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Sample records for actin cytoskeleton mediates

  1. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinsheng; Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Di Donato, Martin; Ge, Pei; Oehri, Jacqueline; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Ferro, Noel; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Friml, Jiří; Thomas, Clément; Geisler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  2. Alphaherpesvirus US3-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is mediated by group A p21-activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Van den Broeke, Céline; Radu, Maria; Deruelle, Matthias; Nauwynck, Hans; Hofmann, Clemens; Jaffer, Zahara M.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Favoreel, Herman W.

    2009-01-01

    The US3 protein is a viral serine/threonine kinase that is conserved among all members of the Alphaherpesvirinae. The US3 protein of different alphaherpesviruses causes dramatic alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, such as the disassembly of actin stress fibers and formation of cell projections, which have been associated with increased intercellular virus spread. Here, we find that inhibiting group A p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are key regulators in Cdc42/Rac1 Rho GTPase signaling pathways, impairs US3-mediated actin alterations. By using PAK1−/− and PAK2−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), we show that US3-mediated stress fiber disassembly requires PAK2, whereas US3-mediated cell projection formation mainly is mediated by PAK1, also indicating that PAK1 and PAK2 can have different biological effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, US3 was found to bind and phosphorylate group A PAKs. Lack of group A PAKs in MEFs was correlated with inefficient virus spread. Thus, US3 induces its effect on the actin cytoskeleton via group A PAKs. PMID:19435845

  3. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  4. Dynamic Regulation of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule–mediated Homotypic Cell Adhesion through the Actin CytoskeletonV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Nelissen, Judith M. D. T.; Peters, Inge M.; de Grooth, Bart G.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Figdor, Carl G.

    2000-01-01

    Restricted expression of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) by hematopoietic cells suggests an important role in the immune system and hematopoiesis. To get insight into the mechanisms that control ALCAM-mediated adhesion we have investigated homotypic ALCAM–ALCAM interactions. Here, we demonstrate that the cytoskeleton regulates ALCAM-mediated cell adhesion because inhibition of actin polymerization by cytochalasin D (CytD) strongly induces homotypic ALCAM–ALCAM interactions. This induction of cell adhesion is likely due to clustering of ALCAM at the cell surface, which is observed after CytD treatment. Single-particle tracking demonstrated that the lateral mobility of ALCAM in the cell membrane is increased 30-fold after CytD treatment. In contrast, both surface distribution and adhesion of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ALCAM mutant are insensitive to CytD, despite the increase in lateral mobility of GPI-ALCAM upon CytD treatment. This demonstrates that clustering of ALCAM is essential for cell adhesion, whereas enhanced diffusion of ALCAM alone is not sufficient for cluster formation. In addition, upon ligand binding, both free diffusion and the freely dragged distance of wild-type ALCAM, but not of GPI-ALCAM, are reduced over time, suggesting strengthening of the cytoskeleton linkage. From these findings we conclude that activation of ALCAM-mediated adhesion is dynamically regulated through actin cytoskeleton-dependent clustering. PMID:10848629

  5. Fyn Mediates High Glucose-Induced Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization of Podocytes via Promoting ROCK Activation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimei; Hu, Mengsi; Ren, Xiaoxu; Fan, Minghua; Zhen, Junhui; Chen, Liqun; Lin, Jiangong; Ding, Nannan; Wang, Qun; Wang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Fyn, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, is a key regulator in cytoskeletal remodeling in a variety of cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated that Fyn is responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which will result in polymerization of actin filaments and podocyte damage. Thus detailed involvement of Fyn in podocytes is to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Fyn/ROCK signaling and its interactions with paxillin. Our results presented that high glucose led to filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement in podocytes, accompanied by paxillin phosphorylation and increased cell motility, during which Fyn and ROCK were markedly activated. Gene knockdown of Fyn by siRNA showed a reversal effect on high glucose-induced podocyte damage and ROCK activation; however, inhibition of ROCK had no significant effects on Fyn phosphorylation. These observations demonstrate that in vitro Fyn mediates high glucose-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling of podocytes via promoting ROCK activation and paxillin phosphorylation. PMID:26881253

  6. Fyn Mediates High Glucose-Induced Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization of Podocytes via Promoting ROCK Activation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhimei; Hu, Mengsi; Ren, Xiaoxu; Fan, Minghua; Zhen, Junhui; Chen, Liqun; Lin, Jiangong; Ding, Nannan; Wang, Qun; Wang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Fyn, a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, is a key regulator in cytoskeletal remodeling in a variety of cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated that Fyn is responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which will result in polymerization of actin filaments and podocyte damage. Thus detailed involvement of Fyn in podocytes is to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Fyn/ROCK signaling and its interactions with paxillin. Our results presented that high glucose led to filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement in podocytes, accompanied by paxillin phosphorylation and increased cell motility, during which Fyn and ROCK were markedly activated. Gene knockdown of Fyn by siRNA showed a reversal effect on high glucose-induced podocyte damage and ROCK activation; however, inhibition of ROCK had no significant effects on Fyn phosphorylation. These observations demonstrate that in vitro Fyn mediates high glucose-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling of podocytes via promoting ROCK activation and paxillin phosphorylation. PMID:26881253

  7. Girdin-mediated interactions between cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton are required for epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Houssin, Elise; Tepass, Ulrich; Laprise, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is fundamental for epithelial tissue morphogenesis, physiology and repair. E-cadherin is a core transmembrane constituent of the zonula adherens (ZA), a belt-like adherens junction located at the apicolateral border in epithelial cells. The anchorage of ZA components to cortical actin filaments strengthens cell-cell cohesion and allows for junction contractility, which shapes epithelial tissues during development. Here, we report that the cytoskeletal adaptor protein Girdin physically and functionally interacts with components of the cadherin-catenin complex during Drosophila embryogenesis. Fly Girdin is broadly expressed throughout embryonic development and enriched at the ZA in epithelial tissues. Girdin associates with the cytoskeleton and co-precipitates with the cadherin-catenin complex protein α-Catenin (α-Cat). Girdin mutations strongly enhance adhesion defects associated with reduced DE-cadherin (DE-Cad) expression. Moreover, the fraction of DE-Cad molecules associated with the cytoskeleton decreases in the absence of Girdin, thereby identifying Girdin as a positive regulator of adherens junction function. Girdin mutant embryos display isolated epithelial cell cysts and rupture of the ventral midline, consistent with defects in cell-cell cohesion. In addition, loss of Girdin impairs the collective migration of epithelial cells, resulting in dorsal closure defects. We propose that Girdin stabilizes epithelial cell adhesion and promotes morphogenesis by regulating the linkage of the cadherin-catenin complex to the cytoskeleton. PMID:25968313

  8. In vivo evidence for mTORC2-mediated actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in neurons.

    PubMed

    Angliker, Nico; Rüegg, Markus A

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. While mTORC1 controls the signaling pathways important for cell growth, the physiological function of mTORC2 is only partially known. Here we comment on recent work on gene-targeted mice lacking mTORC2 in the cerebellum or the hippocampus that provided strong evidence that mTORC2 plays an important role in neuron morphology and synapse function. We discuss that this phenotype might be based on the perturbed regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the lack of activation of several PKC isoforms. The fact that PKC isoforms and their targets have been implicated in neurological disease including spinocerebellar ataxia and that they have been shown to affect learning and memory, suggests that aberration of mTORC2 signaling might be involved in diseases of the brain. PMID:24721730

  9. Actin-Cytoskeleton- and Rock-Mediated INM Are Required for Photoreceptor Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lahne, Manuela; Li, Jingling; Marton, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of retinal neurons in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) induces a robust regenerative response mediated by the reentry of the resident Müller glia into the cell cycle. Upon initiating Müller glia proliferation, their nuclei migrate along the apicobasal axis of the retina in phase with the cell cycle in a process termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). We examined the mechanisms governing this cellular process and explored its function in regenerating the adult zebrafish retina. Live-cell imaging revealed that the majority of Müller glia nuclei migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to divide. These Müller glia formed prominent actin filaments at the rear of nuclei that had migrated to the ONL. Inhibiting actin filament formation or Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) activity, which is necessary for phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actin myosin-mediated contraction, disrupted INM with increased numbers of mitotic nuclei remaining in the basal inner nuclear layer, the region where Müller glia typically reside. Double knockdown of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2a (Rock2a) and Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2b (Rock2b) similarly disrupted INM and reduced Müller glial cell cycle reentry. In contrast, Rock inhibition immediately before the onset of INM did not affect Müller glia proliferation, but subsequently reduced neuronal progenitor cell proliferation due to early cell cycle exit. Long-term, Rock inhibition increased the generation of mislocalized ganglion/amacrine cells at the expense of rod and cone photoreceptors. In summary, INM is driven by an actin-myosin-mediated process controlled by Rock2a and Rock2b activity, which is required for sufficient proliferation and regeneration of photoreceptors after light damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human retina does not replace lost or damaged neurons, ultimately causing vision impairment. In contrast, zebrafish are capable of regenerating lost neurons. Understanding the mechanisms

