 2009 (Vol. 74, Nr 6) entitled “Natural formation of styrene by cinnamon mold flora”. In the article, the authors reported on the production of styrene from several fungi typically found on cinnamon, and used cinnamic acid and similar analog...

  12. S0S1 transition of trans--methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics

    E-print Network

    Haas, Yehuda

    S0S1 transition of trans- -methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics Y. Haas, S. Kendler, E; accepted 28 March 1995 The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of trans- -methyl styrene have been , a more pronounced decrease in f is observed, indicating that the barrier to trans­cis isomerization

  13. Mechanistic insights into selectivity control for heterogeneous olefin oxidation: styrene oxidation on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Quiller, Ryan G; Liu, Xiaoying; Friend, Cynthia M

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that intermolecular interactions, controlled by both oxygen and styrene coverage, alter reaction selectivity for styrene oxidation on oxygen-covered Au(111). Several partial oxidation products are formed--styrene oxide, acetophenone, benzoic acid, benzeneacetic acid, and phenylketene--in competition with combustion. The maximum ratio of the yields of styrene oxide to the total CO(2) produced is obtained for the maximum styrene coverage for the first two layers (0.28 ML) adsorbed on Au(111) precovered with 0.2 ML of O. Furthermore, our reactivity and infrared studies support a mechanism whereby styrene oxidation proceeds via two oxametallacycle intermediates which, under oxygen-lean conditions, lead to the formation of styrene oxide, acetophenone, and phenylketene. Benzoate, identified on the basis of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, is converted into benzoic acid during temperature-programmed reaction. These results demonstrate the ability to tune the epoxidation selectivity using reactant coverages and provide important mechanistic insight into styrene oxidation reactions. PMID:20014272

  14. EVALUATION OF TRICKLE-BED AIR BIOFILTER PERFORMANCE FOR STYRENE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) was evaluated for the removal of styrene from a waste gas stream. Six-millimeter (6 mm) Celite pellets (R-635) were used as the biological attachment medium. The operating parameters considered in the study included the styrene vol...

  15. AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS FABRICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Styrene is a designated hazardous air pollutant, per the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It is also a tropospheric ozone precursor. Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) fabrication is the primary source of anthropogenic styrene emissions in the United States. This paper describes an em...

  16. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  20. EVALUATION OF STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM A SHOWER STALL/BATHTUB MANUFACTURING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of emissions measurements carried out at a representative facility (Eljer Plumbingware in Wilson, NC) that manufactures polyester-resin-reinforced shower stalls and bathtubs by spraying styrene-based resins onto molds in vented, open, spray booths. Styren...

  1. Development of Polyclonal Antibodies for the Detection of Styrene Oxide Modified Proteins

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Development of Polyclonal Antibodies for the Detection of Styrene Oxide Modified Proteins Wei Yuan is to develop polyclonal antibodies for the detection of styrene oxide cysteinyl protein adducts. Two immunogens were designed, synthesized, and used to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immune responses were

  2. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  4. Physiological analysis of the expression of the styrene degradation gene cluster in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, P.M.; Blatny, J.M.; Di Bartolo, I.; Valla, S.; Zennaro, E.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of different carbon sources on expression of the styrene catabolism genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST were analyzed by using a promoter probe vector, pPR9TT, which contains transcription terminators upstream and downstream of the {beta}-galactosidase reporter system. Expression of the promoter of the stySR operon, which codes for the styrene two-component regulatory system, was found to be constitutive and not subject to catabolite repression. This was confirmed by the results of an analysis of the stySR transcript in P. fluorescens ST cells grown on different carbon sources. The promoter of the operon of the upper pathway, designated PstyA, was induced by styrene and repressed to different extents by organic acids or carbohydrates. In particular, cells grown on succinate or lactate in the presence of styrene started to exhibit {beta}-galactosidase activity during the mid-exponential growth phase, before the preferred carbon sources were depleted, indicating that there is a threshold succinate and lactate concentration which allows induction of styrene catabolic genes. In contrast, cells grown on glucose, acetate, or glutamate and styrene exhibited a diauxic growth curve, and {beta}-galactosidase activity was detected only after the end of the exponential growth phase. In each experiment the reliability of the reporter system constructed was verified by comparing the {beta}-galactosidase activity and the activity of the styrene monooxygenase encoded by the first gene of the styrene catabolic operon.

  5. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-06-12

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)1 are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughout the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD.

  6. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-06-12

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)1 are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughoutmore »the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD.« less

  7. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)(1) are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughout the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD. PMID:26079054

  8. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. Structure and reaction of oxametallacycles derived from styrene oxide on Ag(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaski, A. C.; Enever, M. C. N.; Barteau, M. A.

    2007-08-01

    Styrene oxide forms a strongly bound oxametallacycle intermediate via activated adsorption on the Ag(1 1 0) surface. The oxametallacycle species derived from styrene oxide on Ag(1 1 0) fits well with the family of oxametallacycles identified previously in studies of non-allylic epoxides with unsaturated substituent groups on silver. Temperature-programmed reaction experiments demonstrate that styrene oxide ring opens at the substituted carbon, and Density Functional Theory calculations indicate that the phenyl ring of the resulting oxametallacycle is oriented nearly parallel to the Ag(1 1 0) surface. Interaction of the phenyl group with the silver surface stabilizes this intermediate relative to that derived from the mono-olefin epoxide, ethylene oxide. During temperature-programmed reaction, the oxametallacycle undergoes ring-closure to reform styrene oxide and isomerization to phenylacetaldehyde at 505 K on Ag(1 1 0). Styrene oxide-derived oxametallacycles exhibit similar ring-closure behavior on the Ag(1 1 1) surface.

  14. Proton exchange membranes prepared by grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene into crosslinked PTFE membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingye; Ichizuri, Shogo; Asano, Saneto; Mutou, Fumihiro; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Iida, Minoru; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    Thin PTFE membranes were prepared by coating the PTFE dispersion onto the aluminum films. Thus the thin crosslinked PTFE (RX-PTFE) membranes were obtained by means of electron beam irradiation above the melting temperature of PTFE under oxygen-free atmosphere. The RX-PTFE membranes were pre-irradiated and grafted by styrene with or without divinylbenzene (DVB) in liquid phase. The existence of DVB accelerated the initial grafting rate. The styrene grafted RX-PTFE membranes are white colored, on the other hand, the styrene/DVB grafted RX-PTFE membranes are colorless. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were obtained by sulfonating the grafted membranes using chlorosulfonic acid. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values of the PEMs ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 meq/g were obtained. The PEMs made from the styrene/DVB grafted membranes showed higher chemical stability than those of the styrene grafted membranes under oxidative circumstance.

  15. Dimerization of 1,3-Butadiene on Highly Characterized Hydroxylated Surfaces of Ultrathin

    E-print Network

    Dimerization of 1,3-Butadiene on Highly Characterized Hydroxylated Surfaces of Ultrathin Films-cyclohexene on highly ordered hydroxylated ultrathin films of -Al2O3. High surface area, powdered -Al2O3 is widely used to prepare not only highly characterized surfaces of -Al2O3, but also to prepare hydroxylated -Al2O3

  16. EFFECTS OF 1,3-BUTADIENE, ISOPRENE, AND THEIR PHOTOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION PRODUCTS ON HUMAN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of potential exposure both in the workplace and from ambient air, the known carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) is considered a priority hazardous air pollutant. BD and its 2-methyl analog, isoprene (ISO), are chemically similar but have very different toxicities, with ISO show...

