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Sample records for acrylonitrile

  1. Acrylonitrile

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylonitrile ; CASRN 107 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Health Assessment Document for Acrylonitrile (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute acrylonitrile intoxication in humans, like many volatile organic compounds, results in irritation of the eyes and nose, weakness, labored breathing, dizziness, impaired judgement, cyanosis, nausea, and convulsions. Unlike many of these other organics, acrylonitrile causes s...

  3. ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

  4. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE (REVISED DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile is readily absorbed in animals following ingestion or inhalation, while dermal absorption is poor (1%) compared to that of the lungs. Acrylonitrile is metabolized to cyanide, which is transformed to thiocyanic acid and by cyanoethylation of sulfhydryl groups to S-(2...

  5. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22 Acrylonitrile copolymers. Acrylonitrile copolymers may be... uses subject to the denial are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently unlawful. (3)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.505 - Halogenated acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.505 Halogenated acrylonitrile. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated acrylonitrile, (PMN P-90-299)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.505 - Halogenated acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.505 Halogenated acrylonitrile. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated acrylonitrile, (PMN P-90-299)...

  8. Ion-Molecule Association in Acrylonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Paul F.; Milligan, Daniel B.; McEwan, Murray J.

    1997-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (propernenitrile or vinyl cyanide) polymerizes readily via a radical mechanism in solution at room temparature. The propensity to polymerize is sufficiently strong that it is usual to add a radical scavenger to the solution to prevent polymerization when oxygen (an inhibitor) is removed. Polymerization of acrylonitrile is also know to occur via nucleophilic addition of an anion by a michael-type reaction.

  9. Lowest Vibrational States of Acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of the broadband rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile, H_2C=CHC≡N, revealed the presence of multiple resonances between rotational levels in different vibrational states. The resonances affect even the ground state transitions and their analysis allowed determination of vibrational term values for the first three excited states above the ground state and of vibrational energy differences in several polyads above these states. At that time there was no infrared data of sufficient resolution to assess the reliability of the resonance based vibrational energy determinations. We presently report results based on a 40-700 cm-1 high-resolution spectrum of acrylonitrile recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. This spectrum was reduced by using the AABS packagea, and allowed assignment of vibration-rotation transitions in four fundamentals, five hot bands, and one overtone band. The infrared data and previous measurements made with microwave techniques have been combined into a single global fit encompassing over 31000 measured transitions. Precise vibrational term values have been determined for the eight lowest excited vibrational states. The new results validate the previous estimates from rotational perturbations and are also compared with results of ab~initio anharmonic force field calculations. Z. Kisiel, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 134 (2012). A. López, et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 572, A44 Z. Kisiel, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233 231 (2005).

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylonitrile was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous con...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    [UPDATE] New Schedule for IRIS Acrylonitrile Assessment

    In May 2012, EPA developed a new schedule for completing the IRIS acrylonitrile assessment. Acrylonitrile is primarily used in the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic fibers, plastics, and nitrile rubbers. It ...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylonitrile. 1915.1045 Section 1915.1045 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  13. 40 CFR 721.505 - Halogenated acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated acrylonitrile, (PMN P-90-299) is... specified in § 721.125 (a) through (h). (2) Limitations or revocation of certain notification requirements... Section 721.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  14. 40 CFR 721.505 - Halogenated acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated acrylonitrile, (PMN P-90-299) is... specified in § 721.125 (a) through (h). (2) Limitations or revocation of certain notification requirements... Section 721.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...

  15. Denitrification with acrylonitrile as a substrate using pure bacteria cultures isolated from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Lee, C M

    2001-04-01

    This study attempted to isolate and identify the denitrifying bacteria that utilize acrylonitrile as a substrate from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin wastewater. The performance of the denitrifying bacteria for treating different initial acrylonitrile concentrations was also investigated under anoxic conditions. The results showed that seven strains of denitrifying bacteria that can use acrylonitrile or acrylic acid as a substrate were isolated from the denitrification tank of a wastewater treatment plant in a ABS resin manufacturing plant and a lab-scale anoxic granular activated carbon-fluidized bed. The bacteria strains Acidovorax facilis B and Pseudomonas nautica could utilize acrylonitrile up to 279 mg/l as a substrate for denitrification. For complete nitrate removal, an adequate supply of acrylonitrile was necessary. Under the assumption that the acrylic acid would be completely removed, the removal of 1 mg/l nitrate by A. facilis B or P. nautica, about 0.64-0.74 mg/l acrylonitrile or 0.87-1 mg/l acrylic acid was needed. Because strains A. facilis B and P. nautica could utilize acrylonitrile for denitrification, they are expected to play an important role in the treatment of acrylonitrile in the wastewater treatment plant (denitrification and nitrification processes) and lab-scale granular activated carbon-fluidized bed. PMID:11341291

  16. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a)...

  17. ABSORPTION OF CO2 IN HIGH ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT COPOLYMERS: DEPENDENCE ON ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT. (R829555)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In continuation of our goal to determine the ability of CO2 to plasticize acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers and facilitate melt processing at temperatures below the onset of thermal degradation, a systematic study has been performed to determine the influence of AN cont...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1020 Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile... by weight of a matrix polymer containing 73 to 78 parts by weight of acrylonitrile and 22 to 27...

  19. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    PubMed

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves. PMID:11775358

  20. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Krichevskaya, Marina; Jõks, Svetlana; Kachina, Anna; Preis, Sergei

    2009-05-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of acrylonitrile (AN) on titanium dioxide in the gaseous phase was studied. AN readily undergoes photocatalytic degradation in a gas-solid system by using TiO(2) Degussa P25. The AN PCO volatile products, visible in the infrared spectra, included nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide. Longer contact time resulted in deeper oxidation of AN with decreasing hydrogen cyanide and increasing nitrogen dioxide content. The effect of temperature increasing from 60 to 130 degrees C was observed to be slightly negative in terms of AN degradation rate. However, the effect of increased temperature was noticeable in terms of the character and yields of the PCO products: HCN peaks diminished with growing peaks of NO(2). PMID:19424531

  1. Acrylonitrile characterization and high energetic photochemistry at Titan temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.; Couturier-Tamburelli, I.

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline acrylonitrile (C2H3CN) ices were recorded between 4000 and 650 cm-1. Heating up the acrylonitrile sample to 160 K shows details on the transition between amorphous and crystalline ice at ∼94 K. This molecule can be used as an indicator of the surface temperature of Titan since it is known also to be ∼94 K. The desorption energy of acrylonitrile was determined using two methods (IRTF and mass spectrometries) to be around 35 kJ mol-1. Solid phase acrylonitrile was irradiated with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light at low temperatures (20, 70, 95 and 130 K) using a microwave-discharge hydrogen flow lamp. Isoacrylonitrile, cyanoacetylene (HC3N), isocyanoacetylene (HC2NC), acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were identified as photoproducts by using FTIR spectroscopy. The branching ratio of each pathway has been calculated for the different temperatures. We have estimated the acrylonitrile, HCN and HC3N νCtbnd N stretching band strengths to be respectively A = 3.98 ×10-18 , A = 1.38 ×10-18 and A = 2.92 ×10-18cmmolecule-1 .

  2. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... temperature for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity at 25 °C (77 °F) is 10cP. 1 3. Acrylonitrile/styrene... average molecular weight, and solution viscosity, titled: “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and... Weights of Acrylonitrile/Styrene Copolymers,” and “Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of...

  3. Radiation grafting of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, S.

    1999-06-01

    Radiation induced graft polymerization is one of the best methods for obtaining material with new properties. In this work, radiation grafting of styrene, mixture of styrene and acrylonitrile to cellulose and polyethylene in the presence of methanol as a solvent by mutual method is discussed. At a low dose rate, high grafting yields were obtained from the two systems used, due to lesser termination of free radicals with the polymer growing radicals and recombination of primary radicals, resulting in a longer chain length of the grafted copolymer. In the system of styrene and acrylonitrile, comonomer technique was used and the styrene controlled the homopolymer formation during graft polymerization. Water uptake of cellulose decreased by increasing the grafting yields. Grafted cellulose can be molded to some extent and in a high percent of grafting, a new transparent material was obtained. By radiation grafting of styrene-acrylonitrile to low density polyethylene a high degree of crosslinking was observed.

  4. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned...

  5. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer blended with vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate (optional at level up to 5 percent by weight of the vinyl chloride resin) resin—for use only in contact with oleomargarine. (iv... with polyvinyl chloride resins—for use only on paper and paperboard in contact with meats and lard....

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR ACRYLONITRILE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile (AN) has been identified as a suspected carcinogen and may be regulated in the future as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. A method was validated that utilizes a midget impinger containing methanol for trapping AN vapors followed by a...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  8. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.32...

  9. Testosterone in sera of workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Ivănescu, M; Berinde, M; Simionescu, L

    1990-01-01

    Testosterone was measured through three consecutive years in sera from young and adult male subjects working in a chemical factory exposed to some complex chemical noxae, the major exposure being acrylonitrile (vinylcyanid). In the first yr, (group A), the blood was collected on May 1975 (no 39), the II-nd yr (group B) on March (no 109) and the III-rd yr (group C) on May (no 149). The exposure time varied in each group between 6 mos and 7-10 yrs. For comparison, blood samples were collected from 145 men of comparable age grouped in nonexposed: blood donors (no 37) (group a), new workers (no 23) (group b) and exposed to other chemical noxae in the same factory: Na cyanid (group c, no 23), cyan derivatives (group d, no 22) and pyrolysis (group no 39). The seasonal testosterone variations being considered, the Student's 't' test applied to the hormonal levels in acrylonitrile groups A, B and C showed non significant differences. However, the comparison of the testosterone concentrations in sera of the groups A, B and C vs the control groups investigated during the same month of the year showed much lower levels of the hormone in the first groups (p less than 0.001). These data are suggesting that the exposure to acrylonitrile either by direct participation to the technological chain or by working in the same noxious environment may influence the testosterone synthesis and/or secretion. PMID:2103974

  10. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may be... of: (1) Eighty-four to eighty-nine parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 73 to 78 parts...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may be... of: (1) Eighty-four to eighty-nine parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 73 to 78 parts...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  14. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchilla, Diana Kilheeney, Heather Vitello, Lidia B. Erman, James E.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) binds acrylonitrile in a pH-independent fashion. •The spectrum of the CcP/acrylonitrile complex is that of a 6c–ls ferric heme. •The acrylonitrile/CcP complex has a K{sub D} value of 1.1 ± 0.2 M. •CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover rate of 0.61 min{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 0.34 ± 0.15 s{sup −1}, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min{sup −1} at pH 6.0.

  15. Vibrations of acrylonitrile in N 1s excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilakovac, V.; Carniato, S.; Gallet, J.-J.; Kukk, E.; Horvatić, D.; Ilakovac, A.

    2008-01-01

    The N 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of acrylonitrile gas are accurately reproduced by a complete ab initio multidimensional vibrational analysis. The role of π∗ -orbital localization and hybridization on vibrations accompanying core excitation is discussed. Transition to the π⊥∗(C=C-C≡N) delocalized orbital excites mostly stretching vibrations of the whole spinal column of the molecule. Promoting a core electron to the localized π∥∗(C≡N) produces C≡N stretching vibration combined with two strong bending modes of the C-C≡N end of the molecule, related to the change of carbon hybridization.

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B; Erman, James E

    2014-01-01

    Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32±0.16 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.34±0.15 s(-1), respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1±0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a "peroxygenase"-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min(-1) at pH 6.0. PMID:24291498

  17. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, Diana; Kilheeney, Heather; Vitello, Lidia B.; Erman, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M−1s−1 and 0.34 ± 0.15 s−1, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min−1 at pH 6.0. PMID:24291498

  18. Radical-initiated controlled synthesis of homo- and copolymers based on acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, D. F.; Grishin, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    Data on the controlled synthesis of polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile copolymers with other (meth)acrylic and vinyl monomers upon radical initiation and metal complex catalysis are analyzed. Primary attention is given to the use of metal complexes for the synthesis of acrylonitrile-based (co)polymers with defined molecular weight and polydispersity in living mode by atom transfer radical polymerization. The prospects for using known methods of controlled synthesis of macromolecules for the preparation of acrylonitrile homo- and copolymers as carbon fibre precursors are estimated. The major array of published data analyzed in the review refers to the last decade. The bibliography includes 175 references.

  19. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K.; Walker, Douglas I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis conditions resulted in an ion-exchange capacity of 2.39 meq/g. Ion-exchange fibers were used in a packed-bed column to selectively remove heavy-metal cation from the background of a benign, competing cation at a much higher concentration. The material can be efficiently regenerated and used for multiple cycles of exhaustion and regeneration. PMID:24963270

  20. Photolysis of astrophysically relevant acrylonitrile: a matrix experimental study.

    PubMed

    Toumi, A; Couturier-Tamburelli, I; Chiavassa, T; Piétri, N

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the photochemical study of H2C ═ C(H)CN (acrylonitrile) trapped in low-temperature argon matrices and irradiated with a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (λ > 120 nm). We succeeded in identifying H2C ═ C(H)NC (isoacrylonitrile) as a photoproduct. HC3N (cyanoacetylene), C2H2:HCN (acetylene:hydrogen cyanide), and C2H2:HNC (acetylene:hydrogen isocyanide) complexes, which are molecules detected in molecular clouds or in the Titan atmosphere, were also identified. No imine product was observed, but other compounds coming from the HC3N photolysis have been found. Fourier transform infrared measurements and (2)H substitution experiments coupled with density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/6-31G**) were performed to confirm the spectral assignments of the photochemical products and intermediate species. PMID:24621153

  1. The Rotational Spectrum of Acrylonitrile to 1.67 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    Acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) is an astrophysical molecule of sufficient abundance for detection of its ^{13}C isotopologues. In fact this molecule has been identified as one of the 'weed' species, that will contribute a plethora of lines in broadband submillimetre spectra from the new tools of radioastronomy, such as the Herschel Space Observatory or ALMA. We presently report the first stage in extending the knowledge of the rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile well into the THz region. The spectrum was recorded with the jpl cascaded harmonic multiplication instrument in the form of several broadband segments covering 390-540, 818-930, 967-1160, and 1576-1669 GHz. The analysis of the ground state spectrum has been extended up to J=128, K_a=29, and a combined data set of over 3000 fitted lines. It is found that transitions in all measurable vibrational states, inclusive of the ground state, show evidence of perturbations with other states. Several different perturbations between the ground state and v_{11}=1 at 228 cm^{-1} were identified and have been successfully fitted, resulting in E_{11}=228.29994(3) cm^{-1}, to compare with a direct far-infrared value of 228.83(18) cm^{-1}. H.S.P.Müller et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251, 319-325 (2008). B.J.Drouin, F.W.Maiwald, J.C.Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 093113-1-10 (2005). A.R.H.Cole, A.A.Green, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 48, 246-253 (1973).

  2. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  3. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R

    2002-07-01

    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in the top dose (20 mg/kg) group of male and female mice relative to controls. The incidence of forestomach papillomas and carcinomas was increased in mice of both sexes in association with an increase in forestomach epithelial hyperplasia. The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas and carcinomas was also markedly increased in the acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6

  4. An experimental Raman and theoretical DFT study on the self-association of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Alía, Jose M; Edwards, Howell G M; Fawcett, W Ronald; Smagala, Thomas G

    2007-02-01

    The liquid structure of acrylonitrile (propenenitrile) has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) ab initio calculations with the 6-311++G** basis set. Two different and complementary experimental approaches were undertaken: FT-Raman spectra of 13 acrylonitrile solutions in carbon tetrachloride (concentration range=0.25-12.0 mol.L-1) were studied in detail including principal component analysis (PCA) of the CN stretching band. Furthermore, dispersive Raman spectra of neat acrylonitrile were obtained at eight different temperatures from 238 up to 343 K. The complex and asymmetric acrylonitrile Raman CN stretching band can be decomposed into two components attributed to monomeric and self-associated forms. Ab initio results fully support this assignment and suggest that the self-associated complex is a nonplanar trimer held together by dipole-dipole interactions. At ambient temperature, the composition of acrylonitrile can be expressed as a mixture of 25% monomers and 75% trimers. Close to the boiling point, trimers still represent 65% of the liquid composition. The corresponding enthalpy of association was estimated to be -22+/-2 kJ.mol-1. PMID:17266219

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  6. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  7. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer. 177.1030 Section 177.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deionized water or reagent grade n-heptane at reflux temperature for 2 h.1 Minimum 10 pct solution viscosity... viscosity, titled: “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and Styrene Monomers-Gas Chromatographic... Copolymers,” and “Analytical Method for 10% Solution Viscosity of Tyril,” which are incorproated by...

  9. ABSORPTION OF CO2 AND SUBSEQUENT VISCOSITY REDUCTION OF AN ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. (R829555)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers (AN content greater than about 85 mol%) are traditionally solution processed to avoid a cyclization and crosslinking reaction that takes place at temperatures where melt processing would be feasible. It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO

  10. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer. 177.1040 Section 177.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  11. Development of a conductimetric biosensor using immobilised Rhodococcus ruber whole cells for the detection and quantification of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Roach, P C J; Ramsden, D K; Hughes, J; Williams, P

    2003-10-30

    A conductimetric biosensor for the detection of acrylonitrile in solution was designed and characterised using whole cells of Rhodococcus ruber NCIMB 40757, which were immobilised into a disc of dimethyl silicone sponge (ImmobaSil). The biosensor described was capable of the detection and quantification of acrylonitrile in aqueous solution, having a linear response to concentrations between 2 and 50 mM (106-2650 ppm) acrylonitrile. The biosensor has been shown to be reproducible with respect to the data obtained over a number of days, and retains stability for a minimum period of at least 5 days before recalibration of the biosensor is required. PMID:14559001

  12. Controlled polymerization of acrylonitrile proceeded along with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillator by changing its stirring conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furue, Yuuka; Okano, Kunihiko; Banno, Taisuke; Asakura, Kouichi

    2016-02-01

    Chemical oscillations of the manganese-ion catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction system were found to be controlled by changing its stirring conditions. The oscillation stopped at a high stirring rate, while it reappeared immediately by reducing the stirring rate. It is known in the BZ reaction system, that the radical polymerization takes place along with the oscillation when acrylic monomers are added. By the addition of acrylonitrile to the system stirred at a high stirring rate, the oscillation as well as the polymerization of acrylonitrile stopped. The radical polymerization of acrylonitrile by the BZ oscillator is thus found to be made controllable by changing the mixing conditions.

  13. Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed room temperature quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manne, J.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the use of a pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser centered at 957 cm-1 in combination with an astigmatic Herriot cell with 250 m path length for the detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile. These molecules have been identified as hazardous air-pollutants because of their adverse health effects. The spectrometer utilizes the intra-pulse method, where a linear frequency down-chirp, that is induced when a top-hat current pulse is applied to the laser, is used for sweeping across the absorption line. Up to 450 ns long pulses were used for these measurements which resulted in a spectral window of ~2.2 cm-1. A room temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector was used, resulting in a completely cryogen free spectrometer. We demonstrated detection limits of ~3 ppb for acrylonitrile and ~6 ppb for acrolein with ~10 s averaging time. Laser characterization and optimization of the operational parameters for sensitivity improvement are discussed.

  14. Pathogenesis of neurotoxicity of acrylates acrylonitrile and acrylamide: from cell to organism.

    PubMed

    Tarskikh, M M; Klimatskaya, L G; Kolesnikov, S I

    2013-08-01

    The incubation of 10 mM acrylamide (in vitro) with rat brain homogenate was followed by a decrease in catalase activity by 48% as soon as 5 min after addition of acrylate to the incubation medium. Activity of this enzyme remained low 30 min after the start of the experiment. Acute poisoning with this acrylate was accompanied by LPO activation in rat brain 24 h after injection. Exposure to acrylonitrile during occupational contacts with this monomer was followed by accumulation of adducts of acrylate with erythrocytic hemoglobin in human blood. In accordance with previously observed data, modern scheme of neurotropic effects of acrylonitrile and acrylamide was proposed. This scheme explained specific features of clinical syndromes induced by acute and chronic exposure to these toxic agents. PMID:24143365

  15. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulphide nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Nihmath, A.; Francis, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Rubber composite based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with nano zinc sulphide (ZnS) have been prepared via vulcanization process and characterized by several techniques. Processing characteristics such as scorch time, optimum cure time decreases with increase in concentration of nano filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength increases with increase in concentration of nano filler up to 7 phr of loading thereafter the value decreases, whereas hardness, and flame resistance increases with the dosage of fillers. These enhanced properties are due to the homogenous dispersion of nano fillers in NBR matrix, which is evidenced from the structure that evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  17. Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    [14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks. PMID:16345541

  18. Comparative studies on the removal of heavy metals ions onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vijayalakshmi, K; Sudha, P N

    2014-06-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cross linked chitosan was carried out using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The prepared cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was characterized using FT-IR and XRD studies. The adsorption behavior of chromium(VI), copper(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution onto cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was investigated through batch method. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the varying the contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. The results evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase of shaking time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for both Cr(VI) and Cu(II), whereas the optimum pH is 5.5 for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Adsorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Freundlich model. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. From the above results it was concluded that the cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be the efficient adsorbent for removing the heavy metals under optimum conditions. PMID:24680901

  19. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers. PMID:26022280

  20. Mechanism of Selective Ammoxidation of Propene to Acrylonitrile on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pudar, Sanja; Oxgaard, Jonas; Goddard, William A

    2010-08-25

    In order to understand the mechanism for selective ammoxidation of propene to acrylonitrile by bismuth molybdates, we report quantum mechanical studies (using the B3LYP flavor of density functional theory) for the various steps involved in converting the allyl-activated intermediate to acrylonitrile over molybdenum oxide (using a Mo3O9 cluster model) under conditions adjusted to describe both high and low partial pressures of NH3 in the feed. We find that the rate-determining step in converting of allyl to acrylonitrile at all feed partial pressures is the second hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen-bound allyl intermediate (Mo-NH-CH2-CH=CH2) to form Mo-NH=CH-CH=CH2). We find that imido groups (Mo=NH) have two roles: (1) a direct effect on H abstraction barriers, H abstraction by an imido moiety is (~8 kcal/mol) more favorable than abstraction by an oxo moiety (Mo=O), and (2) an indirect effect, the presence of spectator imido groups decreases the H abstraction barriers by an additional ~15 kcal/mol. Therefore, at higher NH3 pressures (which increases the number of Mo=NH groups), the second H abstraction barrier decreases significantly, in agreement with experimental observations that propene conversion is higher at higher partial pressures of NH3. At high NH3 pressures we find that the final hydrogen abstraction has a high barrier [ΔHfourth-ab = 31.6 kcal/mol compared to ΔHsecond-ab = 16.4 kcal/mol] due to formation of low Mo oxidation states in the final state. However, we find that reoxidizing the surface prior to the last hydrogen abstraction leads to a significant reduction of this barrier to ΔHfourth-ab = 15.9 kcal/mol, so that this step is no longer rate determining. Therefore, we conclude that reoxidation during the reaction is necessary for facile conversion of allyl to

  1. Detection of hydrogen dissolved in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shin; Fujiwara, Hirotada

    2012-01-01

    Rubber materials, which are used for hydrogen gas seal, can dissolve hydrogen during exposure in high-pressure hydrogen gas. Dissolved hydrogen molecules were detected by solid state 1H NMR of the unfilled vulcanized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Two signals were observed at 4.5 ppm and 4.8 ppm, which were assignable to dissolved hydrogen, in the 1H NMR spectrum of NBR after being exposed 100 MPa hydrogen gas for 24 h at room temperature. These signals were shifted from that of gaseous hydrogen molecules. Assignment of the signals was confirmed by quantitative estimation of dissolved hydrogen and peak area of the signals.

  2. Discovery and optimization of sulfonyl acrylonitriles as selective, covalent inhibitors of protein phosphatase methylesterase-1.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Zuhl, Andrea M; Speers, Anna E; Wolfe, Monique R; Weerapana, Eranthie; Brown, Steven J; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2011-07-28

    The serine hydrolase protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) regulates the methylesterification state of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and has been implicated in cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported a fluorescence polarization-activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) high-throughput screen for PME-1 that uncovered a remarkably potent and selective class of aza-β-lactam (ABL) PME-1 inhibitors. Here, we describe a distinct set of sulfonyl acrylonitrile inhibitors that also emerged from this screen. The optimized compound, 28 (AMZ30), selectively inactivates PME-1 and reduces the demethylated form of PP2A in living cells. Considering that 28 is structurally unrelated to ABL inhibitors of PME-1, these agents, together, provide a valuable set of pharmacological probes to study the role of methylation in regulating PP2A function. We furthermore observed that several serine hydrolases were sensitive to analogues of 28, suggesting that more extensive structural exploration of the sulfonyl acrylonitrile chemotype may result in useful inhibitors for other members of this large enzyme class. PMID:21639134

  3. Discovery and Optimization of Sulfonyl Acrylonitriles as Selective, Covalent Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase Methylesterase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Zuhl, Andrea M.; Speers, Anna E.; Wolfe, Monique R.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Brown, Steven J.; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    The serine hydrolase protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) regulates the methylesterification state of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and has been implicated in cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported a fluorescence polarization-activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) high-throughput screen for PME-1 that uncovered a remarkably potent and selective class of aza-β-lactam (ABL) PME-1 inhibitors. Here, we describe a distinct set of sulfonyl acrylonitrile inhibitors that also emerged from this screen. The optimized compound, 28 (AMZ30), selectively inactivates PME-1 and reduces the demethylated form of PP2A in living cells. Considering that 28 is structurally unrelated to ABL inhibitors of PME-1, these agents, together, provide a valuable set of pharmacological probes to study the role of methylation in regulating PP2A function. We furthermore observed that several serine hydrolases were sensitive to analogs of 28, suggesting that more extensive structural exploration of the sulfonyl acrylonitrile chemotype may result in useful inhibitors for other members of this large enzyme class. PMID:21639134

  4. Two-dimensional spectra of electron collisions with acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile reveal nuclear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Regeta, K. Allan, M.

    2015-05-14

    Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π{sup ∗} orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer. 177.1050 Section 177.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer. 177.1050 Section 177.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer. 177.1050 Section 177.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  8. SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE AND CHROMOSOME ABERRATION ANALYSES IN MICE AFTER IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO ACRYLONITRILE, STYRENE, OR BUTADIENE MONOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of polymers in plastic and rubber products has generated concern that monomers potentially active in biological systems may be eluted from these substances. The authors have evaluated two such monomers, acrylonitrile and styrene, for the induction of chromosome damage in ...

  9. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  10. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 degrees C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O(2) concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 degrees C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 degrees C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper. PMID:19231072

  11. Studies of plastic crystal gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, D.; Zainuddin, Z.; Supa'at, I.; Osman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we have prepared systems of poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (PVdC-co-AN) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which are single plasticized-GPEs and double plasticized-GPEs. Both systems comprised plastic crystal succinonitrile SN to form plastic crystal gel polymer electrolyte (PGPE) films. The ionic conductivity of the PGPE films were analysed by means of a.c. impedance spectroscopy at room temperature as well as at the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K. The temperature dependence ionic conductivity was found to obey the VTF rule. To study the interactions among the constituents in the PGPEs, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out and hence, the complexation between them has also been confirmed.

  12. Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Poly(acrylonitrile-co-methacrylonitrile) Microcapsules Dispersed in a Silicone Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Taigyoo; OBrien, Emmett; Lizotte, Jeremy R.; Glass, Thomas E.; Ward, Thomas C.; Long, Timothy E.; Leo, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric relaxation behavior of poly(acrylonitrile-co-methacrylonitrile) dispersed in a cured polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix as microcapsules was investigated over multiple thermal cycles and at varying concentrations. The copolymer microcapsules contained an isopentane core. In the PDMS matrix this copolymer displayed a pronounced relaxation signal at temperatures above the glass transition of the copolymers due to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation. The mechanism of MWS relaxation interpreted by the Havriliak-Negami and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation functions was found to be very similar to previous studies of neat polyacrylonitrile and its copolymer. The activation energy of the relaxation decreased over successive thermal cycling coincident with a decreasing strength of the relaxation. These observations were attributed to the decreasing concentration of nitrile groups due to intramolecular cyclizations.

  13. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  14. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  15. (E)-3-Anilino-2-benzoyl-3-(methyl­sulfan­yl)acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    In the title acrylonitrile derivative, C17H14N2OS, the central amino­acryl­aldehyde O=C—C=C—NH unit, wherein an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif, is approximately planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0234 (2) Å for the five non-H atoms. This plane makes dihedral angles of 41.04 (9) and 84.86 (10)° with the two phenyl rings. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 54.82 (10)°. An intra­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bond is also present. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.8526 (14) Å, are observed. PMID:22606198

  16. Synthesis and flocculation properties of gum ghatti and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) based biodegradable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Hemant; Jindal, Rajeev; Kaith, Balbir Singh; Maity, Arjun; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-12-19

    This article reports the development of biodegradable flocculants based on graft co-polymers of gum ghatti (Gg) and a mixture of acrylamide and acrylonitrile co-monomers (AAm-co-AN). The hydrogel polymer exhibited an excellent swelling capacity of 921% in neutral medium at 60°C. The polymer was used to remove saline water from various petroleum fraction-saline water emulsions. The flocculation characteristics of the hydrogel polymer were studied in turbid kaolin solution as a function of the amount of polymer and the solution temperature and pH. Biodegradation studies of hydrogel polymer were conducted using the soil composting method, and the degradation process was constantly monitored using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The results demonstrated an 89.47% degradation of the polymer after 60 days. Finally, the hydrogel polymer adsorbed 98% of cationic dyes from the aqueous solutions. PMID:25263897

  17. Chemical characterization of CTBN (carboxyl-terminated butadiene/acrylonitrile) and its epoxy adduct

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of carbonxyl-terminated butadiene (CTB), carboxyl-terminated butadiene/acrylonitrile (CTBN), and a CTBN adduct prepared by reaction with Epon 828. Data from gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and ion chromatography are presented and discussed. Quantitative methods based on carbon-13 and proton NMR for analyzing CTBN are described. Proton NMR was found to be useful in identifying lots that have an abnormal amount of CTBN protons. One such lot exhibited a phase separation of a polybutadiene impurity. Carbon-13 NMR was found to be capable of determining nitrile content directly. Carbon-13 NMR had a relative standard deviation of 8.3% and a proton NMR of 3.9%. Proton NMR was found to be useful in identifying lots that have 5% more CTBN protons than other lots. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

  19. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry of acrylonitrile-cellulose graft copolymer prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization in presence of styrene as homopolymer suppressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Sayed M.; Dessouki, Ahmad M.; Nizam El-Din, Horia M.

    2001-05-01

    Graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic filter paper competing with the homopolymerization by mutual irradiation technique was studied in the presence of homopolymer suppressors. Addition of FeCl 3 decreased both homopolymerization and graft polymerization, whereas inclusion of a low ratio of styrene monomer with acrylonitrile leads to successful grafting of acrylonitrile with little homopolymer formation. Chemical structure and thermal behavior of the produced graft copolymers were investigated by gradual heating in the solid probe of a mass spectrometer equipped with a GCMS data system. The resulting total ion current (TIC) showed that the degradation of graft copolymers follows two-step pyrolysis. The presence of a low ratio of styrene comonomer increased thermal stability of the prepared acrylonitrile-cellulose graft copolymer. The pyrolysis products have mass spectra characteristic of the copolymer composition; they contain the repeating unit of the oligomers. Total ion current and spectrum subtractions were used to separate and measure spectra of graft copolymers at distinctly different temperatures.