  10. Direct dynamin–actin interactions regulate the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Weins, Astrid; Osborn, Teresia; Reiser, Jochen; Pollak, Martin; Hartwig, John; Sever, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    The large GTPase dynamin assembles into higher order structures that are thought to promote endocytosis. Dynamin also regulates the actin cytoskeleton through an unknown, GTPase-dependent mechanism. Here, we identify a highly conserved site in dynamin that binds directly to actin filaments and aligns them into bundles. Point mutations in the actin-binding domain cause aberrant membrane ruffling and defective actin stress fibre formation in cells. Short actin filaments promote dynamin assembly into higher order structures, which in turn efficiently release the actin-capping protein (CP) gelsolin from barbed actin ends in vitro, allowing for elongation of actin filaments. Together, our results support a model in which assembled dynamin, generated through interactions with short actin filaments, promotes actin polymerization via displacement of actin-CPs. PMID:20935625

  11. The Role of Actin Cytoskeleton in Memory Formation in Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    The central, lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA) nuclei are essential for the formation of long-term memories including emotional and drug-related memories. Studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory in amygdala may lead to better understanding of how memory is formed and of fear and addiction-related disorders. A challenge is to identify molecules activated by learning that subserve cellular changes needed for memory formation and maintenance in amygdala. Recent studies show that activation of synaptic receptors during fear and drug-related learning leads to alteration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and structure in amygdala. Such changes in actin cytoskeleton in amygdala are essential for fear and drug-related memories formation. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton subserves, after learning, changes in neuronal morphogenesis and glutamate receptors trafficking in amygdala. These cellular events are involved in fear and drug-related memories formation. Actin polymerization is also needed for the maintenance of drug-associated memories in amygdala. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator between receptor activation during learning and cellular changes subserving long-term memory (LTM) in amygdala. The actin cytoskeleton may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear memory associated with fear and anxiety disorders and drug addiction to prevent the debilitating consequences of these diseases. PMID:27065800

  12. The Role of Actin Cytoskeleton in Memory Formation in Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    The central, lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA) nuclei are essential for the formation of long-term memories including emotional and drug-related memories. Studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory in amygdala may lead to better understanding of how memory is formed and of fear and addiction-related disorders. A challenge is to identify molecules activated by learning that subserve cellular changes needed for memory formation and maintenance in amygdala. Recent studies show that activation of synaptic receptors during fear and drug-related learning leads to alteration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and structure in amygdala. Such changes in actin cytoskeleton in amygdala are essential for fear and drug-related memories formation. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton subserves, after learning, changes in neuronal morphogenesis and glutamate receptors trafficking in amygdala. These cellular events are involved in fear and drug-related memories formation. Actin polymerization is also needed for the maintenance of drug-associated memories in amygdala. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator between receptor activation during learning and cellular changes subserving long-term memory (LTM) in amygdala. The actin cytoskeleton may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear memory associated with fear and anxiety disorders and drug addiction to prevent the debilitating consequences of these diseases. PMID:27065800

  13. Actin cytoskeleton redox proteome oxidation by cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Orr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies associate environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure with the risk of lung diseases. Although mechanisms are not fully elucidated, several studies demonstrate Cd effects on actin and actin-associated proteins. In a recent study of Cd at concentrations similar to environmental exposures, we found that redox-dependent inflammatory signaling by NF-κB was sensitive to the actin-disrupting agent, cytochalasin D. The goal of the present study was to use mass spectrometry-based redox proteomics to investigate Cd effects on the actin cytoskeleton proteome and related functional pathways in lung cells at low environmental concentrations. The results showed that Cd under conditions that did not alter total protein thiols or glutathione redox state caused significant oxidation of peptidyl Cys of proteins regulating actin cytoskeleton. Immunofluorescence microscopy of lung fibroblasts and pulmonary artery endothelial cells showed that low-dose Cd exposure stimulated filamentous actin formation and nuclear localization of destrin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. Taken together, the results show that redox states of peptidyl Cys in proteins associated with actin cytoskeleton pathways are selectively oxidized in lung by Cd at levels thought to occur from environmental exposure. PMID:24077948

  14. p53-mediated transcriptional regulation and activation of the actin cytoskeleton regulatory RhoC to LIMK2 signaling pathway promotes cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Daniel R; Crighton, Diane; Samuel, Michael S; Lourenco, Filipe C; Munro, June; Wood, Jenifer; Bensaad, Karim; Vousden, Karen H; Sansom, Owen J; Ryan, Kevin M; Olson, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    The central arbiter of cell fate in response to DNA damage is p53, which regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, survival and apoptosis. Although many responses initiated by DNA damage have been characterized, the role of actin cytoskeleton regulators is largely unknown. We now show that RhoC and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2) are direct p53 target genes induced by genotoxic agents. Although RhoC and LIMK2 have well-established roles in actin cytoskeleton regulation, our results indicate that activation of LIMK2 also has a pro-survival function following DNA damage. LIMK inhibition by siRNA-mediated knockdown or selective pharmacological blockade sensitized cells to radio- or chemotherapy, such that treatments that were sub-lethal when administered singly resulted in cell death when combined with LIMK inhibition. Our findings suggest that combining LIMK inhibitors with genotoxic therapies could be more efficacious than single-agent administration, and highlight a novel connection between actin cytoskeleton regulators and DNA damage-induced cell survival mechanisms. PMID:21079653

  15. The actin cytoskeleton in presynaptic assembly.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jessica C; Stavoe, Andrea K H; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic morphogenetic processes underpin nearly every step of nervous system development, from initial neuronal migration and axon guidance to synaptogenesis. Underlying this morphogenesis are dynamic rearrangements of cytoskeletal architecture. Here we discuss the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in the development of presynaptic terminals, from the elaboration of terminal arbors to the recruitment of presynaptic vesicles and active zone components. The studies discussed here underscore the importance of actin regulation at every step in neuronal circuit assembly. PMID:23628914

  16. Functional interdependence between septin and actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Katja; Nichols, Benjamin J

    2004-01-01

    Background Septin2 is a member of a highly conserved GTPase family found in fungi and animals. Septins have been implicated in a diversity of cellular processes including cytokinesis, formation of diffusion barriers and vesicle trafficking. Septin2 partially co-localises with actin bundles in mammalian interphase cells and Septin2-filamentmorphology depends upon an intact actin cytoskeleton. How this interaction is regulated is not known. Moreover, evidence that Septin2 is remodelled or redistributed in response to other changes in actin organisation is lacking. Results Septin2 filaments are associated with actin fibres, but Septin2 is not associated with actin at the leading edge of moving cells or in ruffles where actin is highly dynamic. Rather, Septin2 is spatially segregated from these active areas and forms O- and C-shaped structures, similar to those previously observed after latrunculin treatment. FRAP experiments showed that all assemblies formed by Septin2 are highly dynamic with a constant exchange of Septin2 in and out of these structures, and that this property is independent of actin. A combination of RNAi experiments and expression of truncated forms of Septin2 showed that Septin2 plays a significant role in stabilising or maintaining actin bundles. Conclusion We show that Septin2 can form dynamic structures with differing morphologies in living cells, and that these morphologies are dependent on the functional state of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data provide a link between the different morphological states of Septin2 and functions of Septin2 in actin-dynamics, and are consistent with the model proposed by Kinoshita and colleagues, that Septin2 filaments play a role in stabilisation of actin stress fibres thus preventing actin turnover. PMID:15541171

  17. Simulated Microgravity Alters Actin Cytoskeleton and Integrin-Mediated Focal Adhesions of Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovic, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cytoskeletal alterations occur in several cell types including lymphocytes, glial cells, and osteoblasts, during spaceflight and under simulated microgravity (SMG) (3, 4). One potential mechanism for cytoskeletal gravisensitivity is disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin interactions. Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell-matrix interaction composed of integrins and the diversity of focal adhesion-associated cytoplasmic proteins including vinculin, talin, α-actinin, and actin filaments (4, 5). Integrins produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMG on F-actin cytoskeleton structure, vinculin focal adhesions, expression of some integrin subtypes and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs). Simulated microgravity was produced by 3D-clinostat (Dutch Space, Netherlands). Staining of actin fibers with TRITC-phalloidin showed reorganization even after 30 minutes of simulated microgravity. The increasing of cells number with abnormal F-actin was observed after subsequent terms of 3D-clinorotation (6, 24, 48, 120 hours). Randomization of gravity vector altered dimensional structure of stress fibers and resulted in remodeling of actin fibers inside the cells. In addition, we observed vinculin redistribution inside the cells after 6 hours and prolonged terms of clinorotation. Tubulin fibers in a contrast with F-actin and vinculin didn't show any reorganization even after long 3Dclinorotation (120 hours). The expression of integrin α2 increased 1,5-6-fold in clinorotated hMSCs. Also we observed decrease in number of VCAM-1-positive cells and changes in expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that SMG leads to microfilament and adhesion alterations of hMSCs most probably associated with involvement of some integrin subtypes.