  17. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 catalysts for the conversion of ethanol into butadiene.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Wout; Makshina, Ekaterina V; Vanelderen, Pieter; De Clippel, Filip; Houthoofd, Kristof; Kerkhofs, Stef; Martens, Johan A; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2015-03-01

    Ternary Ag/Magnesia-silica catalysts were tested in the direct synthesis of 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The influence of the silver content and the type of silica source on catalytic performance has been studied. Prepared catalysts were characterized by (29) Si NMR, N2 sorption, small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, XRD, environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM/EDX), FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and CO2 , temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Based on these characterization results, the catalytic performance of the catalysts in the 1,3-butadiene formation process was interpreted and a tentative model explaining the role of the different catalytically active sites was elaborated. The balance of the active sites is crucial to obtain an active and selective catalyst to form 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The optimal silver loading is 1-2 wt% on a MgO-silica support with a molar Mg/Si ratio of 2. The silver species and basic sites (Mg?O pairs and basic OH groups) are of prime importance in the 1,3-butadiene production, catalyzing mainly the ethanol dehydrogenation and the aldol condensation, respectively. PMID:25410420

  18. HYDROXYL RADICAL AND OZONE INITIATED PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS OF 1,3-BUTADIENE. (R826247)

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,3-Butadiene, classified as hazardous in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is an important ambient air pollutant. Understanding its atmospheric transformation is useful for its own sake, and is also helpful for eliciting isoprene's fate in the atmosphere (isoprene dominates ...

  19. THE OZONE REACTION WITH BUTADIENE: FORMATION OF TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product ...

  20. Exposure and risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Haruyuki; Mita, Kazuaki; Yoshikado, Hiroshi; Iwata, Mitsuo; Nakanishi, Junko

    2007-03-20

    1,3-Butadiene is on the list of Substances Requiring Priority Action published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan in 1996. Emission of 1,3-butadiene has been controlled by a voluntary reduction program since 1997. Although the industrial emission of 1,3-butadiene in Japan has decreased in recent years, primarily due to a voluntary industrial emissions reduction program, the risks of exposure to it remain largely unknown. We assessed the risks and consequences of exposure to 1,3-butadiene on human health. A remarkable advantage of our risk assessment approach is the detailed assessment of exposure. Previously, we developed two different models that can be applied for the assessment of exposure: the first, the AIST-ADMER model estimates regional concentration distributions, whereas the second, the METI-LIS model estimates concentration distributions in the vicinity of factories. Both models were used for the assessment of exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Using exposure concentration and carcinogenic potency determined and reported by Environment Canada and Health Canada, we evaluated the excess lifetime cancer risk for persons exposed to 1,3-butadiene over the course of a lifetime. The results suggested that the majority of the population in Japan has an excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 10(-5), whereas a small number of people living close to industrial sources had a risk of greater than 10(-5). The results of the present assessment also showed that 1,3-butadiene in the general environment originates primarily from automobile emissions, such that a countermeasure of reducing emissions from cars is expected to be effective at reducing the total cancer risk among Japanese. On the other hand, individual risks among a population living in the vicinity of certain industrial sources were found to be significantly higher than those of the population living elsewhere, such that a reduction in emissions from a small number of specific industrial sources should be realized in order to reduce the high level of individual risk. Based on the results of our assessment, the Industrial Structure Council of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in Japan decided to announce that the voluntary reduction program had been successful, and that emissions reductions should no longer be targeted across all industries in general, but instead that such reductions should be carried out in a small number of selected factories that emit excessively large amounts of emissions. PMID:17092494

  1. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 ?M DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  2. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  3. The tonotopicity of styrene-induced hearing loss depends on the associated noise spectrum.

    PubMed

    Venet, Thomas; Campo, Pierre; Thomas, Aurélie; Cour, Chantal; Rieger, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The neuropharmacological and cochleotoxic effects of styrene can exacerbate the impact of noise on the peripheral auditory receptor. The mechanisms through which co-exposure to noise and styrene impairs hearing are complex as the slowly developing cochleotoxic process can be masked in the short-term by the rapid pharmacological effect on the central nervous system. The current investigation was therefore designed to delineate the auditory frequency range sensitive to noise, to styrene, and to noise and styrene combined. In case of different frequency ranges targeted by noise and styrene, it would be possible to point out the main factor responsible for cases of deafness by looking at the location of the audiometric deficits. Male Brown-Norway rats were exposed to 600-ppm styrene, to an octave band noise centered at 8 kHz, or to both noise and styrene. The noise exposure was of two different types: impulse noise with a LEX,8h (equivalent continuous noise level averaged over 8 h) of 80 dB and continuous noise with a LEX,8 h of 85 dB SPL. Hearing was tested using a non-invasive technique based on distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Hearing data were completed with histological analysis of cochleae. The results showed that exposure to styrene alone caused outer hair cell losses in the apical cochlear region, which discriminates low frequencies. In contrast, noise-induced hearing loss was located at half an octave above the central frequency of the spectrum, around 10-12 kHz. Damage due to impulse noise was significantly exacerbated by styrene, and the noise spectrum defined the location of the cochlear trauma. Combined exposure caused greater cell losses than the sum of losses measured with the impulse noise and styrene alone. The fact that the tonotopicity of the styrene-induced damage depends on the associated noise spectrum complicates the diagnosis of styrene-related hearing loss with a tone-frequency audiometric approach. In conclusion, there is not really a frequency specificity of impairments due to styrene. PMID:25689156

  4. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-butadiene latex; (2) Storage vessels containing latex products other than styrene-butadiene latex, located downstream of the stripping operations; (3) Storage vessels containing high conversion latex products;...

  5. Studies of the mutagenic effects of styrene to man: conclusions for the surveillance of styrene-exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, Roland; Schmidt, P.; Grummt, T.; Grummt, H. J.; Kersten, N.; Weigmann, Hans-Juergen

    1993-03-01

    One hundred fifty-six styrene-exposed workers had a fourfold higher rate of chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes than the control persons. The parameters of clinical chemistry (liver, kidney, and blood) remained in the normal range. Further analyses of the data of this study revealed no connections of the degree of effects in clinical chemistry and the exposure level. But a connection exists to the duration of exposure (3 - 26 years): in the comparison of the mean values (all mean values within the normal range) significant differences were found between long-term exposed workers (more than ten years) and control persons. In the higher age groups (above 45 years) also the GAP-rate differences are more pronounced. Seventy percent of the TWA-values were found to be below 85 mg/m3; the arithmetic mean of the TWA-values 72,3 mg/m3. A health surveillance program to styrene-exposed workers is to be reviewed (clinical chemistry and genetic effects). Proposals concerning both problems are presented.