  20. Perinatal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Styrene –Acrylonitrile Trimer, A Ground Water Contaminant

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Mamta; Elmore, Susan A.; Malarkey, David E.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Gerken, Diane K.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site’s ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant. PMID:24060431

  1. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T.

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1 to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  2. Covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto new modified acrylonitrile copolymer/silica gel hybrid supports.

    PubMed

    Godjevargova, Tzonka; Nenkova, Ruska; Dimova, Nedyalka

    2005-08-12

    New polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were prepared by coating high surface area of silica gel with modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The concentrations of the modifying agent (NaOH) and the modified polymer were varied. GOD was covalently immobilized on these hybrid supports and the relative activity and the amount of bound protein were determined. The highest relative activity and sufficient amount of bound protein of the immobilized GOD were achieved in 10% NaOH and 2% solution of modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The influence of glutaraldehyde concentration and the storage time on enzyme efficiency were examined. Glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5% is optimal for the immobilized GOD. It was shown that the covalently bound enzyme (using 0.5% glutaraldehyde) had higher relative activity than the activity of the adsorbed enzyme. Covalently immobilized GOD with 0.5% glutaraldehyde was more stable for four months in comparison with the one immobilized on pure silica gel, hybrid support with 10% glutaraldehyde and the free enzyme. The effect of the pore size on the enzyme efficiency was studied on four types of silica gel with different pore size. Silica with large pores (CPC-Silica carrier, 375 A) presented higher relative activity than those with smaller pore size (Silica gel with 4, 40 and 100 A). The amount of bound protein was also reduced with decreasing the pore size. The effect of particle size was studied and it was found out that the smaller the particle size was, the greater the activity and the amount of immobilized enzyme were. The obtained results proved that these new polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were suitable for GOD immobilization. PMID:16080168

  3. Enhanced photorefractive performance in CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiangping; Embden, Joel van; Chon, James W. M.; Gu Min; Evans, Richard A.

    2010-06-21

    This paper reports on the enhanced photorefractive behavior of a CdSe quantum-dot-dispersed less expensive polymer of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The capability of CdSe quantum dots used as photosensitizers and the associated photorefractive performance are characterized through a photocurrent experiment and a two-beam coupling experiment, respectively. An enhanced two-beam coupling gain coefficient of 12.2 cm{sup -1} at 46 V/mum was observed owning to the reduced potential barrier. The photorefractive performance per CdSe quantum dot is three orders of magnitude higher than that in the sample sensitized by trinitrofluorenone in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), and almost ten times higher than that in the CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized poly(N-vinylcarbazole) polymers.

  4. Antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) based micelles loaded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Kyulavska, Mariya; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Debuigne, Antoine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2010-04-15

    A new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVOH-b-PAN) copolymer obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) copolymer synthesized by cobalt mediated radical polymerization was used for the preparation of PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles. The successful formation of silver loaded micelles has been confirmed by UV-vis, DLS and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and spore solution of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has been studied. PVOH-b-PAN based micelles with embedded silver nanoparticles showed a strong bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and the minimum bactericidal concentration for each system (MBC) has been determined. PMID:20074742

  5. Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Toughened with Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene-Acrylonitrile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Chung, S. Y.; Fedors, R. F.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fracture toughness of an incorporation of a carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) elastomer in diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin was investigated. Measurements of dynamic mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering were carried out to characterize the state of cure, morphology and particle size and size distribution of the neat resins and their graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  6. Enantioselective cyclopropanation of (Z)-3-substituted-2-(4-pyridyl)-acrylonitriles catalyzed by Cinchona ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Del Fiandra, Claudia; Moccia, Maria; Adamo, Mauro F A

    2016-03-21

    Cyclopropane esters holding two quaternary centres were prepared in high yields, complete diastereoselection and up to 83% ee. The reaction described herein entailed reacting (Z)-3-substituted-2-(4-pyridyl)-acrylonitrile, a reactive class of Michael acceptor, with 2-bromomalonate esters in the presence of Cinchona derived phase-transfer catalysts. The reaction allowed multi-gram preparation of the desired products. PMID:26906250

  7. Nanostructured Synthetic Carbons Obtained by Pyrolysis of Spherical Acrylonitrile/Divinylbenzene Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Danish J.; Trochimczuk, Andrzej W.; Ronka, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Novel carbon materials have been prepared by the carbonization of acrylonitrile (AN)/divinylbenzene (DVB) suspension porous copolymers having nominal crosslinking degrees in the range of 30–70% and obtained in the presence of various amounts of porogens. The carbons were obtained by pre-oxidation of AN/DVB copolymers at 250−350°C in air followed by pyrolysis at 850°C in an N2 atmosphere. Both processes were carried out in one furnace and the resulting material needed no further activation. Resulting materials were characterized by XPS and low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption. It was found that maximum pyrolysis yield was ca. 50% depending on the oxidation conditions but almost independent of the crosslinking degree of the polymers. Porous structure of the carbons was characterized for the presence of micropores and macropores, when obtained from highly crosslinked polymers or polymers oxidized at 350°C and meso- and macropores in all other cases. The latter pores are prevailing in the structure of carbons obtained from less porous AN/DVB resins. Specific surface area (BET) of polymer derived carbons can vary between 440 m2/g and 250 m2/g depending on the amount of porogen used in the synthesis of the AN/DVB polymeric precursors. PMID:22916245

  8. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Arman, Bayram; Karvelas, Dimitrios E.; Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  9. Optical properties of polycarbonate/styrene-co-acrylonitrile blends: effects of molecular weight of the matrix.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Xiong, Ying; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the molecular weight of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix on the phase morphology and optical properties of a PC/styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) blend were investigated. A scanning electron microscope is used to analyze the phase morphology of the blends, and Mie scattering theory is used to analyze the changing laws of the optical properties of PC/SAN blends with the increasing of PC molecular weight. Results show that the average particle diameter is not strongly changed with different PC molecular weight because the values of the viscosity ratios are very close to each other. But it is obvious that the number of large particles gradually reduced while small particles (especially d<2  μm) significantly increased with the increasing of PC molecular weight. And the increase in small particles will result in an increase in backward scattering so the transmittance of PC/SAN blends decreases with the increase of PC molecular weight. However, the balance of the scattering coefficients and the number concentration of particles eventually lead to the haze of the blends being very close, despite having different PC molecular weights. Meanwhile, the photographs of scattering patterns indicate that the PC/SAN blends whose component weight ratios are fixed at 70:30 have excellent antiglare properties, despite the changes in molecular weight of the PC matrix. PMID:26836652

  10. High-Energy-Density Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Weimin; Ye, Hongjun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric response of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) thin films fabricated by a solution casting process was investigated in this work. Linear dielectric behavior was obtained in PSAN films under an electric field at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature of -50°C to 100°C. The polymer films exhibited an intermediate dielectric permittivity of 4 and low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.027. Under 400 MV/m, the energy density of the PSAN films was 6.8 J/cm3, which is three times higher than that of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (about 1.6 J/cm3). However, their charge-discharge efficiency (about 90%) was rather close to that of BOPP. The calculated effective dielectric permittivity of the PSAN films under high electric field was as high as 9, which may be attributed to the improved displacement of the cyanide groups (-CN) polarized at high electric fields. These high-performance features make PSAN attractive for high-energy-density capacitor applications.

  11. Design and testing of digitally manufactured paraffin Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Jonathan M.

    This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel grain. Multiple fuel grains with various ABS-to-Paraffin mass ratios were fabricated and burned with nitrous oxide. Analytical predictions for end-to-end motor performance and fuel regression are compared against static test results. Baseline fuel grain regression calculations use an enthalpy balance energy analysis with the material and thermodynamic properties based on the mean paraffin/ABS mass fractions within the fuel grain. In support of these analytical comparisons, a novel method for propagating the fuel port burn surface was developed. In this modeling approach the fuel cross section grid is modeled as an image with white pixels representing the fuel and black pixels representing empty or burned grid cells.

  12. Hg(II) adsorption using amidoximated porous acrylonitrile/itaconic copolymers prepared by suspended emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunnuan; Qu, Rongjun; Chen, Hou; Liu, Xiguang; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Caixia

    2016-01-01

    Initially, porous acrylonitrile/itaconic acid copolymers (AN/IA) were prepared by suspended emulsion polymerization. Successively, the cyano groups in AN/IA copolymers were converted to amidoxime (AO) groups by the reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The structures of the AN/IA and amidoximated AN/IA (AO AN/IA) were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and porous structural analysis. The adsorption properties of AO AN/IA for Hg(II) were investigated. The results show that AO AN/IA has mesopores and macropores, and surface area of 11.71 m(2) g(-1). It was found that AO AN/IA has higher affinity for Hg(II), with the maximum adsorption capacity of 84.25 mg g(-1). The AO AN/IA also can effectively remove Hg(II) from different binary metal ion mixture systems. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were studied in detail. The adsorption equilibrium can quickly be achieved in 4 h determined by an adsorption kinetics study. The adsorption process is found to belong to the second-order model, and can be described by the Freundlich model. PMID:27054744

  13. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    PubMed

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  14. Differential response to acrylonitrile toxicity in rat primary astrocytes and microglia

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel; Yu, Yingchun; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles, acrylic fibers, synthetic rubber and acrylamide. While acute high level exposures to ACN are known to be lethal, chronic low dose exposures causes glial cell tumors in rats. Recently, these glial tumors have been characterized as microglial in origin. While effects of ACN on astrocytes, the more numerous glial cell, have been investigated, the effects on microglia are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the responses of astrocytes and microglia to ACN treatment in vitro to address differential sensitivities and adaptive responses to this toxic chemical. Cell viability, ACN uptake, lipid peroxidation byproducts (F2-isoprostanes), glutathione (GSH) levels and expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were evaluated in primary rat microglia and astrocytes following ACN treatment. Results indicate that microglia are more sensitive to ACN than astrocytes, accumulating less ACN while demonstrating higher F2-isoprostane levels. GSH levels were up-regulated in both cell types, as a protective mechanism against ACN-induced oxidative stress, while Nrf2 levels were only induced in microglia. Our data suggest that microglia and astrocytes exhibit different sensitivities and responses to ACN, which are linked to the intracellular thiol status inherent to each of these cell types. PMID:23628792

  15. Nanocomposites prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and organically modified montmorillonite with vinyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mijeong; Kim, Hoonjung; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared from acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), vinyl groups containing organically modified montmorillonite and additives, such as zinc oxide, stearic acid, and sulfur. The organically modified montmorillonites used in these nanocomposites were prepared by ion exchange reactions of N,N'-dimethylalkyl-(p-vinylbenzyl)-ammonium chlorides (DAVBAs, alkyl = octyl, dodecyl, and octadecyl) with sodium montmorillonite (Na+-MMT). NBR nanocomposites were obtained by controlling both the mixing and vulcanization conditions, by using a Brabender mixer and hot-press process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that, depending on the amount of montmorillonite that is added, both exfoliated and intercalated nanocomposite structures are formed. The NBR/DAVBA-MMT nanocomposites exhibit much higher mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength, Young's modulus, 300% modulus, and hardness) as well as gas barrier properties as compared to NBR Na+-MMT or NBR composites generated from modified montmorillonites without vinyl groups. Consistent with the results of XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the intercalation and exfoliation structures of the nanocomposites coexist and that the DAVBA-MMT layers are well dispersed in NBR.

  16. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (M L) and maximum torque (M H) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties. PMID:26644917

  17. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  18. Phenomena affecting morphology of microporous poly(acrylonitrile) prepared via phase separation from solution

    SciTech Connect

    Legasse, R.R.; Weagley, R.J.; Leslie, P.K.; Schneider, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with controlling the morphology of microporous polymers prepared via thermal demixing of solutions. 2 wt % solutions of poly(acrylonitrile) in maleic anhydride, a poor solvent, are first cooled to produce separated polymer-rich and solvent-rich phases. Removing the solvent by freeze drying then produces a microporous material having a density of 33 mg/cm{sup 3}, a void fraction of 97%, and a pore size of about 10 {mu}m. We find that the morphology cannot be explained by existing models, which focus on phase diagrams and kinetics of phase transformations during cooling of the solution. In conflict with those models, we find that two radically different morphologies can be produced even when the polymer concentration and cooling path are held strictly constant. A hypothesis that polymer degradation causes the different morphologies is not supported by GPC, {sup 13}C NMR, and FTIR experiments. Instead, we offer evidence that the different microporous morphologies are caused by different polymer conformations in solutions having the same concentration and temperature. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  19. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML) and maximum torque (MH) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties. PMID:26644917

  20. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low. PMID:21313827

  1. Chitosan-tethered poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) hollow fiber membrane for lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Che, Ai-Fu; Wu, Jian; Seta, Patrick

    2005-11-01

    A protocol was used to prepare a dual-layer biomimetic membrane as support for enzyme immobilization by tethering chitosan on the surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccin-imide (NHS). The chemical change of the chitosan-modified PANCMA membrane surface was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on this dual-layer biomimetic membrane using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent. The properties of the immobilized enzymes were assayed and compared with those of the free one. It was found that both the activity retention of the immobilized lipase and the amount of bound protein on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane (44.5% and 66.5 mg/m2) were higher than those on the nascent PANCMA membrane (33.9% and 53.7 mg/m2). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, Km and Vmax, were also assayed. The Km values were similar for the immobilized lipases, while the Vmax value of the immobilized lipase on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane was higher than that on the nascent PANCMA membrane. Results indicated that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipase increased upon immobilization. The residual activity of the immobilized lipase after 10 uses was 53% on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane and 62% on the nascent PANCMA membrane. PMID:15919112

  2. Nanofibrous poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) membranes functionalized with gelatin and chitosan for lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Wu, Jian; Innocent, Christophe; Seta, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Nanofibrous membranes with an average diameter of 100 and 180 nm were fabricated from poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) by the electrospinning process. These nanofibrous membranes contain reactive groups which can be used to covalently immobilize biomacromolecules. Two natural macromolecules, chitosan and gelatin, were tethered on these nanofibrous membranes to fabricate dual-layer biomimetic supports for enzyme immobilization in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Lipase from Candida rugosa was then immobilized on these dual-layer biomimetic supports using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA fibrous membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent, respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipases were assayed. It was found that there is an increase of the activity retention of the immobilized lipase on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane (45.6+/-1.8%) and on the gelatin-modified one (49.7+/-1.8%), compared to that on the nascent one (37.6+/-1.8%). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, K(m) and V(max), were also assayed. In comparison with the immobilized lipase on the nascent nanofibrous membrane, there is an increase of the V(max) value for the immobilized lipases on the chitosan- and gelatin-modified nanofibrous membranes. Results also indicate that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipases increase upon immobilization. The residual activities of the immobilized lipases are 55% on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane and 60% on the gelatin-modified one, after 10 uses. PMID:16584770

  3. Modeling contaminant transport and remediation at an acrylonitrile spill site in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Ünlü, Kahraman

    2013-07-01

    The August 1999 earthquake in Turkey damaged three acrylonitrile (AN) storage tanks at a plant producing synthetic fiber by polymerization. A numerical modeling study was carried out to analyze the groundwater flow and contaminant (AN) transport at the spill site. This study presents the application of a numerical groundwater model to determine the hydrogeological parameters of the site, where such data were not available during the field surveys prior to the simulation studies. The two- and three-dimensional transient flow and transport models were first calibrated using the first 266 days of observed head and concentration data and then verified using the remaining 540-day observed data set. Off-site migration of the contaminant plume was kept under control within the site boundaries owing to the favorable geology of the site, the characteristics of the local groundwater flow regime and the pumping operations. As expected, the applied pump-and-treat system was effective at high-permeability zones, but not fully effective at low-permeability zones. The results of long-term simulations for unconfined aquifer showed that the size of the plume in the high permeability zone shrank significantly due to the dilution by natural recharge. However, in the low permeability zone, it was not significantly affected. The study showed that accurate and sufficient data regarding the source characteristics, concentration and groundwater level measurements, groundwater pumping rates and their durations at each of the extraction points involved in the pump-and-treat system along with the hydrogeological site characterization are the key parameters for successful flow and transport model calibrations.

  4. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Kumari, Vandna

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN) by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3) as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg) was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01%) using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.80 × 10−3 mol/L, [HNO3] = 112.68 × 10−2 mol/L and [AN] = 114.49 × 10−2 mol/L in 20 mL of water at 45 °C within 120 min while in case of gamma radiation method, maximum Pg (90.24%) was obtained at an optimum concentration of AN of 76.32 × 10−2 mol/L using 10 mL of water at room temperature with total dose exposure of 3.456 kGy/h. The grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD studies. Swelling behavior of grafted rayon in different solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, DMF and acetone was studied and compared with the unmodified rayon. Dyeing behavior of the grafted fiber was also investigated. PMID:25685464

  5. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Kumari, Vandna

    2013-11-01

    Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN) by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3) as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg) was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01%) using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.80 × 10(-3) mol/L, [HNO3] = 112.68 × 10(-2) mol/L and [AN] = 114.49 × 10(-2) mol/L in 20 mL of water at 45 °C within 120 min while in case of gamma radiation method, maximum Pg (90.24%) was obtained at an optimum concentration of AN of 76.32 × 10(-2) mol/L using 10 mL of water at room temperature with total dose exposure of 3.456 kGy/h. The grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD studies. Swelling behavior of grafted rayon in different solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, DMF and acetone was studied and compared with the unmodified rayon. Dyeing behavior of the grafted fiber was also investigated. PMID:25685464

  6. Design of poly(acrylonitrile)-based gel electrolytes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hong; Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Teng, Hsisheng

    2014-11-12

    The use of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a host for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) commonly produces a strong dipole-dipole interaction with the polymer. This study presents a strategy for the application of PAN in GPEs for the production of high performance lithium ion batteries. The resulting gel electrolyte GPE-AVM comprises a poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer blending poly(methyl methacrylate) as a host, which is swelled using a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvent. Vinyl acetate and methacrylate groups segregate the PAN chains in the GPE, which produces high ionic conductivity (3.5 × 10 (-3) S cm(-1) at 30 °C) and a wide electrochemical voltage range (>6.5 V) as well as an excellent Li(+) transference number of 0.6. This study includes GPE-AVM in a full-cell battery comprising a LiFePO4 cathode and graphite anode to promote ion motion, which reduced resistance in the battery by 39% and increased the specific power by 110%, relative to the performance of batteries based on LE. The proposed GPE-based battery has a capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and is able to deliver 67 mAh g(-1) of electricity at 17 C. The proposed GPE-AVM provides a robust interface with the electrodes in full-cell batteries, resulting in 93% capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 17 C and 63% retention after 1000 cycles. PMID:25361495

  7. The role of acrylonitrile in controlling the structure and properties of nanostructured ionomer films.

    PubMed

    Tungchaiwattana, Somjit; Musa, Muhamad Sharan; Yan, Junfeng; Lovell, Peter A; Shaw, Peter; Saunders, Brian R

    2014-07-14

    Ionomers are polymers which contain ionic groups that are covalently bound to the main chain. The presence of a small percentage of ionic groups strongly affects the polymer's mechanical properties. Here, we examine a new family of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell polymer nanoparticles containing acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (Bd) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Three new AN-containing dispersions were investigated in this study. The core-shell nanoparticles contained a PBd core. The shells contained copolymerised Bd, AN and MAA, i.e., PBd-AN-MAA. Three types of crosslinking were present in these films: covalent crosslinks (from Bd); strong physical crosslinks (involving ionic bonding of RCOO(-) and Zn(2+)) and weaker physical crosslinks (from AN). We examined and compared the roles of AN and ionic crosslinking (from added Zn(2+)) on the structure and mechanical properties of the films. The FTIR spectroscopy data showed evidence for RCOOH-nitrile hydrogen bonding with tetrahedral geometry. DMTA studies showed that AN copolymerised within the PBd-AN-MAA phase uniformly. Tensile stress-strain data showed that inclusion of AN increased elasticity and toughness. Analysis showed that about 33 AN groups were required to provide an elastically-effective chain. However, only 1.5 to 2 ionically bonded RCOO(-) groups were required to generate an elastically-effective chain. By contrast to ionic bonding, AN inclusion increased the modulus without compromising ductility. Our results show that AN is an attractive, versatile, monomer for increasing the toughness of nanostructured ionomers and this should also be the case for other nanostructured polymer elastomers. PMID:24852137

  8. A correlation study applied to biomarkers of internal and effective dose for acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Gerhard; Newland, Kirk; Papadopoulou, Ermioni

    2014-01-01

    The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts. PMID:24754403

  9. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Desrousseaux, Camille; Cueff, Régis; Aumeran, Claire; Garrait, Ghislain; Mailhot-Jensen, Bénédicte; Traoré, Ousmane; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1) to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2) to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3) to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion. PMID:26284922

  10. Simulations of the Interaction of Small Molecules with Styrene-Butadiene and Styrene-Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Polymer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Upendra; Mattice, Wayne

    1997-03-01

    We have simulated atomistically the structure and energetics of Styrene-Butadiene(SB) and Styrene-Butadiene-Acrylonitrile(SBA) random copolymer thin films. The films attain bulk density in their interior region. The surface layer is about 5 ÅThe orientation of the backbone bonds is random in the interior region of the films, while orienting preferentially in the direction of the plane of the film at the surface. The surface energy for the SBA films is significantly higher than for the SB films and the reason was found to be the preferential location of Acrylonitrile groups on the surface. The comparison of density and surface energy with experimental data is very good. We studied the interaction of toluene, water and hexadecane with SB and SBA films. At small concentrations, toluene is found to wet the films and spread uniformly with random structural orientation. Hexadecane also wets the surface, its chains showing an extended conformation. The water molecules are seen to form drops and do not prefer the SB and SBA surfaces. We will present results of wetting and non-wetting interaction energies, surface coverage, and conformational characteristics of these molecules and low molecular weight surfactants at different concentrations of these molecules on the films.

  11. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pouyatos, BenoIt . E-mail: benoit.pouyatos@med.va.gov; Gearhart, Caroline A.; Fechter, Laurence D.

    2005-04-01

    The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems: (1) it conjugates glutathione, depleting this important antioxidant rapidly; (2) a second pathway involves the formation of cyanide, which can inhibit superoxide dismutase. We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses. Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes. Histopathological damage to hair cells resulting from these treatments was also investigated using surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals. However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz). This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the

  12. Development and validation of personal monitoring methods for low levels of acrylonitrile in workplace atmosphere. II. Thermal desorption and field validation

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, R.A.; Gluck, S.J.; Sowle, W.F.; Melcher, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    Thermal desorption is a more sensitive alternative to solvent desorption for the determination of acrylonitrile in air. A dual-bed collection tube (Tenax GC and Carbosieve B) was developed for collecting and concentrating low levels of acrylonitrile. Two thermal desorption techniques were evaluated for the recovery of acrylonitrile collected on the dual-bed tubes over a concentration range from 0.05 to 5 ppm. A commercially-available system, the Century Programmable Thermal Desorption Unit, was easy to operate, allowed for multiple injections of the sample and had a recovery of 82 +/- 12% (RSD). Sampled were stored for up to two months without affecting the recovery and there was not an observable effect from humidity or from the presence of other organic compounds. This system was found to have limitations at acrylonitrile concentrations above 1 ppm. A field validation study tested the sampling and analytical methods developed for monitoring low levels of acrylonitrile in the workplace. Three methods employing Pittsburgh Coconut-Base activated charcoal, Ambersorb XE-348 and Tenax-GC and Carbosieve B sampling mediums were validated for concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 5 ppm and confirmed in the field from 0.02 to 3 ppm in tests conducted at plant sites. These field studies were run over varying humidity and temperature conditions. The overall absolute recoveries and relative standard deviations found for these methods found during the field trials are 90 +/- 18% for charcoal; 85 +/- 11% for Ambersorb XE-348; and 90 +/- 19% for the Century dual-bed sorbent. These values were in quite good agreement with the 91 +/- 10%, 88 +/- 8%, and 82 +/- 12% determined in laboratory studies.

  13. Surface discharge and tracking phenomena induced on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer dielectric material by acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Yoshimura, N.

    1999-05-01

    The discharge and tracking phenomena induced on the polymer dielectric materials by acid rain are investigated by the accelerated aging of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer in artificial rainwater in this article. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the artificial rainwater is chosen to agree well with the actual ingredients of precipitation. The influence of hydrophobicity degradation on the surface discharge and tracking is studied. The relations among the surface discharge, tracking, hydrophobicity, and microchemical structure and physical morphology of material are furthermore discussed. Experimental results show that the polymer dielectric materials suffer a large attack and degradation from acid rain. The dielectric surface degrades and becomes rough, and the hydrophobicity decreases so that the surface discharge and tracking may occur on them.

  14. Environmentally benign electroless nickel plating using supercritical carbon-dioxide on hydrophilically modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengsuwan, Siwach; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    Electroless Ni-P plating using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in conjunction with copolymer-based hydrophilic modification was applied to an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate. The surface of ABS substrate was hydrophilically modified by blending with a multi-block copolymer, poly(ether-ester-amide)s (PEEA), in injection molding process. The substrate was then impregnated with Pd(II)-hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Pd(hfa)2, using scCO2, followed by the electroless plating reaction. ABS/PEEA substrates with different PEEA to ABS blend ratios and different volume ratios of butadiene to the styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) matrix were prepared to investigate how the dispersed PEEA and butadiene domains affected the blend morphology and the adhesive strength of the plating metal-to-polymer contact. Increasing the PEEA copolymer to ABS blend ratio increased the mass transfer rate of the plating solution in the ABS substrate. Consequently, the metal-polymer composite layer became thicker, which increased the adhesive strength of the metal-to-polymer contact because of the anchoring effect. The butadiene domains appeared to attract the Pd catalyst precursor, and thus, the proportion of butadiene in the ABS matrix also affected the adhesive strength of the contact between the metal layer and the substrate. The ABS substrate was successfully plated with a Ni-P metal layer with an average adhesive strength of 9.1 ± 0.5 N cm-1 by choosing appropriate ABS/PEEA blend ratios and a Pd(hfa)2 concentration.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile molecule as a potential acceptor in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazici, Mehmet; Bozar, Sinem; Aydin Yuksel, Sureyya; Ongul, Fatih; Gokce, Halil; Gunes, Serap; Yorur Goreci, Cigdem

    2016-06-01

    A novel soluble asymmetric acrylonitrile derivative, 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile (CPCPFA, 3) was synthesized in three steps by Knoevenagel condensation. The structure of the CPCPFA was characterized using UV–vis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LC-MS. CPCPFA was evaluated as an electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Its optical and electronic properties as well as photovoltaic performance were investigated.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile molecule as a potential acceptor in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kazici, Mehmet; Bozar, Sinem; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Ongul, Fatih; Gokce, Halil; Gunes, Serap; Goreci, Cigdem Yorur

    2016-06-10

    A novel soluble asymmetric acrylonitrile derivative, 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile (CPCPFA, 3) was synthesized in three steps by Knoevenagel condensation. The structure of the CPCPFA was characterized using UV-vis, FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and LC-MS. CPCPFA was evaluated as an electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Its optical and electronic properties as well as photovoltaic performance were investigated. PMID:27145976

  17. Infrared spectra and structure of the cyano and methoxycarbonyl derivatives of 3,3-bis(dimethylamino)acrylonitrile: an ab initio force field treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binev, Ivan G.; Binev, Yuri I.

    1997-12-01

    The structure of 2-cyano-3,3-bis(dimethylamino)acrylonitrile and 2-methoxycarbonyl-3,3-bis(dimethylamino)acrylonitrile has been studied on the basis of both infrared spectra and ab initio force field calculations. The 3012-376 cm -1 region bands have been assigned; a good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental spectroscopic characteristics. According to both infrared data and bond parameters, the CC bond in the molecules studied is strongly polarized. The ground-state charge transfer between the electropositive and electronegative fragments of the molecules is more than 0.5 e -, so the species studied have a dual character, both molecular and zwitterionic.

  18. Photocatalytic decomposition of acrylonitrile with N-F codoped TiO2/SiO2 under simulant solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dandan; Qiu, Lu; Wang, Yunteng; Zhu, Rongshu; Ouyang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    The solid acid catalyst, N-F codoped TiO2/SiO2 composite oxide was prepared by a sol-gel method using NH4F as nitrogen and fluorine source. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis), ammonia adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 physical adsorption isotherm. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst for acrylonitrile degradation was investigated under simulant solar irradiation. The results showed that strong Lewis and Brønsted acid sites appear on the surface of the sample after N-F doping. Systematic investigation showed that the highest photocatalytic activity for acrylonitrile degradation was obtained for samples calcined at 450°C with molar ratio (NH4F to Ti) of 0.8. The degradation ratio of 71.5% was achieved with the prepared catalyst after 6-min irradiation, demonstrating the effectiveness of photocatalytic degradation of acrylonitrile with N-F codoped TiO2/SiO2 composite oxide. The photocatalyst is promising for application under solar light irradiation. Moreover, the intermediates generated after irradiation were verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy to be simple organic acids with lower toxicity, and the degradation pathway was also proposed for acrylonitrile degradation with the prepared catalyst. PMID:26141890

  19. Development and validation of personal monitoring methods for low levels of acrylonitrile in workplace atmosphere. I. Test atmosphere generation and solvent desorption methods

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, R.G.; Borders, R.A.; Coyne, L.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize monitoring methods and to investigate new technology for the determination of low levels of acrylonitrile (0.05 to 5 ppm) in workplace atmospheres. In the first phase of the study, a dynamic atmosphere generation system was developed to produce low levels of acrylonitrile in simulated workplace atmospheres. Various potential sorbents were investigated in the second phase, and the candidate methods were compared in a laboratory validation study over a concentration range from 0.05 to 5 ppm acrylonitrile in the presence of potential interferences and under relative humidity conditions from 30% to 95% RH. A collection tube containing 600 mg Pittsburgh coconut base charcoal was found to be the optimum tube for sampling for a full 8 -hr shift. No breakthrough was observed over the concentrations and humidities tested. The recovery was 91.3% with a total relative precision of +/-21% over the test range, and the recovery was not affected by storage for up to five weeks.

  20. Radiolytic preparation and characterization of hydrophilic poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylsulfonate)-grafted porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byeong-Hee; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hydrophilic copolymer of acrylonitrile (AN) and sodium vinylsulfonate (SVS) was grafted into a highly hydrophobic porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate using a gamma-ray irradiation method and the grafted substrate was used as a substrate for impregnating a hydrophilic ionomer, Nafion. The results of FT-IR and TGA analysis of the prepared substrate showed that the SVS/AN monomers were successfully grafted into the porous PTFE film. The results of degree of grafting, elemental analyzer, and contact angle analysis showed that the hydrophilicity of the prepared PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate was increased with an increase in the amount of SVS/AN graft copolymers. Also, the results of FE-SEM and Gurley number measurement showed that the pores in the substrate were reduced as the amount of SVS/AN copolymers grafted into the substrate increased. The prepared porous PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate at an irradiation dose of 70 kGy was found to impregnate Nafion ionomer effectively compared to the original porous PTFE substrate. These results suggest that the prepared PTFE-g-P(AN-co-VS) substrate can be effectively used for the impregnation of polymer electrolyte (Nafion) to prepare a reinforced composite membrane.