  18. The Roles of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Fear Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The formation and storage of fear memory is needed to adapt behavior and avoid danger during subsequent fearful events. However, fear memory may also play a significant role in stress and anxiety disorders. When fear becomes disproportionate to that necessary to cope with a given stimulus, or begins to occur in inappropriate situations, a fear or anxiety disorder exists. Thus, the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning fear memory may shed light on the formation of memory and on anxiety and stress related disorders. Evidence indicates that fear learning leads to changes in neuronal synaptic transmission and morphology in brain areas underlying fear memory formation including the amygdala and hippocampus. The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to participate in these key neuronal processes. Recent findings show that the actin cytoskeleton is needed for fear memory formation and extinction. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton is involved in synaptic plasticity and in neuronal morphogenesis in brain areas that mediate fear memory. The actin cytoskeleton may therefore mediate between synaptic transmission during fear learning and long-term cellular alterations mandatory for fear memory formation. PMID:21808614

  19. The Bacterial Actin-Like Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Carballido-López, Rut

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances have shown conclusively that bacterial cells possess distant but true homologues of actin (MreB, ParM, and the recently uncovered MamK protein). Despite weak amino acid sequence similarity, MreB and ParM exhibit high structural homology to actin. Just like F-actin in eukaryotes, MreB and ParM assemble into highly dynamic filamentous structures in vivo and in vitro. MreB-like proteins are essential for cell viability and have been implicated in major cellular processes, including cell morphogenesis, chromosome segregation, and cell polarity. ParM (a plasmid-encoded actin homologue) is responsible for driving plasmid-DNA partitioning. The dynamic prokaryotic actin-like cytoskeleton is thought to serve as a central organizer for the targeting and accurate positioning of proteins and nucleoprotein complexes, thereby (and by analogy to the eukaryotic cytoskeleton) spatially and temporally controlling macromolecular trafficking in bacterial cells. In this paper, the general properties and known functions of the actin orthologues in bacteria are reviewed. PMID:17158703

  20. The 4.1 Protein Coracle Mediates Subunit-Selective Anchoring of Drosophila Glutamate Receptors to the Postsynaptic Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kaiyun; Merino, Carlos; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Featherstone, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junctions contain two spatially, biophysically, and pharmacologically distinct subtypes of postsynaptic glutamate receptor (GluR). These receptor subtypes appear to be molecularly identical except that A receptors contain the subunit GluRIIA (but not GluRIIB), and B receptors contain the subunit GluRIIB (but not GluRIIA). A- and B-type receptors are coexpressed in the same cells, in which they form homotypic clusters. During development, A- and B-type receptors can be differentially regulated. The mechanisms that allow differential segregation and regulation of A- and B-type receptors are unknown. Presumably, A-and B-type receptors are differentially anchored to the membrane cytoskeleton, but essentially nothing is known about how Drosophila glutamate receptors are localized or anchored. We identified coracle, a homolog of mammalian brain 4.1 proteins, in yeast two-hybrid and genetic screens for proteins that interact with and localize Drosophila glutamate receptors. Coracle interacts with the C terminus of GluRIIA but not GluRIIB. To test whether coracle is required for glutamate receptor localization, we immunocytochemically and electrophysiologically examined receptors in coracle mutants. In coracle mutants, synaptic A-type receptors are lost, but there is no detectable change in B-type receptor function or localization. Pharmacological disruption of postsynaptic actin phenocopies the coracle mutants, suggesting that A-type receptors are anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via coracle, whereas B-type receptors are anchored at the synapse by another (yet unknown) mechanism. PMID:16014728

  1. Schip1 Is a Novel Podocyte Foot Process Protein that Mediates Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangements and Forms a Complex with Nherf2 and Ezrin

    PubMed Central

    Perisic, Ljubica; Rodriguez, Patricia Q.; Hultenby, Kjell; Sun, Ying; Lal, Mark; Betsholtz, Christer; Uhlén, Mathias; Wernerson, Annika; Hedin, Ulf; Pikkarainen, Timo; Tryggvason, Karl; Patrakka, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Background Podocyte foot process effacement accompanied by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements is a cardinal feature of many progressive human proteinuric diseases. Results By microarray profiling of mouse glomerulus, SCHIP1 emerged as one of the most highly enriched transcripts. We detected Schip1 protein in the kidney glomerulus, specifically in podocytes foot processes. Functionally, Schip1 inactivation in zebrafish by morpholino knock-down results in foot process disorganization and podocyte loss leading to proteinuria. In cultured podocytes Schip1 localizes to cortical actin-rich regions of lamellipodia, where it forms a complex with Nherf2 and ezrin, proteins known to participate in actin remodeling stimulated by PDGFβ signaling. Mechanistically, overexpression of Schip1 in vitro causes accumulation of cortical F-actin with dissolution of transversal stress fibers and promotes cell migration in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. Upon actin disassembly by latrunculin A treatment, Schip1 remains associated with the residual F-actin-containing structures, suggesting a functional connection with actin cytoskeleton possibly via its interaction partners. A similar assay with cytochalasin D points to stabilization of cortical actin cytoskeleton in Schip1 overexpressing cells by attenuation of actin depolymerisation. Conclusions Schip1 is a novel glomerular protein predominantly expressed in podocytes, necessary for the zebrafish pronephros development and function. Schip1 associates with the cortical actin cytoskeleton network and modulates its dynamics in response to PDGF signaling via interaction with the Nherf2/ezrin complex. Its implication in proteinuric diseases remains to be further investigated. PMID:25807495

  2. Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex-mediated actin-dependent nuclear positioning orients centrosomes in migrating myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Antoku, Susumu; Östlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J; Gundersen, Gregg G

    2015-01-01

    Myoblast migration is essential for muscle development and repair; however, the factors that contribute to the polarity of migrating myoblasts are relatively unknown. We find that randomly migrating C2C12 myoblasts orient their centrosomes in the direction of migration. Using wounded monolayers, we further show that centrosome orientation is stimulated by the serum factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and involves the rearward movement of the nucleus while the centrosome is maintained at the cell centroid. The rate of nuclear movement correlated with that of actin retrograde flow and both cytochalasin D and blebbistatin prevented nuclear movement and centrosome orientation. Actin-dependent rearward nuclear movement in fibroblasts is mediated by assembly of nuclear membrane nesprin-2G and SUN2 LINC complexes into transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines anchored by A-type lamins and emerin. In C2C12 myoblasts, depletion of nesprin-2G, SUN2 or lamin A/C prevented nuclear movement and endogenous nesprin-2G and a chimeric GFP-mini-nesprin-2G formed TAN lines during nuclear movement. Depleting nesprin-2G strongly interfered with directed cell migration and reduced the efficiency of myoblast fusion into multinucleated myotubes. Our results show that nuclear movement contributes to centrosome orientation and polarity for efficient migration and fusion of myoblasts. Given that mutations in the genes encoding A-type lamins, nesprin-2 and SUN2 cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and related myopathies, our results have implications for understanding the mechanism of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25587885

  3. Force Transmission in the Actin Cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardel, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The ability of cells to sense and generate mechanical forces is essential to numerous aspects of their physiology, including adhesion, migration, division and differentiation. To a large degree, cellular tension is regulated by the transmission of myosin II-generated forces through the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton. While transmission of myosin-generated stresses from the molecular to cellular length scale is well understood in the context of highly organized sarcomeres found in striated muscle, non-muscle and smooth muscle cells contain a wide variety of bundles and networks lacking sarcomeric organization. I will describe the in vitro and in vivo approaches we use to study force transmission in such disordered actomyosin assemblies. Our in vivo results are showing that highly organized stress fibers contribute surprisingly little to the overall extent of cellular tension as compared to disordered actomyosin meshworks. Our in vitro results are demonstrating the mechanisms of symmetry breaking in disordered actomyosin bundles that facilitate the formation of contractile bundles with well-defined ``contractile elements.'' These results provide insight into the self-organization of actomyosin cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells that regulate and maintain cellular tension.