  6. Potential for reducing indoor styrene exposure from copied paper through use of low-emitting toners.

    PubMed

    Henschel, D Bruce; Fortmann, Roy C; Roache, Nancy F; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2003-11-01

    Tests were conducted using 53-L dynamic chambers to determine airborne styrene emission rates over time from freshly copied paper. Copies were produced on a single photocopier using two toners manufactured for this copier but having different styrene contents. The resulting emission models were used to predict whether indoor styrene concentrations resulting from copied paper in a typical office might be significantly reduced by use of a low-emitting toner for a given copier. The styrene emissions were best represented by either a 3rd-order decay model or by a power law model having an exponent between 0.3 and 0.5 (R2 = 0.94-0.99). The two toners resulted in copied paper having significantly different styrene emissions (p < 0.01), with unit mass emissions over 1000 hr being nine times greater with the higher-emitting toner. But copied paper is predicted to produce peak indoor styrene concentrations in a typical office no more than 1% of the World Health Organization health-based guideline. Thus, for the toners considered here, indoor styrene exposures from copied paper appear to be too limited to provide incentive for switching to the lower-emitting toner. The ability to generalize these conclusions is limited by the fact that only one copier and two toners could be tested. PMID:14649754

  7. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2007-01-01

    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 microg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 microg/L after one-year storage. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks. PMID:17915704

  8. Biomonitoring for Exposure Assessment to Styrene in the Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Industry: Determinants and Interferents.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Rossana Claudia; Gatto, Maria Pia; Paci, Enrico; Gordiani, Andrea; Gherardi, Monica; Tranfo, Giovanna

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-eight workers exposed to styrene were monitored in four fibreglass reinforced plastic industries of Central Italy. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that can influence the levels of styrene exposure biomarkers of the workers and the aspects that might interfere with the exposure assessment measures, such as the co-exposure to acetone. Personal monitoring of professional exposure to airborne styrene and acetone was carried out by Radiello samplers and GC/MS analysis. Biological monitoring was performed by the determination of urinary metabolites, mandelic (MA), and phenylglyoxylic (PGA) acids with HPLC/MS/MS and unmetabolized styrene in saliva and venous blood by HS/GC/MS. The median values of the four sites ranged between 24.1 to 94.0mg m(-3) and 7.3 to 331.1mg g(-1) creatinine for airborne styrene and MA + PGA, respectively. A good linear correlation was found between styrene in air and its urinary metabolites (r = 0.854). The median value for airborne styrene was found to exceed the (Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average) of 85 mg m(-3) in one site for all the workers and in two if only moulders are considered. The multiple linear regression model showed that the determinants of urinary MA + PGA excretion were the type of process, workers' tasks, level of acetone co-exposure, and the use of respiratory protection devices. Data show that the simultaneous exposure to acetone modify the styrene metabolism with a reduction in the levels of (MA + PGA) excreted. A significant linear log-correlation was found between salivary levels of styrene and blood concentration (r = 0.746) sampled at the same t x time. PMID:26180262

  9. Trends in Occupational Exposure to Styrene in the European Glass Fibre-Reinforced Plastics Industry

    PubMed Central

    Van Rooij, J. G. M.; Kasper, A.; Triebig, G.; Werner, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study presents temporal trends of styrene exposure for workers in the European glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) industry during the period 1966–2002. Methods: Data of personal styrene exposure measurements were retrieved from reports, databases and peer-reviewed papers. Only sources with descriptive statistics of personal measurements were accepted. The styrene exposure data cover personal air samples and biological monitoring data, that is, urinary styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and/or phenylglyoxylic acid) and styrene in blood. Means of series of measurements were categorized by year, country, production process, job and sampling strategy. Linear mixed models were used to identify temporal trends and factors affecting exposure levels. Results: Personal exposure measurements were available from 60 reports providing data on 24145 1–8-h time-weighted average shift personal air samples. Available data of biological exposure indicators included measurements of mandelic acid in post-shift urine (6361 urine samples being analysed). Trend analyses of the available styrene exposure data showed that the average styrene concentration in the breathing zone of open-mould workers in the European GRP industry has decreased on average by 5.3% per year during the period 1966–1990 and by only 0.4% annually in the period after 1990. The highest exposures were measured in Southern Europe and the lowest exposures in Northern Europe with Central Europe in between. Biological indicators of styrene (mandelic acid in post-shift urine) showed a somewhat steeper decline (8.9%), most likely because urine samples were collected in companies that showed a stronger decrease of styrene exposure in air than GRP companies where no biological measurements were carried out. PMID:18550625

  10. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Graff, John J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Macaluso, Maurizio; Maldonado, George; Matthews, Robert; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years) was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years) was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years) was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years) was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements. PMID:19826555

  11. Bis(acrylonitrile-?N)dichlorido(?4-cyclo­octa-1,5-diene)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chiririwa, Haleden; Meijboom, Reinout

    2011-01-01

    In the title complex, [RuCl2(C8H12)(C3H3N)2], the metal ion is coordinated to centers of each of the double bonds of the cyclo­octa-1,5-diene ligand, to two chloride ions (in cis positions) and to two N-atom donors from two acrylonitrile mol­ecules that complete the coordination sphere for the neutral complex. The coordination about the RuII atom can thus be considered octa­hedral with slight trigonal distortion. The three C atoms of one of the acrylonitrile ligands are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.581?(13):0.419?(13) ratio. PMID:22058687

  12. Pathogenesis of neurotoxicity of acrylates acrylonitrile and acrylamide: from cell to organism.

    PubMed

    Tarskikh, M M; Klimatskaya, L G; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-08-01

    The incubation of 10 mM acrylamide (in vitro) with rat brain homogenate was followed by a decrease in catalase activity by 48% as soon as 5 min after addition of acrylate to the incubation medium. Activity of this enzyme remained low 30 min after the start of the experiment. Acute poisoning with this acrylate was accompanied by LPO activation in rat brain 24 h after injection. Exposure to acrylonitrile during occupational contacts with this monomer was followed by accumulation of adducts of acrylate with erythrocytic hemoglobin in human blood. In accordance with previously observed data, modern scheme of neurotropic effects of acrylonitrile and acrylamide was proposed. This scheme explained specific features of clinical syndromes induced by acute and chronic exposure to these toxic agents. PMID:24143365

  13. Strong structure sensitivity in the partial oxidation of styrene on silver single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Madix, Robert J.

    2009-06-01

    In contrast to the formation of styrene oxide on Ag(1 1 1), phenylacetaldehyde and phenylketene dominate the partial oxidation of styrene on Ag(1 1 0), even though the reactions follow the same mechanism on both surfaces. The origin of this difference is that on Ag(1 1 0) the activation energy for transformation of the oxametallacycle to the combustion intermediate is much lower than on the (1 1 1) surface, so that ring-closure of the oxametallacycle to form styrene oxide is short circuited. Also the combustion intermediate appears more stable on Ag(1 1 0) than on Ag(1 1 1).