  1. Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile) as Observed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, Alan S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.

    2003-03-07

    AES spectra of spun-cast films of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) were collected over a period of time to determine specimen damage during exposure to a 10kV electron beam. For the PVC, loss of chlorine was observed over a period of 203 minutes to the extent that the final chlorine concentration was only 20% of its original value. PAN exhibited a loss in nitrogen content over a period of 120 minutes, but the rate of damage to the polymer was significantly less than PVC. Figure 1 shows the atomic concentration in the PVC film as a function of dose (time). It takes a dose of approximately 7.0x10-5 Ccm-5 for the chlorine concentration to fall from its original value by 10% (one definition of critical dose). Figure 2 shows a similar drop in nitrogen concentration in the PAN film as a function of dose. For this polymer, it takes a dose of 1.3x10-3 Ccm-2 for the nitrogen concentration to fall by 10%.

  2. Acrylonitrile-contamination induced enhancement of formic acid electro-oxidation at platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nagar, Gumaa A.; Mohammad, Ahmad M.; El-Deab, Mohamed S.; Ohsaka, Takeo; El-Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2014-11-01

    Minute amount (∼1 ppm) of acrylonitrile (AcN), a possible contaminant, shows an unexpected enhancement for the direct electro-oxidation of formic acid (FAO) at Pt nanoparticles modified GC (nano-Pt/GC) electrodes. This is reflected by a remarkable increase of the current intensity of the direct oxidation peak (Ipd, at ca. 0.3 V) in the presence of AcN, concurrently with a significant decrease of the second (indirect) oxidation current (Ipind, at ca. 0.7 V), compared to that observed in the absence of AcN (i.e., at the unpoisoned Pt electrode). The extent of enhancement depends on the surface coverage (θ) of AcN at the surface of Pt nanoparticles. AcN is thought to favor the direct FAO by disturbing the contiguity of the Pt sites, which is necessary for CO adsorption. Furthermore, XPS measurements revealed a change in the electronic structure of Pt in presence of AcN, which has a favorable positive impact on the charge transfer during the direct FAO.

  3. Separation of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastics by froth flotation combined with ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, Qun; Fu, Jian-Gang; Liu, You-Nian

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastics combined with ammonia pretreatment. The PC and ABS plastics show similar hydrophobicity, and ammonia treatment changes selectively floatability of PC plastic while ABS is insensitive to ammonia treatment. The contact angle measurement indicates the dropping of flotation recovery of PC is ascribed to a decline of contact angle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates reactions occur on PC surface, which makes PC surface more hydrophilic. Separation of PC and ABS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. At different temperatures, PC and ABS mixtures were separated efficiently through froth flotation with ammonia pretreatment for different time (13 min at 23 °C, 18 min at 18 °C and 30 min at 23 °C). For both PC and ABS, the purity and recovery is more than 95.31% and 95.35%, respectively; the purity of PC and ABS is up to 99.72% and 99.23%, respectively. PC and ABS mixtures with different particle sizes were separated effectively, implying that ammonia treatment possesses superior applicability. PMID:25266156

  4. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

  5. The effect of trichloroethylene and acrylonitrile on RNA and ribosome synthesis and ribosome content in Saccharomyces cells.

    PubMed

    Lochmann, E R; Ehrlich, W; Mangir, M

    1984-04-01

    The effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and acrylonitrile (ACN) on growth, RNA synthesis, ribosome synthesis, and ribosome content were tested in yeast cells. TCE causes a delay of the growth of a cell culture (prolongation of the lag phase), but does not cause inhibition. Cells exposed to increasing concentrations of ACN show increasing damage, so that, at a certain point of the growth curve, cell division stops altogether. Similar results were obtained when RNA synthesis was investigated: After treatment with TCE, the maximum RNA synthesis of the cell culture was retarded, but subsequently reached the same level as the untreated control cells. In the presence of ACN, however, the rate of RNA synthesis was lowered with increasing ACN concentrations. The same effect was observed upon investigation of ribosome synthesis: Whereas TCE produces only a slight effect, treatment with increasing concentrations of ACN leads to a substantial decrease in ribosome synthesis, and finally to total inhibition. Parallel to this, the content of free and membrane-bound ribosomes is diminished. Obviously, the decrease in ribosome content is caused not only by an inhibition of ribosome synthesis, but also by a degradation of existing ribosomes, as well as by induction of a ribosome-associated RNase. PMID:6714140

  6. Reclamation of post-consumer plastics for development of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene based nanocomposites with nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Saldabola, Ruuta; Maksimov, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Suitability of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (R-ABS) and recycled polycarbonate (R-PC) for the development of polymer matrix nanocomposites with organically modified nanoclay (OMMT) is evaluated in comparison to virgin polymers (V-ABS and V-PC) based systems. The influence of OMMT content on the structure as well as calorimetric, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polymers containing systems is revealed. Increase in stiffness and strength of virgin and recycled polymers based systems is observed along with rising nanoclay content. However, it is observed that reinforcing efficiency of clays on the R-ABS containing systems is reduced to certain extent in comparison to those, based on virgin polymers. It is shown, that in the presence of OMMT approximation of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric components is observed, which can testify about certain improvement of compatibility between PC and ABS. Increment of the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the nanocomposites is associated with anisodiametric shape of OMMT, as well as with intercalation of polymer within the interlaminar space of the clay nanoparticles. It is also demonstrated that addition of nanoclay improves thermogravimetric behavior of the investigated compositions. Consequently, it is suggested that nanoclays can be used as promising functional additives and replace halogenated flame-retardants, without reducing mechanical properties of the composites.

  7. Species difference in the disposition of acrylonitrile: quantitative whole-body autoradiographic study in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sam; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2004-06-01

    Previous studies from this and other laboratories have indicated the role of species difference in acrylonitrile (VCN) toxicity and its metabolism to cyanide. Our recent studies also indicated a more pronounced elimination of VCN following oral as compared to i.v. administration. To further characterize the mechanism of these differences on the distribution of VCN, quantitative whole-body autoradiographic distribution and elimination studies were conducted at various time points (0.08, 8, 24, 48 h) following the administration of an equivalent i.v. dose of 2-[14C]-VCN to male Fischer rats and male CD-1 mice. Whole-body autoradiographs obtained from freeze-dried and acid-extracted sections of rats and mice demonstrated a rapid uptake of 14C in liver, lungs, spleen and bone marrow at early time intervals. Quantitatively, the uptake, retention and covalent interaction of 14C were higher in organs of rats as compared to mice, over 48 h. Mice eliminated 74% of the total administered dose of 2-[14C]-VCN (expired air 4%, urine 16% and feces 54%), while rats eliminated only 26% of the dose (expired air 2%, urine 4% and feces 20%). Species differences in VCN toxicity seem to be correlated with its rate of elimination. The distribution and elimination data demonstrated that mice divest VCN more rapidly than rats. The study also demonstrated that administration of VCN in rats resulted in covalent interactions and retention of 2-[14C]-VCN/metabolites in the tissues thus exerting more chronic toxicity to rats than to mice. PMID:15807404

  8. Preconditioning of endoplasmic reticulum stress protects against acrylonitrile-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat astrocytes: The role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bai; Wenjun, Zhao; Changsheng, Yin; Yuntao, Fang; Jing, Ma; Ben, Li; Hai, Qian; Guangwei, Xing; Suhua, Wang; Fang, Li; Aschner, Michael; Rongzhu, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the protective effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preconditioning induced by 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) or oxidized dithiothreitol (DTTox) on acrylonitrile (AN)-induced cytotocity in primary rat astrocytes. Cells were pretreated with 2-DG or DTTox for different times at various concentration. Next, astrocytes were treated with 2.5mM AN for an additional 12h. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined. Expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), P62, and Beclin1 were used to assess autophagy. In addition, 3-methyadenine (3-MA), an autophagy-specific inhibitor, was used to assess the role of autophagy in ER stress preconditioning-induced protection against AN cytotoxicity. The results showed that AN alone significantly decreased astrocytic viability and enhanced cytotoxicity. Compared to the AN-alone group, preconditioning with 2-DG or DTTox significantly increased cell viability and reduced cytotoxicity to indistinguishable levels. Decreased ROS generation and increased ΔΨm were also inherent to ER stress preconditioning with these compounds. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by both 2-DG and DTTox. Blockage of autophagy attenuated the protection afforded by 2-DG or DTTox preconditioning in AN-treated astrocytes. These results establish that ER stress preconditioning affords cellular protection against AN, and that activation of autophagy mediates the cytoprotection. Modulation of ER stress and resultant activation of autophagy may be a novel target for to ameliorate AN toxicity. PMID:27260289

  9. Removal of As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from aqueous environments by poly(acrylonitril-co-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Dudu, Tuba Ersen; Sahiner, Mehtap; Alpaslan, Duygu; Demirci, Sahin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-09-15

    Cationic poly(Acrylonitril-co-Acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl Ammonium Chloride) (p(AN-co-APTMACl)) hydrogels in bulk were synthesized by using acrylonitrile (AN) and 3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (APTMACl) as monomers. The prepared hydrogels were exposed to amidoximation reaction to replace hydrophobic nitrile groups with hydrophilic amidoxime groups that have metal ion binding ability. Those replacements were increased the hydrogels absorption capacity for As(V) and Cr(VI). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms equations were utilized to obtain the best-fitted isotherm model for the absorption of the ions at different metal ion concentrations. The absorption data of As(V) ion were fitted well to Freundlich isotherm while those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm. The maximum absorption of poly(3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)) and amid-p(AN-co-APTMACl) macro gels were 22.39 mg and 21.83 mg for As(V), and 30.65 mg and 18.16 mg for Cr(VI) ion per unit gram dried gel, respectively. Kinetically, the absorption behaviors of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and those of As(V) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 1st order kinetic model. PMID:26188989

  10. Acrylonitrile has Distinct Hormetic Effects on Acetyl-Cholinesterase Activity in Mouse Brain and Blood that are Modulated by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yuanqing, He; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Hai, Qian; Wenrong, Xu; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile(AN) is a neurotoxin both in animals and humans, but its effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remain controversial. This study aimed to determine the dose-response effects of AN on AChE activity and the modulatory role of ethanol pre-treatment. A total of 144 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 18 groups: nine groups received 5% ethanol in their drinking water, and the remaining nine groups received regular tap water. One week later, both the ethanol and tap water only groups were given an intraperitoneal injection of AN at the following doses: 0 (control), 0.156, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg AN/kg body weight. AChE activity was determined on whole blood and brain 24 h later. Blood AChE activity was higher in AN-injected mice than in controls at all doses. AChE activity in blood increased in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 0.156 mg/kg, after which a gradual decrease ensued, displaying a β-typed dose-response relationship. In contrast, brain AChE activity, following a single AN injection, was consistently lower than in control mice, and continued to fall up to a dose of 0.313 mg/kg, and thereafter increased gradually with higher doses. Mice receiving a 20 mg/kg dose of AN exhibited AChE brain activity indistinguishable from that of control mice, demonstrating a typical U-typed dose-response relationship. The activity of AChE in the blood and brain of the AN + ethanol-treated groups displayed a shift to the right, and the magnitude of the decrease in AChE activity induced by AN was attenuated relative to the AN-only group. These results suggest that AN affects AChE activity in both mouse blood and brain in a hormetic manner. Pretreatment with ethanol modifies the effect of AN on AChE, indicating that parent AN has a more prominent role than its metabolites in modulating enzyme activity. PMID:23550232

  11. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  12. Infrared thermochromic behaviour of a composite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. R.; Napierala, C.; Laffez, P.

    2009-05-01

    Samarium calcium perovskite manganite Sm0.65Ca0.35MnO3 was dispersed homogeneously in a solution of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). A thin film was deposited on (100) oriented silicon substrate by spin-coating and the optical thermochromic behaviour in the infrared range was studied. In the wavelength range 8-14 µm, the optical transmittance of the thermochromic composite coating exhibited a large variation between 173 and 343 K due to a semiconductor-metal first-order transition at Tc = 250 K. The thermochromic behaviour of the composite coatings was optimized. The contrast in the transmittance first increased with pigment content, then reached a maximum value.

  13. The influence of nano silica particles on gamma-irradiation ageing of elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, G.; Marinović-Cincović, M.; Tanasić, Lj.; Jovanović, V.; Samaržija-Jovanović, S.; Vukić, N.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work was to study gamma irradiation ageing of rubber blends based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) reinforced by silica nano particles. The NBR/CSM compounds (50: 50, w/w) filled with different content of filler (0-100 phr) were crosslinked by sulfur. The vulcanization characteristics were assessed using the rheometer with an oscillating disk. The vulcanizates were prepared in a hydraulic press. The obtained materials were exposed to the different irradiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy). The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling numbers were assessed before and after gamma irradiation ageing.

  14. Modification on liquid retention property of cassava starch by radiation grafting with acrylonitrile. I. Effect of γ-irradiation on grafting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chvajarernpun, J.; Nakason, C.

    1993-07-01

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 85°C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to gamma-rays. A thin aluminum foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel, so that the homopolymer concentration was reduced to be less than 1.0% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmation of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions was made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the total dose on the extent of the grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis.

  15. Molecular structures of n-type semiconducting material 2,5-difluoro-1,4-phenylene-3,3‧-bis{2-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acrylonitrile} and its photo dimerization product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Kitou, Naoya; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Yoza, Kenji; Nagamatsu, Shuichi; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Tsuge, Akihiko; Takashima, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    The absolute molecular structure of air stable n-type semiconducting material 2,5-difluoro-1,4-phenylene-3,3‧-bis{2-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acrylonitrile} was determined by using twin crystal treatment X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound was readily dimerized in solution via irradiating of UV or Sun light. The exact molecular structure of the dimer also determined by X-ray analysis.

  16. Successful startup of a full-scale acrylonitrile wastewater biological treatment plant (ACN-WWTP) by eliminating the inhibitory effects of toxic compounds on nitrification.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    During the startup of a full-scale anoxic/aerobic (A/O) biological treatment plant for acrylonitrile wastewater, the removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were 1.29 and 0.83% on day 30, respectively. The nitrification process was almost totally inhibited, which was mainly caused by the inhibitory effects of toxic compounds. To eliminate the inhibition, cultivating the bacteria that degrade toxic compounds with patience was applied into the second startup of the biological treatment plant. After 75 days of startup, the inhibitory effects of the toxic compounds on nitrification were eliminated. The treatment plant has been operated stably for more than 3 years. During the last 100 days, the influent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH(3)-N, TKN and total cyanide (TCN) were 831-2,164, 188-516, 306-542 and 1.17-9.57 mg L(-1) respectively, and the effluent concentrations were 257 ± 30.9, 3.30 ± 1.10, 31.6 ± 4.49 and 0.40 ± 0.10 mg L(-1) (n = 100), respectively. Four strains of cyanide-degrading bacteria which were able to grow with cyanide as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were isolated from the full-scale biological treatment plant. They were short and rod-shaped under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were identified as Brevundimonas sp., Rhizobium sp., Dietzia natronolimnaea and Microbacterium sp., respectively. PMID:24552727

  17. Covalent immobilization of redox enzyme on electrospun nonwoven poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Gang; Ke, Bei-Bei; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2007-07-01

    In this work, novel conductive composite nanofiber mesh possessing reactive groups was electrospun from solutions containing poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PANCAA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for redoxase immobilization, assuming that the incorporated MWCNTs could behave as electrons transferor during enzyme catalysis. The covalent immobilization of catalase from bovine liver on the neat PANCAA nanofiber mesh or the composite one was processed in the presence of EDC/NHS. Results indicated that both the amount and activity retention of bound catalase on the composite nanofiber mesh were higher than those on the neat PANCAA nanofiber mesh, and the activity increased up to 42%. Kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), for the catalases immobilized on the composite nanofiber mesh were lower and higher than those on the neat one, respectively. This enhanced activity might be ascribed to either promoted electron transfer through charge-transfer complexes and the pi system of carbon nanotubes or rendered biocompatibility by modified MWCNTs. Furthermore, the immobilized catalases revealed much more stability after MWCNTs were incorporated into the polymer nanofiber mesh. However, there was no significant difference in optimum pH value and temperature, thermal stability and operational stability between these two immobilized preparations, while the two ones appeared more advantageous than the free in these properties. The effect of MWCNTs incorporation on another redox enzyme, peroxidase, was also studied and it was found that the activity increased by 68% in comparison of composite one with neat preparation. PMID:17171660

  18. Study of poly(acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate) as binder for graphite anode and LiMn 2O 4 cathode of Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. S.; Jow, T. R.

    We evaluated poly(acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate) (AMMA, AN/MMA=94:6) as a binder for the graphite anode and the LiMn 2O 4 cathode of Li-ion batteries by studying the cycling performance of lithium half-cells. The results showed that, using AMMA binder, both graphite and LiMn 2O 4 could be cycled well in 1 m LiPF 6 3:3:4 (weight) PC/EC/EMC electrolyte with less capacity fading. AMMA is chemically more stable than poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) against the lithiated graphite. More importantly, AMMA can help graphite to form a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film. An impedance study showed that the SEI film formed with AMMA is more stable than the one formed with PVDF. Therefore, self-delithiation of the lithiated graphite can be reduced by use of AMMA instead of PVDF, which improves the storage performance of Li-ion batteries.

  19. A poly(acrylonitrile)-functionalized porous aromatic framework synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization for the extraction of uranium from seawater

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Yanfeng; Zhang, Chenxi; Tang, Qing; Mayes, Richard T.; Liao, Wei -Po; Liao, Chen; Tsouris, Costas; Stankovich, Joseph J.; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.; et al

    2015-10-30

    In order to ensure a sustainable reserve of fuel for nuclear power generation, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to developing advanced sorbent materials for extracting uranium from seawater. In this work, a porous aromatic framework (PAF) was surface-functionalized with poly(acrylonitrile) through atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Batches of this adsorbent were conditioned with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at room temperature or 80 °C prior to contact with a uranium-spiked seawater simulant, with minimal differences in uptake observed as a function of conditioning temperature. A maximum capacity of 4.81 g-U/kg-ads was obtained following 42 days contact with uranium-spiked filtered environmental seawater, whichmore » demonstrates a comparable adsorption rate. A kinetic investigation revealed extremely rapid uranyl uptake, with more than 80% saturation reached within 14 days. Furthermore, relying on the semiordered structure of the PAF adsorbent, density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal cooperative interactions between multiple adsorbent groups yield a strong driving force for uranium binding.« less

  20. A poly(acrylonitrile)-functionalized porous aromatic framework synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization for the extraction of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Zhang, Chenxi; Tang, Qing; Mayes, Richard T.; Liao, Wei -Po; Liao, Chen; Tsouris, Costas; Stankovich, Joseph J.; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.; Abney, Carter W.; Jiang, De-en; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-30

    In order to ensure a sustainable reserve of fuel for nuclear power generation, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to developing advanced sorbent materials for extracting uranium from seawater. In this work, a porous aromatic framework (PAF) was surface-functionalized with poly(acrylonitrile) through atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Batches of this adsorbent were conditioned with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at room temperature or 80 °C prior to contact with a uranium-spiked seawater simulant, with minimal differences in uptake observed as a function of conditioning temperature. A maximum capacity of 4.81 g-U/kg-ads was obtained following 42 days contact with uranium-spiked filtered environmental seawater, which demonstrates a comparable adsorption rate. A kinetic investigation revealed extremely rapid uranyl uptake, with more than 80% saturation reached within 14 days. Furthermore, relying on the semiordered structure of the PAF adsorbent, density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal cooperative interactions between multiple adsorbent groups yield a strong driving force for uranium binding.

  1. Study on ion conductivity and crystallinity of composite polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(acrylonitrile) containing nano-sized Al2O3 fillers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyeong; Lee, Lyungyu; Jung, Yongju; Kim, Seok

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, composite polymer electrolytes were prepared by a blend of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) as a polymer matrix, ethylene carbonate as a plasticizer, LiClO4 as a salt, and by containing a different content of nano-sized Al2O3. The composite films were prepared by using the solution casting method. The crystallinity and ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and AC impedance method, respectively. The morphology of composite polymer electrolyte film was analyzed by SEM method. From the experimental results, by increasing the Al2O3 content, the crystallinity of PEO was reduced, and the ionic conductivity was increased. In particular, by a doping of 15 wt.% Al2O3 in PEO/PAN polymer blend, the CPEs showed the superior ionic conductivity. However, when Al2O3 content exceeds 15 wt.%, the ionic conductivity was decreased. From the surface morphology, it was concluded that the ionic conductivity was decreased because the CPEs showed a heterogenous morphology due to immiscibility or aggregation of the ceramic filler within the polymer matrix. PMID:24266154

  2. Effect of thermally reduced graphene sheets on the phase behavior, morphology, and electrical conductivity in poly[(α-methyl styrene)-co-(acrylonitrile)/poly(methyl-methacrylate) blends.

    PubMed

    Vleminckx, Giovanni; Bose, Suryasarathi; Leys, Jan; Vermant, Jan; Wübbenhorst, Michael; Abdala, Ahmed A; Macosko, Chris; Moldenaers, Paula

    2011-08-01

    The effects of thermally reduced graphene sheets (TRG) on the phase separation in poly[(α-methyl styrene)-co-(acrylonitrile)]/poly(methyl-methacrylate) blends were monitored using melt rheology, conductivity spectroscopy, and electron microscopic techniques. The TRG were incorporated in the single-phase material by solution mixing. The composite samples were then allowed to phase separate in situ. The thermodynamics of phase separation have been investigated by monitoring the evolution of the storage modulus (G') as a function of temperature as the system passes through the binodal and the spinodal lines of the phase diagram. The phase separation kinetics were probed by monitoring the evolution of G' as a function of time at a quench depth well in the spinodal region. It was observed that TRG significantly influenced the phase separation temperature, the shape of the phase diagram and the rate of phase separation. The state of dispersion of TRG in the blends was assessed using electron microscopy and conductivity spectroscopy measurements. Interestingly, the composite samples (monophasic) were virtually insulators at room temperature, whereas highly conducting materials were obtained as a result of phase separation in the biphasic materials. PMID:21749102

  3. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with γ-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, γ-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between γ-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with γ-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  4. Microwave absorption properties of lightweight absorber based on Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and reduced graphene oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Junpeng; Huo, Siqi; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Yushan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a facile method to obtain the lightweight composites consisting of surface modified Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres (PANS@SMF), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and epoxy resin. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic were used for the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure PANS@SMF and RGO composites, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites were enhanced. The bandwidth less than -10 dB was almost 4.5 GHz in the range of 10 GHz to 14.5 GHz, with a matching thickness of 2.5 mm. The density of the hybrid composites was in the range of 0.25-0.34 g/cm3. Therefore, the hybrid composite can be considered as a potential lightweight microwave absorber.

  5. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption.

  6. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  7. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem. PMID:25413110

  8. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-jun

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption. PMID:25089616

  9. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  10. Cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) based anion-exchange membranes in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahendra; Singh, Shalini; Shahi, Vinod K

    2010-01-14

    Hydroxide anion conducting polymer membranes also termed as anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are recently becoming important materials for electrochemical technology, alkaline fuel cells, and electrolyzers. In this work, the preparation procedure for AEMs based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and copolymer of poly(acrylonitrile (PAN)-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (DMAEMA) with strongly basic quaternary ammonium in aqueous media has been reported. This simplified procedure avoids the use of chloromethyl methyl ether (CME), a carcinogen that is harmful to human health, generally used for chloromethylation during AEM preparation. Developed AEMs were extensively characterized by studying physicochemical and electrochemical properties, to assess their suitability for electrodialytic ion separation. These membranes were designed to possess all the required properties of a highly anion conductive membrane such as reasonable water uptake, good ion-exchange capacity (1.18 mequiv g(-1)), high permselectivity (0.90), along with reasonable conductivity (3.45 mS cm(-1)) due to quaternary ammonium group functionality. The membrane conductivity values in conjunction with solution conductivity have been used for the estimation of the isoconductivity point, considering the membrane as a combination of the gel phase and integral phase. Electroosmotic studies revealed quite low mass drag and equivalent pore radius (2.7-4.0 A) of the membrane, which are also desirable properties of an AEM. The excellent electrotransport property of AEM-70 for practical anion separation was concluded from i-v studies. Electrodialytic performance of the AEM-70 membrane revealed its suitability for applications in electromembrane processes. PMID:19938844

  11. Hemoglobin adducts from acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in cigarette smokers: effects of glutathione S-transferase T1-null and M1-null genotypes.

    PubMed

    Fennell, T R; MacNeela, J P; Morris, R W; Watson, M; Thompson, C L; Bell, D A

    2000-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is used to manufacture plastics and fibers. It is carcinogenic in rats and is found in cigarette smoke. Ethylene oxide (EO) is a metabolite of ethylene, also found in cigarette smoke, and is carcinogenic in rodents. Both ACN and EO undergo conjugation with glutathione. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and hemoglobin adducts derived from ACN and EO and to investigate whether null genotypes for glutathione transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) alter the internal dose of these agents. The hemoglobin adducts N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEVal), which is formed from ACN, and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEVal), which is formed from EO, and GST genotypes were determined in blood samples obtained from 16 nonsmokers and 32 smokers (one to two packs/day). Smoking information was obtained by questionnaire, and plasma cotinine levels were determined by immunoassay. Glutathione transferase null genotypes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were determined by PCR. Both CEVal and HEVal levels increased with increased cigarette smoking dose (both self-reported and cotinine-based). CEVal and HEVal levels were also correlated. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes had little effect on CEVal concentrations. GSTM1 null genotypes had no significant impact on HEVal. However, HEVal levels were significantly elevated in GSTT1-null individuals when normalized to smoking status or cotinine levels. The ratio of HEVal:CEVal was also elevated in GSTT1-null smokers (1.50 +/- 0.57 versus 0.88 +/- 0.24; P = 0.0002). The lack of a functional GSTT1 is estimated to increase the internal dose of EO derived from cigarette smoke by 50-70%. PMID:10919741

  12. Copper-catalyzed retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes: chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-enones and (E)-acrylonitriles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Deng, Zhu-Qin

    2016-07-26

    A copper-catalyzed transfer aldol type reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes is reported, which enables chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones and (E)-acrylonitriles. A key step of the in situ copper(i)-promoted retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles is proposed to generate a reactive Cu(i) enolate or cyanomethyl intermediate, which undergoes ensuing aldol condensation with aldehydes to deliver the products. This reaction uses 1.2 mol% Cu(IPr)Cl (IPr denotes 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) as the catalyst in the presence of 6.0 mol% NaOtBu cocatalyst at room temperature or 70 °C. A range of aryl and heteroaryl aldehydes as well as acrylaldehydes are compatible with many useful functional groups being tolerated. Under the mild and weakly basic conditions, competitive Cannizzaro-type reaction of benzaldehydes and side reactions of base-sensitive functional groups can be effectively suppressed, which show synthetic advantages of this reaction compared to classic aldol reactions. The synthetic potential of this reaction is further demonstrated by the one-step synthesis of biologically active quinolines and 1,8-naphthyridine in excellent yields (up to 91%). Finally, a full catalytic cycle for this reaction has been constructed using DFT computational studies in the context of a retro-aldol/aldol two-stage mechanism. A rather flat reaction energy profile is found indicating that both stages are kinetically facile, which is consistent with the mild reaction conditions. PMID:27397647

  13. Towards alpha- or beta-D-C-glycosyl compounds by tin-catalyzed addition of glycosyl radicals to acrylonitrile and vinylphosphonate, and flexible reduction of tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide with cyanoborohydride.

    PubMed

    Praly, Jean-Pierre; Ardakani, Azin Salek; Bruyère, Isabelle; Marie-Luce, Chrystelle; Bing Qin, Bing

    2002-10-01

    Photo-induced radical addition of acetylated alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (1). to acrylonitrile or diethyl vinylphosphonate, in the presence of catalytic amounts of tri-n-butyltin chloride and sodium (or tetra-n-butylammonium) cyanoborohydride in excess, allowed efficient preparations of alpha-configurated nonononitrile and 2-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-ethylphosphonate (79, 70% yields, respectively). These conditions led to 2-(alpha-D-manno-, and galactopyranosyl)-ethylphosphonates in 68 and 76% yields. Similarly, radical addition of acetylated 1-bromo-beta-D-glucopyranosyl chloride (2). to acrylonitrile or diethyl vinylphosphonate afforded mainly intermediate chlorides which, upon radical reduction with excess tri-n-butyltin hydride, afforded the corresponding beta anomers (40 and 38%, respectively) by sequential C-C and C-H bond formation. Stereocontrol relies on the alpha-stereoselective quenching of D-glycopyranos-1-yl radicals. We found also that UV light irradiation of 1 with excess NaBH(3)CN in tert-butanol afforded either 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-alpha-D-arabino-hexopyranose (65% after crystallization) or, when 10% mol thiophenol was added, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (79%). These are simple, tin-free, and easily controlled conditions, which compare well with known preparations of these reduced sugars. PMID:12423963

  14. Between Ni(mnt)2 and Ni(tfd)2 dithiolene complexes: the unsymmetrical 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate and its nickel complexes.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, Olivier; Delaunay, Jacques; Barrière, Frédéric; Fourmigué, Marc

    2005-12-26

    A novel 1,2-dithiolate ligand, that is, the 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate, abbreviated here as tfadt, is prepared from the corresponding cyclic dithiocarbonate. This ligand, substituted with both a CN and a CF(3) group, is compared with the well-known maleonitrile- and bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolates. The preparation, electrochemical properties, and X-ray crystal structures of the square-planar nickel complexes, in both their dianionic diamagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) and their monoanionic paramagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) forms, are reported, as n-Bu(4)N(+), PPh(4)(+), and (18-crown-6)Na(+) salts, respectively. In the [(18-crown-6)Na](2)[Ni(tfadt)(2)] salt, each CN moiety of the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) dianion is coordinated to a (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation through a CN...Na interaction [N...Na = 2.481(3) A], affording an "axle with wheels" model where two MeOH molecules act as axle caps. On the other hand, in [(18-crown-6)Na][Ni(tfadt)(2)], each (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation is coordinated on both sides by the CN groups of two monoanionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complexes with N...Na(+) distances at 2.434(5) and 2.485(4) A, giving rise to heterobimetallic chains with alternating (18-crown-6)Na(+) and [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) ions. These two examples demonstrate the attractive ability of the CN moieties in the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-)(,)(*)(-) complexes to coordinate metallic cationic centers. The paramagnetic salts of the anionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complex follow Curie-type law in the 2-300 K temperature range, indicating the absence of intermolecular magnetic interactions in the solid state. The complexes are found in their trans form in all crystal structures, while density functional theory calculations establish that both forms have essentially the same energy. A cis-trans interconversion process is observed by variable-temperature NMR on the dianionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) complex with a coalescence temperature T(c) of 260 K and a free energy of

  15. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the

  16. Comparative metabolism of methacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile to cyanide using cytochrome P4502E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase-null mice

    SciTech Connect

    El Hadri, L.; Chanas, B.; Ghanayem, B.I. . E-mail: ghanayem@niehs.nih.gov

    2005-06-01

    Methacrylonitrile (MAN) and acrylonitrile (AN) are metabolized via glutathione (GSH) conjugation or epoxide formation. We have recently shown that CYP2E1 is essential for AN epoxidation and subsequent cyanide liberation. Current studies were designed to compare the enzymatic basis of MAN vs. AN metabolism to cyanide using wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-, and mEH-null mice. Mice received a single gavage dose of 0.047, 0.095, 0.19, or 0.38 mmol/kg of MAN or AN, and blood cyanide was measured at 1 or 3 h later. Blood cyanide levels in WT mice treated with AN or MAN were dose and time dependent. At equimolar doses, significantly higher levels of cyanide were detected in the blood of MAN- vs. AN-treated mice. Further, while significant reduction in blood cyanide levels occurred in MAN-treated CYP2E1-null vs. WT mice, AN metabolism to cyanide was largely abolished in CYP2E1-null mice. Pretreatment of mice with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, CYP inhibitor) demonstrated that CYPs other than CYP2E1 also contribute to MAN metabolism to cyanide. Blood cyanide levels in mEH-null mice treated with aliphatic nitriles are generally lower than levels in similarly treated WT mice. Western blot analysis showed that expression of sEH was greater in male vs. female mice. The role of various epoxide hydrolases (EHs) in the production of cyanide from aliphatic nitriles is apparently structure and dose dependent. Regardless of genotype, significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female mice treated with MAN or AN. In conclusion, these data showed that (1) at equimolar doses, higher blood cyanide levels were detected in mice treated with MAN vs. AN; (2) while CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for AN metabolism to cyanide, other CYPs also contribute to MAN metabolism; and (3) significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female treated with either nitrile. Higher blood cyanide levels in male vs. female mice and in MAN- vs. AN

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  18. Experimental (FT-IR, NMR and UV) and theoretical (M06-2X and DFT) investigation, and frequency estimation analyses on (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; Balakit, Asim A.; Öztürk, Nuri; Ucun, Fatih; El-Hiti, Gamal A.