  4. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A; Gogoi, Neeku M; Pillai, Indu V; Chernoff, Yury O; Munn, Alan L

    2014-08-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organization of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion, and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation, and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here, we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  5. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  6. Mechanoaccumulative Elements of the Mammalian Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Schiffhauer, Eric S; Luo, Tianzhi; Mohan, Krithika; Srivastava, Vasudha; Qian, Xuyu; Griffis, Eric R; Iglesias, Pablo A; Robinson, Douglas N

    2016-06-01

    To change shape, divide, form junctions, and migrate, cells reorganize their cytoskeletons in response to changing mechanical environments [1-4]. Actin cytoskeletal elements, including myosin II motors and actin crosslinkers, structurally remodel and activate signaling pathways in response to imposed stresses [5-9]. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of force-dependent structural rearrangement of α-catenin in adherens junctions [10] and vinculin's molecular clutch mechanism in focal adhesions [11]. However, the complete landscape of cytoskeletal mechanoresponsive proteins and the mechanisms by which these elements sense and respond to force remain to be elucidated. To find mechanosensitive elements in mammalian cells, we examined protein relocalization in response to controlled external stresses applied to individual cells. Here, we show that non-muscle myosin II, α-actinin, and filamin accumulate to mechanically stressed regions in cells from diverse lineages. Using reaction-diffusion models for force-sensitive binding, we successfully predicted which mammalian α-actinin and filamin paralogs would be mechanoaccumulative. Furthermore, a "Goldilocks zone" must exist for each protein where the actin-binding affinity must be optimal for accumulation. In addition, we leveraged genetic mutants to gain a molecular understanding of the mechanisms of α-actinin and filamin catch-bonding behavior. Two distinct modes of mechanoaccumulation can be observed: a fast, diffusion-based accumulation and a slower, myosin II-dependent cortical flow phase that acts on proteins with specific binding lifetimes. Finally, we uncovered cell-type- and cell-cycle-stage-specific control of the mechanosensation of myosin IIB, but not myosin IIA or IIC. Overall, these mechanoaccumulative mechanisms drive the cell's response to physical perturbation during proper tissue development and disease. PMID:27185555

  7. MICAL-Family Proteins: Complex Regulators of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecules interacting with CasL (MICAL) family members participate in a multitude of activities, including axonal growth cone repulsion, membrane trafficking, apoptosis, and bristle development in flies. An interesting feature of MICAL proteins is the presence of an N-terminal flavo-mono-oxygenase domain. This mono-oxygenase domain generates redox potential with which MICALs can either oxidize proteins or produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Actin is one such protein that is affected by MICAL function, leading to dramatic cytoskeletal rearrangements. This review describes the MICAL-family members, and discusses their mechanisms of actin-binding and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Recent Advances: Recent studies show that MICALs directly induce oxidation of actin molecules, leading to actin depolymerization. ROS production by MICALs also causes oxidation of collapsin response mediator protein-2, a microtubule assembly promoter, which subsequently undergoes phosphorylation. Critical Issues: MICAL proteins oxidize proteins through two mechanisms: either directly by oxidizing methionine residues or indirectly via the production of ROS. It remains unclear whether MICAL proteins employ both mechanisms or whether the activity of MICAL-family proteins might vary with different substrates. Future Directions: The identification of additional substrates oxidized by MICAL will shed new light on MICAL protein function. Additional directions include expanding studies toward the MICAL-like homologs that lack flavin adenine dinucleotide domains and oxidation activity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2059–2073. PMID:23834433

  8. Supervillin Reorganizes the Actin Cytoskeleton and Increases Invadopodial Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jessica L.; Smith, Tara C.; Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes to the formation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-SV induced punctae. SV localizes to the cores of Src-generated podosomes in COS-7 cells and with invadopodia in MDA-MB-231 cells. EGFP-SV overexpression increases average numbers of ECM holes per cell; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SV decreases these numbers. Although SV knockdown alone has no effect, simultaneous down-regulation of SV and the closely related protein gelsolin reduces invasion through ECM. Together, our results show that SV is a component of podosomes and invadopodia and that SV plays a role in invadopodial function, perhaps as a mediator of cortactin localization, activation state, and/or dynamics of metalloproteinases at the ventral cell surface. PMID:19109420

  9. GRP75 upregulates clathrin-independent endocytosis through actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by the concurrent activation of Cdc42 and RhoA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Gao, Zhihui; He, Changzheng; Xiang, Rong; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Belting, Mattias; Zhang, Sihe

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic macromolecules are internalized into the cell by either clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) or clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Although some chaperone proteins play an essential role in CME (e.g. Hsc70 in clathrin uncoating), relatively few of these proteins are functionally involved in CIE. We previously revealed a role for the mitochondrial chaperone protein GRP75 in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-mediated, membrane raft-associated macromolecule endocytosis. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, using a mitochondrial signal peptide-directed protein trafficking expression strategy, we demonstrate that wild-type GRP75 expression enhanced the uptakes of HSPG and CIE marker cholera toxin B subunit but impaired the uptake of CME marker transferrin. The endocytosis regulation function of GRP75 is largely mediated by its subcellular location in mitochondria and is essentially determined by its ATPase domain. Interestingly, the mitochondrial expression of GRP75 or its ATPase domain significantly stimulates increases in both RhoA and Cdc42 activation, remarkably induces stress fibers and enhances filopodia formation, which collectively results in the promotion of CIE, but the inhibition of CME. Furthermore, silencing of Cdc42 or RhoA impaired the ability of GRP75 overexpression to increase CIE. Therefore, these results suggest that endocytosis vesicle enrichment of GRP75 by mitochondria trafficking upregulates CIE through an actin cytoskeleton reorganization mechanism mediated by the concurrent activation of Cdc42 and RhoA. This finding provides novel insight into organelle-derived chaperone signaling and the regulation of different endocytosis pathways in cells. PMID:27090015

  10. Interactions between plant endomembrane systems and the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane trafficking, organelle movement, and morphogenesis in plant cells are mainly controlled by the actin cytoskeleton. Not all proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics in animal systems have functional homologs in plants, especially for those proteins that form the bridge between the cytoskeleton and membrane; the membrane-actin adaptors. Their nature and function is only just beginning to be elucidated and this field has been greatly enhanced by the recent identification of the NETWORKED (NET) proteins, which act as membrane-actin adaptors. In this review, we will summarize the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulatory proteins in their interaction with endomembrane compartments and where they potentially act as platforms for cell signaling and the coordination of other subcellular events. PMID:26106403

  11. An actin cytoskeleton with evolutionarily conserved functions in the absence of canonical actin-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paredez, Alexander R.; Assaf, Zoe June; Sept, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Dawson, Scott C.; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Cande, W. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis, a human intestinal parasite and member of what is perhaps the earliest-diverging eukaryotic lineage, contains the most divergent eukaryotic actin identified to date and is the first eukaryote known to lack all canonical actin-binding proteins (ABPs). We sought to investigate the properties and functions of the actin cytoskeleton in Giardia to determine whether Giardia actin (giActin) has reduced or conserved roles in core cellular processes. In vitro polymerization of giActin produced filaments, indicating that this divergent actin is a true filament-forming actin. We generated an anti-giActin antibody to localize giActin throughout the cell cycle. GiActin localized to the cortex, nuclei, internal axonemes, and formed C-shaped filaments along the anterior of the cell and a flagella-bundling helix. These structures were regulated with the cell cycle and in encysting cells giActin was recruited to the Golgi-like cyst wall processing vesicles. Knockdown of giActin demonstrated that giActin functions in cell morphogenesis, membrane trafficking, and cytokinesis. Additionally, Giardia contains a single G protein, giRac, which affects the Giardia actin cytoskeleton independently of known target ABPs. These results imply that there exist ancestral and perhaps conserved roles for actin in core cellular processes that are independent of canonical ABPs. Of medical significance, the divergent giActin cytoskeleton is essential and commonly used actin-disrupting drugs do not depolymerize giActin structures. Therefore, the giActin cytoskeleton is a promising drug target for treating giardiasis, as we predict drugs that interfere with the Giardia actin cytoskeleton will not affect the mammalian host. PMID:21444821

  12. Dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gressin, Laurène; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes, including morphogenesis, polarization, and motility, rely on a variety of actin-based structures. Although the biochemical composition and filament organization of these structures are different, they often emerge from a common origin. This is possible because the actin structures are highly dynamic. Indeed, they assemble, grow, and disassemble in a time scale of a second to a minute. Therefore, the reorganization of a given actin structure can promote the formation of another. Here, we discuss such transitions and illustrate them with computer simulations. PMID:26989473

  13. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  14. Ratiometric Imaging of the T-Cell Actin Cytoskeleton Reveals the Nature of Receptor-Induced Cytoskeletal Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Smoligovets, Alexander A.; Smith, Adam W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2013-01-01

    The T-cell actin cytoskeleton mediates adaptive immune system responses to peptide antigens by physically directing the motion and clustering of T-cell receptors (TCRs) on the cell surface. When TCR movement is impeded by externally applied physical barriers, the actin network exhibits transient enrichment near the trapped receptors. The coordinated nature of the actin density fluctuations suggests that they are composed of filamentous actin, but it has not been possible to eliminate de novo polymerization at TCR-associated actin polymerizing factors as an alternative cause. Here, we use a dual-probe cytoskeleton labeling strategy to distinguish between stable and polymerizing pools of actin. Our results suggest that TCR-associated actin consists of a relatively high proportion of the stable cytoskeletal fraction and extends away from the cell membrane into the cell. This implies that actin enrichment at mechanically trapped TCRs results from three-dimensional bunching of the existing filamentous actin network. PMID:23931330

  15. Dynamic in vivo analysis of drug induced actin cytoskeleton degradation by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnekenburger, Juergen; Bredebusch, Ilona; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Domschke, Wolfram; von Bally, Gert; Kemper, Björn

    2007-07-01

    The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of crucial cellular functions as migration, intracellular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis and force generation. The highly dynamic actin fibers are therefore targets for several drugs and toxins. However the study of actin interfering processes by standard microscopy techniques fails in the detailed resolution of dynamic spatial alterations required for a deeper understanding of toxic effects. Here we applied digital holographic microscopy in the online functional analysis of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting marine toxin Latrunculin B. SEM and fluorescence microscopy showed rapid Latrunculin B induced alterations in cell morphology and actin fiber degradation in pancreas tumor cells. The dynamic digital holographic in vivo analysis of the drug dependent cellular processes demonstrated differences in the actin cytoskeleton stability of highly differentiated and dedifferentiated pancreas tumor cell lines. The spatial resolution of the morphological alterations revealed unequal changes in cell morphology. While cells with a low metastatic potential showed Latrunculin B induced cell collapse within 4 h the metastatic tumor cells were increased in cell volume indicating Latrunculin B effects also on cell water content. These data demonstrate that marker free, non-destructive online analysis of cellular morphology and dynamic spatial processes in living cells by digital holography offers new insights in actin dependent cellular mechanisms. Digital holographic microscopy was shown to be a versatile tool in the screening of toxic drug effects and cancer cell biology.