  14. Biomonitoring following a chemical incident with acrylonitrile and ethylene in 2008.

    PubMed

    Leng, Gabriele; Gries, Wolfgang

    2014-12-15

    The analytical determination of hemoglobin adducts was used as an effective biomonitoring tool after a fire outbrake at a chemical plant close to Cologne/Germany in 2008. More than 1000 people (e.g. fire-men, police officers, and workers) were potentially exposed to acrylonitrile and ethylene. Air monitoring in the surrounding was performed, and acrylonitrile was measured in concentrations up to 20 ppm, the mean value being 7 ppm (time range: 8 h). As many people were concerned about their individual body burden, biomonitoring was recommended for all people involved. 816 persons took advantage of this opportunity and came for blood sampling to the occupational health department of our company. Regarding the lifespan of erythrocytes up to 3 months, it was possible to analyze hemoglobin adducts of acrylonitrile and ethylene during and after the accident. In case of acrylonitrile the hemoglobin adduct N-(2-cyanoethyl) valine and regarding ethylene, N-(2-hydroxyethyl) valine was determined. As a result, the body burden was in nearly all cases within our internal adduct reference values (CyEtVal<15 ?g/L blood or <612 pmol/g globin; HyEtVal<15 ?g/L blood or 646 pmol/g globin). In about 1% of the cases, the adduct concentrations were slightly above these reference values. This means that the body burden measured by biomonitoring turned out to be far lower than the one expected from the air data. Therefore, following chemical incidents, in case biomonitoring is meaningful, it is highly recommended beside of air monitoring. PMID:24960063

  15. Polymer structure and blood compatibility evaluation - application of an acrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Courtney, J M; Park, G B; Fairweather, I A

    1976-01-01

    An acrylonitrile-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer has been synthesised by a straightforward procedure. The cationic nature of the copolymer permits ready attachement of heparin and reaction of the copolymer with ethylene oxide gas allows a controlled alteration in chemical structure. These featues of the copolymer are discussed with respect to the influence of polymer properties on blood compatibility as exemplified by blood platelet retention. PMID:1021154

  16. Sorption studies on Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution using cellulose grafted with acrylonitrile monomer.

    PubMed

    Hajeeth, T; Sudha, P N; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T

    2014-05-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on to cellulosic material derived from sisal fiber can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The grafting conditions were optimized by changing the concentration of initiator and monomer. The change in crystallinity of the grafted polymeric samples was concluded from the XRD patterns. The prepared cellulose grafted acrylonitrile copolymer was used as an adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the variation in the percentage of adsorption with contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. From the observed results it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of Cr (VI) from the aqueous solution. The results of the Langmuir, Freundlich, and pseudo first- and second-order studies revealed that the adsorption was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm and follows pseudo second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous waste generated from industries. PMID:24560947

  17. Vibrational Energies for Acrylonitrile from Mm-Wave to Thz Rotational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Fortman, Sarah; Neese, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The THz rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile has recently been studied in detail. The coverage of the ground state rotational transitions has been extended up to J=128, K_a=29 and it was found that at very high-J there are multiple manifestations of a perturbation between the ground state and the lowest vibrationally excited state, V11=1. The perturbation has been successfully fitted and the excited state energy determined at 228.29991(2) Cm-1, which turns out to be the largest energy difference between any two neighboring vibrational states of acrylonitrile. Extensive broadband rotational spectra of acrylonitrile have been recorded at JPL and at OSU and provide coverage from the mm-wave region up to well into the THz. The analysis of these spectra performed with the AABS package allowed identification of a ladder of pairwise perturbations extending from the ground state and connecting all successive low lying vibrational states. A global fit of all of the observed effects is expected to deliver accurate energies for the lowest vibrational states from only the rotational spectrum. The progress made towards achieving this goal is described. Z.Kisiel, L.Pszczó?kowski, B.J.Drouin, C.S.Brauer, S.Yu, J.C.Pearson, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 258, 26 (2009). Z.Kisiel, L.Pszczó?kowski, I.R.Medvedev, M.Winewisser, F.C.De Lucia, E.Herbst, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 233, 231 (2005).

  18. Morphological and physical behavior of styrenic, phosphonium-containing ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Rick; Stokes, Kristoffer

    2010-03-01

    Despite many years of effort, a clear understanding of the factors controlling morphology in Nafion and other ionomers has not been achieved. The increasing need for fuel cell technology continues to drive efforts to develop materials having better performance characteristics even though fundamental structure-property relationships remain unclarified. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) present several benefits over proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including cost of manufacture (less expensive catalysts) and a significantly shorter path to commercialization. Here we present the most recent findings from our efforts to examine structure-morphology-property relationships for a series of model cationic ionomers. A series of statistical copolymers of styrene and p-vinylbenzyl-trimethyl-phosphonium chloride have been prepared via RAFT polymerization, allowing us to investigate the effect of ion content on physical behavior. Chemical, physical, and morphological characterization has been undertaken using NMR, TGA, DSC, SAXS, and TEM.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL STYRENE EXPOSURE FOR TWELVE PRODUCT CATEGORIES IN THE REINFORCED-PLASTICS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. The report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry a...

  20. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  1. 21 CFR 573.870 - Poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...specifications: Component/property Limitation Inherent viscosity 1.0-1.6 deciliter per gram.1 Styrene moiety ...Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. 1 Inherent viscosity of a 0.25 percent (weight/volume) solution in...

  2. 21 CFR 573.870 - Poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...specifications: Component/property Limitation Inherent viscosity 1.0-1.6 deciliter per gram.1 Styrene moiety ...Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. 1 Inherent viscosity of a 0.25 percent (weight/volume) solution in...

  3. 21 CFR 573.870 - Poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...specifications: Component/property Limitation Inherent viscosity 1.0-1.6 deciliter per gram.1 Styrene moiety ...Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. 1 Inherent viscosity of a 0.25 percent (weight/volume) solution in...

  4. 21 CFR 573.870 - Poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...specifications: Component/property Limitation Inherent viscosity 1.0-1.6 deciliter per gram.1 Styrene moiety ...Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. 1 Inherent viscosity of a 0.25 percent (weight/volume) solution in...

  5. 21 CFR 573.870 - Poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...specifications: Component/property Limitation Inherent viscosity 1.0-1.6 deciliter per gram.1 Styrene moiety ...Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. 1 Inherent viscosity of a 0.25 percent (weight/volume) solution in...

  6. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-l-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-l-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-l-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  7. Comparative studies on the removal of heavy metals ions onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vijayalakshmi, K; Sudha, P N

    2014-06-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cross linked chitosan was carried out using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The prepared cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was characterized using FT-IR and XRD studies. The adsorption behavior of chromium(VI), copper(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution onto cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was investigated through batch method. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the varying the contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. The results evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase of shaking time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for both Cr(VI) and Cu(II), whereas the optimum pH is 5.5 for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Adsorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Freundlich model. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. From the above results it was concluded that the cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be the efficient adsorbent for removing the heavy metals under optimum conditions. PMID:24680901

  8. Synthesis of Biaryls via Benzylic C-C Bond Cleavage of Styrenes and Benzyl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2015-11-01

    A metal-free oxidative coupling of styrenes and benzyl alcohols with arenes has been developed for the synthesis of biaryls. The reaction features a conspicuous benzylic C-C bond cleavage of styrenes and benzyl alcohols. The reaction with both substrates proceeds through a common aldehydic intermediate formed through oxidative C-C bond cleavage of alkene and oxidation of benzyl alcohols. The reaction proceeds efficiently over a broad range of substrates with excellent functional group tolerance. PMID:26479321

  9. Jet spectroscopy of perylene complexes: Comparisons of TMS, carbon dioxide, ethylene and butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbitt, R. Jefferson; Doxtader, Mark M.; Bhattacharya, Ashish K.; Topp, Michael R.