    2014-10-01

    The spectroscopic properties of (E)-3-(4-bromo-5-methylthiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile have been investigated by FT-IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and angles) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parameterized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 03 software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been carried out by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results in the literature. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength wavelengths were performed by B3LYP methods. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and depicted.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Facilitated Transport Membranes Composed of Chitosan-Styrene and Chitosan-Acrylonitrile Copolymers Modified by Methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for CO2 Separation from CH4 and N2

    PubMed Central

    Otvagina, Ksenia V.; Mochalova, Alla E.; Sazanova, Tatyana S.; Petukhov, Anton N.; Moskvichev, Alexandr A.; Vorotyntsev, Andrey V.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.; Vorotyntsev, Ilya V.

    2016-01-01

    CO2 separation was found to be facilitated by transport membranes based on novel chitosan (CS)–poly(styrene) (PS) and chitosan (CS)–poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) copolymer matrices doped with methylimidazolium based ionic liquids: [bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], and [bmim][Tf2N] (IL). CS plays the role of biodegradable film former and selectivity promoter. Copolymers were prepared implementing the latest achievements in radical copolymerization with chosen monomers, which enabled the achievement of outstanding mechanical strength values for the CS-based membranes (75–104 MPa for CS-PAN and 69–75 MPa for CS-PS). Ionic liquid (IL) doping affected the surface and mechanical properties of the membranes as well as the gas separation properties. The highest CO2 permeability 400 Barrers belongs to CS-b-PS/[bmim][BF4]. The highest selectivity α (CO2/N2) = 15.5 was achieved for CS-b-PAN/[bmim][BF4]. The operational temperature of the membranes is under 220 °C. PMID:27294964

  20. Morphology, mechanical, cross-linking, thermal, and tribological properties of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites prepared by melt compounding: The effect of acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likozar, Blaž; Major, Zoltan

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare nanocomposites by mixing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile elastomers (NBR and HNBR). Utilization of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS and WAXS) for advanced morphology observation of conducting filler-reinforced nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber composites is reported. Principal results were increases in hardness (maximally 97 Shore, type A), elastic modulus (maximally 981 MPa), tensile strength (maximally 27.7 MPa), elongation at break (maximally 216%), cross-link density (maximally 7.94 × 1028 m-3), density (maximally 1.16 g cm-3), and tear strength (11.2 kN m-1), which were clearly visible at particular acrylonitrile contents both for unhydrogenated and hydrogenated polymers due to enhanced distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their aggregated particles in the applied rubber matrix. Conclusion was that multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved the performance of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding.

  1. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Facilitated Transport Membranes Composed of Chitosan-Styrene and Chitosan-Acrylonitrile Copolymers Modified by Methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for CO₂ Separation from CH₄ and N₂.

    PubMed

    Otvagina, Ksenia V; Mochalova, Alla E; Sazanova, Tatyana S; Petukhov, Anton N; Moskvichev, Alexandr A; Vorotyntsev, Andrey V; Afonso, Carlos A M; Vorotyntsev, Ilya V

    2016-01-01

    CO₂ separation was found to be facilitated by transport membranes based on novel chitosan (CS)-poly(styrene) (PS) and chitosan (CS)-poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) copolymer matrices doped with methylimidazolium based ionic liquids: [bmim][BF₄], [bmim][PF₆], and [bmim][Tf₂N] (IL). CS plays the role of biodegradable film former and selectivity promoter. Copolymers were prepared implementing the latest achievements in radical copolymerization with chosen monomers, which enabled the achievement of outstanding mechanical strength values for the CS-based membranes (75-104 MPa for CS-PAN and 69-75 MPa for CS-PS). Ionic liquid (IL) doping affected the surface and mechanical properties of the membranes as well as the gas separation properties. The highest CO₂ permeability 400 Barrers belongs to CS-b-PS/[bmim][BF₄]. The highest selectivity α (CO₂/N₂) = 15.5 was achieved for CS-b-PAN/[bmim][BF₄]. The operational temperature of the membranes is under 220 °C. PMID:27294964

  3. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  4. Synthesis, molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition, isometric chemical shift, polarizability and hyperpolarizability analysis of 3-(4-Methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile: A combined experimental and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, Abdullah Mohamed; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kurt, Mustafa; Alamry, Khalid A.

    2011-11-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel compound, 3-(4-Methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile (abbreviated as 3-(4MP)-2-(4-NP)-AN, C 16H 12N 2O 3). The spectroscopic properties of the compound were examined by FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR ( 1H and 13C) techniques. FT-IR spectrum in solid state was observed in the region 4000-400 cm -1. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the compound which dissolved in chloroform was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl 3 solution. To determine lowest-energy molecular conformation of the title molecule, the selected torsion angle is varied every 10° and molecular energy profile is calculated from 0° to 360°. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values were also computed using the same basis set. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The HOMO and LUMO analysis were used to elucidate information regarding charge transfer within the molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR spectrum. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Comparison of the calculated frequencies, NMR chemical shifts, absorption wavelengths with the experimental values revealed that DFT and TD-DFT method produce good results. The linear polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the title compound can be used as a good nonlinear optical material

  5. Synthesis, molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transition, isometric chemical shift, polarizability and hyperpolarizability analysis of 3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah Mohamed; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kurt, Mustafa; Alamry, Khalid A

    2011-11-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel compound, 3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acrylonitrile (abbreviated as 3-(4MP)-2-(4-NP)-AN, C(16)H(12)N(2)O(3)). The spectroscopic properties of the compound were examined by FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) techniques. FT-IR spectrum in solid state was observed in the region 4000-400 cm(-1). The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the compound which dissolved in chloroform was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl(3) solution. To determine lowest-energy molecular conformation of the title molecule, the selected torsion angle is varied every 10° and molecular energy profile is calculated from 0° to 360°. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values were also computed using the same basis set. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The HOMO and LUMO analysis were used to elucidate information regarding charge transfer within the molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR spectrum. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Comparison of the calculated frequencies, NMR chemical shifts, absorption wavelengths with the experimental values revealed that DFT and TD-DFT method produce good results. The linear polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the title compound can be used as a good nonlinear

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134...) of this section, the facilities required by 29 CFR 1910.141, including clean change rooms and shower... Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (q) through (i). Records required...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134...) of this section, the facilities required by 29 CFR 1910.141, including clean change rooms and shower... Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (q) through (i). Records required...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134...) of this section, the facilities required by 29 CFR 1910.141, including clean change rooms and shower... Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (q) through (i). Records required...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134...) of this section, the facilities required by 29 CFR 1910.141, including clean change rooms and shower... Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (q) through (i). Records required...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134...) of this section, the facilities required by 29 CFR 1910.141, including clean change rooms and shower... Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a) through (e) and (q) through (i). Records required...

  11. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22... accordance with this paragraph. Those uses are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently...

  12. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22... accordance with this paragraph. Those uses are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently...

  13. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22... accordance with this paragraph. Those uses are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently...

  14. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.22... accordance with this paragraph. Those uses are thereafter unapproved food additives and consequently...

  15. Enzymatic surface modification of acrylonitrile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, Ezio; Morra, Marco; Marinetti, Massimo

    2001-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile polymer (containing 10% acetate groups) as fibers and finely ground powder have been modified by enzymatic treatment. The enzyme used was a nitrile hydratase, member of the class of nitrile converting enzymes, present in the microorganisms Brevibacterium imperiale and Corynebacterium nitrilophilus. The pendant nitrile groups were selectively converted into the corresponding amides as assessed by XPS analysis. As indicated by the increase of the O/C atomic ratio, the fiber surface showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity. The newly formed amide groups were then able to react with the acid dyes typically used to stain natural fibers, conferring the coloring properties to the otherwise inert polymer surface.

  16. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates. PMID:17629616

  17. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... square inch of food-contact surface—0.003 milligram/square inch when extracted to equilibrium at 120 °F... to equilibrium at 120 °F with food-simulating solvents appropriate to the intended conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exposed to distilled water and 3 pct acetic acid for 10 d at 66 °C (150 °F)The extracted copolymer shall not exceed 0.001 mg/in 2 surface area of the food contact article when exposed to distilled water and... 2 surface area of the food contact article when exposed to distilled water and 3 pct acetic acid...

  19. Quantitative analysis of (styrene/acrylonitrile/methyl methacrylate) co-polymer systems by infrared resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Jiang, Tao; Fengqi, Liu; Ding, C.; Darwish, Abdalla M.

    2002-02-01

    A detailed careful analysis of the infrared resonance (IR) spectra of polystyrene (PSt), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and their co-mixtures were performed. Through this study the absorption peak area to weight ratios as well as working curves were obtained to test for their reliability as well as their suitability. Satisfactory results were achieved and these working curves were then used to measure the polymerized components of binary and ternary co-polymers. By investigating the acquired data we conclude that the monomer preferential polymeric sequence is St>MMA>AN. A quantitative method to measure P (St/AN/MMA) concentrations by IR spectroscopy is proposed in this work.

  20. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer containing 64 to 69 parts by weight of... to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16 to 20 parts of butadiene/styrene...) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the same composition range as the matrix...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer consists of: (1) 73 to 79 parts by weight of a matrix polymer... weight of methyl methacrylate; and (2) 21 to 27 parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 16... 28 parts by weight of styrene and (ii) 5 to 10 parts by weight of a graft polymer having the...

  4. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Extractives limitations. The following extractive limitations are determined by an infrared spectrophotometric method titled, “Infrared Spectrophotometric Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Extractives limitations. The following extractive limitations are determined by an infrared spectrophotometric method titled, “Infrared Spectrophotometric Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Extractives limitations. The following extractive limitations are determined by an infrared spectrophotometric method titled, “Infrared Spectrophotometric Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Extractives limitations. The following extractive limitations are determined by an infrared spectrophotometric method titled, “Infrared Spectrophotometric Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... content is in the range 16.5-19 percent as determined by Kjeldahl analysis. (ii) Intrinsic viscosity in... Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated...

  10. 76 FR 54228 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... (76 FR 38387) for the external review draft human health assessment titled, ``Toxicological Review of...- dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This draft assessment has not been... for independent external peer review of this draft assessment. The public comment period and...

  11. 2-[(4-Benzhydrylpipérazin-1-yl)méthyl]acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Fatma; Ould M’hamed, Mohamed; Mrabet, Hédi; Driss, Ahmed; Efrit, Mohamed Lotfi

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, 2-[(4-benz­hydryl­piperazin-1-yl)­methyl]­acrylo­nitrile, C21H23N3, the substituted piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the aromatic rings is 71.61 (8)°. PMID:21201087

  12. Structure and activity of tellurium/molybdenum oxide acrylonitrile catalysts. [Ammoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bart, J.C.J.; Giordano, N.

    1980-08-01

    The tellurium/molybdenum mixed oxides ((TeMo)O) catalyst system was investigated as part of the development of an industrial cerium/tellurium/molybdenum mixed oxides catalyst for propylene ammoxidation Catalysts containing 25% active phase on silica were prepared, characterized by BET surface area measurement, mercury porosimetry, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy, and tested for the ammoxidation of propylene at 400/sup 0/-460/sup 0/C in a flow reactor. The results suggested that Te/sub 2/MoO/sub 7/ is the active phase. The mechanism probably involves activation of propylene on a tellurium site and oxygen insertion at isolated and highly distorted MoO/sub 6/ octahedral sites. The addition of cerium to the binary catalyst prevents the reductive degradation of (TeMo)O which occurs under reactor flow conditions by a phase-separation process.

  13. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    PubMed

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. PMID:27060197

  14. 76 FR 38387 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... the meeting, attendees must have photo identification with them and must register at the guard's desk in the lobby. The guard will retain your photo identification and will provide you with a visitor's... the guard and you will receive your photo identification. A teleconference line will also be...

  15. 76 FR 77267 - Acrylonitrile Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355). Signed... the Federal eRulemaking Portal. Follow the instructions online for submitting comments. Facsimile: If... , which is the Federal eRulemaking Portal; (2) by facsimile (fax); or (3) by hard copy. All...

  16. The photodissociation mechanisms of acrylonitrile: Ab initio calculations on reaction channels and surface intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Du Weina; Luo Cheng; Li Zesheng

    2008-11-07

    The dissociations of CH{sub 2}CHCN into CH{sub 2}CH+CN and CH{sub 2}C+HCN in the S{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, and {sup 1}{pi}{sub 2}{pi}{sub C{identical_to}}{sub N}* (definitions of {pi} orbitals can refer to computational details) states, have been explored at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory employing the Dunning correlation consistent triple-zeta basis set. The lowest energy points of the surface crossing seams have been searched. Two conical intersections, from {sup 1}{pi}{sub C{identical_to}}{sub N}{pi}{sub 1}* to {sup 1}{pi}{sub 2}{pi}{sub 1}* (CI{sub 1}) and from {sup 1}{pi}{sub 2}{pi}{sub 1}* to S{sub 0} (CI{sub 2}), and one intersystem crossing point (T{sub 1}/S{sub 0}) have been located. The energies of all critical points have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. At each conical intersection, derivative coupling and unscaled gradient difference vectors have been analyzed to determine the relaxation channels that the molecule may evolve in after nonradiative decay. Once the molecule is photoexcited to the {sup 1}{pi}{sub 2}{pi}{sub 1}* or {sup 1}{pi}{sub C{identical_to}}{sub N}{pi}{sub 1}* state, it would relax along the similar pathway: funneling through CI{sub 1} and then CI{sub 2}, and finally populate the ground state. Our results show that upon 193 nm photoexcitation, the most probable reaction channel is the ground-state HCN elimination following radiationless decays from excited states through surface crossings, which consists with experimental results J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5784 (1998). The investigated dissociation channels on the {sup 1}{pi}{sub 2}{pi}{sub C{identical_to}}{sub N}* surface, which are inaccessible upon 193 nm photoexcitation, may provide information for reactions induced by higher energy excitations.

  17. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exposed to distilled water and 3 pct acetic acid for 10 d at 66 °C (150 °F)The extracted copolymer shall not exceed 0.001 mg/in 2 surface area of the food contact article when exposed to distilled water and... 2 surface area of the food contact article when exposed to distilled water and 3 pct acetic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rubber consisting of (i) 8-12 parts of butadiene/styrene elastomer containing 77-82 parts by weight of... by the method titled, “Determination of β-Dodecyl-mercaptopropionitrile in NR-16 Polymer,” which is... infrared spectro-photo-metric method titled “Infrared Spectro-photo-metric Determination of...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 8-12 parts of butadiene/styrene elastomer...-mercaptopropionitrile in NR-16 Polymer,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the Center for... Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210 Resin Pellets,” which is incorporated by reference....

  20. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  1. Conformational and Molecular Structures of α,β-Unsaturated Acrylonitrile Derivatives: Photophysical Properties and Their Frontier Orbitals.

    PubMed

    Percino, María Judith; Cerón, Margarita; Rodríguez, Oscar; Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Castro, María Eugenia; Chapela, Víctor M; Siegler, Maxime A; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We report single crystal X-ray diffraction (hereafter, SCXRD) analyses of derivatives featuring the electron-donor N-ethylcarbazole or the (4-diphenylamino)phenyl moieties associated with a -CN group attached to a double bond. The compounds are (2Z)-3-(4-(diphenylamino)-phenyl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-enenitrile (I), (2Z)-3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-prop-2-enenitrile (II) and (2Z)-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)enenitrile (III). SCXRD analyses reveal that I and III crystallize in the monoclinic space groups P2/c with Z' = 2 and C2/c with Z' = 1, respectively. Compound II crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with Z' = 1. The molecular packing analysis was conducted to examine the pyridine core effect, depending on the ortho, meta- and para-positions of the nitrogen atom, with respect to the optical properties and number of independent molecules (Z'). It is found that the double bond bearing a diphenylamino moiety introduced properties to exhibit a strong π-π-interaction in the solid state. The compounds were examined to evaluate the effects of solvent polarity, the role of the molecular structure, and the molecular interactions on their self-assembly behaviors. Compound I crystallized with a cell with two conformers, anti and syn, due to interaction with solvent. DFT calculations indicated the anti and syn structures of I are energetically stable (less than 1 eV). Also electrochemical and photophysical properties of the compounds were investigated, as well as the determination of optimization calculations in gas and different solvent (chloroform, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide) in the Gaussian09 program. The effect of solvent by PCM method was also investigated. The frontier HOMO and LUMO energies and gap energies are reported. PMID:27043499

  2. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  3. The effect of embedded carbon nanotubes on the morphological evolution during the carbonization of poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Sabina; Zussman, Eyal; Cohen, Yachin

    2008-04-23

    Hybrid nanofibers with different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were fabricated using the electrospinning technique and subsequently carbonized. The morphology of the fabricated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at different stages of the carbonization process was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The polycrystalline nature of the CNFs was shown, with increasing content of ordered crystalline regions having enhanced orientation with increasing content of MWCNTs. The results indicate that embedded MWCNTs in the PAN nanofibers nucleate the growth of carbon crystals during PAN carbonization. PMID:21825647

  4. Preparation and dielectric analysis of microphase-separated poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, D.Shiaw-Guang; Lin, Yow-Shi

    1993-12-31

    The acidic hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile was carried out to yield a variety of terpolymers made up of nitriles, amides and acids. The formation of block structure was shown to follow a ripper mechanism occurring to acrylamide groups, that is more pronounced for a certain range of acrylamide content, evidenced by the composition analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR and base titration. The rates of formation of acrylamide fraction and acid fraction in the consecutive mode are approximately the same, yielding the content of ionic groups from 0.8 to 2.2. mole percent, dependent on the time of hydrolysis. The dielectric relaxation measurement on swollen gels shows three relaxation transitions, {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, over -150{degrees}C to 0{degrees}C, as influenced by the chemical composition and water absorption. The {beta} and {gamma} are associated with the polymer-water interaction and short-range motion of polymers and water.

  5. Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/manganous tungstate (MnWO4) nanocomposites: Characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Abdu Raheem V., P.; Jayakrishnan, P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocomposites of NBR with manganous-tungstate nanoparticles were prepared through vulcanization process. The extent of interaction of nanoparticles with the polymer was studied by FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA and AC conductivity. FTIR and XRD ascertain the interaction of NBR with MnWO4 nanoparticles. SEM analysis established that the nanopartilces were well dispersed in the macromolecular chain of NBR. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were studied as a function of filler loading. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced thermal stability as seen in TGA. Conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites increase with increase in concentration of MnWO4 nanoparticles (7phr) and thereafter the value decreases.

  6. Poly (vinylidene fluoride) / Poly (acrylonitrile)–based Superior Hydrophobic Piezoelectric Solid Derived by Aligned Carbon Nanotube in Electrospinning: Fabrication, the Phase Conversion and Surface Energy

    PubMed Central

    Aqeel, Salem M.; Than, Lisa; Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials have attracted many interests from both fundamental and practical aspects, such as field–effect transistor, electric protection, transducers and biosensor. Here we demonstrated the first superior hydrophobic piezoelectric surface based on the polymer blend of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)–polyacrilonitrile (PAN) assisted with functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), by a modified electrospinning method. Typically the β–phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was considered as the excellent piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. However, polar β–phase of PVDF exhibited a natural high hydrophilicity. As a well–known fact, the wettability of the surface is dominated by two major factors: surface composition and surface roughness. The significant conversions derived by the incorporation of MWNTs, from nonpolar α–phase to highly polar β–phase of PVDF, were confirmed by FTIR. Meanwhile, the effects of MWNTs on the improvement of the roughness and the hydrophobicity of polymer blend were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA). Molar free energy of wetting of the polymer nanocomposite decreases with increasing the wt.% of MWNTs. All molar free energy of wetting of PVDF–PAN/MWNTs were negative, which means the non–wettability of film. The combination of surface roughness and low–surface–energy modification in nanostructured composites leads to high hydrophobicity. Particularly, fabrication of superior hydrophobic surfaces not only has fundamental interest but also various possible functional applications in micro– and nano–materials and devices. PMID:26989486

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(aminothioxymethyl)-) Acrolein (2-Propenal) Acrylamide (2-Propenamide) Acrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile) Aflatoxins..., mercury(2+) salt) Methacrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl-) Methapyrilene (1,2-Ethanediamine,...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(aminothioxymethyl)-) Acrolein (2-Propenal) Acrylamide (2-Propenamide) Acrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile) Aflatoxins..., mercury(2+) salt) Methacrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl-) Methapyrilene (1,2-Ethanediamine,...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(aminothioxymethyl)-) Acrolein (2-Propenal) Acrylamide (2-Propenamide) Acrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile) Aflatoxins..., mercury(2+) salt) Methacrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl-) Methapyrilene (1,2-Ethanediamine,...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-(aminothioxymethyl)-) Acrolein (2-Propenal) Acrylamide (2-Propenamide) Acrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile) Aflatoxins..., mercury(2+) salt) Methacrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl-) Methapyrilene (1,2-Ethanediamine,...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-(aminothioxymethyl)-) Acrolein (2-Propenal) Acrylamide (2-Propenamide) Acrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile) Aflatoxins..., mercury(2+) salt) Methacrylonitrile (2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl-) Methapyrilene (1,2-Ethanediamine,...

  12. 21 CFR 176.170 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvents,” which are incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... kilograms (1 ton) of dry paper and paperboard fibers. Acrylonitrile polymer, reaction product with.... Acrylonitrile polymer with styrene, reaction product with ethylenediamine acetate, having a nitrogen content...

  13. 21 CFR 176.170 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvents,” which are incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... kilograms (1 ton) of dry paper and paperboard fibers. Acrylonitrile polymer, reaction product with.... Acrylonitrile polymer with styrene, reaction product with ethylenediamine acetate, having a nitrogen content...

  14. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. PMID:25750055

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... terephthalic acid high viscosity multiple end finisher process ✔ ✔ ✔ Polystyrene resin using a batch process ✔ Polystyrene resin using a continuous process ✔ SAN using a batch process ✔ ✔ SAN using a continuous process... = Acrylonitrile styrene resin/alpha methyl styrene acrylonitrile resin. EPS = expandable polystyrene resin....

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acid high viscosity multiple end finisher process ✔ ✔ ✔ Polystyrene resin using a batch process ✔ Polystyrene resin using a continuous process ✔ SAN using a batch process ✔ ✔ SAN using a continuous process... = Acrylonitrile styrene resin/alpha methyl styrene acrylonitrile resin. EPS = expandable polystyrene resin....

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acid high viscosity multiple end finisher process ✔ ✔ ✔ Polystyrene resin using a batch process ✔ Polystyrene resin using a continuous process ✔ SAN using a batch process ✔ ✔ SAN using a continuous process... = Acrylonitrile styrene resin/alpha methyl styrene acrylonitrile resin. EPS = expandable polystyrene resin....

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... terephthalic acid high viscosity multiple end finisher process ✔ ✔ ✔ Polystyrene resin using a batch process ✔ Polystyrene resin using a continuous process ✔ SAN using a batch process ✔ ✔ SAN using a continuous process... = Acrylonitrile styrene resin/alpha methyl styrene acrylonitrile resin. EPS = expandable polystyrene resin....

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Known Organic HAP Emitted From the Production of Thermoplastic Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acid high viscosity multiple end finisher process ✔ ✔ ✔ Polystyrene resin using a batch process ✔ Polystyrene resin using a continuous process ✔ SAN using a batch process ✔ ✔ SAN using a continuous process... = Acrylonitrile styrene resin/alpha methyl styrene acrylonitrile resin. EPS = expandable polystyrene resin....

  20. Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

    1980-02-14

    The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

  1. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  2. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  3. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  4. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide... polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in...

  5. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide... polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in...

  6. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide... polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin 309-00-2 1,4:5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene, 1,2,3,4,10...-decachlorooctahydro- Lead (Total) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile,...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- Acrolein 107-02-8 2-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin...) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- Methapyrilene...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- Acrolein 107-02-8 2-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin...) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- Methapyrilene...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- Acrolein 107-02-8 2-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin...) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- Methapyrilene...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin 309-00-2 1,4:5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene, 1,2,3,4,10...-decachlorooctahydro- Lead (Total) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile,...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin 309-00-2 1,4:5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene, 1,2,3,4,10...-decachlorooctahydro- Lead (Total) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile,...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- Acrolein 107-02-8 2-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin...) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- Methapyrilene...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin 309-00-2 1,4:5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene, 1,2,3,4,10...-decachlorooctahydro- Lead (Total) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile,...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- Acrolein 107-02-8 2-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin...) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- Methapyrilene...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Propenal Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile Aldrin 309-00-2 1,4:5,8-Dimethanonaphthalene, 1,2,3,4,10...-decachlorooctahydro- Lead (Total) Lead Mercury (Total) Mercury Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile,...

  17. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application. PMID:24695435

  18. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... apply to releases of the PMN substance during the dewatering step of the polymerization reactions...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Acrylonitrile. Methacrylonitrile. Vinyl chloride. Itaconic acid. Styrene-maleic anhydride resin, partial 2... terephthalate or terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol, modified with one or more of the following: Azelaic acid, dimethyl azelate, dimethyl sebacate, sebacic acid. Ethylene terephthalate copolymers: Prepared...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), nylon, and high-impact polystyrene) that are injection-molded and possess high..., or high-impact polystyrene) though exempt from the requirements that there be no internal voids,...

  3. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials other than those materials (such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), nylon, and high-impact... characteristics (such as injection-molded balls made of ABS, nylon, or high-impact polystyrene) though exempt...

  4. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  5. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  6. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  7. Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Kosola, K. L.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated, using a screening test method. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acrylonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions, and carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  8. Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

  9. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  10. Morphology of a silver/polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, M. A.; Mashin, A. I.; Tyurin, A. S.; Fedosov, A. E.; Chidichimo, G.; De Filpo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) nanocomposites are synthesized at the stage of simultaneous acrylonitrile polymerization and the reduction of silver ions from a mixture of silver nitrate AgNO3, acrylonitrile, and a photoinitiator. The synthesized films are transparent in the visible region and are characterized by a uniform dispersion of silver nanoparticles in a PAN matrix without any macroscopic agglomeration. The effects of the metal salt and photoinitiator concentrations on the size and density of metal nanoparticles in a composite are revealed.

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c Styrene/ acrylonitrile mixture... indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability....43 ≥ 0.078 All other chemicals ≥ 38 and < 45.43 ≥ 13.1 ≥ 45.43 ≥ 0.53 a Vessel capacity and...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Chemical a Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c Styrene/ acrylonitrile... indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability....43 ≥ 0.078 All other chemicals ≥ 38 and < 45.43 ≥ 13.1 ≥ 45.43 ≥ 0.53 a Vessel capacity and...

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vessel capacity(cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c Styrene/ acrylonitrile mixture... indicated. b Maximum true vapor pressure of total organic HAP at storage temperature. c The applicability....43 ≥ 0.078 All other chemicals ≥ 38 and < 45.43 ≥ 13.1 ≥ 45.43 ≥ 0.53 a Vessel capacity and...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Vinyl acetate 108054 57. Vinyl chloride 75014 58. Xylene (m) 108383 59. Xylene (o) 95476 60. Xylene (p...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Vinyl acetate 108054 57. Vinyl chloride 75014 58. Xylene (m) 108383 59. Xylene (o) 95476 60. Xylene (p...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Vinyl acetate 108054 57. Vinyl chloride 75014 58. Xylene (m) 108383 59. Xylene (o) 95476 60. Xylene (p...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of copolymer + solvent and homopolymer + solvent binaries: New experimental data and their correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    Sixty-four isothermal data sets for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for polymer + solvent binaries have been obtained using a gravimetric sorption technique, in the range of 23.5--80 C. Solvents studied were acetone, acetonitrile, 1-butanol, 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroform, cyclohexane, hexane, methanol, octane, pentane, and toluene. Copolymers studied were poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), poly(styrene-co-butadiene), poly(styrene-co-butyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl acetate-co-ethylene), and poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl chloride). All copolymers were random copolymers. Some homopolymers were also studied: polyacrylonitrile, polybutadiene, poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(ethylene oxide), polystyrene, and poly(vinyl acetate). The composition of the copolymer may have a surprising effect on VLE. Normally, deviation from ideal behavior lies between those of the constituent homopolymers, according to the copolymer composition, as observed for cyclohexane + poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and chloroform + poly(styrene-co-butyl methacrylate). However, the strong nonideal behavior observed for systems containing hydrocarbons and poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) shows that the effect of acrylonitrile is in excess of that expected form the copolymer composition. The perturbed hard-sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state was used to represent VLE of the copolymer solutions studied here.

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Vinyl acetate 108054 57. Vinyl chloride 75014 58. Xylene (m) 108383 59. Xylene (o) 95476 60. Xylene (p...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  19. DETERMINATION OF HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS IN HUMANS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO ACRYLAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adduct determinations were used to monitor occupational exposure to acrylamide (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN). orth-one workers in a factory in the People's Republic of China who were involved in the synthesis of a AA by catalytic hydration of AN and the manufacturin...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... Priority Pollutants 001Acenaphthene 002Acrolein 003Acrylonitrile 004Benzene 005Benzidine...

  1. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Propenenitrile U152 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- (I,T) U008 79-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U113 140-88-5 2...-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U009 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile U009 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile U010...

  2. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Propenenitrile U152 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- (I,T) U008 79-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U113 140-88-5 2... Acrylonitrile U009 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile U010 50-07-7 Azirino pyrrolo indole-4,7-dione, 6-amino-8-...

  3. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Propenenitrile U152 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- (I,T) U008 79-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U113 140-88-5 2...-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U009 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile U009 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile U010...