  16. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes. PMID:20038822

  17. F-actin Severing Facilitates Distinct Mechanisms of Stress Relaxation in the Actin Cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeyoon; Jung, Wonyeong; Murrell, Michael

    Rheological behaviors of actin cytoskeleton play an important role in physiological processes including cell migration and division. The actin cytoskeleton shows a wide variety of viscoelastic responses to external mechanical cues, such as strain-stiffening and stress relaxation. It has been hypothesized that the stress relaxation originates mainly from transient nature of cross-linkers that connect pairs of F-actins. By contrast, potential impacts of rich F-actin dynamics to the stress relaxation have been neglected in most previous studies. Here, using a computational model, we demonstrated that severing of F-actins induced by buckling during strain-stiffening can facilitate a very distinct mode of stress relaxation in the actin cytoskeleton from that induced by the transient cross-linkers. We also explored conditions where the severing-induced stress relaxation becomes prominent. This finding provides a more complete understanding of rheological behaviors of the actin cytoskeleton. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (1434013-CMMI and 1434095-CMMI).

  18. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  19. Binding of WIP to Actin Is Essential for T Cell Actin Cytoskeleton Integrity and Tissue Homing

    PubMed Central

    Massaad, Michel J.; Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Kane, Jennifer; Koduru, Suresh; Alcaide, Pilar; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Ramesh, Narayanaswamy; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Hartwig, John

    2014-01-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is important for actin polymerization in T cells and for their migration. WASp-interacting protein (WIP) binds to and stabilizes WASp and also interacts with actin. Cytoskeletal and functional defects are more severe in WIP−/− T cells, which lack WASp, than in WASp−/− T cells, suggesting that WIP interaction with actin may be important for T cell cytoskeletal integrity and function. We constructed mice that lack the actin-binding domain of WIP (WIPΔABD mice). WIPΔABD associated normally with WASp but not F-actin. T cells from WIPΔABD mice had normal WASp levels but decreased cellular F-actin content, a disorganized actin cytoskeleton, impaired chemotaxis, and defective homing to lymph nodes. WIPΔABD mice exhibited a T cell intrinsic defect in contact hypersensitivity and impaired responses to cutaneous challenge with protein antigen. Adoptively transferred antigen-specific CD4+ T cells from WIPΔABD mice had decreased homing to antigen-challenged skin of wild-type recipients. These findings show that WIP binding to actin, independently of its binding to WASp, is critical for the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in T cells and for their migration into tissues. Disruption of WIP binding to actin could be of therapeutic value in T cell-driven inflammatory diseases. PMID:25246631

  20. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKCɛ.

    PubMed

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-ɛ (PKCɛ), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKCɛ, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKCɛ, we suggest that trapping PKCɛ via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKCɛ, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as

  1. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKCɛ

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-ɛ (PKCɛ), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKCɛ, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKCɛ, we suggest that trapping PKCɛ via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKCɛ, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as

  2. Calponin 3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in trophoblastic cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Yukinao; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Daimon, Etsuko; Tajiri, Michiko; Okada, Yuka; Ikawa, Masahito; Wada, Yoshinao

    2010-11-15

    Cell-cell fusion is an intriguing differentiation process, essential for placental development and maturation. A proteomic approach identified a cytoplasmic protein, calponin 3 (CNN3), related to the fusion of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. CNN3 was expressed in cytotrophoblasts in human placenta. CNN3 gene knockdown promoted actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and syncytium formation in BeWo cells, suggesting CNN3 to be a negative regulator of trophoblast fusion. Indeed, CNN3 depletion promoted BeWo cell fusion. CNN3 at the cytoplasmic face of cytoskeleton was dislocated from F-actin with forskolin treatment and diffused into the cytoplasm in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Phosphorylation sites were located at Ser293/296 in the C-terminal region, and deletion of this region or site-specific disruption of Ser293/296 suppressed syncytium formation. These CNN3 mutants were colocalized with F-actin and remained there after forskolin treatment, suggesting that dissociation of CNN3 from F-actin is modulated by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal region unique to CNN3 in the CNN family proteins. The mutant missing these phosphorylation sites displayed a dominant negative effect on cell fusion, while replacement of Ser293/296 with aspartic acid enhanced syncytium formation. These results indicated that CNN3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement which is required for the plasma membranes of trophoblasts to become fusion competent. PMID:20861310

  3. Multiscale modeling of cell shape from the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Rangamani, Padmini; Xiong, Granville Yuguang; Iyengar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that constantly undergoes complex reorganization events during many cellular processes. Mathematical models and simulations are powerful tools that can provide insight into the physical mechanisms underlying these processes and make predictions that can be experimentally tested. Representation of the interactions of the actin filaments with the plasma membrane and the movement of the plasma membrane for computation remains a challenge. Here, we provide an overview of the different modeling approaches used to study cytoskeletal dynamics and highlight the differential geometry approach that we have used to implement the interactions between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. Using cell spreading as an example, we demonstrate how this approach is able to successfully capture in simulations, experimentally observed behavior. We provide a perspective on how the differential geometry approach can be used for other biological processes. PMID:24560144

  4. Antimetastatic effects of gambogic acid are mediated via the actin cytoskeleton and NF-κB pathways in SK-HEP1 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Seok; Kim, Nan-Hee; Kang, Chang-Won; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Gun-Do

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant and frequent cancers with a high metastatic potential. The prevention of HCC metastasis is a critical target for effective therapies in HCC. Gambogic acid (GA), a natural compound obtained from Garcinia hanburyi has reported anticancer activity in cell lines. However, the antimetastatic mechanisms of GA are unclear, particularly with respect to HCC. In this study, the influence of GA on migration and invasion of SK-HEP1 cells was evaluated. At concentrations above 0.6 μM, GA reduced cell proliferation in SK-HEP1 cells without affecting proliferation of noncancerous HEK-293 cells. GA also suppressed migration and invasion of SK-HEP1 cells. GA downregulated the expression of the integrin β1/rho family GTPase signaling pathway, suppressed the actin rearrangement related to cell cytoskeleton and migration and decreased matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and NF-κB expression involved in cancer invasion. These results suggest that GA may be a potential lead in developing an antimetastatic therapeutic for the treatment of HCC. PMID:25959042

  5. Emerging roles of actin cytoskeleton regulating enzymes in drug addiction: Actin or reactin’?

    PubMed Central

    Rothenfluh, Adrian; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons rely on their cytoskeleton to give them shape and stability, and on cytoskeletal dynamics for growth and synaptic plasticity. Because drug addiction is increasingly seen as the inappropriate learning of strongly reinforcing stimuli, the role of the cytoskeleton in shaping drug memories has been of increasing interest in recent years. Does the cytoskeleton have an active role in shaping these memories, and to what extent do alterations in the cytoskeleton reflect the acute actions of drug exposure, or homeostatic reactions to the chronic exposure to drugs of abuse? Here we will review recent advances in understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in the development of drug addiction, with a focus on actin filaments, as they have been studied in greater detail. PMID:23428655

  6. Chloride channel activity of ClC-2 is modified by the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, N; Ramjeesingh, M; Wong, S; Varga, A; Garami, E; Bear, C E

    2000-01-01

    The chloride channel ClC-2 has been implicated in essential physiological functions, including cell-volume regulation and fluid secretion by specific epithelial tissues. Although ClC-2 is known to be activated by hyperpolarization and hypo-osmotic shock, the molecular basis for the regulation of this channel remains unclear. Here we show in the Xenopus oocyte expression system that the chloride-channel activity of ClC-2 is enhanced after treatment with the actin-disrupting agents cytochalasin and latrunkulin. These findings suggest that the actin cytoskeleton normally exerts an inhibitory effect on ClC-2 activity. An inhibitory domain was previously defined in the N-terminus of ClC-2, so we sought to determine whether this domain might interact directly with actin in binding assays in vitro. We found that a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the inhibitory domain was capable of binding actin in overlay and co-sedimentation assays. Further, the binding of actin to this relatively basic peptide (pI 8.4) might be mediated through electrostatic interactions because binding was inhibited at high concentrations of NaCl with a half-maximal decrease in signal at 180 mM NaCl. This work suggests that electrostatic interactions between the N-terminus of ClC-2 and the actin cytoskeleton might have a role in the regulation of this channel. PMID:11104687