    1987-05-01

    The fluorescence excitation spectra are reported for van der Waals complexes of perylene with tetramethylsilane (TMS), 1,3-butadiene, ethylene and CO 2. The 1:1 complexes with TMS, ethylene and butadiene have simple spectra, and the spectral red shifts are predictable from solvent-shift theory, while the CO 2 complexes are shown to exhibit anomalously small red shifts and extended low-frequency mode progressions. Dispersed fluorescence of the assigned 1:1 CO 2 complexes is consistent with the excitation spectrum, indicating a substantial difference in the equilibrium conformation of the complex between the two electronic states of the host molecule. Potential energy calculations using a point coulombic charge correction predict a non-center-of-mass geometry for CO 2 complexes, consistently with the observed spectra. Calculations of the binding energies are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data (1250, 1295-1398 and 2300-2580 cm -1 for CO 2, C 2H 4 and C 4H 6, respectively). At the 2:1 complexation level, while butadiene and TMS appear to form the expected trans conformers, the ethylene and CO 2 complexation spectra indicate the presence of guest molecule aggregates. In these cases, guest-guest interactions are evidently competing with the usually dominant process of molecular adsorption onto the host species.

  10. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  11. Transition metal catalyzed polymerization of butadiene in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowsky, S. |; Tumas, W.; Waymouth, R.M.

    1998-08-01

    A class of Ni(II) catalysts has been shown to stereoselectively catalyze the 1,4-polymerization of butadiene. The authors have been investigating the use of supercritical CO{sub 2} as an environmentally benign replacement solvent for conventional hydrocarbon and halocarbon solvents for a variety of chemical transformations. Above 31 C, CO{sub 2} enters a supercritical phase, where its physical properties are both liquid-like and gas-like. Importantly, the solvent properties such as dielectric constant for supercritical fluids can be varied by changing the pressure of the fluid. In this report, the authors present results of an investigation of the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene using [({pi}-allyl) Ni(CF{sub 3}CO{sub 2})]{sub 2} in supercritical CO{sub 2}. They conducted 1,3-butadiene polymerizations in CO{sub 2} to determine whether or not they could systematically and predictably adjust the regiochemistry/stereochemistry of the polybutadiene product by varying the solution properties at different pressures. They also mention experiments with CO catalysts that are known to give 1,2-syndiotactic polybutadiene, and with a Pd catalyst system that is known to copolymerize olefin with CO to give perfectly alternating copolymers.

  12. Characterization of alkyl-cobalamins formed on trapping of epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fred, Charlotta; Haglund, Johanna; Alsberg, Tomas; Rydberg, Per; Minten, Johanna; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2004-05-01

    Analytical methods facilitating studies of electrophilically reactive and genotoxic compounds in vitro and in vivo are needed. The strong nucleophile, cob(I)alamin, formed by reduction of Vitamin B12 [cob(III)alamin], may be used for trapping and analysis of 1,2-epoxides and other electrophiles. In the present study, cob(I)alamin is evaluated as an analytical tool for 1,2-epoxide metabolites (oxiranes) of 1,3-butadiene. Products of reaction of cob(I)alamin with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBdiol) have been analyzed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD). It was shown that a specific alkyl-CbI complex is formed for each metabolite and that it was possible to discriminate between the products by HPLC-UV and by LC-MS. Quantification of DEB with the method by use of another 1,2-epoxide as an internal standard was successfully performed. The possibility of using cob(I)alamin for trapping and analysis of the three oxirane metabolites of 1,3-butadiene will facilitate quantitative comparisons of species in vitro with regard to metabolism of 1,3-butadiene. PMID:15335048

  13. Evidence of delayed light emission of TetraPhenyl Butadiene excited by liquid Argon scintillation light

    E-print Network

    Ettore Segreto

    2015-03-29

    TetraPhenyl Butadiene is the wavelength shifter most widely used in combination with liquid Argon. The latter emits scintillation photons with a wavelength of 127 nm that need to be downshifted to be detected by photomultipliers with glass or quartz windows. TetraPhenyl Butadiene has been demonstrated to have an extremely high conversion efficiency, possibly higher than 100 % for 127 nm photons, while there is no precise information about the time dependence of its emission. It is usually assumed to be exponentially decaying with a characteristic time of the order of one ns, as an extrapolation from measurements with exciting radiation in the near UV. This work shows that TetraPhenyl Butadiene, when excited by 127 nm photons, reemits photons not only with a very short decay time, but also with slower ones due to triplet states de-excitations. This fact can strongly contribute to clarify the anomalies in liquid Argon scintillation light reported in literature since seventies, namely the inconsistency in the measured values of the long decay time constant and the appearance of an intermediate component. Similar effects should be also expected when the TPB is used in combination with Helium and Neon, that emit scintillation photons with wavelengths shorter than 127 nm.

  14. Omsk plans back integration

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-12-02

    Omskhimprom (Omsk), one of Russia's largest producers of polystyrene (PS), is back integrating to styrene and other petrochemicals. As the structure of the chemical industry in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) changes. Omskhimprom will no longer be able to rely on present raw material suppliers Shevchnko in Kazakhstan and Nizhnekamskneftekhim in Taterstan, which have their own development plans. Omskhimprom, recently transformed into a joint stock company and sold to its workers, hopes to complete the back integration in the next five years, says Valeria Voischeva, senior engineer. The company's plants have annual capacities for 100,000 m.t. of high-impact PS, 3,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 30,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 30,000 m.t. of 2-ethyl hexanol, and 24,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride. In the second stage of the development plan, Omskhimprom is studying the feasibility of building a petrochemical complex that would include a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant. The company says that it has natural resources locally, and, because Omsknefteorgsintez, one of the world's largest refineries, is located nearby, it will have no problems in obtaining feedstocks.

  15. Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates.

    PubMed

    Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Meng, Quanxin; McDonald, Jacob D; Scott, Bobby R; Seilkop, Steven K; Claffey, David J; Upton, Patricia B; Powley, Mark W; Swenberg, James A; Henderson, Rogene F