  4. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Propenenitrile U152 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- (I,T) U008 79-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U113 140-88-5 2...-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U009 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile U009 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile U010...

  5. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Propenenitrile U152 126-98-7 2-Propenenitrile, 2-methyl- (I,T) U008 79-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U113 140-88-5 2...-10-7 2-Propenoic acid (I) U009 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile U009 107-13-1 2-Propenenitrile U010...

  6. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... weight (in amu), 1,200 None Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum... 25086-29-7 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum average molecular weight (in amu), 1,000... Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  8. 21 CFR 176.170 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvents,” which are incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...) of dry paper and paperboard fibers. Acrylonitrile polymer, reaction product with ethylenediamine... polymer with styrene, reaction product with ethylenediamine acetate, having a nitrogen content of...

  9. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... weight (in amu), 1,200 None Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum... Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  10. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... weight (in amu), 1,200 None Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum... Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  11. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Houston Chemical Plant, Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.; Ungers, L.J.

    1986-04-01

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Houston, Texas in November, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on production processes for styrene/butadiene rubber, styrene/butadiene latex and acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber, and to evaluate the potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure.

  12. 40 CFR 63.11395 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Volatile Organic Liquids (40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb) for vessels that store acrylonitrile. The provisions in 40 CFR 60.114b do not apply to this subpart. (e) You must operate continuous... operate a monomer recovery process that removes AN prior to spinning, you must comply with...

  13. NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION TO ACTIVATED DOUBLE BONDS: PREDICTION OF REACTIVITY FROM THE LAPLACIAN OF CHARGE DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactivities of a series of molecules in a Michael addition reaction are analyzed on the basis of properties expressed in the Laplacian of the charge density distribution. he charge densities of structurally optimized acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylonitrile (...

  14. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  15. 40 CFR 63.11397 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply to this subpart? (a) You must meet the requirements of the General Provisions in 40 CFR part 63... requirements of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb for each tank that stores acrylonitrile.” (4) This certification of... malfunction plan in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3).” (c) If you own or operate a...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11397 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apply to this subpart? (a) You must meet the requirements of the General Provisions in 40 CFR part 63... requirements of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb for each tank that stores acrylonitrile.” (4) This certification of... malfunction plan in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3).” (c) If you own or operate a...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11397 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... apply to this subpart? (a) You must meet the requirements of the General Provisions in 40 CFR part 63... requirements of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb for each tank that stores acrylonitrile.” (4) This certification of... malfunction plan in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3).” (c) If you own or operate a...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acetonitrile 75058 Acetophenone 98862 Acrolein 107028 Acrylamide 79061 Acrylic acid 79107 Acrylonitrile 107131... tetrachloride 56235 Chloroacetic acid 79118 Chloroacetophenone (2-) 532274 Chlorobenzene 108907 2-Chloro-,1,3... cresylic acids (mixed) 1319773 Cresol and cresylic acid (o-) 95487 Cresol and cresylic acid (m-)...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acetonitrile 75058 Acetophenone 98862 Acrolein 107028 Acrylamide 79061 Acrylic acid 79107 Acrylonitrile 107131... tetrachloride 56235 Chloroacetic acid 79118 Chloroacetophenone (2-) 532274 Chlorobenzene 108907 2-Chloro-,1,3... cresylic acids (mixed) 1319773 Cresol and cresylic acid (o-) 95487 Cresol and cresylic acid (m-)...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acetonitrile 75058 Acetophenone 98862 Acrolein 107028 Acrylamide 79061 Acrylic acid 79107 Acrylonitrile 107131... tetrachloride 56235 Chloroacetic acid 79118 Chloroacetophenone (2-) 532274 Chlorobenzene 108907 2-Chloro-,1,3... cresylic acids (mixed) 1319773 Cresol and cresylic acid (o-) 95487 Cresol and cresylic acid (m-)...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acetonitrile 75058 Acetophenone 98862 Acrolein 107028 Acrylamide 79061 Acrylic acid 79107 Acrylonitrile 107131... tetrachloride 56235 Chloroacetic acid 79118 Chloroacetophenone (2-) 532274 Chlorobenzene 108907 2-Chloro-,1,3... cresylic acids (mixed) 1319773 Cresol and cresylic acid (o-) 95487 Cresol and cresylic acid (m-)...

  2. MW-assisted synthesis of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-polyacrylonitrile: optimization and characterization.

    PubMed

    Meenkashi; Ahuja, Munish; Verma, Purnima

    2014-11-26

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of graft copolymer of carboxymethyl tamarind seed polysaccharide and polyacrylonitrile was carried out. The effect of formulation and process variables on grafting efficiency of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-poly(acrylonitrile) was studied using response surface methodology. The results revealed that the significant factors affecting grafting efficiency were concentrations of ammonium persulphate, acrylonitrile and interaction effects of ammonium persulphate and acrylonitrile concentrations. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be microwave exposure time-99.48 s, microwave exposure power-160 W, concentration of acrylonitrile-0.10% (w/v), concentration of ammonium persulphate--40 mmol/l, which provided graft copolymer with grafting efficiency of 96%. The formation of graft copolymer was confirmed by FT-IR studies and validated by scanning electron micrographs. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated higher thermal stability of graft copolymer and X-ray diffraction study revealed increase in crystallinity on graft polymerization. Further, the graft copolymer showed pH dependant swelling. PMID:25256516

  3. 40 CFR 721.8965 - 1H-Pyrole-2, 5-dione, 1-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), (g)(2)(iii), (g)(2)(iv)( use chemical goggles), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4)(i), (g)(4)(iii) (except the dewatering step during polymerization of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene), and (g)(5). (iii) Industrial... § 721.185 apply to this significant new use rule. (3) Determining whether a specific use is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11397 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to this subpart? (a) You must meet the requirements of the General Provisions in 40 CFR part 63... requirements of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb for each tank that stores acrylonitrile.” (4) This certification of... malfunction plan in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3).” (c) If you own or operate a...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11397 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apply to this subpart? (a) You must meet the requirements of the General Provisions in 40 CFR part 63... requirements of 40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb for each tank that stores acrylonitrile.” (4) This certification of... malfunction plan in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 63.6(e)(3).” (c) If you own or operate a...

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS IN A GROUP OF WORKERS EXPOSED TO ACRYLAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed among 41 workers heavily exposed to a mixture of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in Henan province of China. The workers underwent a complete medical and neurological examination and gave blood and urine for the determination of several biomarkers of exposure. ...

  7. 40 CFR 63.11395 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standard for Volatile Organic Liquids (40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb) for vessels that store acrylonitrile. The provisions in 40 CFR 60.114b do not apply to this subpart. (e) You must operate continuous... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11395 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standard for Volatile Organic Liquids (40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb) for vessels that store acrylonitrile. The provisions in 40 CFR 60.114b do not apply to this subpart. (e) You must operate continuous... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11395 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standard for Volatile Organic Liquids (40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb) for vessels that store acrylonitrile. The provisions in 40 CFR 60.114b do not apply to this subpart. (e) You must operate continuous... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11395 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for existing sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standard for Volatile Organic Liquids (40 CFR part 60, subpart Kb) for vessels that store acrylonitrile. The provisions in 40 CFR 60.114b do not apply to this subpart. (e) You must operate continuous... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Acrylic...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 68 - Table of Toxic Endpoints

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Table of Toxic Endpoints A Appendix A to Part 68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Endpoints CAS No. Chemical name Toxic endpoint (mg/L) 107-02-8 Acrolein 0.0011 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 68 - Table of Toxic Endpoints

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Table of Toxic Endpoints A Appendix A to Part 68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Endpoints CAS No. Chemical name Toxic endpoint (mg/L) 107-02-8 Acrolein 0.0011 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 68 - Table of Toxic Endpoints

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Table of Toxic Endpoints A Appendix A to Part 68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Endpoints CAS No. Chemical name Toxic endpoint (mg/L) 107-02-8 Acrolein 0.0011 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 68 - Table of Toxic Endpoints

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Table of Toxic Endpoints A Appendix A to Part 68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Endpoints CAS No. Chemical name Toxic endpoint (mg/L) 107-02-8 Acrolein 0.0011 107-13-1 Acrylonitrile...

  15. Industrial Organic Electrosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenknecht, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Four examples of industrial electrochemical synthesis of organic compounds are described. These include acrylonitrile dimerization, tetramethyl lead, electrochemical fluorination, and production of diacetone-2-keto-L-gulonic acid. Additional examples are also cited, including the production of several compounds by the BASF company of Germany. (JN)

  16. Processing of polymer surfaces by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, E. W.; Frerichs, H.; Stricker, J.; Wesner, D. A.

    1995-11-01

    The processing of polymer surfaces by laser radiation is investigated as a function of laser parameters (fluence, mode of operation) and processing variables (repetition rate, pulse number). Polymers under investigation are polyamide, polymethylmethacrylate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, polybutadiene terephtalate, and polyoxymethylene, which are studied in air within different processing regimes such as modification of surface properties for subsequent metallization and removal of material for structuring of surface geometry. The metallization of polymers, which are pretreated by laser irradiation, wet chemical etching or plasma etching, is performed via electroplating and physical vapour deposition as a function of surface properties. The removal of polymers including non-thermal and thermal processes is done by direct processing techniques in the demagnification mode within one processing step. The diagnosis and the modelling of physical processes involved in tailoring the surface properties of polymers with laser radiation have to be implied to improve any application of these materials.

  17. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  18. Nitrile bioconversion by Microbacterium imperiale CBS 498-74 resting cells in batch and ultrafiltration membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, M; Cantarella, L; Gallifuoco, A; Spera, A

    2006-03-01

    The biohydration of acrylonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile catalysed by the NHase activity contained in resting cells of Microbacterium imperiale CBS 498-74 was operated at 5, 10 and 20 degrees C in laboratory-scale batch and membrane bioreactors. The bioreactions were conducted in buffered medium (50 mM Na(2)HPO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4), pH 7.0) in the presence of distilled water or tap-water, to simulate a possible end-pipe biotreatment process. The integral bioreactor performances were studied with a cell loading (dry cell weight; DCW) varying from 0.1 mg(DCW) per reactor to 16 mg(DCW) per reactor, in order to realize near 100% bioconversion of acrylonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile without consistent loss of NHase activity. PMID:15739103

  19. Novel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I; Dimov, Stefan M; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Detrembleur, Christophe; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2015-06-01

    Novel biocompatible water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hydrophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEM analysis. The cytotoxicity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. It was shown that they could successfully enter in living cells without destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. PMID:25842102

  20. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  1. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred. PMID:25746475

  2. The polymer-like organic material in the Orgueil meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, E. L.; Nagy, B.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of polymeric organic material contained in powder from the Orgueil chondrite, using a stepwise high-vacuum pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Pyrolysis products obtained include a series of alkanes and alkenes to C8, an extensive series of alkylbenzene isomers, thiophene, alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzonitrile, acetone, and phenol. Most of these products are shown to be similar both qualitatively and quantitatively to those previously obtained from solvent-extracted Allende powder, indicating a basically aromatic and heteroaromatic polymer matrix with short aliphatic bridges or side chains. The production of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, and benzonitrile (common breakdown products of amino acids) from the insoluble organic material is taken to suggest that amino acids exist in an insoluble form, perhaps as peptides, in the meteorite's polymeric component. Similarities between the structure of the Orgueil polymeric material and terrestrial kerogen are discussed which raise the possibility that both might have been produced in part by similar reactions.

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  4. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  5. 40 CFR Table 37 to Subpart G of... - Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 37 Table 37 to Subpart G of Part 63—Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds Compound name Biorate, K1L/g MLVSS-hr Acetonitrile 0.100 Acetophenone 0.538 Acrylonitrile 0.750 Biphenyl...

  6. 40 CFR Table 37 to Subpart G of... - Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 37 Table 37 to Subpart G of Part 63—Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds Compound name Biorate, K1L/g MLVSS-hr Acetonitrile 0.100 Acetophenone 0.538 Acrylonitrile 0.750 Biphenyl...

  7. 40 CFR Table 37 to Subpart G of... - Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 37 Table 37 to Subpart G of Part 63—Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds Compound name Biorate, K1L/g MLVSS-hr Acetonitrile 0.100 Acetophenone 0.538 Acrylonitrile 0.750 Biphenyl...

  8. 40 CFR Table 37 to Subpart G of... - Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 37 Table 37 to Subpart G of Part 63—Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds Compound name Biorate, K1L/g MLVSS-hr Acetonitrile 0.100 Acetophenone 0.538 Acrylonitrile 0.750 Biphenyl...

  9. 40 CFR Table 37 to Subpart G of... - Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 37 Table 37 to Subpart G of Part 63—Default Biorates for List 1 Compounds Compound name Biorate, K1L/g MLVSS-hr Acetonitrile 0.100 Acetophenone 0.538 Acrylonitrile 0.750 Biphenyl...

  10. Study on some new water-soluble copolymers and polymer blends used for exploitation of oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; He, Q.; Zhuo, Q.; Mao, W.

    1982-01-01

    Some water-soluble polymers used for oil recovery were prepared by copolymerizing acrylamide and acrylonitrile using ammonium persulfate as initiator. The properties of the mixed aqueous solution of carboxymethly cellulose and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were modified by ultrasonic technique. In addition, the gel characteristics of several etherified polyvinyl alcohols and their blends were studied and some new applications of polyvinyl were exploited. 6 refs.

  11. On the Development of Thermally Stable Semi-IPNs of PVA and PAN using IR, DSC and XRD Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Deepti S.; Bajpai, R.; Bajpai, A. K.

    2011-07-01

    A novel biopolymer based Semi-IPN of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polycrylonitrile (PAN) were synthesized in various proportions by redox polymerization and analyzed thermally by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC thermograms shows good thermal stability, as a result of incorporation of acrylonitrile as the second network. The structural and morphological study of these semi-IPNs by FTIR and XRD technique, respectively, were correlated. The approach seems to be beneficial for various biomedical applications.

  12. The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria for copolymer+solvent systems: Effect of intramolecular repulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    Role of intramolecular interactions in blend miscibility is well documented for polymer+copolymer mixtures. Some copolymer+polymer mixtures are miscible although their corresponding homopolymers are not miscible; for example, over a range of acrylonitrile content, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate) but neither polystyrene nor polyacrylonitrile is miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate). Similarly, over a composition range, butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(vinyl chloride) while none of the binary combinations of the homopolymers [polybutadiene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(vinyl chloride)] are miscible. This behavior has been attributed to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike copolymer segments. We have observed similar behavior in vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of copolymer+solvent systems. We find that acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymers have higher affinity for acetonitrile solvent than do polyacrylonitrile or polybutadiene. We attribute this non-intuitive behavior to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike segments of the copolymer. This repulsive interaction is weakened when acetonitrile molecules are in the vicinity of unlike copolymer segments, favoring copolymer+solvent miscibility. We find similar behavior when acetonitrile is replaced by methyl ethyl ketone. To best knowledge, this effect has not been reported previously for VLE. We have obtained VLE data for mixtures containing a solvent and a copolymer as a function of copolymer composition. It appears that, at a given solvent partial pressure, there may be copolymer composition that yields maximum absorption of the solvent. This highly non-ideal VLE phase behavior may be useful for optimum design of a membrane for a separation process.

  14. 40 CFR 60.667 - Chemicals affected by subpart NNN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 107-89-1 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3...-9 Amylenes, mixed Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Benzenesulfonic acid 98-11-3 Benzenesulfonic...

  15. 40 CFR 60.707 - Chemicals affected by subpart RRR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....707 Chemicals affected by subpart RRR. Chemical CAS No. 1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alcohols, C-11 or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.707 - Chemicals affected by subpart RRR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....707 Chemicals affected by subpart RRR. Chemical CAS No. 1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alcohols, C-11 or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.667 - Chemicals affected by subpart NNN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 107-89-1 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3...-9 Amylenes, mixed Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Benzenesulfonic acid 98-11-3 Benzenesulfonic...

  18. 40 CFR 60.707 - Chemicals affected by subpart RRR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....707 Chemicals affected by subpart RRR. Chemical CAS No. 1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alcohols, C-11 or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.667 - Chemicals affected by subpart NNN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 107-89-1 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3...-9 Amylenes, mixed Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Benzenesulfonic acid 98-11-3 Benzenesulfonic...

  20. 40 CFR 60.667 - Chemicals affected by subpart NNN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 107-89-1 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3...-9 Amylenes, mixed Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Benzenesulfonic acid 98-11-3 Benzenesulfonic...

  1. 40 CFR 60.707 - Chemicals affected by subpart RRR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....707 Chemicals affected by subpart RRR. Chemical CAS No. 1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alcohols, C-11 or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.707 - Chemicals affected by subpart RRR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....707 Chemicals affected by subpart RRR. Chemical CAS No. 1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alcohols, C-11 or...

  3. 40 CFR 60.667 - Chemicals affected by subpart NNN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 107-89-1 Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetone cyanohydrin 75-86-5 Acetylene 74-86-2 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3...-9 Amylenes, mixed Aniline 62-53-3 Benzene 71-43-2 Benzenesulfonic acid 98-11-3 Benzenesulfonic...

  4. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z. (Inventor); Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the pre-cure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon-reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  5. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the precure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  6. Optimization of nitrilase production from Alcaligenes faecalis MTCC 10757 (IICT-A3): effect of inducers on substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Nageshwar, Y V D; Sheelu, Gurrala; Shambhu, Rekha Rao; Muluka, Hemalatha; Mehdi, Nooreen; Malik, M Shaheer; Kamal, Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Microbial nitrilases are biocatalysts of interest and the enzyme produced using various inducers exhibits altered substrate specificity, which is of great interest in bioprocess development. The aim of the present study is to investigate the nitrilase-producing Alcaligenes faecalis MTCC 10757 (IICT-A3) for its ability to transform various nitriles in the presence of different inducers after optimization of various parameters for maximum enzyme production and activity. The production of A. faecalis MTCC 10757 (IICT-A3) nitrilase was optimum with glucose (1.0%), acrylonitrile (0.1%) at pH 7.0. The nitrilase activity of A. faecalis MTCC 10757 (IICT-A3) was optimum at 35 °C, pH 8.0 and the enzyme was stable up to 6 h at 50 °C. The nitrilase enzyme produced using different inducers was investigated for substrate specificity. The enzyme hydrolyzed aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic nitriles with different substitutions. Acrylonitrile was the most preferred substrate (~40 U) as well as inducer. Benzonitrile was hydrolyzed with almost twofold higher relative activity than acrylonitrile when it was used as an inducer. The versatile nitrilase-producing A. faecalis MTCC 10757 (IICT-A3) exhibits efficient conversion of both aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. The aromatic nitriles, which show not much or no affinity towards nitrilase from A. faecalis, are hydrolyzed effectively with this nitrilase-producing organism. Studies are in progress to exploit this organism for synthesis of industrially important compounds. PMID:21188422

  7. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene and acrylonitrile–styrene resin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile–styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed. PMID:24936293

  8. A study of the influence of micro and nano phase morphology on the mechanical properties of a rubber-modified epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Bobby Glenn

    Epoxy resins are thermosets with extraordinary adhesion; high strength; good resistance to creep, heat, and chemicals; and they have low shrinkage. Conversely, these polymers are brittle, they are sensitive to moisture, and they exhibit poor toughness. To improve their toughness, they are often modified by introducing dispersed rubber particles in the primary phase. In this study, the epoxy resin was modified with carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN), liquid-reactive rubbers. The initiator concentration, percent acrylonitrile in the CTBN rubber, and cure temperatures were altered to give varying materials properties. Statistical analysis of the morphology data showed that the percentage of rubber acrylonitrile had an effect on both the rubber particle size and volume fraction. The cure temperature had an effect on the rubber particle volume and modulus. Plots of the rubber particle size, volume fraction, and modulus versus bulk elastic storage modulus and fracture toughness revealed that rubber particle size had no effect on bulk properties, volume fraction and rubber particle modulus had an effect on both the bulk storage elastic modulus and fracture toughness.

  9. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

  10. Volatile organic compounds in bile for early diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A; Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Bhatt, Amit; Gutierrez, Norma G; Grove, David; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.; Hammel, Jeffrey P; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John J; Dweik, Raed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is particularly difficult. The role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for diagnosis of CCA in PSC patients is not known. Aim Our aim was to identify potential VOCs in the headspaces (gas above the sample) in bile which may predict CCA in PSC patients. Design Prospective cross-sectional study Setting Referral center Patients Prospective study in which bile was aspirated in 32 patients undergoing ERCP for PSC and CCA complicating PSC. Main Outcome Measurements Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry was used to analyze the concentration of 22 prevalent VOCs in bile samples. Logistic regression analysis was performed to build a predictive model for diagnosis of CCA. Results Several compounds (ethanol, acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, benzene, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, 2-propanalol) were significantly different in patients with CCA complicating PSC compared with PSC. (P<.05) Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we developed a model for the diagnosis of CCA adjusted for age and gender based on VOC levels of acrylonitrile, 3-methylhexane and benzene. The model [2.3239* log (acrylonitrile) + 0.9871*log (3-methylhexane) + 0.8448*log (benzene)] < −0.12 identified the patients with CCA [area under the curve (AUC=0.89)], with 90.5% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity. (p=0.02) Limitations Sample size Conclusions The measurement of VOCs in biliary fluid may be useful to diagnose CCA in PSC patients. A larger study with a longitudinal study design is required to confirm our pilot observations to diagnose CCA early in patients with PSC. (NCT01565460) PMID:25500329

  11. Novel strategy for the design of highly transparent ArF resists with excellent dry etch resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenwei; Ohfuji, Takeshi; Sasago, Masaru; Tagawa, Seiichi

    1998-06-01

    To circumvent the difficulty in seeking a balance between dry etch resistance and the transparency at 193 nm in the design of a single-layer-resist for ArF lithography, a new strategy based on the de-coupling of these two criteria from each other is presented. The possibility of the de-coupling has been demonstrated by imparting dry etch resistance to resist matrix after the exposure step. Imparting of dry etch resistance can be achieved with the utilization of thermal- activated reactions during post exposure bake or plasma- activated reactions during etching. Specifically, copolymers containing acrylonitrile were synthesized and evaluated as a demonstration. Chemical reactions, especially cyclization reaction, in the copolymers upon heating were investigated. Intramolecular cyclization of the nitrile groups, which is electrophilic reagent catalyzed, starts at about 130 degree(s)C in a copolymer of acrylonitrile containing 50 mol% methacrylic acid. The reaction results in rigid ring structures with satisfying dry etch resistance. Dry etch resistance of the copolymer after thermal treatment was measured to be up to the same level of a poly(hydroxystyrene)-based commercial resist. Partially protection of the acid component by introducing tertiary- butyl ester groups provides new chemically amplified resist candidates. The materials based on terpolymers of acrylonitrile, tertiary-butyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid well satisfy the basic requirements for ArF resists with high transparency at 193 nm and excellent dry etch resistance after prolonged post exposure bake. Lithographic performance of the newly designed materials are currently under further assessments..

  12. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Peng, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia A.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tobacco smoke are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers to VOCs from secondhand smoke (SHS) in vehicles using mercapturic acid metabolites. Methods Fourteen nonsmokers were individually exposed in the backseat to one hour of SHS from a smoker seating in the driver’s seat who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 minute intervals in a stationary car with windows opened by 10 cm. Baseline and 0-8 h post-exposure mercapturic acid metabolites of 9 VOCs were measured in urine. Air-to-urine VOC ratios were estimated based on respirable particulates (PM2.5) or air nicotine concentration, and lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene was estimated for adults. Results The greatest increase in 0-8 h post-exposure concentrations of mercapturic acids from baseline was MHBMA-3 (parent, 1,3-butadiene) (2.1-fold), then CNEMA (acrylonitrile) (1.7-fold), PMA (benzene) (1.6-fold), MMA (methylating agents) (1.6-fold), and HEMA (ethylene oxide) (1.3-fold). The LER of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene in SHS for 5 hour a week ranged from 15.5×10−6 to 28.1×10−6 for adults, using air nicotine and PM2.5 to predict air VOC exposure, respectively. Conclusion Nonsmokers have significant intake of multiple VOCs from breathing SHS in cars, corresponding to health risks that exceed the acceptable level. Impact Smoking in cars may be associated with increased risks of cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases among nonsmokers. PMID:25398951

  13. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties.

  14. Development of emission factors for polycarbonate processing.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Verne L; Kriek, George; Lazear, Nelson; Kasakevich, Jean; Martinko, Marie; Heggs, R P; Holdren, M W; Wisbith, A S; Keigley, G W; Williams, J D; Chuang, J C; Satola, J R

    2002-07-01

    Emission factors for selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate emissions were developed while processing eight commercial grades of polycarbonate (PC) and one grade of a PC/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blend. A small commercial-type extruder was used, and the extrusion temperature was held constant at 304 degrees C. An emission factor was calculated for each substance measured and is reported as pounds released to the atmosphere/million pounds of polymer resin processed [ppm (wt/wt)]. Scaled to production volumes, these emission factors can be used by processors to estimate emission quantities from similar PC processing operations. PMID:12139342

  15. Process for the recovery and separation of plastics

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Pomykala Jr., Joseph A.

    2003-07-29

    A method of separating a portion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) from a mixture containing ABS and for separating a portion of ABS and polycarbonate (PC) from a mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC is disclosed. The method includes shredding and/or granulating the mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC to provide a selected particle size; sequentially dispersing the shredded mixture of plastics in a series aqueous solutions having different specific gravities and separating the floating fraction until the desired separation is obtained. Surface tension and pH are also variable to be controlled.

  16. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  17. Production of super-smooth articles

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  18. Toughening of thermosetting polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollob, D. S.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Work directed toward increasing the resistance to crack propagation of thermoset polyimides is described. Rubber modification and Teflon microfiber impregnation techniques for increasing fracture toughness are investigated. Unmodified Kerimid 601 has a fracture surface work value of 0.20 in-lbs/sq in. Dispersed particles of amine terminated butadiene acrylonitrile liquid rubber or of silicone rubber do not raise this value much. By contrast, 5 percent of well fibrillated Teflon produces an eight-fold increase in fracture toughness. Further process improvements should increase this factor to 20-30.

  19. Addition polyimide adhesives containing ATBN and silicone elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of added elastomers on the thermal stability, adhesive strength, and fracture toughness of LARC-13, a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive. Various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicon elastomers were incorporated into the polyimide resin either as physical polyblends, or by chemically reacting the elastomers with the polyimide backbone. Adhesive single lap-shear and T-peel strengths were measured before and after ageing at elevated temperature. A tapered double-cantilever beam specimen was used to determine the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified polyimide adhesives.

  20. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosica, Giovanna; Abdilla, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs. PMID:27338336

  1. Substrate-controlled switchable asymmetric annulations to access polyheterocyclic skeletons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Kai; Wang, Pan; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-09-25

    An unexpected domino process from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins and acrylate and α-cyano-α,β-unsaturated ketones to deliver highly enantioenriched tetrahydrofuro[2',3':4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]indoles catalysed by cinchona-derived tertiary amines, involving α-regioselective cyclopropanation, ring-opening, and ring-closure cascade reactions, was disclosed. In contrast, spirooxindoles incorporating a cyclopentene motif were produced through [3+2] annulations by employing Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates from isatins and acrylonitrile under similar catalytic conditions. Density functional theory calculations were conducted to elucidate the novel domino process and the switchable annulation reactions. PMID:27546091

  2. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kevin; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Canning, John; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md. Arafat; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2015-09-01

    We report the first optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform. An air-structured polymer preform is printed using a modified butadiene plastic called Bendlay as opposed to the more-common Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The preform is subsequently drawn to fibre form at a relatively low temperature of 160 °C and maintains its air-structured cladding holes. Such ability to freely-design and 3D-print complex preform structures, such as photonic bandgap and photonic crystal structures, opens up an exciting new front in optical fibre fabrication.

  3. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  4. Intumescent coatings based on 4,4 prime-dinitrosulfanilide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nitroaromatic amine-based intumescent coatings which offer improved thermal protection to a substrate by reducing the backface temperature rise have been developed. The intumescent monomer agent is 4,4 prime-dinitrosulfanilide. This agent has an intumescent temperature of 220 deg C, compared with 300 deg C for the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid and offers a twelve-fold reduction in water solubility over this compound. On the basis of differential thermal analysis and screening tests, a chlorinated polyolifin epoxy-reactive butadiene acrylonitrile rubber blend was selected as a flame quenching binder.

  5. Influence of Ni2+ on urease activity produced by biofilms of Arthrobacter oxydans 1388

    PubMed Central

    Marinkova, Dessislava; Yotova, Lyubov; Ringeard, Jean-Marie; Griesmar, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    New TiO2-based hybrid materials composed of an organic polymer, cellulose acetate butyrate and copolymer of acrylonitrile acrylamide (AN + AA) were prepared. The effectiveness of immobilization of microbial strain Arthrobacter oxydans 1388 on the newly synthesized hybrid membranes was investigated by biochemical methods. The obtained results revealed that the matrix more suitable for biofilm formation was composed of organic polymers without a metal component in the membrane composition. The influence of Ni2+ on urease activity produced by biofilms was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that 2 mg L−1 concentration of Ni2+ in the nutrient medium is more appropriate for biofilm proliferation. PMID:26740756

  6. Ambient-temperature, rechargeable, all-solid lithium/polypyrrole polymer battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuda, Satoko; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Appetecchi, G.B.; Scrosati, B. . Dipt. di Chimica)

    1995-01-01

    An ambient-temperature, all-solid lithium battery was fabricated by combining a poly(acrylonitrile), PAN-based polymer electrolyte with a lithium metal anode and a polypyrrole, PPy, film cathode. The influence of the morphology of the PPy film cathode on the battery performance was investigated. The results show that the electrode morphology does not considerably influence the charge-discharge cycling response and that the solid-state, Li/PPy battery exhibits high coulombic efficiency, approaching 90%. However, at the present time, the battery has a poor shelf life, and work is in progress for overcoming this drawback.

  7. Petrochemicals for the nonchemical person

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Petrochemicals for the Nontechnical Person is the second book in a series designed to inform the curious novice or frustrated veteran of what petrochemicals are and how they're made. Contents include: The complete course in organic chemistry; Benzene, toluene, and the xylenes; Cyclohexane; Olefin plants; The C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon family; Cumene and phenol; Ethylbenzene and styrene; Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride; Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol; Propylene oxide and propylene glycol; Methanol and synthesis gas; The other alcohols; Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; The acids; Acrylonitriles and the acrylates; Maleic anhydride; The nature of polymers; Thermoplastics; Resins and fibers; Index.

  8. Mechanical aspects of nitrile hydratase enzymatic activity. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM 3095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, L.; Kubiak, K.; Nowak, W.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase), an important biotechnological enzyme, has been investigated using a steered molecular dynamics computer modelling for the first time. An external force applied to the docked ligands was used to determine transport paths for acrylonitrile (substrate) and acrylamide (product). The average drag force of 120 pN within the enzyme channel is 50% higher than that in model water. The major hindrance of 500 pN is generated by βPhe37 residue. This region may be responsible for the stereoselectivity of NHases.

  9. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  10. The effects of hazardous ions adsorption on the morphological and chemical properties of reactive cloth filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Sameh H.; Sohsah, Moustfa A.; Ghoneim, Mohammad M.