  7. Pathogenic microbes manipulate cofilin activity to subvert actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei; He, Zhendan

    2016-09-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin proteins are key players in controlling the temporal and spatial extent of actin dynamics, which is crucial for mediating host-pathogen interactions. Pathogenic microbes have evolved molecular mechanisms to manipulate cofilin activity to subvert the actin cytoskeletal system in host cells, promoting their internalization into the target cells, modifying the replication niche and facilitating their intracellular and intercellular dissemination. The study of how these pathogens exploit cofilin pathways is crucial for understanding infectious disease and providing potential targets for drug therapies. PMID:25853495

  8. Adherens and Tight Junctions: Structure, Function and Connections to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartsock, Andrea; Nelson, W. James

    2009-01-01

    Summary Adherens juctions and Tight junctions comprise two modes of cell-cell adhesion that provide different functions. Both junctional complexes are proposed to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, and formation and maturation of cell-cell contacts involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Adherens junctions initiate cell-cell contacts, and mediate the maturation and maintenance of the contact. Adherens junctions consist of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin, and intracellular components, p120-catenin, β-catenin and α-catenin. Tight junctions regulate the paracellular pathway for the movement of ions and solutes in-between cells. Tight junctions consist of the transmembrane proteins occludin and claudin, and the cytoplasmic scaffolding proteins ZO-1,-2, and -3. This review discusses the binding interactions of the most studied proteins that occur within each of these two junctional complexes and possible modes of regulation of these interactions, and the different mechanisms that connect and regulate interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:17854762

  9. The Yeast Gene, MDM20, Is Necessary for Mitochondrial Inheritance and Organization of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Greg J.; King, Edward J.; Shaw, Janet M.

    1997-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the growing bud inherits a portion of the mitochondrial network from the mother cell soon after it emerges. Although this polarized transport of mitochondria is thought to require functions of the cytoskeleton, there are conflicting reports concerning the nature of the cytoskeletal element involved. Here we report the isolation of a yeast mutant, mdm20, in which both mitochondrial inheritance and actin cables (bundles of actin filaments) are disrupted. The MDM20 gene encodes a 93-kD polypeptide with no homology to other characterized proteins. Extra copies of TPM1, a gene encoding the actin filament–binding protein tropomyosin, suppress mitochondrial inheritance defects and partially restore actin cables in mdm20Δ cells. Synthetic lethality is also observed between mdm20 and tpm1 mutant strains. Overexpression of a second yeast tropomyosin, Tpm2p, rescues mutant phenotypes in the mdm20 strain to a lesser extent. Together, these results provide compelling evidence that mitochondrial inheritance in yeast is an actin-mediated process. MDM20 and TPM1 also exhibit the same pattern of genetic interactions; mutations in MDM20 are synthetically lethal with mutations in BEM2 and MYO2 but not SAC6. Although MDM20 and TPM1 are both required for the formation and/or stabilization of actin cables, mutations in these genes disrupt mitochondrial inheritance and nuclear segregation to different extents. Thus, Mdm20p and Tpm1p may act in vivo to establish molecular and functional heterogeneity of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9105043

  10. Actin cytoskeleton organization regulated by the PAK family of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Eby, J J; Holly, S P; van Drogen, F; Grishin, A V; Peter, M; Drubin, D G; Blumer, K J

    1998-08-27

    Cdc42, Rac1 and other Rho-type GTPases regulate gene expression, cell proliferation and cytoskeletal architecture [1,2]. A challenge is to identify the effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1 that mediate these biological responses. Protein kinases of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family bind activated Rac1 and Cdc42, and switch on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways; however, their roles in regulating actin cytoskeleton organization have not been clearly established [3-5]. Here, we show that mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the PAK homologs Ste20 and Cla4 exhibit actin cytoskeletal defects, in vivo and in vitro, that resemble those of cdc42-1 mutants. Moreover, STE20 overexpression suppresses cdc42-1 growth defects and cytoskeletal defects in vivo, and Ste20 kinase corrects the actin-assembly defects of permeabilized cdc42-1 cells in vitro. Thus, PAKs are effectors of Cdc42 in pathways that regulate the organization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. PMID:9742399

  11. Polyphosphoinositides-dependent regulation of the osteoclast actin cytoskeleton and bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Rajat S; Baker, De Anna; Hruska, Keith A; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A

    2004-01-01

    Background Gelsolin, an actin capping protein of osteoclast podosomes, has a unique function in regulating assembly and disassembly of the podosome actin filament. Previously, we have reported that osteopontin (OPN) binding to integrin αvβ3 increased the levels of gelsolin-associated polyphosphoinositides, podosome assembly/disassembly, and actin filament formation. The present study was undertaken to identify the possible role of polyphosphoinositides and phosphoinositides binding domains (PBDs) of gelsolin in the osteoclast cytoskeletal structural organization and osteoclast function. Results Transduction of TAT/full-length gelsolin and PBDs containing gelsolin peptides into osteoclasts demonstrated: 1) F-actin enriched patches; 2) disruption of actin ring; 3) an increase in the association polyphosphoinositides (PPIs) with the transduced peptides containing PBDs. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced with gelsolin peptide containing 2 tandem repeats of PBDs (PBD (2)). Binding of PPIs to the transduced peptides has resulted in reduced levels of PPIs association with the endogenous gelsolin, and thereby disrupted the actin remodeling processes in terms of podosome organization in the clear zone area and actin ring formation. These peptides also exhibited a dominant negative effect in the formation of WASP-Arp2/3 complex indicating the role of phosphoinositides in WASP activation. The TAT-PBD gelsolin peptides transduced osteoclasts are functionally defective in terms of motility and bone resorption. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that transduction of PBD gelsolin peptides into osteoclasts produced a dominant negative effect on actin assembly, motility, and bone resorption. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide-mediated signaling mechanisms regulate osteoclast cytoskeleton, podosome assembly/disassembly, actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. PMID:15142256

  12. Course 6: Physics of Composite Cell Membrane and Actin Based Cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, E.; Bausch, A. R.; Vonna, L.

    1 Architecture of composite cell membranes 1.1 The lipid/protein bilayer is a multicomponent smectic phase with mosaic like architecture 1.2 The spectrin/actin cytoskeleton as hyperelastic cell stabilizer 1.3 The actin cortex: Architecture and function 2 Physics of the actin based cytoskeleton 2.1 Actin is a living semiflexible polymer 2.2 Actin network as viscoelastic body 2.3 Correlation between macroscopic viscoelasticity and molecular 3 Heterogeneous actin gels in cells and biological function 3.1 Manipulation of actin gels 3.2 Control of organization and function of actin cortex by cell signalling 4 Micromechanics and microrheometry of cells 5 Activation of endothelial cells: On the possibility of formation of stress fibers as phase transition of actin-network triggered by cell signalling pathways 6 On cells as adaptive viscoplastic bodies 7 Controll of cellular protrusions controlled by actin/myosin cortex

  13. RhoA Regulates Peroxisome Association to Microtubules and the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Dorothee; Wiese, Sebastian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Warscheid, Bettina; Saffrich, Rainer; Peränen, Johan; Gorgas, Karin; Just, Wilhelm W.

    2010-01-01

    The current view of peroxisome inheritance provides for the formation of new peroxisomes by both budding from the endoplasmic reticulum and autonomous division. Here we investigate peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions and show by proteomics, biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses that actin, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMM IIA), RhoA, Rho kinase II (ROCKII) and Rab8 associate with peroxisomes. Our data provide evidence that (i) RhoA in its inactive state, maintained for example by C. botulinum toxin exoenzyme C3, dissociates from peroxisomes enabling microtubule-based peroxisomal movements and (ii) dominant-active RhoA targets to peroxisomes, uncouples the organelles from microtubules and favors Rho kinase recruitment to peroxisomes. We suggest that ROCKII activates NMM IIA mediating local peroxisomal constrictions. Although our understanding of peroxisome-cytoskeleton interactions is still incomplete, a picture is emerging demonstrating alternate RhoA-dependent association of peroxisomes to the microtubular and actin cytoskeleton. Whereas association of peroxisomes to microtubules clearly serves bidirectional, long-range saltatory movements, peroxisome-acto-myosin interactions may support biogenetic functions balancing peroxisome size, shape, number, and clustering. PMID:21079737

  14. Actin Turnover-Mediated Gravity Response in Maize Root Apices

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano; Barlow, Peter W; Volkmann, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be linked to gravity sensing in plants but the mechanistic understanding of these processes remains unknown. We have performed detailed pharmacological analyses of the role of the dynamic actin cytoskeleton in gravibending of maize (Zea mays) root apices. Depolymerization of actin filaments with two drugs having different mode of their actions, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, stimulated root gravibending. By contrast, drug-induced stimulation of actin polymerization and inhibition of actin turnover, using two different agents phalloidin and jasplakinolide, compromised the root gravibending. Importantly, all these actin drugs inhibited root growth to similar extents suggesting that high actin turnover is essential for the gravity-related growth responses rather than for the general growth process. Both latrunculin B and cytochalasin D treatments inhibited root growth but restored gravibending of the decapped root apices, indicating that there is a strong potential for effective actin-mediated gravity sensing outside the cap. This elusive gravity sensing outside the root cap is dependent not only on the high rate of actin turnover but also on weakening of myosin activities, as general inhibition of myosin ATPases induced stimulation of gravibending of the decapped root apices. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the actin turnover-mediated gravity sensing outside the root cap. PMID:19521476