    2009-08-01

    Current risk assessments of 1,3-butadiene (BD*) are complicated by limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Hence, there is a critical need to identify early events and factors that account for the heightened sensitivity of mice to BD-induced carcinogenesis and to deter-mine which animal model, mouse or rat, is the more useful surrogate of potency for predicting health effects in BD-exposed humans. HEI sponsored an earlier investigation of mutagenic responses in mice and rats exposed to BD, or to the racemic mixture of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (BDO) or of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (BDO2; Walker and Meng 2000). In that study, our research team demonstrated (1) that the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene of splenic T cells from BD-exposed mice and rats could be correlated with the species-related differences in cancer susceptibility; (2) that mutagenic-potency and mutagenic-specificity data from mice and rats exposed to BD or its individual epoxy intermediates could provide useful information about the BD metabolites responsible for mutations in each species; and (3) that our novel approach to measuring the mutagenic potency of a given chemical exposure as the change in Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) over time was valuable for estimating species-specific differences in mutagenic responses to BD exposure and for predicting the effect of BD metabolites in each species. To gain additional mode-of-action information that can be used to inform studies of human responses to BD exposure, experiments in the current investigation tested a new set of five hypotheses about species-specific patterns in the mutagenic effects in rodents of exposure to BD and BD metabolites: 1. Repeated BD exposures at low levels that approach the occupational exposure limit for BD workers (set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) are mutagenic in female mice. 2. The differences in mutagenic responses of the Hprt gene to BD in similarly exposed rodents of a given species (reported in various earlier studies) are primarily associated with age-related thymus activity and trafficking of T cells and with sex-related differences in BD metabolism. 3. The mutagenic potency of the stereochemical forms of BD's epoxy intermediates plays a significant role in the species-related mutagenicity of BD. 4. The hydrolysis-detoxification pathway of BD through 1,2-dihydroxy-3-butene (BD-diol) is a major contributor to mutagenicity at high-level BD exposures in mice and rats. 5. Significant and informative species-specific differences in mutation spectra can be identified by examining both large- and small-scale genetic alterations in the Hprt gene of BD-exposed mice and rats. The first four hypotheses were tested by exposing mice and rats to BD, meso-BDO2, or BD-diol and measuring Hprt Mfs as the primary biomarker. For this, we used the T-cell-cloning assay of lymphocytes isolated from the spleens of exposed and control (sham-exposed) mice and rats. The first hypothesis was tested by exposing female B6C3F1 mice (4 to 5 weeks of age) by inhalation for 2 weeks (6 hours/day, 5 days/week) to 0 or 3 ppm BD. Hprt Mfs were measured at the time of peak mutagenic response after exposure for this age of mice. We then compared the resulting data to those from mutagenicity studies with mice of the same age that had been exposed in a similar protocol to higher levels of BD (Walker and Meng 2000). In mice exposed to 3 ppm BD (n = 27), there was a significant 1.6-fold increase over the mean background Hprt Mf in control animals (n = 24, P = 0.004). Calculating the efficiency of Hprt mutant induction, by dividing induced Hprt Mfs by the respective BD exposure levels, demonstrated that the mutagenic potency of 3 ppm BD was twice that of 20 ppm BD and almost 20 times that of 625 or 1250 ppm BD in exposed female mice. Sample-size calculations based on the Hprt Mf data from this experiment demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a future experiment to find out whether induced Mfs at even lower exposure levels (betw

  16. Sensitivity of styrene oxidation reaction to the catalyst structure of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimentão, R. J.; Kirm, I.; Medina, F.; Rodríguez, X.; Cesteros, Y.; Salagre, P.; Sueiras, J. E.; Fierro, J. L. G.

    2005-10-01

    This study shows how different morphologies of silver nanoparticles affect the selective oxidation of styrene in the gas phase using oxygen as oxidant. Silver nanoparticles (nanowires and nanopolyhedra), prepared using the polyol process, were supported on ?-Al 2O 3. For comparison, a conventional catalyst obtained by wet impregnation was also prepared. Phenylacetaldehyde (Phe) and styrene oxide (SO) were the main products for nanoparticles catalysts. The promotion effect on the catalytic activity of potassium and cesium on the silver nanowires catalysts was also studied. At 573 K, the styrene conversion and selectivity to styrene oxide with the silver nanowires catalyst were 57.6 and 42.5%, respectively. Silver nanopolyhedra catalyst showed 57.5% conversion and 30.8% selectivity to styrene oxide. The promotion by cesium played an important role in improving the epoxidation of styrene. The samples were structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) were applied to characterize the oxygen species detected (O ?, O ?) on the silver surface.

  17. Styrene degradation by Pseudomonas sp. SR-5 in biofilters with organic and inorganic packing materials.

    PubMed

    Jang, J H; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

    2004-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. SR-5 was isolated as a styrene-degrading bacterium. In liquid culture containing 1% (v/v) styrene, more than 90% styrene was degraded in 53 h and the doubling time of SR-5 was 2 h. The removal of styrene gas was investigated in biofilters for 31 days using an organic packing material of peat and an inorganic packing material of ceramic inoculated with SR-5. The maximum-styrene-elimination capacities for peat and ceramic packing materials were 236 and 81 g m(-3) h(-1), respectively. The percentage of styrene converted to low molecular weight compounds including CO(2) in the peat and ceramic biofilters during a 10-day operation were estimated to be 90.4 and 36.7%, respectively. As the pressure drop in the peat bioflter at the end of experiment was significantly higher than that in ceramic biofilter, a biofilter using a mixture of peat and ceramic was tested. We determined that the maximum elimination capacity was 170 g m(-3) h(-1) and the production of low molecular weight compounds was 95% at a low pressure drop for this mixed packing material filter. PMID:15138732

  18. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  19. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  20. Process for the recovery and separation of plastics

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Pomykala Jr., Joseph A.

    2003-07-29

    A method of separating a portion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) from a mixture containing ABS and for separating a portion of ABS and polycarbonate (PC) from a mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC is disclosed. The method includes shredding and/or granulating the mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC to provide a selected particle size; sequentially dispersing the shredded mixture of plastics in a series aqueous solutions having different specific gravities and separating the floating fraction until the desired separation is obtained. Surface tension and pH are also variable to be controlled.

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart...Styrene Butadiene Latex. SBRE = Styrene Butadiene Rubber by Emulsion. [76 FR 22594, Apr. 21,...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart...Styrene Butadiene Latex. SBRE = Styrene Butadiene Rubber by Emulsion. [76 FR 22594, Apr. 21,...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart U of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Elastomer Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart...Styrene Butadiene Latex. SBRE = Styrene Butadiene Rubber by Emulsion. [76 FR 22594, Apr. 21,...

  4. (Z)-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri­methoxy­phen­yl)acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H18N2O3, the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile group that links the indole and the 3,4,5-trimeth­oxy­phenyl rings has Z geometry, with dihedral angles between the plane of the acrylonitrile unit and the planes of the benzene and indole ring systems of 21.96?(5) and 38.94?(7)°, respectively. The acrylonitrile group is planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.037?Å). Mol­ecules are linked into head-to-tail chains that propagate along the b-axis direction by bifurcated N—H?O inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, which form an R 1 2(5) motif between the indole NH group and the two meth­oxy O atoms furthest from the nitrile group. PMID:22412611

  5. (Z)-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-methoxy-phen-yl)acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    In the title compound, C(20)H(18)N(2)O(3), the C=C bond of the acrylonitrile group that links the indole and the 3,4,5-trimeth-oxy-phenyl rings has Z geometry, with dihedral angles between the plane of the acrylonitrile unit and the planes of the benzene and indole ring systems of 21.96?(5) and 38.94?(7)°, respectively. The acrylonitrile group is planar (r.m.s. deviation from planarity = 0.037?Å). Mol-ecules are linked into head-to-tail chains that propagate along the b-axis direction by bifurcated N-H?O inter-molecular hydrogen bonds, which form an R(1) (2)(5) motif between the indole NH group and the two meth-oxy O atoms furthest from the nitrile group. PMID:22412611

  6. Ab initio investigation of the passivation effect of the acrylonitrile molecule on the Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanmaz, D.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2014-08-01

    Based on pseudopotentials and the density functional theory, we have investigated the atomic geometry and electronic structure of the acrylonitrile molecule adsorbed on the Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface. By considering different bonding configurations based on reported experimental results, we have investigated several possible geometries. Our total energy results suggest that the acrylonitrile molecule has the minimum energy configuration at the on-top adsorbtion site. The electronic surface properties of the most stable structure have been discussed. Our results show that the adsorption of this molecule fully passivates the Si(001)(2 × 1) surface.