    2009-11-01

    Reactive cloth filter is fabricated by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid onto cotton cloth, using mutual irradiation technique and the subsequent amidoximation of the reactive intermediate nitrile groups. The incorporation of the amidoxime/carboxyl groups was confirmed by different techniques. The effect of the hazardous ions chelation from radioactive waste on the morphological and chemical structure was studied. The cloth filter possessed good morphological and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The fabricated cloth filter can be used for low-level radioactive waste treatments.

  11. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) manual of analytical methods (Third edition). Third supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-15

    This supplement contains 34 methods of analysis for 69 toxic chemical compounds and serves as an update to the NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Methods were selected on the basis of their use, input from the clients and NIOSH chemists on need for change, and the health implications of the compounds. Methods were included for acetaldehyde, acetic-acid, acrylonitrile, aldehydes, aliphatic amines, aminoethanol compounds, asbestos bulk and fibers, 1-butanethiol, chlordane, hexavalent chromium compounds, cyanuric-acid, ethyleneamines, endrin, fibers, formaldehyde, furfuryl-alcohol, glutaraldehyde, hydrogen-cyanide, isocyanates, ketones, mercury, methyl-methacrylate, nitrosamines, pentachlorophenol, quartz in coal mine dust, ribavirin respirable crystalline silica, sulfur-dioxide, toluene diamines, and valeraldehyde.

  12. A Coupled CFD/FEM Structural Analysis to Determine Deformed Shapes of the RSRM Inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, R. Harold

    1996-01-01

    Recent trends towards an increase in the stiffness of the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) insulation material used in the construction of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) propellant inhibitors prompted questions about possible effects on RSRM performance. The specific objectives of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) task included: (1) the definition of pressure loads to calculate the deformed shape of stiffer inhibitors, (2) the calculation of higher port velocities over the inhibitors to determine shifts in the vortex shedding or edge tone frequencies, and (3) the quantification of higher slag impingement and collection rates on the inhibitors and in the submerged nose nozzle cavity.

  13. Self-Assembled Organic Single Crystalline Nanosheet for Solution Processed High-Performance n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jong H; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Yoon, Won Sik; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter sized n-channel organic single crystalline nanosheet based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene derivative, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-pheny-lene)bis(2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (Me-4-TFPTA), is developed. Strong π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding interactions derived from cyano group (CN) as well as solvent inclusion along the lateral direction play a key role in forming nanosheet morphology. Me-4-TFPTA nanosheets exhibit excellent field-effect electron mobility of up to 7.81 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27165653

  14. Dynamic characterization of solid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural dynamics of solid rockets in-general was studied. A review is given of the modes of vibration and bending that can exist for a solid propellant rocket, and a NASTRAN computer model is included. Also studied were the dynamic properties of a solid propellant, polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer, which may be used in the space shuttle rocket booster. The theory of viscoelastic materials (i.e, Poisson's ratio) was employed in describing the dynamic properties of the propellant. These studies were performed for an eventual booster stage development program for the space shuttle.

  15. Fieldbus technology passes beta tests at Texas plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-20

    Fieldbus technology has completed beta plant testing at Monsanto Co.`s Chocolate Bayou petrochemical complex at Alvin, Texas. The trial took place in a steam condensate recovery section of the Chocolate Bayou plant, which produces acrylonitrile, linear alkylbenzene, and a number of other petrochemical derivatives. Fieldbus is a plant communications network, or bus, that enables digital instruments to communicate with one another and with supervisory control systems. The fieldbus specification, written by the nonprofit organization Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, Texas, is called Foundation fieldbus. The beta tests at Chocolate Bayou successfully demonstrated fieldbus performance in a process control application.

  16. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  17. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  18. No-carrier-added [1.sup.11 c]putrescine

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Daniel W.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a new radiolabeled imaging agent, no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine, and to the use of this very pure material as a radiotracer with positron emission tomography for imaging brain tumors. The invention further relates to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [1-.sup.11 C]putrescine based on the Michael addition of potassium .sup.11 C-labeled cyanide to acrylonitrile followed by reduction of the .sup.11 C-labeled dinitrile. The new method is rapid and efficient and provides radiotracer with a specific activity greater than 1.4 curies per millimol and in a purity greater than 95%.

  19. Radiation graft modification of ethylene-propylene rubber—II. Effect of additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi-Asl, V.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of multifunctional acrylic additives including TMPTA, PEGDA and PGTA on the radiation grafting of hydrophilic vinyl monomers onto ethylene—propylene elastomer (EPM rubbers) was studied. This work centres upon gamma irradiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto EPM rubber by the simultaneous method. Water proved to be an effective solvent but methanol lowered grafting. Sulphuric acid was detrimental to both homopolymerisation and grafting, a result consistent with the theory proposed for the role of this additive in polymer grafting systems.

  20. New process for 2-pyrrolidone

    SciTech Connect

    Beekhuis, G.E.; Nieuwkamp, J.G.M.

    1983-04-01

    The Dutch States Mines process for 2-pyrrolidone is outlined. First, hydrocyanic acid is added to acrylonitrile under the catalytic influence of triethylamine, to produce succinic acid dinitrile. Second, succinic dinitrile is hydrogenated in a trickle base reactor. Third, the (gamma)-aminobutyric acid nitrile formed is hydrolyzed. Vapors distilled lead to 2-pyrrolidone. The DSM process is compared to three others: the Reppe route, the MAA route, and the acrylate route. The production of 2-pyrrolidone via the DSM route gives a cost that is about 25% lower than that of the next cheapest, the MAA route. The current market for 2-pyrrolidone is reviewed.

  1. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  2. Review of the toxicology of styrene.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A

    1989-01-01

    Styrene is used in the production of plastics and resins, which include polystyrene resins, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins, styrene-acrylonitrile resins, styrene-butadiene copolymer resins, styrene-butadiene rubber, and unsaturated polyester resins. In 1985, styrene ranked in the top ten of synthetic organic chemicals produced in the U.S. This review focuses on various aspects of styrene toxicology including acute and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, effects on hepatic and extrahepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, pharmacokinetic modeling, and covalent interactions with macromolecules. There appear to be many similarities between the toxicity and metabolism of styrene in rodents and humans. Needed areas of future research on styrene include studies on the molecular dosimetry of styrene in terms of both hemoglobin and DNA adducts. The results of such research should improve our ability to assess the relationship between exposure to styrene and surrogate measures of "effective dose", thereby improving our ability to estimate the effects of low-level human exposures. PMID:2653733

  3. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles by dispersion/emulsion polymerization process.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, Lior; Baruch, Sigal; Margel, Shlomo

    2005-09-01

    Polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles in sizes ranging from approximately 35 to 270 nm were prepared by dispersion/emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile in a continuous aqueous phase in the presence of potassium persulfate as initiator and various alkyl-sulfate and sulfonate surfactants. The influence of various polymerization parameters (e.g., concentration of monomer and initiator, type and concentration of surfactant, temperature and time of polymerization, ionic strength, pH and co-solvent concentration) on the properties (e.g., size and size distribution, yield, stability, etc.) of the particles has been investigated. The polymerization of acrylonitrile may occur in two major locations: in the aqueous continuous phase (dispersion polymerization) and/or within the surfactant micelles (emulsion polymerization). A discussion concerning the role of these two mechanisms under different conditions, including comparison with previous literature, is also presented. Surface and bulk characterizations of the particles were performed by methods such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential, and gravimetric measurements. PMID:16009219

  5. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R. St. J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  6. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. PMID:23561798

  7. Carcinogenicity and mechanistic insights on the behavior of epoxides and epoxide-forming chemicals.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Ronald L

    2002-12-01

    Many epoxides and their precursors are high production volume chemicals that have major uses in the polymer industry and as intermediates in the manufacture of other chemicals. Several of these chemicals were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in laboratory animal studies conducted by the Ramazzini Foundation (e.g., vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, styrene, styrene oxide, and benzene) and by the National Toxicology Program (e.g., ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, chloroprene, acrylonitrile, glycidol, and benzene). The most common sites of tumor induction were lung, liver, harderian gland, and circulatory system in mice; Zymbal's gland and brain in rats; and mammary gland and forestomach in both species. Differences in cancer outcome among studies of epoxide chemicals may be related to differences in study design (e.g., dose, duration, and route of exposure; observation period; animal strains), as well as biological factors affecting target organ dosimetry of the DNA-reactive epoxide (toxicokinetics) and tissue response (toxicodynamics). N7-Alkylguanine, N1-alkyladenine, and cyclic etheno adducts, as well as K-ras and p53 mutations, have been detected in animals and/or workers exposed to several of these chemicals. The classifications of these chemical carcinogens by IARC and NTP are based on animal and human data and results of mechanistic studies. Reducing occupational and environmental exposures to these chemicals will certainly reduce human cancer risks. PMID:12562636

  8. Does cation break the cyano bond? A critical evaluation of nitrile-cation interaction.

    PubMed

    Woi, Pei Meng; Bakar, Maizathul Akmam A; Rosli, Ahmad Nazmi; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Ahmad, Mohd Rais; Zain, Sharifuddin; Alias, Yatimah

    2014-05-01

    DFT and G4 results reveal that cations display the following trends in imparting its positive charge to acrylonitrile; H⁺ > Li⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺ for group I and Be²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Ca²⁺ for group II. Solvation by water molecules and interaction with cation make the cyano bond more polarized and exhibits ketene-imine character. Bond order in nitrile-cation complexes has been predicted based on the s character of the covalent bond orbitals. Mulliken, CHELPG, and NPA charges are in good agreement in predicting positive charge buildup and GIAO nuclear deshileding on C1. G4 enthalpies show that Mg²⁺ is more strongly bound to acrylonitrile than to acetonitrile by 3 kcal mol⁻¹, and the proton affinity of the former is higher by 0.8 kcal mol⁻¹. G4 enthalpies of reductions support prior experimental observation that metalated conjugated nitriles show enhanced reactivity toward weak nucleophiles to afford Michael addition products. PMID:24770548

  9. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  10. Cell sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, C.; Book, R.J.; James, D.A.

    1988-04-26

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte disposed within an open ended cylindrical metallic cell container, with an insulative cell top member being positioned within the open end of a sealant at the interface between the cell top member and the metallic cell container. The sealant is a mixture of a Type 2 BUR asphalt and an elastomeric material selected from the group consisting of (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), neoprene (poly-chloprene), acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPR), butyl rubber (copolymers of isobutylene), urethane, nitrile (polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polysulfide, polyacrylate, silicone, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and EPDM (terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and diene monomers), and mixtures thereof, and wherein the elastomeric material is substantially inert to the electrolyte and is present in an amount between 0.5% to 10% by weight of the asphalt.

  11. Development of sorbers for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Part 2. The accumulation of uranium from seawater by resins containing amidoxime and imidoxime functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Witte, E.G.; Schwochau, K.

    1983-04-01

    Hydroxylamine derivatives of cross-linked poly(acrylonitriles), so-called poly(acrylamidoxime) resins, are suitable for the accumulation of uranium from natural seawater of pH = 8.1 to 8.3. Depending on the method of manufacture, these sorbers yield excellent uranium loadings up to some thousand ppM which roughly equals the average uranium content of actually explored uranium ores. The rate of uranium uptake, which is 5 to 30 ppM/d at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature of seawater. Uranium can be eluted by 1 M HCl with an elution efficiency of more than 90%. Owing to a certain instability of the uranium binding groups in acid eluants, the uranium uptake decreases with increasing number of sorption-elution cycles. Hydroxylamine derivatives of poly(acrylonitrile) are shown to contain simultaneously at least two kinds of functional groups: open-chain amidoxime groups which are stable and cyclic imidoxime groups which are unstable in 1 M HCl. Experimental evidence is presented that the uptake of uranium from natural seawater is closely related to the presence of cyclic imidoxime configurations in the polyacrylic lattice. Polystyrene and poly(glycidylmethacrylate)-based amidoxime and imide dioxime resins are less effective in extracting uranium from natural seawater. 10 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

    1983-10-01

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Graphene networks with low percolation threshold in ABS nanocomposites: selective localization and electrical and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Han, Chunchun; Ding, Yanfen; Yang, Mingshu

    2014-08-13

    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS)/graphene nanocomposites were prepared through a facile coagulation method. Because the chemical reduction of graphene oxide was in situ conducted in the presence of ABS at the dispersion stage, the aggregation of the graphene nanosheets was avoided. It was shown by transmission electron microscopy that the graphene nanosheets were selectively located and homogeneously dispersed in the styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) phase. The electrical conductivity and linear viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites were systematically studied. With increasing filler content, graphene networks were established in the SAN phase. Consequently, the nanocomposites underwent a transition from electrical insulator to conductor at a percolation threshold of 0.13 vol %, which is smaller than that of other ABS composites. Such a low percolation threshold results from extreme geometry, selective localization, and homogeneous dispersion of the graphene nanosheets in SAN phase. Similarly, the rheological response of the nanocomposites also showed a transition to solid-like behavior. Due to the thermal reduction of graphene nanosheets and structure improvement of graphene networks, enhanced electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites was obtained after annealing. PMID:24969179

  14. Design of Reversible, Cysteine-Targeted Michael Acceptors Guided by Kinetic and Computational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrophilic probes that covalently modify a cysteine thiol often show enhanced pharmacological potency and selectivity. Although reversible Michael acceptors have been reported, the structural requirements for reversibility are poorly understood. Here, we report a novel class of acrylonitrile-based Michael acceptors, activated by aryl or heteroaryl electron-withdrawing groups. We demonstrate that thiol adducts of these acrylonitriles undergo β-elimination at rates that span more than 3 orders of magnitude. These rates correlate inversely with the computed proton affinity of the corresponding carbanions, enabling the intrinsic reversibility of the thiol-Michael reaction to be tuned in a predictable manner. We apply these principles to the design of new reversible covalent kinase inhibitors with improved properties. A cocrystal structure of one such inhibitor reveals specific noncovalent interactions between the 1,2,4-triazole activating group and the kinase. Our experimental and computational study enables the design of new Michael acceptors, expanding the palette of reversible, cysteine-targeted electrophiles. PMID:25153195

  15. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    PubMed

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops. PMID:25667057

  16. Methods of fiber surface grafting for interphase design and tailored composite response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jesse Judson

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods of fiber surface grafting for interphase formation, and to experimentally evaluate and model these interphases in order to further elucidate their role in fiber-reinforced composites. Surface modification by sp{60}Co gamma irradiation was used initially to graft acrylic polymers on the surface of ultra-high modulus (UHMPE) fibers. This technique utilized low dose rates and low total doses, and achieved grafting with retention of the exceptional UHMPE properties. The surface properties of the fibers were evaluated using fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and mechanical tests and dynamic mechanical spectrometry (DMS) of discontinuous fiber composites. Depending on the glass transition temperature, Tg, and chemical structure of the graft, the fiber/matrix adhesion and the interfacial failure mechanism was tailored to provide either enhanced reinforcement or toughening. Using a three-phase block model, the DMS characteristics of the composites were modeled and the reinforcement efficiencies extrapolated as a function of surface treatment. The model successfully predicts the tan delta response of the composite and the appearance of additional loss dispersions associated with the interphase. However, the interactions between the high-energy gamma radiation and the fiber and grafts yield interphases that are difficult to characterize and control. The hydroperoxidation grafting method was subsequently developed, which permitted the grafting of tethered, linear chains by a free radical-type polymerization. Poly(styrene-stat-acrylonitrile) was grafted initially, in which the nitrogen in acrylonitrile was used as a marker to verify grafting and to estimate the grafting efficiency by ESCA analysis. Tapping modesp{TM} atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) images of the grafted fibers revealed a nodular surface topography with dimensions that were correlated to the

  17. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions. PMID:26960432

  18. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  19. Thermoplastic polymers for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic and oxidative environments, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers that were evaluated included: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonatepoly (dimethyl siloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative ranking of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented.

  20. Radical Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers in Porous Organic Cages.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takashi; Nakanishi, Ryo; Mochizuki, Shuto; Kitagawa, Susumu; Mizuno, Motohiro

    2016-05-23

    The radical polymerization of vinyl monomers was performed in a tetrahedral imine-linked organic cage with extrinsic porosity (CC3). Because of its dynamic and responsive packing structure, CC3 endowed the polymerization with specific behaviors. The adsorption of styrene triggered a change in the CC3 assembly, resulting in a monomer arrangement that was suitable for polymerization within the host matrix. The polymerization reaction was strongly dependent on the crystallinity of CC3 and was promoted by amorphization of the host in a cooperative manner, which is not possible with conventional rigid porous materials. Furthermore, CC3 can recognize the polarity of substrates, and thus polar monomers, such as methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile, could not induce the structural changes in CC3 that are required for polymerization. This monomer specificity governed by the flexibility of CC3 is useful to the prevent incorporation of unfavorable monomers into the polymeric products. PMID:27027409

  1. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  2. Current Intelligence Bulletins: summaries, September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Brief summaries of 49 NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletins were provided in a cumulative listing. Permissible Exposure Limits were included where applicable, and notes were provided with some summaries indicating further action or data since original publication. Topics covered include chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene-dibromide, chrome pigment, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric-triamide, polychlorinated-biphenyls, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl-chloride, diethylcarbamoyl-chloride, explosive azide hazard, arsenic, nitrosamines, metabolic precursors of beta-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile, 2,4-diaminoanisole, tetrachloroethylene, trimellitic-anhydride, ethylene-thiourea, ethylene-dibromide, disulfiram, dyes, ethylene-dichloride, chloroethanes, vinyl halides, glycidyl ethers, epichlorohydrin, smoking, arsine, radiofrequency sealers, formaldehyde, ethylene-oxide, silica flour, vibration syndrome, glycol ethers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, monohalomethanes, dinitrotoluenes, methylene-chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, organic solvents, and injuries and amputations from working with power presses.

  3. NIOSH current intelligence bulletins: summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    Summaries were offered of the current intelligence bulletins issued from January 20, 1975 to August of 1988. They include information on the following topics: chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigment, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl-chloride, explosive azide hazard, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of beta-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile, 2,4-diaminoanisole, tetrachloroethylene, trimellitic anhydride, ethylene thiourea, disulfiram, direct-blue-6, direct-black-38, direct-brown-95, benzidine derived dyes, ethylene dichloride, NIAX catalyst ESN, chloroethanes, vinyl halides, glycidyl ethers, epichlorohydrin, smoking, arsine poisoning, radiofrequency sealers and heaters, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, silica flour, vibration syndrome, glycol ethers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, monohalomethanes, dinitrotoluenes, methylene chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, organic solvent neurotoxicity, mechanical power press injuries, and the carcinogenic effects of diesel exhaust.

  4. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    DOEpatents

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  5. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  6. Effect of seawater temperature on uranium recovery from seawater using amidoxime adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiguchi, Koji; Saito, Kyoichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Furusaki, Shintaro . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Sugo, Takanobu . Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Nobukawa, Hisashi . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Porous amidoxime hollow fibers, which were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto porous polyethylene hollow fibers and subsequent amidoximation, were used as packing materials of the adsorption bed for uranium recovery from seawater. Seawater was forced to flow through the bed charged with the amidoxime hollow fibers either by pumping or by ocean current. Uranium concentration decay through the bed could be well correlated with residence time based on the adsorption rate expressed in terms of the overall mass-transfer coefficient. The resultant activation energy of 20 kcal/mol for uranium adsorption was indicative of the chelate formation of the amidoxime group with uranyl species as a rate-determining step.

  7. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  8. Effect of TiO2 nano fillers on the electrical conductivity of PSAN/TiO2 polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningaraju, S.; Munirathnamma, L. M.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural characterization of Polystyrene co-acrylonitrile and Titanium dioxide (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites has been performed by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The decrease of positron lifetime parameters viz. o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and free volume size (Vf) up to 0.6 wt% of TiO2 is attributed to the filling of free volume holes by TiO2 nanoparticles. The increased free volume size (Vf) after 0.6 wt% of TiO2 indicates the formation of interface due to TiO2 nanoclusters. The variation of electrical conductivity at the lower and higher concentration of TiO2 in (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites is attributed to the blocking effect and space charge effect respectively.

  9. Polyimide adhesives - Modified with ATBN and silicone elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Ezzell, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of studies evaluating the effects of added elastomers on the properties of a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive is reviewed. First, thermoset polyimides containing various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicone elastomers were synthesized either as physical polybends or by chemically reacting the elastomers directly onto the polymer backbone. The modified adhesive resins were characterized for thermomechanical properties, fracture toughness and adhesive strength. A second series of elastomer-containing polyimides was also prepared in order to study the effects of the elastomer chain length on polymer properties. Aromatic amine-terminated silicone rubbers with repeat units varying from n = 10 to 105 were reacted onto the polyimide backbone, and the resulting polymers were characterized for their adhesive properties.

  10. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  11. Postmortem and insitu TEM methods to study the mechanism of failure in controlled-morphology high-impact polystrene resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslinski, R.C.; Dineen, M.T.; Hahnfeld, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced Styrenic resins are being developed throughout the industry to bridge the properties gap between traditional HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene copolymers) resins. These new resins have an unprecedented balance of high gloss and high impact energies. Dow Chemical`s contribution to this area is based on a unique combination of rubber morphologies including labyrinth, onion skin, and core-shelf rubber particles. This new resin, referred as a controlled morphology resin (CMR), was investigated to determine the toughening mechanism of this unique rubber morphology. This poster will summarize the initial studies of these resins using the double-notch four-point bend test of Su and Yee, tensile stage electron microscopy, and Poisson Ratio analysis of the fracture mechanism.

  12. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.

  13. Combination of ATRA and ATRC for the synthesis of periodic vinyl copolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Song, Zi-Yuan; Deng, Xin-Xing; Zhang, Li-Jing; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2014-02-01

    A new approach to periodic vinyl copolymers via combination of atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) is reported. The two examples are methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) periodic copolymer (P(SMMS)) and acrylonitrile (AN) and St periodic copolymer (P(SAAS)). First, two monomer sequence units (MSU) with built-in sequence, SMMS and SAAS, are synthesized through the controlled ATRA of two ATRP initiators with St. Then, the ATRC of SMMS and SAAS are conducted at high radical conditions to generate two types of high-molecular-weight copolymers, P(SMMS) and P(SAAS). Though side reactions can not be totally avoided, characterizations of the polymer structure with a variety of means confirm that the main chain structures of P(SMMS) and (PSAAS) are predominantly with the periodic sequences from the MSUs. Attempts to suppress the side reactions are successful via the MNP-mediated ATRC of SMMS and SAAS. PMID:24307264

  14. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation.

    PubMed

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions. PMID:26960432

  15. Compositional variation of sialon phase produced after carbothermal reduction and nitridation of vermiculite-polyacrylonitrile intercalation compound

    SciTech Connect

    Aviles, M.A.; Sanchez-Soto, P.J.; Justo, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, J.L. . Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales)

    1994-10-01

    Vermiculite (Al-Mg hydrated layer silicate) has been used as raw material for the synthesis of nitrogen ceramics in the Si-Al-Mg-O-N system in the presence of carbon. Successive intercalation of butylammonium cation and acrylonitrile, followed by polymerization and cyclization of the polymer and thermal treatment under nitrogen flow, have produced the carbothermal reduction and reactive nitridation of the precursor, yielding [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and [beta]-sialon as nitrided phases. Thermal evolution of the intercalated samples from 1,000 C to 1,500 C has been studied by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The composition variation of sialon phase was found to be a function of heating temperature and soaking time at 1,400 C. These facts were explained on the basis of a complex vapor-liquid-solid mechanism.

  16. Rubber-modified epoxies: Analysis of the phase-separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Verchere, D.; Sautereau, H.; Pascault, J.P.; Moschiar, S.M.; Riccardi, C.C.; Williams, R.J.J.

    1993-12-31

    The phase-separation process of a diepoxide based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether cured with a cycloaliphatic diamine in the presence of an epoxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile random copolymer (ETBN) was experimentally studied and theoretically simulated. The increase in the average molecular weight of the epoxy-amine polymer is shown to be the main thermodynamic factor leading to phase separation. The competition between nucleation-growth and spinodal decomposition is analyzed. Low values of interfacial tensions and polymerization rates favor the first mechanism in most cases. A secondary phase separation must occur inside the dispersed particles, leading to a segregated epoxy-amine phase. The theoretical simulation explains the increase of the average diameter of dispersed-phase particles with increasing polymerization temperature. The volume fraction of dispersed phase is the dominating factor affecting fracture toughness. 49 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Polyelectrolyte multilayered nanofilms as a novel approach for the protection of hydrogen storage materials.

    PubMed

    Borodina, T N; Grigoriev, D O; Andreeva, D V; Möhwald, H; Shchukin, D G

    2009-05-01

    This work describes the encapsulation of hydrogen storage materials from organic solvents. Due to complex formation the shell provides stability and selective permeability. Specifically, sodium borohydride particles were encapsulated within polymer films by the layer-by-layer self-assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (polyethyleneimine and poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-acrylic acid)). The polymer nanofilm fabrication was performed using dichloromethane as a working media. IR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the chemical interaction between the polyelectrolytes. The multilayer film preparation was verified by Z-potential measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser microscopy. The stability of sodium borohydride protected with a polyelectrolyte shell was increased compared to that of the pure material under ambient conditions. PMID:20355884

  18. Impact property enhancement of poly (lactic acid) with different flexible copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likittanaprasong, N.; Seadan, M.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to improve the impact property of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by blending with different copolymers. Six flexible copolymers, namely, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) powder, Biomax, polybutyrate adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT), polyether block amide (PEBAX), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene acrylic elastomer (EAE), with loading less than 20wt% were used and compared. The rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of samples were investigated by melt flow index, tensile testing, impact testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It was found that PLA added 20wt% EAE showed the highest impact strength (59.5 kJ/m2), which was 22 times higher than neat PLA. The elongation at break was also increased by 12 folds compared to neat PLA. The SEM images showed good interface and distribution for PLA containing 20wt% EAE, 15 phr Biomax and 20 wt% PEBAX.

  19. Thin lithium cobalt dioxide rechargeable cells using polyacrylonitrile-based polymer electrolytes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, S.

    1994-07-01

    Rechargeable Li/LiCoO2 cells with polymer electrolytes have achieved 100 mAh/g capacity and over 75 charge/discharge cycles with an average discharge potential of 3.7 volts. Solid-state polymer lithium electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) have achieved room temperature conductivities of 0,001 siemens per cm, equal to that of some liquid organic electrolytes. Polymer films of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, PAN, and lithium salts have yielded conductivities as high as 4x10-4 siemens per cm at 25 deg C. These high conductivities made the use of polymer electrolytes a viable possibility in advanced lithium batteries. Reported here are the film preparation techniques, conductivities from -70 to 70 deg C, and discharge curves of Li/LiCoO2 cells. Rechargeable battery, Lithium, Polymer electrolyte, Ionic conductivity.

  20. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  1. Heat sterilizable solid-propellant development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    The binders tested were polyurethanes made from two hydroxy-terminated polybutadienes, R-45 and Butarez HT, one hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer, Hycar 1300X 17, and a hydroxy-terminated prepolymer, Esterdiol 560, made from the dimerized fatty acid Empol 1010. The isocyanates used most extensively were isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a polymeric diisocyanate, DDI. Stress relaxation was used to examine the chemical changes that took place in the binder when subjected to the sterilization temperatures. The thermal stability of the oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate (AP), was tested by thermogravimetry in the isothermal and nonisothermal modes. The effect of particle size, recrystallization, moisture content, and doping on the heat stability of AP could be evaluated by this method. The volatile degradation products, obtained when AP samples were aged at 135 C for prolonged periods, were analyzed by mass spectroscopy.

  2. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer–metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  3. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  4. Dynamic optimization of a copolymerization reactor using tabu search.

    PubMed

    Anand, P; Rao, M Bhagvanth; Venkateswarlu, Ch

    2015-03-01

    A novel multistage dynamic optimization strategy based on meta-heuristic tabu search (TS) is proposed and evaluated through sequential and simultaneous implementation procedures by applying it to a semi-batch styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymerization reactor. The adaptive memory and responsive exploration features of TS are exploited to design the dynamic optimization strategy and compute the optimal control policies for temperature and monomer addition rate so as to achieve the desired product quality parameters expressed in terms of single and multiple objectives. The dynamic optimization results of TS sequential and TS simultaneous implementation strategies are analyzed and compared with those of a conventional optimization technique based on iterative dynamic programming (IDP). The simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of TS for optimal control of transient dynamic systems. PMID:25466914

  5. A low volume 3D-printed temperature-controllable cuvette for UV visible spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pisaruka, Jelena; Dymond, Marcus K

    2016-10-01

    We report the fabrication of a 3D-printed water-heated cuvette that fits into a standard UV visible spectrophotometer. Full 3D-printable designs are provided and 3D-printing conditions have been optimised to provide options to print the cuvette in either acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid polymers, extending the range of solvents that are compatible with the design. We demonstrate the efficacy of the cuvette by determining the critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate at 40 °C, the molar extinction coefficients of cobalt nitrate and dsDNA and by reproducing the thermochromic UV visible spectrum of a mixture of cobalt chloride, water and propan-2-ol. PMID:27443958

  6. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  7. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-03-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 266 - Risk Specific Doses (10−5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Unit risk (m3/μg) RsD (μg/m3) Acrylamide 79-06-1 1.3E−03 7.7E−03 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 6.8E−05 1.5E−01 Aldrin 309-00-2 4.9E−03 2.0E−03 Aniline 62-53-3 7.4E−06 1.4E+00 Arsenic 7440-38-2 4.3E−03 2.3E−03 Benz(a)anthracene 56-55-3 8.9E−04 1.1E−02 Benzene 71-43-2 8.3E−06 1.2E+00 Benzidine 92-87-5 6.7E−02 1.5E−04...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 266 - Risk Specific Doses (10−5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Unit risk (m3/μg) RsD (μg/m3) Acrylamide 79-06-1 1.3E−03 7.7E−03 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 6.8E−05 1.5E−01 Aldrin 309-00-2 4.9E−03 2.0E−03 Aniline 62-53-3 7.4E−06 1.4E+00 Arsenic 7440-38-2 4.3E−03 2.3E−03 Benz(a)anthracene 56-55-3 8.9E−04 1.1E−02 Benzene 71-43-2 8.3E−06 1.2E+00 Benzidine 92-87-5 6.7E−02 1.5E−04...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 266 - Risk Specific Doses (10−5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Unit risk (m3/μg) RsD (μg/m3) Acrylamide 79-06-1 1.3E−03 7.7E−03 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 6.8E−05 1.5E−01 Aldrin 309-00-2 4.9E−03 2.0E−03 Aniline 62-53-3 7.4E−06 1.4E+00 Arsenic 7440-38-2 4.3E−03 2.3E−03 Benz(a)anthracene 56-55-3 8.9E−04 1.1E−02 Benzene 71-43-2 8.3E−06 1.2E+00 Benzidine 92-87-5 6.7E−02 1.5E−04...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 266 - Risk Specific Doses (10−5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Unit risk (m3/μg) RsD (μg/m3) Acrylamide 79-06-1 1.3E−03 7.7E−03 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 6.8E−05 1.5E−01 Aldrin 309-00-2 4.9E−03 2.0E−03 Aniline 62-53-3 7.4E−06 1.4E+00 Arsenic 7440-38-2 4.3E−03 2.3E−03 Benz(a)anthracene 56-55-3 8.9E−04 1.1E−02 Benzene 71-43-2 8.3E−06 1.2E+00 Benzidine 92-87-5 6.7E−02 1.5E−04...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 266 - Risk Specific Doses (10−5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Unit risk (m3/μg) RsD (μg/m3) Acrylamide 79-06-1 1.3E−03 7.7E−03 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 6.8E−05 1.5E−01 Aldrin 309-00-2 4.9E−03 2.0E−03 Aniline 62-53-3 7.4E−06 1.4E+00 Arsenic 7440-38-2 4.3E−03 2.3E−03 Benz(a)anthracene 56-55-3 8.9E−04 1.1E−02 Benzene 71-43-2 8.3E−06 1.2E+00 Benzidine 92-87-5 6.7E−02 1.5E−04...