  15. Organization and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yuxiang; Chang, Ming; Liu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Ruihui; Huang, Shanjin

    2015-01-01

    Proper organization of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for pollen tube growth. However, the precise mechanisms by which the actin cytoskeleton regulates pollen tube growth remain to be further elucidated. The functions of the actin cytoskeleton are dictated by its spatial organization and dynamics. However, early observations of the distribution of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex were quite perplexing, resulting in decades of controversial debate. Fortunately, due to improvements in fixation regimens for staining actin filaments in fixed pollen tubes, as well as the adoption of appropriate markers for visualizing actin filaments in living pollen tubes, this issue has been resolved and has given rise to the consensus view of the spatial distribution of actin filaments throughout the entire pollen tube. Importantly, recent descriptions of the dynamics of individual actin filaments in the apical region have expanded our understanding of the function of actin in regulation of pollen tube growth. Furthermore, careful documentation of the function and mode of action of several actin-binding proteins expressed in pollen have provided novel insights into the regulation of actin spatial distribution and dynamics. In the current review, we summarize our understanding of the organization, dynamics, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube. PMID:25620974

  16. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein.

    PubMed

    Muday, G K; Hu, S; Brady, S R

    2000-06-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport. PMID:11543284

  17. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  18. The anti-proliferative agent jasplakinolide rearranges the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sawitzky, H; Liebe, S; Willingale-Theune, J; Menzel, D

    1999-06-01

    In the present study, we have characterized the action of the natural cyclodepsipeptide jasplakinolide (JAS) on the cytoplasmic architecture, actin-based cytoplasmic motility, and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in selected examples of green algae (Acetabularia, Pseudobryopsis and Nitella) and higher plant cells (Allium bulb scale cells and Sinapis root hairs). JAS was capable of influencing the actin cytoskeleton and inhibiting cytoplasmic streaming in a differential, cell type-specific manner. With the exception of Nitella, two consecutive responses were observed upon incubation with 2.5 microM JAS: In the first phase cytoplasmic streaming increased transiently alongside with minor modifications of the actin cytoskeleton in the form of adventitious actin spots and spikes appearing throughout the cell cortex in addition to the normal actin bundle system typical for each cell type. In the second phase, cytoplasmic streaming stopped and the actin cytoskeleton became heavily reorganized into shorter, straight, more and more randomly oriented bundle segments. JAS exerted severe long-term effects on the actin cytoskeleton when treatments exceeded 30min at a concentration of 2.5 microM. An in situ competition assay using equimolar concentrations of JAS and FITC-phalloidin suggested that JAS has a phalloidin-like action. Effects of JAS were significantly different from those of cytochalasin D with respect to the resulting degree of perturbance of cytoplasmic organization, the distribution of actin filaments and the speed of reversibility. PMID:10430024

  19. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

  20. Alteration of the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton Deregulates Ca2+ Signaling, Monospermic Fertilization, and Sperm Entry

    PubMed Central

    Puppo, A.; Chun, Jong T.; Gragnaniello, Giovanni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Background When preparing for fertilization, oocytes undergo meiotic maturation during which structural changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that lead to a more efficient calcium response. During meiotic maturation and subsequent fertilization, the actin cytoskeleton also undergoes dramatic restructuring. We have recently observed that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton induced by actin-depolymerizing agents, or by actin-binding proteins, strongly modulate intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals during the maturation process. However, the significance of the dynamic changes in F-actin within the fertilized egg has been largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We have measured changes in intracellular Ca2+ signals and F-actin structures during fertilization. We also report the unexpected observation that the conventional antagonist of the InsP3 receptor, heparin, hyperpolymerizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton in postmeiotic eggs. Using heparin and other pharmacological agents that either hypo- or hyperpolymerize the cortical actin, we demonstrate that nearly all aspects of the fertilization process are profoundly affected by the dynamic restructuring of the egg cortical actin cytoskeleton. Conclusions/Significance Our findings identify important roles for subplasmalemmal actin fibers in the process of sperm-egg interaction and in the subsequent events related to fertilization: the generation of Ca2+ signals, sperm penetration, cortical granule exocytosis, and the block to polyspermy. PMID:18974786

  1. Organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton during dendritic spine morphological remodeling.

    PubMed

    Chazeau, Anaël; Giannone, Grégory

    2016-08-01

    In the central nervous system, most excitatory post-synapses are small subcellular structures called dendritic spines. Their structure and morphological remodeling are tightly coupled to changes in synaptic transmission. The F-actin cytoskeleton is the main driving force of dendritic spine remodeling and sustains synaptic plasticity. It is therefore essential to understand how changes in synaptic transmission can regulate the organization and dynamics of actin binding proteins (ABPs). In this review, we will provide a detailed description of the organization and dynamics of F-actin and ABPs in dendritic spines and will discuss the current models explaining how the actin cytoskeleton sustains both structural and functional synaptic plasticity. PMID:27105623

  2. Fluorescent labelling of the actin cytoskeleton in plants using a cameloid antibody

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Certain members of the Camelidae family produce a special type of antibody with only one heavy chain. The antigen binding domains are the smallest functional fragments of these heavy-chain only antibodies and as a consequence have been termed nanobodies. Discovery of these nanobodies has allowed the development of a number of therapeutic proteins and tools. In this study a class of nanobodies fused to fluorescent proteins (chromobodies), and therefore allowing antigen-binding and visualisation by fluorescence, have been used. Such chromobodies can be expressed in living cells and used as genetically encoded immunocytochemical markers. Results Here a modified version of the commercially available Actin-Chromobody® as a novel tool for visualising actin dynamics in tobacco leaf cells was tested. The actin-chromobody binds to actin in a specific manner. Treatment with latrunculin B, a drug which disrupts the actin cytoskeleton through inhibition of polymerisation results in loss of fluorescence after less than 30 min but this can be rapidly restored by washing out latrunculin B and thereby allowing the actin filaments to repolymerise. To test the effect of the actin-chromobody on actin dynamics and compare it to one of the conventional labelling probes, Lifeact, the effect of both probes on Golgi movement was studied as the motility of Golgi bodies is largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. With the actin-chromobody expressed in cells, Golgi body movement was slowed down but the manner of movement rather than speed was affected less than with Lifeact. Conclusions The actin-chromobody technique presented in this study provides a novel option for in vivo labelling of the actin cytoskeleton in comparison to conventionally used probes that are based on actin binding proteins. The actin-chromobody is particularly beneficial to study actin dynamics in plant cells as it does label actin without impairing dynamic movement and polymerisation of the actin

  3. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2–mediated Phosphorylation of Ezrin Is Required for G Protein-coupled Receptor–dependent Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Sarah H.; Pitcher, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we identify ezrin as a novel non-GPCR substrate of GRK2. GRK2 phosphorylates glutathione S-transferase (GST)-ezrin, but not an ezrin fusion protein lacking threonine 567 (T567), in vitro. These results suggest that T567, the regulatory phosphorylation site responsible for maintaining ezrin in its active conformation, represents the principle site of GRK2-mediated phosphorylation. Two lines of evidence indicate that GRK2-mediated ezrin-radixinmoesin (ERM) phosphorylation serves to link GPCR activation to cytoskeletal reorganization. First, in Hep2 cells muscarinic M1 receptor (M1MR) activation causes membrane ruffling. This ruffling response is ERM dependent and is accompanied by ERM phosphorylation. Inhibition of GRK2, but not rho kinase or protein kinase C, prevents ERM phosphorylation and membrane ruffling. Second, agonist-induced internalization of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and M1MR is accompanied by ERM phosphorylation and localization of phosphorylated ERM to receptor-containing endocytic vesicles. The colocalization of internalized β2AR and phosphorylated ERM is not dependent on Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor binding to the β2AR. Inhibition of ezrin function impedes β2AR internalization, further linking GPCR activation, GRK activity, and ezrin function. Overall, our results suggest that GRK2 serves not only to attenuate but also to transduce GPCR-mediated signals. PMID:15843435