  7. [Carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile and evaluation of approaches to pathogenetic correction of acrylate toxicity and antitumorigenic anthracycline doxorubicin toxicity during chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tarskikh, M M; Shumbasov, M A; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis within the 20-year period showed that approximately 49% of workers who were exposed to widespread industrial poison acrylonitrile subsequently died from malignancy of different localization. The conducted experimental investigations demonstrated that acrylonitrile with the subacute intoxication of animals, the anti-tumor antibiotic doxorubicin, their combination, interwoven tumor and tumor developed against the background the introduction of acrylate and subsequent treatment doxorubicin led to onset of free-radical reactions. These reactions by themselves might stimulate development of malignancy. This fact confirms the need for antioxidant tracking of chemotherapy of tumors in the similar clinical cases. PMID:23819331

  8. (Z)-3-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H17NO4, the double bond of the acrylonitrile group separating the 1-benzofuran moiety from the 3,4,5-trimeth­oxy­phenyl ring has Z geometry. The 1-benzofuran groups are ?–? stacked with inversion-related counterparts such that the furan ring centroid–centroid distance is 3.804?(5)?Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the trimeth­oxy­phenyl ring and the acrylonitrile group is 24.2?(2)°. PMID:22412613

  9. (Z)-3-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    In the title compound, C(20)H(17)NO(4), the double bond of the acrylonitrile group separating the 1-benzofuran moiety from the 3,4,5-trimeth-oxy-phenyl ring has Z geometry. The 1-benzofuran groups are ?-? stacked with inversion-related counterparts such that the furan ring centroid-centroid distance is 3.804?(5)?Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the trimeth-oxy-phenyl ring and the acrylonitrile group is 24.2?(2)°. PMID:22412613

  10. Condensation Reactions between 1,3-Butadiene Radical Cation and Acetylene in the Gas Guy Bouchoux,*, Minh Tho Nguyen, and Jean-Yves Salpin,

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    -cation-initiated reactions present two major advantages: they allow addition between "non- reactive" neutral reactantsCondensation Reactions between 1,3-Butadiene Radical Cation and Acetylene in the Gas Phase Guy experimental and theoretical results concerning the reaction of [1,3-butadiene]+· radical cation, 1

  11. Controlled Release of Imidacloprid from Poly Styrene-Diacetone - Nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Yanzhen; He, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoids insecticide, which is important for the cash crops such as tomato, rape and so on. The conventional formulation does not only increase the loss of pesticide but also leads to environmental pollution. Controlled-release formulations of pesticide are highly desirable not only for attaining the most effective utilization of the pesticide, but also for reducing environmental pollution. Pesticide imidacloprid was incorporated in poly (styrene-diacetone crylamide)-based formulation to obtain controlled release properties, and the imidacloprid nanocontrolled release formulation was characterized by infrared (IR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Factors related to loading efficiency, swelling and release behaviors of the formulation were investigated. It showed that the loading efficiency could reach about 40% (w/w). The values for the diffusion exponent "n" were in the range of 0.31-0.58, which indicated that the release of imidacloprid was diffusion-controlled. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T50, was also calculated for the comparison of formulations in different conditions. The results showed that the formulation with higher temperature and more diacetone crylamide had lower value of T50, which means a quicker release of the active ingredient. This study highlighted some pieces of evidence that improved pesticide incorporation and slower release were linked to potential interactions between the pesticide and the polymer.

  12. Sequential shape-selective adsorption and photocatalytic transformation of acrylonitrile production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunrong; Song, Yonghui; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Yu

    2015-11-15

    Acrylonitrile production wastewater has been widely recognized as one type of refractory organic wastewater because of its complicated composition and low bioavailability. It usually contains plenty of micromolecular nitrile and pyridine, resulting in high chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. In this study, a novel microporous zeolite, CS-Z1, was developed as an adsorbent for rapidly shape-selective adsorption of the micromolecular pollutants from the acrylonitrile production wastewater, and a visible light-driven Ti-?-Bi2O3 photocatalysis was introduced to sequentially treat the residual macromolecular pollutants for complete purification. The adsorption processes by CS-Z1 were mostly achieved within the first 5 min, and the equilibrium was reached quickly after 30 min, where the CODCr, TOC and TN removal efficiencies of the wastewater were as high as 93.5%, 92.2% and 96.8%, respectively, much higher than those by other adsorbents. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiencies of CS-Z1 were barely affected by the variation of pH value and temperature, which was mainly attributed to the shape-selective adsorption mechanism of the CS-Z1 zeolite. The Ti-?-Bi2O3 photocatalysis could remove more than 95% of the residual macromolecular pollutants in the wastewater, where a synergistic mechanism of reduction-oxidation/polymerization was proposed. In a 108 h of CS-Z1 adsorption and Ti-?-Bi2O3 photocatalysis sequential process, the CODCr, TOC and TN concentrations was reduced to below 20, 7 and 5 mg L(-1), respectively, demonstrating the excellent practical potential of the sequential treatment system for acrylonitrile production wastewater. PMID:26331895

  13. Congenital abnormalities and indicators of germinal mutations in the vicinity of an acrylonitrile producing factory.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A E; Hegedüs, S; Tímár, L

    1999-06-30

    The results of an environmental mutation and teratologic epidemiological study are presented which was performed in inhabitants living in the surrounding region of an acrylonitrile factory in Nyergesújfalu. The endpoint of the study was congenital abnormalities in 46,326 infants born to mothers living in the 30 settlements of the study region within a 25 km radius of the acrylonitrile factory between 1980 and 1996. The ascertainment of cases with congenital abnormalities was based on the dataset of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry complemented with the review of pediatric, pathology and cytogenetic records. A particular attention was paid to the indicators of germinal mutations as sentinel anomalies, Down syndrome and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities and the indicators of teratogens as the specific pattern of multiple congenital abnormalities. Three congenital abnormalities: pectus excavatum in Tata, 1990-1992 (OR with 95%CI: 78.5, 8.4-729.6), undescended testis in Nyergesújfalu between 1980 and 1983 (8.6, 1.4-54.3) and in Esztergom, 1981-1982 (4. 2, 1.3-13.5) and clubfoot in Tata, 1980-1981 (5.5, 1.5-20.3) showed significant time-space clusters in the study region. There was a decrease in risk of undescended testis with increasing distance from the acrylonitrile factory. An unusual increase was found in the combination of oral cleft and cardiac septal defects in multimalformed babies in Tatabánya, 1990. The detailed analysis of congenital abnormalities in all settlements of a given territory may help to detect clusters of congenital abnormalities and their possible relation to the environmental hazards. PMID:10393265

  14. A comprehensive review of occupational and general population cancer risk: 1,3-Butadiene exposure-response modeling for all leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, myeloid neoplasm and lymphoid neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco

    2015-11-01

    Excess cancer risks associated with 1,3-butadiene (BD) inhalation exposures are calculated using an extensive data set developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from an epidemiology study of North American workers in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) industry. While the UAB study followed SBR workers, risk calculations can be adapted to estimate both occupational and general population risks. The data from the UAB SBR study offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the association between cumulative exposure to BD and different types of cancer, accounting for the number of tasks involving high-intensity exposures to BD as well as confounding associated with the exposures to the multiple other chemicals in the SBR industry. Quantitative associations of BD exposure and cancer, specifically leukemia, can be further characterized by leukemia type, including potential associations with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the groups of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. Collectively, these multiple evaluations lead to a comprehensive analysis that makes use of all of the available information and is consistent with the risk assessment goals of the USEPA and other regulatory agencies, and in line with the recommendations of the USEPA Science Advisory Board. While a range of cancer risk values can result from these multiple factors, a preferred case for occupational and general population risk is highlighted. Cox proportional hazards models are used to fit exposure-response models to the most recent UAB data. The slope of the model with cumulative BD ppm-years as the predictor variable is not statistically significantly greater than zero for CML, AML, or, when any one of eight exposure covariates is added to the model, for all leukemias combined. The slope for CLL is statistically significantly different from zero. The slope for myeloid neoplasms is not statistically significantly greater than zero while the slope for lymphoid neoplasms is statistically significantly greater than zero. The excess risk for the general population is largest for lymphoid neoplasms. The best estimates of the environmental concentrations (ECs) associated with an excess risk of 1/100,000 by age 70years for lymphoid neoplasms, all leukemias, and CLL are EC(1/100,000)'s equal to 0.06, 0.16 and 0.38ppm, respectively. The best estimates of the occupational BD exposure from 20 to 65years of age associated with an excess risk of 1/10,000 by age 70years for lymphoid neoplasms, all leukemias, and CLL are the EC(1/10,000)'s of 2.7, 7.3 and 15.1ppm, respectively. PMID:26070419

  15. The effect of water absorption on the viscoelastic properties of poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) for use in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittipaldi, Mauro; Rodriguez, Luis A.; Grace, Landon R.

    2015-05-01

    The decrease in glass transition temperature and change in creep compliance due to water diffusion in a biocompatible thermoplastic elastomer was studied and quantified. Knowledge of the mechanical and viscoelastic performance of the styrene-isobutylene-styrene block (SIBS) copolymer is important to determine the feasibility of certain in-vivo applications. Furthermore, the deterioration in these types of properties due to the plasticizing effect of water must be well understood for long term usage. Samples were formed with an injection molding press and fully dried prior to immersion in distilled water at 37°C. Water diffusion kinetics were studied for four different SIBS copolymers of varying molecular weight and styrene content by measuring weight changes as a function of time. These gravimetric diffusion studies showed an inverse relationship between diffusivity and styrene content and molecular weight for the first thousand hours of immersion. Measurements of storage modulus, loss modulus, tangent delta, strain recovery and creep compliance were performed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer for the high molecular weight, high styrene content SIBS version at different absorbed water contents. A measurable and nearly linear decrease of the glass transition temperature and creep recovery with respect to water content was observed for the samples tested even at relatively low water content: an increase in water content of 0.27% correlated to a decrease of 4°C in glass transition temperature while a 0.16% weight increase corresponded to a 12.5% decrease in creep recovery. These quantified material properties restrict the use of SIBS in certain implantable operations that undergo cyclic strains, and in sterilization techniques that require high temperatures. As such, they are important to understand in order to determine the viability of in vivo usage of this biocompatible polymer.

  16. Autodetachment dynamics of acrylonitrile anion revealed by 2D electron impact spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We have measured the elastic and vibrationally inelastic differential cross sections in acrylonitrile at the scattering angle of 135°. We have found out that the bands at 2.9 and 4.4 eV are shape resonances, while sharp structures in the region 0 -0.5 eV are either boomerang structure of a shape resonance or vibrational Feshbach resonances. We gain detailed view of the autodetachment dynamics from a 2D spectrum where cross section is plotted against the incident energy and the energy loss.

  17. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles derived from acrylonitrile plasma for electrochemical oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Saito, Nagahiro; Ishizaki, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles were synthesized via a solution plasma process, with acrylonitrile as a single-source precursor, followed by a post-thermal annealing process. The nitrogen-bonding states can be tuned by varying the annealing temperature. The best electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in terms of both onset potential and limiting current density can be achieved for the catalyst annealed at an optimal temperature of 800 °C because of the high content of graphitic-N catalytic sites and a large specific surface area. PMID:25661238

  18. Migration of styrene monomer from thermoset polyester cookware into foods during high temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Jickells, S M; Gancedo, P; Nerin, C; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1993-01-01

    Migration of styrene from thermoset polyester cookware into foods has been studied during normal cooking applications and for the fatty food simulant olive oil under high temperature test conditions. The analysis of foods was by automated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the selected ion mode. Cyclohexane was added to the slurried foods to improve headspace partition and deuterated-styrene was the internal standard. To achieve adequate sensitivity with olive oil, styrene was extracted and concentrated by a steam distillation method and then determined by GC/MS. Styrene in foods cooked in thermoset polyester articles was in the range < 5 to 5 micrograms/kg and 5 to 30 micrograms/kg where the polyester contained 9 and 380 mg/kg residual monomer respectively. Testing for 2 h at 175 degrees C into olive oil resulted in significantly higher migration of styrene than seen for other foods, although there was a marked decrease in migration on repeat-use. Testing of the complete articles as sealed systems filled with olive oil led to higher migration than testing by total immersion of plaques. Of the test methods used with olive oil, testing as filled articles with no lidding gave migration results closest to (but generally higher than) those seen for real foods. PMID:8224324

  19. Structure and Reaction of Oxametallacycles Derived from Styrene Oxide on Ag(110).

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaski, Adrienne C.; Enever, Michael C.; Barteau, Mark A.

    2007-08-15

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Styrene oxide forms a strongly bound oxametallacycle intermediate via activated adsorption on the Ag(110) surface. The oxametallacycle species derived from styrene oxide on Ag(110) fits well with the family of oxametallacycles identified previously in studies of nonallylic epoxides with unsaturated substituent groups on silver. Temperature-programmed reaction experiments demonstrate that styrene oxide ring opens at the substituted carbon, and Density Functional Theory calculations indicate that the phenyl ring of the resulting oxametallacycle is oriented nearly parallel to the Ag(110) surface. Interaction of the phenyl group with the silver surface stabilizes this intermediate relative to that derived from the mono-olefin epoxide, ethylene oxide. During temperature-programmed reaction, the oxametallacycle undergoes ring-closure to reform styrene oxide and isomerization to phenylacetaldehyde at 505 K on Ag(11 0). Styrene oxide-derived oxametallacycles exhibit similar ring-closure behavior on the Ag(111) surface.

  20. Styrene oxide isomerase of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, a highly stable and considerably active enzyme.

    PubMed

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Gröning, Janosch A D; Tischler, Dirk; Kaschabek, Stefan R; Schlömann, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) is involved in peripheral styrene catabolism of bacteria and converts styrene oxide to phenylacetaldehyde. Here, we report on the identification, enrichment, and biochemical characterization of a novel representative from the actinobacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. The enzyme, which is strongly induced during growth on styrene, was shown to be membrane integrated, and a convenient procedure was developed to highly enrich the protein in active form from the wild-type host. A specific activity of about 370 U mg(-1) represents the highest activity reported for this enzyme class so far. This, in combination with a wide pH and temperature tolerance, the independence from cofactors, and the ability to convert a spectrum of substituted styrene oxides, makes a biocatalytic application imaginable. First, semipreparative conversions were performed from which up to 760 ?mol of the pure phenylacetaldehyde could be obtained from 130 U of enriched SOI. Product concentrations of up to 76 mM were achieved. However, due to the high chemical reactivity of the aldehyde function, SOI was shown to be the subject of an irreversible product inhibition. A half-life of 15 min was determined at a phenylacetaldehyde concentration of about 55 mM, indicating substantial limitations of applicability and the need to modify the process. PMID:22504818