  13. Ultraviolet-photoproduced organic solids synthesized under simulated Jovian conditions - Molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Bandurski, E. L.; Nagy, B.

    1978-01-01

    In an earlier paper, Khare and Sagan reported the production of a brownish polymeric material from the near-ultraviolet irradiation of simulated jovian atmospheres with a low hydrogen abundance. Examination of this product indicates that hydrogen sulfide is the initial photon acceptor; the powder resulting after extraction with benzene is 84 percent sulfur, largely S8. In results reported here, the remaining 16 percent was pyrolyzed and then examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pyrolysis at 450 C yielded a series of alkanes, alkenes, C3-alkylbenzenes, aromatics, thiophenes, alkylthiophenes, alkylmercaptans, alkyldisulfides, together with the nitrogenous compounds hydrogen cyanide, methyl cyanide, alkylisothiocyanates, acrylonitrile, and allylisothiocyanates. Some of these compounds might be sought on Jupiter and Saturn and their satellites by remote infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and directly by entry probes.

  14. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  15. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  16. Modifications of optical properties of PC/ABS by dual ions beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Lee, Jae-Sang; Lee, Byung-hoon; Kim, Min-kyu; Moon, Byung-Sik; Lee, Chan-Young; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile butadien styrene (ABS) blends used in the inner parts of automobiles require a glossy and metallic colored optical property. Such a surface can be produced by ion beam irradiation, but the surface treated by a single ion species irradiation tends to be degraded upon a long term exposure under UV and visible lights, which includes the loss of glossiness and the delamination of the irradiated layer. Such degradations can be prevented or greatly reduced by a combined irradiation of heavy and light ions such as N and He ions. This may be attributable to a graded interface between the irradiation affected layer and the base materials by overlapping penetration depths of the heavy and light ions. This work is motivated by an effort to substitute the conventional Cr plating process with the ion beam process in the automobile industry.

  17. In vitro anti-influenza screening of several Euphorbiaceae species: structure of a bioactive Cyanoglucoside from Codiaeum variegatum.

    PubMed

    Forero, Jorge Eduardo; Avila, Liliana; Taborda, Natalia; Tabares, Paula; López, Albeiro; Torres, Fernando; Quiñones, Winston; Bucio, María A; Mora-Pérez, Yolanda; Rugeles, Maria Teresa; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Echeverri, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    A bio-guided screening against influenza A virus (FLUAV) was carried out with seven Euphorbiaceae species. The results showed that chromatographic fractions from Phyllantus niruri, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Codiaeum variegatum had relevant anti-FLUAV activity, although only chromatographical subfractions from C. variegatum kept the activity. From this plant, the active compound against FLUAV was isolated. Its structure was assigned as 2-(3,4,5)-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydropyran-2-yloxymethyl)acrylonitrile (1) on the basis of NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound displayed virucidal activity without impairment of haemagglutination properties of the used virus strain. This is the first report indicating antiviral activity of a cyanoglucoside. PMID:18851862

  18. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Al2O3 and TiO2 entrapped ABS membranes: Preparation, characterization and study of irradiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamelian, Fariba Sadat; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Ahmadpour, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses on the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) entrapped acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) membranes prepared from phase inversion method. The effect of Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on the hydrophilicity, tensile strength, thermal stability, permeate flux, and rejection of wastewater pollution indices was investigated. Some of the membranes were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles generally improved performance of the membranes. Thermal stability and tensile strength of the membranes were also enhanced in the presence of the nanoparticles. Increasing the nanoparticles concentration increased viscosity of the casting solutions. The UV irradiated membranes had better performance than the non-irradiated ones.

  20. The Effect of CdS/organic Nanostructure as Additive on the Thermal Stability of ABS Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Davood; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2012-04-01

    Flower like cadmium sulfide/organic (CdS-or) nanostructures were synthesized via a simple reaction between CdCl2 · 2H2O and thioglycolic acid using water solvent at room temperature, then CdS-or nanostructures were added to Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) copolymer. The influence of inorganic phase on the thermal properties of ABS matrix was studied using thermogravimetry analysis and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Nanostructures and nanocomposite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Cone calorimeter measurements showed that the heat release rate (HRR) significantly decreased in the presence of CdS-or nanostructures.

  1. Importance of Chain Connectivity in the Formation of Non-covalent Interactions between Polymers and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Dias; Miller, Brad C.; Li, Huimin; Feigerle, Charles; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Dadmun, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    Our work is focused on understanding and utilizing non-covalent electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and SWNT to optimize interfacial adhesion and homogeneity of nanocomposites without modifying the SWNT native surface. Nanocomposites with polymer bound electron donating 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate or electron accepting acrylonitrile and cyanostyrene moieties leads to improved SWNT dispersion if the interacting functional group is a minor component of a copolymer matrix. Correlation of experimental (Raman mapping, Raman D* band peak shifts, and optical microscopy) and computational results indicates that chain connectivity is critical in controlling the accessibility of the functional groups to form EDA interactions. Thus, controlling the amount of e^- donating or withdrawing moieties throughout the polymer chain will direct the extent of EDA interaction, which enables tuning the SWNT dispersion.

  2. Dynamic adsorption of organic solvent vapors onto a packed bed of activated carbon cloth

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Lin, Y.C.; Lu, F.C.

    1999-02-01

    The adsorption behavior of organic compound vapors onto a packed bed of activated carbon cloth (ACC) has been investigated. Three types of ACCs have been employed: KF1500, FT200-20, and E-ACC. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used in this study are acetone, dichloromethane, acrylonitrile, and n-hexane. The operating parameters studied are temperature of adsorber, weight of ACC, relative humidity of fluid, inlet concentration of VOCs, and total volumetric flow rate of gas stream. A simple theoretical model, originally introduced by Yoon and Nelson, has been utilized to simulate the breakthrough curve of VOC vapor on an adsorption column packed with activated carbon cloth. A modified model is proposed to predict the adsorption behavior of an adsorber at different temperatures.

  3. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  4. Temporal stability of polar organic compounds in stainless steel canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, B.; Jayanty, R.K.M.; Peterson, M.R. ); Evans, G.F. )

    1992-04-01

    Because of considerable interest at US EPA for the collection of polar organic compounds in stainless steel canisters, particularly for the Toxic Air Monitoring Site (TAMS) study, the stability of 10 selected polar organics in canisters was investigated and the results are described in this paper. The polar organic compounds selected for this stability study were: methanol, acetone, isoprene, acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, t-butyl methyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and ethyl acrylate. Two nonpolar compounds, methyl chloroform and toluene, shown to be stable in previous work were included in the stability study as controls. The compounds were loaded in unpolished and Summa-polished canisters at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels under dry and humid conditions. The canister samples were analyzed on Days 0, 1, 3, 4, 14, and 31 after loading. The experimental procedures and stability results are summarized briefly.

  5. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  6. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  7. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  8. Development of compact slip detection sensor using dielectric elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-young; Hwang, Do-Yeon; Kim, Baek-chul; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a resistance tactile sensor that can detect a slip on the surface of sensor structure. The presented sensor device has fingerprint-like structures that are similar with the role of the humans finger print. The resistance slip sensor that the novel developed uses acrylo-nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as a dielectric substrate and graphene as an electrode material. We can measure the slip as the structure of sensor makes a deformation and it changes the resistance through forming a new conductive route. To manufacture our sensor, we developed a new imprint process. By using this process, we can produce sensor with micro unit structure. To verify effectiveness of the proposed slip detection, experiment using prototype of resistance slip sensor is conducted with an algorithm to detect slip and slip is successfully detected. We will discuss the slip detection properties.

  9. Pressure sensitive conductive rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.H. ); Abdel-Bary, E.M. ); El-Mansy, M.K.; Khodair, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) was blended with polychloroprene (CR) according to standard techniques. The blend was mixed with different concentrations of ZnO. The vulcanized sample was subjected to electrical conductivity ({sigma}) measurements while different values of static pressure were applied on the sample. It was found that samples containing 7.5 phr ZnO showed a reasonable pressure sensitive increase of {sigma}. Furthermore, the {sigma} vs pressure relationship of rubber blend mixed with different concentrations of Fast Extrusion Furnace black (FEF) was investigated. It was found that rubber vulcanizate containing 40 phr FEF resulted in a negative value of the pressure coefficient of conductivity {approx equal} {minus} 4.5 KPa{sup {minus}1}.

  10. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  11. Uses of 2-Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone in Synthesis of Quinazoline and Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity: The Solvent Effect

    PubMed Central

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.; Darwish, Khalid M.

    2012-01-01

    2- Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone 1 was synthesized and allowed to react with various halides, namely: alkyl, benzyl, allyl, acyl, haloacetyl, crotonyl, benzoyl, 2-furoyl and 1-naphthalenesulphonyl halides affording quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives. The reactions of compound 1 with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentasulfide, ethyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroacetate, α-bromoglucose tetraacetate, p-acylaminobenzenesulfonyl chloride, acrylonitrile, chalcone and chalcone oxide were also investigated. Depending on the reaction condition and reactant halide, the type of substituent (alkyl, acyl, aroyl, etc.) that will reside on either of the expected positions (3 or 4) on the quinazoline moiety can control the reaction pathway for synthesis of the promising products. The significant role of solvent responsible for determining both the reaction pathway and type of products synthesized was also discussed. Some derivatives were chosen for biological screening test against Gram (-ive) and Gram (+ive) bacteria and two strains of fungi. PMID:22980107

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of novel (Z)-N-(2-cyano-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)-alkyl/aryl-sulfonamides derived from a Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Eder C.; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Zacchi, Carlos H. C.; Silva, Simone A.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Guilardi, Silvana; Alcântara, Antônio F. de C.; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Zambolim, Laércio

    2014-06-01

    A series of allyl sulfonamides prepared from the reaction of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct 2-[hydroxy(phenyl)methyl]acrylonitrile with primary sulfonamides (RSO2NH2), where R = C6H5 (1), 4-Fsbnd C6H4 (2), 4-Clsbnd C6H4 (3), 4-Brsbnd C6H4 (4), 4-NO2sbnd C6H4 (5), CH3 (6), CH3CH2 (7), CH3(CH2)3 (8), and CH3(CH2)7 (9), were characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. BLYP/6-31G* calculations suggested stereoselective reactions, resulting in the exclusive formation of the thermodynamically more stable Z-products. The Z-configuration of the products was confirmed by NOE difference spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The allyl sulfonamides were active against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an important agent of anthracnose in plants.

  13. Nanoclay modified polycarbonate blend nanocomposites: Calorimetric and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Kalnins, Martins; Maksimovs, Roberts

    2014-05-01

    The research is devoted to characterization of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS) blend nanocomposites in respects to it mechanical and calorimetric properties. It is shown that PC blend with 10wt% of ABS is more suitable for development of polymer-clay nanocomposites than PC blend with 40wt.% of ABS. It is revealed that the greatest modulus and strength increment is observed for PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites, containing aromatic organomodifier treated clay (Dellite 43B). It is also determined that optimal nanofiller content for the investigated PC/10%ABS blend is 1.5 wt.%. Increase of mechanical characteristics of PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites is accompanied with the rise of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric phases, particularly that of PC.

  14. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Nawar, N; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO(4) and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:20810212

  15. Impact of polymer matrix on the electromagnetic interference shielding performance for single-walled carbon nanotubes-based composites.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiajie; Huang, Yi; Li, Ning; Bai, Gang; Liu, Zunfeng; Du, Feng; Li, Feifei; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Composites of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), epoxy and soluble cross-linked polyurethane (SCPU) with various loadings of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared. Their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X band) was studied. Well-dispersed SWCNT composites were created in these three representative polymer matrixes. The choice of polymer matrix greatly affects the conductivity, percolation threshold, and EMI shielding properties of the SWCNT/polymer composites. Enhanced EMI SE performances were observed for the composites with better dispersed SWCNTs. Moreover, the EMI SE performances strongly correlated with SWCNT loading in the polymer matrix. The best SWCNT dispersion was achieved in the epoxy matrix: 20-30 dB EMI SE was obtained with 15 wt% SWCNTs. PMID:23646584

  16. Cyanoethylation of the glucans dextran and pullulan: Substitution pattern and formation of nanostructures and entrapment of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fiege, Kathrin; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cyanoethylglucans with a degree of substitution in the range of 0.74 to 2.40 for dextran and 0.84 to 2.42 for pullulan were obtained by Michael addition of acrylonitrile to the glucans under various conditions. Products were thoroughly characterized, comprising elementary analysis, NMR and ATR–IR spectroscopy, and analysis of the substituent distribution in the glucosyl units by GC–FID and GC–MS of the constituting monosaccharide derivatives. Nanostructuring of the highly substituted cyanoethylpolysaccharides was performed by dialysis against a non-solvent. In the presence of ferromagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles, multicore cyanoethylglucan-coated ferromagnetic nanoparticles were formed by selective entrapment. The specific interaction between cyano groups and iron could be proven. The size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF–TEM) with parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). PMID:22563354

  17. Preparation of novel network nanostructured sulfur composite cathode with enhanced stable cycle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Konarov, Aishuak; Chen, P.

    2014-12-01

    In situ polymerization of acrylonitrile with nano-sulfur particles has been developed as a synthetic route to prepare sulfur/polyacrylonitrile (S/pPAN) composite as a cathode material for lithium/sulfur battery. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed the formation of a highly developed network structure consisting of PAN and sulfur homogeneous mixing at nanosized level, providing the "buffering" space to accommodate the volume change of sulfur upon cycling and retaining the structural integrity preventing the material agglomeration and degradation. Benefiting from this unique structure, the S/pPAN composite cathode demonstrated enhanced reversibility, resulting in a discharge capacity of 1177 mAh g-1 at the second cycle and retained about 100% of this value over 100 cycles at 0.5C. Furthermore, the S/pPAN composite cathode delivered a discharge capacity of 981 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle at 1C.

  18. ABS polymer electroless plating through a one-step poly(acrylic acid) covalent grafting.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Mesnage, Alice; Jégou, Pascale; Nekelson, Fabien; Roussel, Sébastien; Palacin, Serge

    2010-04-01

    A new, efficient, palladium- and chromium-free process for the electroless plating of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymers has been developed. The process is based on the ion-exchange properties of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chemically grafted onto ABS via a simple and one-step method that prevents using classical surface conditioning. Hence, ABS electroless plating can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the grafting of PAA onto ABS, (ii) the copper Cu(0) seeding of the ABS surface, and (iii) the nickel or copper metallization using commercial-like electroless plating bath. IR, XPS, and SEM were used to characterize each step of the process, and the Cu loading was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This process successfully compares with the commercial one based on chromic acid etching and palladium-based seed layer, because the final metallic layer showed excellent adhesion with the ABS substrate. PMID:20361751

  19. Relative toxicity of materials in fire situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of toxicity testing of additional materials is presented. Relative toxicity data on polymers by generic type are presented and include wood, polyurethane flexible foam, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), and polyisoprene (natural rubber). A second table gives relative toxicity data on fibers and fabrics including wool, nylon, rayon, polyester, and aromatic polyamide. Sulfur-containing materials seemed to exhibit the shortest times to death of laboratory animals. Some chlorine-containing polymers tended to exhibit shortest time to death also while some halogen-containing polymers gave the shortest time to incapacitation. Among fibers and fabrics, wool, silk, and polyester exhibited the shortest times to incapacitation and times to death. Difficulty in restricting generally accepted materials is discussed and attention is given to other factors important in comparing materials, such as backcoatings and relative weights.

  20. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. PMID:20395134

  1. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  2. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  3. Discovery of the Aryl-phospho-indole IDX899, a Highly Potent Anti-HIV Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dousson, Cyril; Alexandre, François-René; Amador, Agnès; Bonaric, Séverine; Bot, Stéphanie; Caillet, Catherine; Convard, Thierry; da Costa, Daniel; Lioure, Marie-Pierre; Roland, Arlène; Rosinovsky, Elodie; Maldonado, Sébastien; Parsy, Christophe; Trochet, Christophe; Storer, Richard; Stewart, Alistair; Wang, Jingyang; Mayes, Benjamin A; Musiu, Chiara; Poddesu, Barbara; Vargiu, Luana; Liuzzi, Michel; Moussa, Adel; Jakubik, Jocelyn; Hubbard, Luke; Seifer, Maria; Standring, David

    2016-03-10

    Here, we describe the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and identification of a clinical candidate non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a novel aryl-phospho-indole (APhI) scaffold. NNRTIs are recommended components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV-1. Since a major problem associated with NNRTI treatment is the emergence of drug resistant virus, this work focused on optimization of the APhI against clinically relevant HIV-1 Y181C and K103N mutants and the Y181C/K103N double mutant. Optimization of the phosphinate aryl substituent led to the discovery of the 3-Me,5-acrylonitrile-phenyl analogue RP-13s (IDX899) having an EC50 of 11 nM against the Y181C/K103N double mutant. PMID:26804933

  4. Rubber-toughened polyfunctional epoxies - Brominated vs nonbrominated formulated for graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new, commercially available, trifunctional epoxy resin (tris-(hydroxyphenyl)-methane triglycidyl ether) was modified with synthetic rubber to increase the impact resistance of epoxy/graphite composites. These composites were reinforced with commercially available satin-weave carbon cloth using two formulations of epoxies (brominated and nonbrominated) containing various amounts of carboxy-terminated butadience acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber that had been prereacted with epoxy resin. The impact resistance was determined by measuring the interlaminar shear strength of the composites after impact. The mechanical properties, such as flexural strength and modulus at room temperature and at 93 C, were also determined. Measurements were taken of the flammability and glass transition temperature (Tg); and a thermal-gravimetric analysis was made.

  5. Process for producing metal oxide superconductor-polymer composites and composites thereby formed

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, J.C.W.

    1990-06-05

    This patent describes a process for producing copper based metal oxide superconductors having continuous foam-like morphology. It comprises: co-dissolving solutions other than metal oxides containing metal ions with a polymer or copolymer in an organic solvent in which the solutions and polymer or copolymer are soluble and of a polar organic solvent type selected from the group consisting of dimethyl formamide, dimethacetamide N-methyl pyrolidone and sulfolan, the the polymer or copolymer being selected from the group consisting of (poly)acrylic acid, (poly)methacrylic acid (poly)styrene sulfonic acid, and copolymers of malonic acid, citraconic acid, acrylonitriles, E-caprolactam, cyclic ethers and cyclic acetals having metal complexing or chelating functional pendant substituents, and a copolymer of vinyl acetate and acrylic acid, and the metals being of the type susceptible of forming high transition temperature metal oxide superconductors with at least some selected from the group consisting of Y, Ba, La and Sr.

  6. Thermoplasticization of euglenoid β-1,3-glucans by mixed esterification.

    PubMed

    Shibakami, Motonari; Tsubouchi, Gen; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2014-05-25

    We experimentally demonstrated that paramylon, a storage polysaccharide of Euglena gracilis, is efficiently thermoplasticized by adding acyl groups that differ in alkyl chain length. Glass transition temperature of mixed paramylon esters was higher than those of plant-based polylactic acid (PLA), poly 11-aminoundecanoic acid (PA11), and petroleum-based acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin and was comparable to that of cellulose acetate stearate (CAS). Their thermoplasticity was equivalent to or higher than those of these reference plastics. The bending strength and bending elastic modulus of injection molded test specimens made from mixed paramylon esters were comparable to those of the reference plastics. While their impact strength was lower than that of specimens made from ABS resin and CAS, it was comparable to those of PLA and PA11. Euglenoid β-1,3-glucans are thus a potential component of thermoplastic materials. PMID:24708957

  7. Impact strength on fiber-reinforced hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, S. M.; Nurdina; Azmil Ariff, M.

    2013-12-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) has been well known composite in automotive players to have light weight with high impact strength material compared to sheet metal material which has high impact strength but heavy in weight. In this project, the impact strength properties of fabricated pure ABS were compared to the eight samples of hybrid ABS composite with different weight percentages of short fibers and particle sizes of ground rubber. The objective was to improve the impact strength in addition of short fibers and ground rubber particles. These samples were then characterized using an un-notched Izod impact test. Results show that the increasing of filler percentage yielded an adverse effect on the impact strength of the hybrid composite. The effect of the ground rubber particulate sizes however are deemed to be marginal than the effect of varying filler percentage based on the collected impact strength data from all physically tested hybrid composites.

  8. Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

    2013-06-01

    We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

  9. [Prevention of occupational carcinogens: perspectives opened by the evaluation of risks and preventive actions].

    PubMed

    Le Gales, C; Oudiz, A

    1986-01-01

    The first part of the review deals with the present situation in terms of prevention against potential carcinogenic substances in France. A significant effort should be devoted to the measurement of contaminants--not only carcinogenic substances--in the workplace. This is a prerequisite for setting a data base in terms of potential occupational risk. Moreover gaps exist also as far as the definition of the technical means aimed at the reduction of risk is concerned. These conclusions put into light the importance of the contribution that "industrial hygienists" would bring in France. In the second part of the review, the methodological content of the risk assessment and risk management procedures is described and illustrated. Risk assessment of carcinogens deals: with the identification of potential carcinogens through epidemiology, animal bio-assays and short term tests; with the quantitative estimation of the magnitude of the potential carcinogenic risk among the exposed workers. It appears necessary to carry out systematic surveys of the number of workers exposed to the carcinogenic substances. The risk assessment procedure is applied to 5 substances BCME, MOCA, Acrylonitrile, Chromium, Nickel and some compounds of these metals. The number of potential excess cancers related to a unit lifelong exposure to Nickel compounds is estimated. This requires exposure-response models which are critically analysed. Risk management is devoted to the choice of primary health care policies. The methodology of risk management consists of: identifying various control policies; quantitative estimation of their efficiency--indicators of the efficiency are discussed--and of their cost; choice among these policies with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis when necessary. The procedure is illustrated in the case of Acrylonitrile control in a facility. PMID:3550964

  10. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. PMID:27140655

  11. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26497000

  12. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  13. The emissions of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from small polymeric toys placed in chocolate food products.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2015-10-15

    The article presents findings on the emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from children's toys placed in chocolate food products. The emission test system involved the application of a new type of microscale stationary emission chamber, μ-CTE™ 250. In order to determine the type of the applied polymer in the manufacture of the tested toys, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry were used. It was found that the tested toy components or the whole toys (figurines) are made of two main types of polymers: polyamide and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Total number of studied small polymeric toys was 52. The average emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from studied toys made of polyamide were as follows: benzene: 0.45 ± 0.33 ng/g; toluene: 3.3 ± 2.6 ng/g; ethylbenzene: 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/g; p,m-xylene: 2.5 ± 4.5 ng/g; and styrene: 8.2 ± 9.9 ng/g. In the case of studied toys made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer the average emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbeznene, p,m-xylene and styrene were: 0.31 ± 0.29 ng/g; 2.5 ± 1.4 ng/g; 4.6 ± 8.9 ng/g; 1.4 ± 1.1 ng/g; and 36 ± 44 ng/g, respectively. PMID:26047863

  14. Radiation synthesis of a new amidoximated UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent with high adsorption selectivity for uranium over vanadium in simulated seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qianhong; Hu, Jiangtao; Li, Rong; Xing, Zhe; Xu, Lu; Wang, Mouhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-05-01

    A new kind of highly efficient adsorbent material has been fabricated in this study for the purpose of extracting uranium from seawater. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber was used as a trunk material for the adsorbent, which was prepared by a series of modification reactions, as follows: (1) grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and methyl acrylate (MA) onto UHMWPE fibers via 60Co γ-ray pre-irradiation; (2) aminolyzation of UHMWPE fiber by the ring-opening reaction between of epoxy groups PGMA and ethylene diamine (EDA); (3) Michael addition of amino groups with acrylonitrile (AN) to yield nitrile groups; (4) amidoximation of the attached nitrile moieties by hydroxylamine in dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixture. Modified UHMWPE fibers were characterized by means of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm the attachment of amidoxime (AO) groups onto the UHMWPE fibers. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and single fiber tensile strength verified that the modified UHMWPE fiber retained excellent mechanical properties at a low absorbed radiation dose. The adsorption performance of the UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent was evaluated by subjecting it to an adsorption test in simulated seawater using a continuous-flow mode. The amount of uranium adsorbed by this AO-based UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent was 1.97 mg-U/g after 42 days. This new adsorbent also showed high selectivity for the uranyl ion, and its selectivity for metal ions was found to decrease in the following order: U>Cu>Fe>Ca>Mg>Ni>Zn>Pb>V>Co. The adsorption selectivity for uranium is significantly higher than that for vanadium. In addition, preparation of this modified adsorbent consumes much smaller amounts of the toxic acrylonitrile monomer than the conventional preparation methods of AO-based polyethylene fibers.

  15. Exploring pharmacological activities and signaling of morphinans substituted in position 6 as potent agonists interacting with the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid analgesics are the most effective drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, they also produce several adverse effects that can complicate pain management. The μ opioid (MOP) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, is recognized as the opioid receptor type which primarily mediates the pharmacological actions of clinically used opioid agonists. The morphinan class of analgesics including morphine and oxycodone are of main importance as therapeutically valuable drugs. Though the natural alkaloid morphine contains a C-6-hydroxyl group and the semisynthetic derivative oxycodone has a 6-carbonyl function, chemical approaches have uncovered that functionalizing position 6 gives rise to a range of diverse activities. Hence, position 6 of N-methylmorphinans is one of the most manipulated sites, and is established to play a key role in ligand binding at the MOP receptor, efficacy, signaling, and analgesic potency. We have earlier reported on a chemically innovative modification in oxycodone resulting in novel morphinans with 6-acrylonitrile incorporated substructures. Results This study describes in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities and signaling of new morphinans substituted in position 6 with acrylonitrile and amido functions as potent agonists and antinociceptive agents interacting with MOP receptors. We show that the presence of a 6-cyano group in N-methylmorphinans has a strong influence on the binding to the opioid receptors and post-receptor signaling. One 6-cyano-N-methylmorphinan of the series was identified as the highest affinity and most selective MOP agonist, and very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, this MOP agonist showed to be greatly effective against thermal and chemical nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency than the lead molecule oxycodone. Conclusion Development of such novel chemotypes by targeting

  16. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  17. Theoretical study for pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate: synthesis mechanism, electronic structure, and catalytic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xueying; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2011-07-28

    By performing density functional theory calculations, we have studied the synthesis mechanism, electronic structure, and catalytic reactivity of a pyridinium-based ionic liquid, 1-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate ([epy](+)[CF(3)COO](-)). It is found that the synthesis of the pyridinium salt follows a S(N)2 mechanism. The electronic structural analyses show that multiple H bonds are generally involved in the pyridinium-based ionic liquid, which may play a decisive role for stabilizing the ionic liquid. The cation-anion interaction mainly involves electron transfer between the lone pair of the oxygen atom in the anion and the antibonding orbital of the C*-H bond (C* denotes the carbon atom at the ortho-position of nitrogen atom in the cation). This present work has also given clearly the catalytic mechanism of [epy](+)[CF(3)COO](-) toward to the Diels-Alder (D-A) reaction of acrylonitrile with 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. Both the cation and anion are shown to play important roles in promoting the D-A reaction. The cation [epy](+), as a Lewis acid, associates the C≡N group by C≡N···H H bond to increase the polarity of the C═C double bond in acrylonitrile, while the anion CF(3)COO(-) links with the methyl group in 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene by C-H···O H bond, which weakens the electron-donating capability of methyl and thereby lowers the energy barrier of the D-A reaction. The present results are expected to provide valuable information for the design and application of pyridinium-based ionic liquids. PMID:21671599

  18. Are isomers of the vinyl cyanide ion missing links for interstellar pyrimidine formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2009-08-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM) there are many regions where the formation of molecules is kinetically driven rather than thermochemically, which can lead to the formation of many isomers even though some may be fairly higher in energy relative to the molecular global minimum. Recent laboratory experiments where noble gas cations are reacted with pyrimidine favored the formation of C3H3N+, but the molecular structure(s) of this fragment was not determined. Microscopic reversibility means that pyrimidine could form under interstellar conditions should the required C3H3N+ reactant be detected in the ISM. Hence C3H3N+ could be a strong candidate for involvement in the formation of heterocyclic biomolecules such as pyrimidine in the ISM. In this study, we have investigated the low energy isomers of the acrylonitrile ion (C3H3N+) using density functional theory as well as high levels of ab initio theory, namely, the singles and doubles coupled-cluster theory that includes a perturbational correction for connected triple excitations, denoted as CCSD(T). An automated stochastic search procedure, Kick, has been employed to find isomers on the ground state doublet potential energy surface. Several new structures, along with all the previously reported minima, have been found. The global minimum H2CCCNH+ is energetically much lower than either H2CC(H)CN+, the acrylonitrile ion, or HCC(H)NCH+, the most likely intermediate of the reaction between HCCH+ and HCN. These isomers are connected to the global minimum via several transition states and intermediates. The results indicate that not only the global minimum but also several higher energy isomers of the C3H3N+ ion could be important in interstellar pyrimidine formation. The isomeric molecules have the necessary CCNC backbone needed for the reaction with HCN to form the cyclic pyrimidine framework. The structural and rotational parameters of all the isomers studied in this work have been predicted at the CCSD(T) level of

  19. Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer/tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    Modern cigarette manufacturing is highly automated and produces millions of cigarettes per day. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, cardboard packaging, plastic, and other materials exists as a result of bulk handling and high-speed processing of tobacco. Many non-tobacco inclusions such as wood, paper, and cardboard would be expected to yield similar pyrolysis products as a burning cigarette. The aircraft industry has developed an extensive literature on the pyrolysis products of plastics, however, that have been reported to yield toxic by-products upon burning, by-products that have been lethal in animals and humans upon acute exposure under some exposure conditions. Some of these smoke constituents have also been reported in cigarette smoke. Five synthetic polymers, nylon 6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), nylon 12, nylon 6,6, and acrylonitrile-butadiene (AB), and the natural polymer wool were evaluated by adding them to tobacco at a 3, 10, and 30% inclusion level and then pyrolyzing the mixture. The validated smoke generation and exposure system have been described previously. We used the DIN 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct exposures in Swiss-Webster mice. Potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting hazards in humans included sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation, respiratory function, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglogin, blood cyanide concentrations, and histopathology of the respiratory tract. Chemical analysis of selected smoke constituents in the test atmosphere was also performed in order to compare the toxicological responses with exposure to the test atmospheres. Under the conditions of these studies, biological responses considered relevant and useful for prediction of effects in humans were found for sensory irritation, body weights, BAL fluid analysis, and histopathology of the nose

  20. The inverse agonist DG172 triggers a PPARβ/δ-independent myeloid lineage shift and promotes GM-CSF/IL-4-induced dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Sonja; Scheer, Frithjof; Finkernagel, Florian; Meissner, Wolfgang; Giehl, Gavin; Brendel, Cornelia; Diederich, Wibke E; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    The stilbene derivative (Z)-2-(2-bromophenyl)-3-{[4-(1-methylpiperazine)amino]phenyl}acrylonitrile (DG172) was developed as a highly selective inhibitory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ ligand. Here, we describe a novel PPARβ/δ-independent, yet highly specific, effect of DG172 on the differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMCs). DG172 strongly augmented granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced differentiation of primary BMCs from Ppard null mice into two specific populations, characterized as mature (CD11c(hi)MHCII(hi)) and immature (CD11c(hi)MHCII(lo)) dendritic cells (DCs). IL-4 synergized with DG172 to shift the differentiation from MHCII(lo) cells to mature DCs in vitro. The promotion of DC differentiation occurred at the expense of differentiation to granulocytic Gr1(+)Ly6B(+) cells. In agreement with these findings, transcriptome analyses showed a strong DG172-mediated repression of genes encoding neutrophilic markers in both differentiating wild-type and Ppard null cells, while macrophage/DC marker genes were up-regulated. DG172 also inhibited the expression of transcription factors driving granulocytic differentiation (Cebpe, Gfi1, and Klf5), and increased the levels of transcription factors promoting macrophage/DC differentiation (Irf4, Irf8, Spib, and Spic). DG172 exerted these effects only at an early stage of BMC differentiation induced by GM-CSF, did not affect macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-triggered differentiation to macrophages and had no detectable PPARβ/δ-independent effect on other cell types tested. Structure-function analyses demonstrated that the 4-methylpiperazine moiety in DG172 is required for its effect on DC differentiation, but is dispensable for PPARβ/δ binding. Based on these data we developed a new compound, (Z)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-yl)phenyl]acrylonitrile (DG228), which enhances DC differentiation in the absence of significant PPARβ/δ binding. PMID

  1. Studies on nitrile rubber degradation in zinc bromide completion fluid and its prevention by surface fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Cantu, Yadira Itzel

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) or nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) is frequently used as an O-ring material in the oil extraction industry due to its excellent chemical properties and resistance to oil. However, degradation of NBR gaskets is known to occur during the well completion and oil extraction process where packers are exposed to completion fluids such as ZnBr2 brine. Under these conditions NBR exhibits accelerated chemical degradation resulting in embrittlement and cracking. Samples of NBR, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(butadiene) (PB) have been exposed to ZnBr2 based completion fluid, and analyzed by ATR and diffuse reflectance IR. Analysis shows the ZnBr2 based completion fluid promotes hydrolysis of the nitrile group to form amides and carboxylic groups. Analysis also shows that carbon-carbon double bonds in NBR are unaffected after short exposure to zinc bromide based completion fluid, but are quickly hydrolyzed in acidic bromide mixtures. Although fluoropolymers have excellent chemical resistance, their strength is less than nitrile rubber and replacing the usual gasket materials with fluoroelastomers is expensive. However, a fluoropolymer surface on a nitrile elastomer can provide the needed chemical resistance while retaining their strength. In this study, we have shown that this can be achieved by direct fluorination, a rather easy and inexpensive process. Samples of NBR O-rings have been fluorinated by exposure to F2 and F2/HF mixtures at various temperatures. Fluorination with F 2 produces the desired fluoropolymer layer; however, fluorination by F2/HF mixtures gave a smoother fluorinated layer at lower temperatures and shorter times. Fluorinated samples were exposed to ZnBr2 drilling fluid and solvents. Elemental analysis shows that the fluorinated layer eliminates ZnBr2 diffusion into the NBR polymeric matrix. It was also found that surface fluorination significantly retards the loss of mechanical properties such as elasticity, tensile

  2. Atomistic simulations of bulk, surface and interfacial polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Upendra

    In chapter I, quasi-static molecular mechanics based simulations are used to estimate the activation energy of phenoxy rings flips in the amorphous region of a semicrystalline polyimide. Intra and intermolecular contributions to the flip activation energy, the torsional cooperativity accompanying the flip, and the effect of the flip on the motion in the glassy bulk state, are looked at. Also, comparison of the weighted mean activation energy is made with experimental data from solid state NMR measurements; the simulated value being 17.5 kcal/mol., while the experimental value was observed to be 10.5 kcal/mol. Chapter II deals with construction of random copolymer thin films of styrene-butadiene (SB) and styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile (SBA). The structure and properties of the free surfaces presented by these thin films are analysed by, the atom mass density profiles, backbone bond orientation function, and the spatial distribution of acrylonitrile groups and styrene rings. The surface energies of SB and SBA are calculated using an atomistic equation and are compared with experimental data in the literature. In chapter III, simulations of polymer-polymer interfaces between like and unlike polymers, specifically cis-polybutadiene (PBD) and atatic polypropylene (PP), are presented. The structure of an incompatible polymer-polymer interface, and the estimation of the thermodynamic work of adhesion and interfacial energy between different incompatible polymers, form the focus here. The work of adhesion is calculated using an atomistic equation and is further used in a macroscopic equation to estimate the interfacial energy. The interfacial energy is compared with typical values for other immiscible systems in the literature. The interfacial energy compared very well with interfacial energy values for a few other immiscible hydrocarbon pairs. In chapter IV, the study proceeds to look at the interactions between nonpolar and polar small molecules with SB and SBA thin

  3. Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D-A-D Modular Chromophore.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Aaron M; Gupta, Akhil; Plummer, Christopher M; Jackson, Sam L; Bilic, Ante; Patil, Hemlata; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2015-01-01

    Through the incorporation of a thiophene functionality, a novel solution-processable small organic chromophore was designed, synthesized and characterized for application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The new chromophore, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (coded as AS2), was based on a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) module where a simple triphenylamine unit served as an electron donor, 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile as an electron acceptor, and a thiophene ring as the π-bridge embedded between the donor and acceptor functionalities. AS2 was isolated as brick-red, needle-shaped crystals, and was fully characterized by ¹H- and (13)C-NMR, IR, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of AS2 were compared with those of a structural analogue, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-acrylonitrile) (AS1). Benefiting from the covalent thiophene bridges, compared to AS1 thin solid film, the AS2 film showed: (1) an enhancement of light-harvesting ability by 20%; (2) an increase in wavelength of the longest wavelength absorption maximum (497 nm vs. 470 nm) and (3) a narrower optical band-gap (1.93 eV vs. 2.17 eV). Studies on the photovoltaic properties revealed that the best AS2-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-based device showed an impressive enhanced power conversion efficiency of 4.10%, an approx. 3-fold increase with respect to the efficiency of the best AS1-based device (1.23%). These results clearly indicated that embodiment of thiophene functionality extended the molecular conjugation, thus enhancing the light-harvesting ability and short-circuit current density, while further improving the bulk-heterojunction device performance. To our knowledge, AS2 is the first example in the literature where a thiophene unit has been used in conjunction with a 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile accepting functionality to extend

  4. Are isomers of the vinyl cyanide ion missing links for interstellar pyrimidine formation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J.; Schaefer, Henry F. III

    2009-08-21

    In the interstellar medium (ISM) there are many regions where the formation of molecules is kinetically driven rather than thermochemically, which can lead to the formation of many isomers even though some may be fairly higher in energy relative to the molecular global minimum. Recent laboratory experiments where noble gas cations are reacted with pyrimidine favored the formation of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +}, but the molecular structure(s) of this fragment was not determined. Microscopic reversibility means that pyrimidine could form under interstellar conditions should the required C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} reactant be detected in the ISM. Hence C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} could be a strong candidate for involvement in the formation of heterocyclic biomolecules such as pyrimidine in the ISM. In this study, we have investigated the low energy isomers of the acrylonitrile ion (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +}) using density functional theory as well as high levels of ab initio theory, namely, the singles and doubles coupled-cluster theory that includes a perturbational correction for connected triple excitations, denoted as CCSD(T). An automated stochastic search procedure, Kick, has been employed to find isomers on the ground state doublet potential energy surface. Several new structures, along with all the previously reported minima, have been found. The global minimum H{sub 2}CCCNH{sup +} is energetically much lower than either H{sub 2}CC(H)CN{sup +}, the acrylonitrile ion, or HCC(H)NCH{sup +}, the most likely intermediate of the reaction between HCCH{sup +} and HCN. These isomers are connected to the global minimum via several transition states and intermediates. The results indicate that not only the global minimum but also several higher energy isomers of the C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} ion could be important in interstellar pyrimidine formation. The isomeric molecules have the necessary CCNC backbone needed for the reaction with HCN to form the cyclic pyrimidine framework

  5. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-07-12

    Here we report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 °C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured.more » Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.« less

  6. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

  7. Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

  8. Study of the thermal properties of filaments for 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlíková, Lucie; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Psencik, Petr; Florian, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Various materials are used for 3D printing, most commonly Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyethylene (PET) and Polypropylene (PP). These materials differ mainly in their melting point, which significantly influences the properties of the final products. Filaments are melted in the print head during the printing process. The temperature range is from 150 °C to 250 °C depending on the technology used. The optimum temperature for the cooling substrate on which printing is carried out is chosen so as to ensure uniform cooling and deformation. It generally varies between (40 - 100) °C. From the above it is clear that both temperatures can significantly affect the properties of the printed 3D object. It is therefore important to determine the thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the materials used across the entire range of temperatures. For evaluating the properties of different types of PLA materials, the step transient method was used, which allows determination of all required parameters using a fractal heat transfer model.

  9. Make this new C/sub 10/ diamine

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, C.A.; Campbell, R.W.; Hill, H.W.; Marwil, S.T.; Vanderveen, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    A new technology has been developed which permits production of C/sub 10/ diamines from acrylonitrile and isobutylene. In this work, methods were developed to conduct an ''ene'' type reaction using a suitable solvent in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The solvent used was a mixture of unsaturated C/sub 7/ nitriles, produced as an intermediate in the reaction. Technical problems solved in this area which materially contributed to the success of this project include: (1) means to minimize reactor fouling and (2) means to prevent isomerization of the solvent. Unsaturated C/sub 10/ dinitriles produced in the first half of the process were hydrogenated to saturated C/sub 10/ diamines using a suitable catalyst in a trickle bed reactor. Use of NH/sub 3/ in the hydrogenation reactor prevented formation of secondary and tertiary amines. Alkylation products in the hydrogenation reactor were avoided by selection and use of suitable solvents. Condensation of MND with terephthalic acid produced a polyamide (designated as MND-T) having a glass transition temperature above the boiling point of water. Fabrics prepared from MND-T fiber showed outstanding performance when compared with nylon, polyester and Quiana fabrics. MND-T polyamide was also evaluated as an engineering plastic and compared with other nylon resins. Processing data and properties of MND-T showed it to be a hard, strong, tough, injection moldable polyamide with better moisture and chemical resistance and higher heat deflection temperature than nylon 6-6 or 6-12.

  10. Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in black thermo cups and selected kitchen utensils purchased on the European market.

    PubMed

    Samsonek, J; Puype, F

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen for the presence of a recycled polymer waste stream from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), a market survey was conducted on black plastic food-contact articles (FCA). An analytical method was applied combining X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (thermal desorption GC-MS). Firstly, XRF spectrometry was applied to distinguish bromine-positive samples. Secondly, bromine-positive samples were submitted for identification by thermal desorption GC-MS. Generally, the bromine-positive samples contained mainly technical decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Newer types of BFRs such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl), ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), replacing the polybrominated diphenyleters (PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyls (PBBs), were also identified. In none of the tested samples were PBBs or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) found. Polymer identification was carried out using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy measurement (FTIR) on all samples. The results indicate that polypropylene-polyethylene copolymers (PP-PE) and mainly styrene-based food-contact materials, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) have the highest risk of containing BFRs. PMID:24040839

  11. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasei, Mitra; Das, Paramita; Cherfouh, Hayet; Marsan, Benoit; Claverie, Jerome

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  12. Dielectrophoretic Field-Flow Fractionation System for Detection of Aquatic Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Pui-ock, Sittisak; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Gascoyne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (dFFF) was applied as a contact-free way to sense changes in the plasma membrane capacitances and conductivities of cultured human HL-60 cells in response to toxicant exposure. A micropatterned electrode imposed electric forces on cells in suspension in a parabolic flow profile as they moved through a thin chamber. Relative changes in the dFFF peak elution time, reflecting changes in cell membrane area and ion permeability, were measured as indices of response during the first 150 min of exposure to eight toxicants having different single or mixed modes of action (acrylonitrile, actinomycin D, carbon tetrachloride, endosulfan, N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), paraquat dichloride, puromycin, and styrene oxide). The dFFF method was compared with the cell viability assay for all toxicants and with the mitochondrial potentiometric dye assay or DNA alkaline comet assay according to the mode of action of the specific agents. Except for low doses of nucleic acid-targeting agents (actinomycin D and NMU), the dFFF method detected all toxicants more sensitively than other assays, in some cases up to 105 times more sensitively than the viability approach. The results suggest the dFFF method merits additional study for possible applicability in toxicology. PMID:18788754

  13. Dual ion beam irradiation of polymeric materials for the modification of optical properties with improved adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Lee, Eal H.; Lee, Jae-Sang; Lee, Byung-hoon; Kim, Min-kyu; Lee, Chan-Young; Kim, Hyung-jin; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Metallic (chromium) coating has often been applied on the surface of polymeric components, mainly to improve their appearance with a metallic luster and to protect from degradation under UV and visible light. However, the toxic nature of hexavalent chromium and delamination problems are an increasing concern in the plating industry. A similar metallic luster and the UV-visible light protection can be achieved by treating the surface of polymers by ion beams. However, a degradation by weathering including cracks, loss of glossiness, blistering, and eventual delamination have been problematic for ion beam processed polymers, particularly with a single ion beam irradiation. The main cause of adhesion failure is the abrupt change in material properties at the interface between coating and polymer or ion beam treated surface and the underlying untreated bulk polymer. In this work, therefore, a method is developed that improves adhesion by producing a graded interface by employing a dual ion beam processing. For demonstration purposes in this work, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene blends were irradiated first with nitrogen ions followed by helium ions, achieving the desired metallic luster with improved adhesion. The experimental findings are explained in light of the stopping range of ions in materials and their interaction mechanisms with polymeric materials.

  14. Suppression of phase coarsening in immiscible, co-continuous polymer blends under high temperature quiescent annealing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Qiang; Li, Ruo-Han; Bao, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Wen-Rou; Yang, Wei; Xie, Bang-Hu; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2014-05-28

    The properties of polymer blends greatly depend on the morphologies formed during processing, and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium nature of most polymer blends makes it important to maintain the morphology stability to ensure the performance stability of structural materials. Herein, the phase coarsening of co-continuous, immiscible polyamide 6 (PA6)-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends in the melt state was studied and the effect of introduction of nano-silica particles on the stability of the phase morphology was examined. It was found that the PA6-ABS (50/50 w) blend maintained the co-continuous morphology but coarsened severely upon annealing at 230 °C. The coarsening process could be divided into two stages: a fast coarsening process at the initial stage of annealing and a second coarsening process with a relatively slow coarsening rate later. The reduction of the coarsening rate can be explained from the reduction of the global curvature of the interface. With the introduction of nano-silica, the composites also showed two stages of coarsening. However, the coarsening rate was significantly decreased and the phase morphology was stabilized. Rheological measurements indicated that a particle network structure was formed when the concentration of nano-silica particles was beyond 2 wt%. The particle network inhibited the movement of molecular chains and thus suppressed the coarsening process. PMID:24663286

  15. An optical method for evaluation of geometric fidelity for anatomically shaped tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Ballyns, Jeffrey J; Cohen, Daniel L; Malone, Evan; Maher, Suzanne A; Potter, Hollis G; Wright, Timothy; Lipson, Hod; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    Quantification of shape fidelity of complex geometries for tissue-engineered constructs has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe geometric fidelities of various approaches to the fabrication of anatomically shaped meniscal constructs. Ovine menisci (n = 4) were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microcomputed tomography (microCT). Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic molds were designed from each imaging modality and three-dimensional printed on a Stratasys FDM 3000. Silastic impression molds were fabricated directly from ovine menisci. These molds were used to generate shaped constructs using 2% alginate with 2% CaSO(4). Solid freeform fabrication was conducted on a custom open-architecture three-dimensional printing platform. Printed samples were made using 2% alginate with 0.75% CaSO(4). Hydrogel constructs were scanned via laser triangulation distance sensor. The point cloud images were analyzed to acquire computational measurements for key points of interest (e.g., height, width, and volume). Silastic molds were within + or - 10% error with respect to the native tissue for seven key measurements, microCT molds for six of seven, microCT prints for four of seven, MRI molds for five of seven, and MRI prints for four of seven. This work shows the ability to generate and quantify anatomically shaped meniscal constructs of high geometric fidelity and lends insight into the relative geometric fidelities of several tissue engineering techniques. PMID:19788346

  16. Three-dimensional heterostructure of metallic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as potential nanofiller.

    PubMed

    Kim, Whi Dong; Huh, Jun Young; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Beom; Lee, Dongyun; Hong, Suck Won; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the dimensionality of metallic nanoparticle-and carbon nanotube-based fillers on the mechanical properties of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer matrix was examined. ABS composite films, reinforced with low dimensional metallic nanoparticles (MNPs, 0-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 1-D) as nanofillers, were fabricated by a combination of wet phase inversion and hot pressing. The tensile strength and elongation of the ABS composite were increased by 39% and 6%, respectively, by adding a mixture of MNPs and CNTs with a total concentration of 2 wt%. However, the tensile strength and elongation of the ABS composite were found to be significantly increased by 62% and 55%, respectively, upon addition of 3-D heterostructures with a total concentration of 2 wt%. The 3-D heterostructures were composed of multiple CNTs grown radially on the surface of MNP cores, resembling a sea urchin. The mechanical properties of the ABS/3-D heterostructured nanofiller composite films were much improved compared to those of an ABS/mixture of 0-D and 1-D nanofillers composite films at various filler concentrations. This suggests that the 3-D heterostructure of the MNPs and CNTs plays a key role as a strong reinforcing agent in supporting the polymer matrix and simultaneously serves as a discrete force-transfer medium to transfer the loaded tension throughout the polymer matrix. PMID:22455480

  17. Defluoridation of water using chitosan assisted ethylenediamine functionalized synthetic polymeric blends.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new kind of approach undertakes for the synthesis of novel chitosan (CS) blended with ethylenediamine (ED) functionalized synthetic polymers viz., acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED) and styrene/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED) for defluoridation of water. Under batch mode, various influencing parameters like shaking time, pH, competitor ions and temperature were optimized. The fluoride removal was reasonably explained using Freundlich, Langmuir and D-R isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters viz., ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° indicates the nature of the fluoride sorption with the sorbents. The FT-IR, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis were used to study the fluoride adsorption of CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED and CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED blends. The thermal stability of both the sorbents was tested using TGA/DSC analysis. Studies were also conducted to test the potential application of the prepared polymeric blends for fluoride removal from field water collected from the nearby fluoride endemic area. PMID:25036602

  18. A comparison of the effects of two methods of acclimation of aerobic biodegradability

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, H.M. . Environmental Sciences Section)

    1993-11-01

    The acclimation or adaptation of microorganisms to organic chemicals is an important factor influencing both the rate and the extent of biodegradation. In this study two acclimation procedures were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation, their relative ease of use in the laboratory, and the implications for biodegradability testing. In the single-flask procedure, microorganisms were acclimated for 2 to 7 d in a single acclimation flask at constant or increasing concentrations of the test chemical without transfer of microorganisms. In the second procedure, the enrichment procedure, microorganisms were acclimated in a series of flasks over a 21-d period by making adaptive transfers to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. Acclimated microorganisms from each procedure were used as the source of inoculum for subsequent biodegradation tests in which carbon dioxide evolution was measured. Six chemicals were tested: quinoline, p-nitrophenol, N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, acrylonitrile, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate. Microorganisms acclimated in the single-flask procedure were much more effective than those acclimated in the enrichment procedure in degrading the test chemicals. The single-flask procedure is more convenient to use, and it permits monitoring of the time needed for acclimation. The results from these studies have implications for the methodology used in biodegradation test systems and suggest caution before adopting a multiple-flask, enrichment acclimation procedure before the performance of standardized tests for aerobic biodegradability.

  19. Investigation of hydrocyclones for the separation of shredded fridge plastics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, R D

    2006-01-01

    The recycling of fridges produces a mixed plastic product of limited value. In order to maximise its value, the separation of the individual polymers that include high impact polystyrene (HIPS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) must take place. The effectiveness of a hydrocyclone system for the separation of these plastics, using both water and calcium chloride solutions, has been investigated. In addition a qualitative procedure for the determination of the HIPS content of a mixed ABS/HIPS product, by selective dissolution in R-limonene, has been developed. It was found that the effective density of separation depended on the particle size and aspect ratio. As the particle size and aspect ratio decreased, the separation became more efficient and the offset between separation density and hydrocyclone medium density decreased. This suggests that, for efficient density separation, closely sized, fine plastic fractions are required. Using these criteria, it was found that the removal of high density plastic such as PVC was readily achieved using a hydrocyclone. A partial separation of HIPS from ABS was found to be possible, taking advantage of a small density difference, using a hydrocyclone medium density of 1035kgm(-3). PMID:16169209

  20. Self-assembled hybrid metal oxide base catalysts prepared by simply mixing with organic modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masazumi; Kishi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Multidentate materials formed by simply mixing heterogeneous and homogeneous components are promising for construction of versatile active sites on the surface of heterogeneous compounds, however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on such materials. Self-assembly of hetero-hybrid catalytic materials occurs when heterogeneous catalysts having adjacent Lewis acid-Lewis base sites are mixed with an organic modifier that contains at least two Lewis base functional groups. Here we demonstrate the strategy by combining cerium oxide and 2-cyanopyridine that self-assembles to form a charge-transfer complex in methanol that exhibits a 2,000-fold increase in reaction rate for hydromethoxylation of acrylonitrile with high selectivity compared with cerium oxide or 2-cyanopyridine alone. The catalytic system is applied to the transesterification and Knoevenagel condensation affording 14-fold and 11-fold higher activity, respectively, than cerium oxide alone. These results demonstrate the potential versatility of the catalytic system and the generality of the catalyst preparation strategy. PMID:26436638

  1. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  2. Controlled Unusual Stiffness of Mechanical Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wooju; Kang, Da-Young; Song, Jihwan; Moon, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Dongchoul

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical metamaterials that are engineered with sub-unit structures present unusual mechanical properties depending on the loading direction. Although they show promise, their practical utility has so far been somewhat limited because, to the best of our knowledge, no study about the potential of mechanical metamaterials made from sophisticatedly tailored sub-unit structures has been made. Here, we present a mechanical metamaterial whose mechanical properties can be systematically designed without changing its chemical composition or weight. We study the mechanical properties of triply periodic bicontinuous structures whose detailed sub-unit structure can be precisely fabricated using various sub-micron fabrication methods. Simulation results show that the effective wave velocity of the structures along with different directions can be designed to introduce the anisotropy of stiffness by changing a volume fraction and aspect ratio. The ratio of Young’s modulus to shear modulus can be increased by up to at least 100, which is a 3500% increase over that of isotropic material (2.8, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Furthermore, Poisson’s ratio of the constituent material changes the ratio while Young’s modulus does not influence it. This study presents the promising potential of mechanical metamaterials for versatile industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:26837466

  3. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  4. The interactive effects of pH, surface tension, and solution density for flotation systems for separation of equivalent-density materials: separation of ABS from HIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Pomykala, J.A.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory, to develop a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated high-purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal recovery operations. Plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density and the temperature of the chemical solution, we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have equivalent densities. In laboratory-scale tests, this technique has proven highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances and other obsolete durable goods. A pilot plant is under construction to demonstrate and assess the technical and economic performance of this process. In this paper, we examine the technical and economic issues that affect the recovery and separation of plastics and provide an update on Argonne`s plastics separation research and development activities.

  5. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  6. Polymeric nanolayered gradient refractive index lenses: technology review and introduction of spherical gradient refractive index ball lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shanzuo; Yin, Kezhen; Mackey, Matthew; Brister, Aaron; Ponting, Michael; Baer, Eric

    2013-11-01

    A nanolayered polymer films approach to designing and fabricating gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses with designer refractive index distribution profiles and an independently prescribed lens surface geometry have been demonstrated to produce a new class of optics. This approach utilized nanolayered polymer materials, constructed with polymethylmethacrylate and a styrene-co-acrylonitrile copolymer with a tailorable refractive index intermediate to bulk materials, to fabricate discrete GRIN profile materials. A process to fabricate nanolayered polymer GRIN optics from these materials through thermoforming and finishing steps is reviewed. A collection of technology-demonstrating previously reported nanolayered GRIN case studies is presented that include: (1) the optical performance of a f/# 2.25 spherical GRIN plano-convex singlet with one quarter (2) the weight of a similar BK7 lens and a bio-inspired aspheric human eye GRIN lens. Original research on the fabrication and characterization of a Luneburg inspired GRIN ball lens is presented as a developing application of the nanolayered polymer technology.

  7. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  8. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    PubMed

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models. PMID:26336695

  10. Toward a predictive model for elastomer seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Nicola; Khawaja, Musab; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and hydrogenated-NBR (HNBR) are widely used elastomers, especially as seals in oil and gas applications. During exposure to well-hole conditions, ingress of gases causes degradation of performance, including mechanical failure. We use computer simulations to investigate this problem at two different length and time-scales. First, we study the solubility of gases in the elastomer using a chemically-inspired description of HNBR based on the OPLS all-atom force-field. Starting with a model of NBR, C=C double bonds are saturated with either hydrogen or intramolecular cross-links, mimicking the hydrogenation of NBR to form HNBR. We validate against trends for the mass density and glass transition temperature for HNBR as a function of cross-link density, and for NBR as a function of the fraction of acrylonitrile in the copolymer. Second, we study mechanical behaviour using a coarse-grained model that overcomes some of the length and time-scale limitations of an all-atom approach. Nanoparticle fillers added to the elastomer matrix to enhance mechanical response are also included. Our initial focus is on understanding the mechanical properties at the elevated temperatures and pressures experienced in well-hole conditions.

  11. Investigation on Rubber-Modified Polybenzoxazine Composites for Lubricating Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubsilp, Chanchira; Taewattana, Rapiphan; Takeichi, Tsutomu; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2015-10-01

    Effects of liquid amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (ATBN) on the properties of bisphenol-A/aniline-based polybenzoxazine (PBA-a) composites were investigated. Liquid ATBN decreased gel time and lowered curing temperature of the benzoxazine resin (BA-a). The PBA-a/ATBN-based self-lubricating composites resulted in substantial enhancement regarding their tribological, mechanical, and thermal properties. The inclusion of the ATBN at 5% by weight was found decreasing the friction coefficient and improved wear resistance of the PBA-a/ATBN composites. Flexural modulus and glass transition temperature of the PBA-a composite samples added the ATBN was constant within the range of 1-5% by weight. A plausible wear mechanism of the composites is proposed based on their worn surface morphologies. Based on the findings in this work, it seems that the obtained PBA-a/ATBN self-lubricating composites would have high potential to be used for bearing materials where low friction coefficient, high wear resistance, and modulus with good thermal property are required.

  12. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations. PMID:27425861

  13. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Ullah, M.; Mahadi, W. N. L.; Latef, T. A.

    2015-08-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (ɛr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively.

  14. Strong magnetic interactions through weak bonding interactions in organometallic radicals: combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Jeannin, Olivier; Nomura, Mitsushiro; Fourmigué, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a series of three neutral radical organometallic complexes of general formula [CpNi(dithiolene)]. have been investigated by a combination of X-ray crystal structure analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements, while the assignment of the exchange coupling constants to the possible exchange pathways has been accomplished with the help of calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The syntheses and X-ray structures of [CpNi(adt)] (adt=acrylonitrile-2,3-dithiolate) and [CpNi(tfd)] (tfd=1,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)ethene-1,2-dithiolate) complexes are described, while [CpNi(mnt)] (mnt=maleonitriledithiolate) was reported earlier. In the three complexes, we observed strong antiferromagnetic coupling that could not be explained solely by short SS intermolecular contacts. Our calculations indicated that spin density in these complexes is strongly delocalized on the NiS2 moiety, with up to 20% on the Cp ring. As a consequence, CpCp and Cpdithiolene overlap interactions have been identified as responsible for antiferromagnetic couplings. The [CpNi(adt)] complex thus has a value J=-369.5 cm(-1) for an exchange interaction through a pi stacking due to the CpCp overlap. PMID:17661321

  15. MR-guided focused ultrasound robot for performing experiments on large animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas, N.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction: In this paper an experimental MRI-guided focused ultrasound robot for large animals is presented. Materials and methods: A single element spherically focused transducer of 4 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at 1 MHz was used. A positioning device was developed in order to scan the ultrasound transducer for performing MR-guided focused ultrasound experiments in large animals such as pig, sheep and dog. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic, brass screws, and brass pulleys. The system is manufactured automatically using a rapid prototyping system. Results: The system was tested successfully in a number of animals for various tasks (creation of single lesions, creation of overlapping lesions, and MR compatibility). Conclusions: A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can be via a lateral or superior-inferior approach. This system has the potential to be marketed as a cost effective solution for performing experiments in small and large animals.

  16. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems. PMID:25419874

  17. Enhanced protein adsorption and patterning on nanostructured latex-coated paper.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Helka; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Viitala, Tapani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Peltonen, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    Specific interactions of extracellular matrix proteins with cells and their adhesion to the substrate are important for cell growth. A nanopatterned latex-coated paper substrate previously shown to be an excellent substrate for cell adhesion and 2D growth was studied for directed immobilization of proteins. The nanostructured latex surface was formed by short-wavelength IR irradiation of a two-component latex coating consisting of a hydrophilic film-forming styrene butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer and hydrophobic polystyrene particles. The hydrophobic regions of the IR-treated latex coating showed strong adhesion of bovine serum albumin (cell repelling protein), fibronectin (cell adhesive protein) and streptavidin. Opposite to the IR-treated surface, fibronectin and streptavidin had a poor affinity toward the untreated pristine latex coating. Detailed characterization of the physicochemical surface properties of the latex-coated substrates revealed that the observed differences in protein affinity were mainly due to the presence or absence of the protein repelling polar and charged surface groups. The protein adsorption was assisted by hydrophobic (dehydration) interactions. PMID:24802964

  18. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  19. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  20. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Formation Mechanism of Protonated Interstellar Diazines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Cole, Callie A.; Snow, Theodore P.; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of interstellar chemistry have grown in number and complexity by both observations and laboratory measurements, and nitrogen-containing aromatics have been implicated as important interstellar molecules. In this paper, the gas-phase collision induced dissociation (CID) processes of protonated pyridazine (1,2-diazine), pyrimidine (1,3-diazine), and pyrazine (1,4-diazine) cations (C4H5N2 +) are investigated in detail both experimentally and theoretically. The major neutral loss for all three CID processes is HCN, leading to the formation of C3H4N+ isomers; our density functional theory (DFT) calculations support and elucidate our experimental results. The formation of C3H4N+ isomers from the reaction of abundant interstellar acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) and H+is also studied employing DFT calculations. Our results lead to a novel mechanism for interstellar protonated diazine formation from the consecutive reactions of CH2CHCN+ H+ + HCN. Moreover, our results motivate the continuing search for interstellar C3H4N+ isomers as well as polycyclic aromatic N-containing hydrocarbons (PANHs).