  4. Yeast Eps15-like endocytic protein Pan1p regulates the interaction between endocytic vesicles, endosomes and the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Toshima, Junko Y; Furuya, Eri; Nagano, Makoto; Kanno, Chisa; Sakamoto, Yuta; Ebihara, Masashi; Siekhaus, Daria Elisabeth; Toshima, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation and internalization of endocytic vesicles. In yeast, endocytic vesicles move towards early endosomes along actin cables, however, the molecular machinery regulating interaction between endocytic vesicles and actin cables is poorly understood. The Eps15-like protein Pan1p plays a key role in actin-mediated endocytosis and is negatively regulated by Ark1 and Prk1 kinases. Here we show that pan1 mutated to prevent phosphorylation at all 18 threonines, pan1-18TA, displayed almost the same endocytic defect as ark1Δ prk1Δ cells, and contained abnormal actin concentrations including several endocytic compartments. Early endosomes were highly localized in the actin concentrations and displayed movement along actin cables. The dephosphorylated form of Pan1p also caused stable associations between endocytic vesicles and actin cables, and between endocytic vesicles and endosomes. Thus Pan1 phosphorylation is part of a novel mechanism that regulates endocytic compartment interactions with each other and with actin cables. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10276.001 PMID:26914139

  5. Cytoskeleton mediated spreading dynamics of immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, King-Lam; Wayt, Jessica; Grooman, Brian; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2009-03-01

    We have studied the spreading of Jurkat T-cells on anti-CD3 antibody-coated substrates as a model of immune synapse formation. Cell adhesion area versus time was measured via interference reflection contrast microscopy. We found that the spread area exhibited a sigmoidal growth as a function of time in contrast to the previously proposed universal power-law growth for spreading cells. We used high-resolution total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of these cells transfected with GFP-actin to study cytoskeletal dynamics during the spreading process. Actin filaments spontaneously organized into a variety of structures including traveling waves, target patterns, and mobile clusters emanating from an organizing center. We quantify these dynamic structures and relate them to the spreading rates. We propose that the spreading kinetics are determined by active rearrangements of the cytoskeleton initiated by signaling events upon antibody binding by T-cell receptors. Membrane deformations induced by such wavelike organization of the cytoskeleton may be a general phenomenon that underlies cell movement and cell-substrate interactions.

  6. Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering, signalosome assembl, y and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its ‘scaffolding’ function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  7. Regulation of T-cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2013-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering signalosome assembly and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its 'scaffolding' function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  8. Live-Cell Imaging of Mitochondria and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of proper mitochondrial dynamics and functions are necessary for cellular homeostasis. Numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and muscle myopathies, and overall cellular aging are marked by declining mitochondrial function and subsequent loss of multiple other cellular functions. For these reasons, optimized protocols are needed for visualization and quantification of mitochondria and their function and fitness. In budding yeast, mitochondria are intimately associated with the actin cytoskeleton and utilize actin for their movement and inheritance. This chapter describes optimal approaches for labeling mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton in living budding yeast cells, for imaging the labeled cells, and for analyzing the resulting images. PMID:26498778

  9. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    PubMed

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads. PMID:9175265

  10. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. PMID:26240174

  11. HopW1 from Pseudomonas syringae Disrupts the Actin Cytoskeleton to Promote Virulence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Nicolas M.; Li, Yujie; Lee, Min Woo; Kovar, David R.; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2014-01-01

    A central mechanism of virulence of extracellular bacterial pathogens is the injection into host cells of effector proteins that modify host cellular functions. HopW1 is an effector injected by the type III secretion system that increases the growth of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae on the Columbia accession of Arabidopsis. When delivered by P. syringae into plant cells, HopW1 causes a reduction in the filamentous actin (F-actin) network and the inhibition of endocytosis, a known actin-dependent process. When directly produced in plants, HopW1 forms complexes with actin, disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and inhibits endocytosis as well as the trafficking of certain proteins to vacuoles. The C-terminal region of HopW1 can reduce the length of actin filaments and therefore solubilize F-actin in vitro. Thus, HopW1 acts by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton and the cell biological processes that depend on actin, which in turn are needed for restricting P. syringae growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:24968323

  12. Probing the role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis by intravital microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Milberg, Oleg; Tora, Muhibullah; Shitara, Akiko; Masedunskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Summary The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in controlling several steps during regulated exocytosis. Here we describe a combination of procedures that are aimed at studying the dynamics and the mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton in the salivary glands of live rodents, a model for exocrine secretion. Our approach relies on intravital microscopy, an imaging technique that enables imaging biological events in live animals at a subcellular resolution, and it is complemented by the use of pharmacological agents and indirect immunofluorescence in the salivary tissue. PMID:24947398

  13. Sirtuin1 Maintains Actin Cytoskeleton by Deacetylation of Cortactin in Injured Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Motonishi, Shuta; Wada, Takehiko; Ishimoto, Yu; Ohse, Takamoto; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kubota, Naoto; Shimizu, Akira; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the renoprotective effect of sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that contributes to cellular regulation. However, the pathophysiologic role of SIRT1 in podocytes remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of SIRT1 in podocytes. We first established podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (SIRT1pod−/−) mice. We then induced glomerular disease by nephrotoxic serum injection. The increase in urinary albumin excretion and BUN and the severity of glomerular injury were all significantly greater in SIRT1pod−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence showed a significant decrease in podocyte-specific proteins in SIRT1pod−/− mice, and electron microscopy showed marked exacerbation of podocyte injury, including actin cytoskeleton derangement in SIRT1pod−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Protamine sulfate-induced podocyte injury was also exacerbated by podocyte-specific SIRT1 deficiency. In vitro, actin cytoskeleton derangement in H2O2-treated podocytes became prominent when the cells were pretreated with SIRT1 inhibitors. Conversely, this H2O2-induced derangement was ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. Furthermore, SIRT1 activation deacetylated the actin-binding and -polymerizing protein cortactin in the nucleus and facilitated deacetylated cortactin localization in the cytoplasm. Cortactin knockdown or inhibition of the nuclear export of cortactin induced actin cytoskeleton derangement and dissociation of cortactin from F-actin, suggesting the necessity of cytoplasmic cortactin for maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT1 protects podocytes and prevents glomerular injury by deacetylating cortactin and thereby, maintaining actin cytoskeleton integrity. PMID:25424328

  14. Actin in Action: Imaging Approaches to Study Cytoskeleton Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    McKayed, Katey K.; Simpson, Jeremy C.

    2013-01-01

    The cytoskeleton plays several fundamental roles in the cell, including organizing the spatial arrangement of subcellular organelles, regulating cell dynamics and motility, providing a platform for interaction with neighboring cells, and ultimately defining overall cell shape. Fluorescence imaging has proved to be vital in furthering our understanding of the cytoskeleton, and is now a mainstay technique used widely by cell biologists. In this review we provide an introduction to various imaging modalities used to study focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton, and using specific examples we highlight a number of recent studies in animal cells that have advanced our knowledge of cytoskeletal behavior. PMID:24709877

  15. Actin Cytoskeleton-Based Plant Synapse as Gravitransducer in the Transition Zone of the Root Apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Barlow, Peter; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    The actin cytoskeleton was originally proposed to act as the signal transducer in the plant gravity sensory-motoric circuit. Surprisingly, however, several studies have documented that roots perfom gravisensing and gravitropism more effectively if exposed to diverse anti-F-actin drugs. Our study, using decapped maize root apices, has revealed that depolymerization of F-actin stimulates gravity perception in cells of the transition zone where root gravitropism is initiated (Mancuso et al. 2006). It has been proposed (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a) that s the non-growing adhesive end-poles, enriched with F-actin and myosin VIII, and active in endocytic recycling of both PIN transporters and cell wall pectins cross-linked with calcium and boron, act as the gravisensing domains, and that these impinge directly upon the root motoric responses via control of polar auxin transport. This model suggests that mechanical asymmetry at these plant synapses determines vectorial gravity-controlled auxin transport. Due to the gravity-imposed mechanical load upon the protoplast, a tensional stress is also imposed upon the plasma membrane of the physically lower synaptic cell pole. This stress is then relieved by shifting the endocytosis-exocytosis balance towards exocytosis (Balǔka et al. s 2005, 2009a,b). This `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis does not conflict with the `Starch Statolith' hypothesis, which is based on amyloplast sedimentation. In fact, the `Synaptic Auxin Secretion' hypothesis has many elements which allow its unification with the Starch-Statolith model (Balǔka et al. 2005, 2009a,b). s References Balǔka F, Volkmann D, Menzel D (2005) Plant synapses: actin-based adhesion s domains for cell-to-cell communication. Trends Plant Sci 10: 106-111 Balǔka F, Schlicht M, s Wan Y-L, Burbach C, Volkmann D (2009a) Intracellular domains and polarity in root apices: from synaptic domains to plant neurobiology. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96: 103-122 Balǔka s F, Mancuso S

  16. Cadherin controls nectin recruitment into adherens junctions by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Troyanovsky, Regina B.; Indra, Indrajyoti; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Hong, Soonjin; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism that coordinates activities of different adhesion receptors is poorly understood. We investigated this mechanism by focusing on the nectin-2 and E-cadherin adherens junction receptors. We found that, cadherin was not required for the basic process of nectin junction formation because nectin-2 formed junctions in cadherin-deficient A431D cells. Formation of nectin-2 junctions in these cells, however, became regulated by cadherin as soon as E-cadherin was re-expressed. E-cadherin recruited nectin-2 into adherens junctions, where both proteins formed distinct but tightly associated clusters. Live-cell imaging showed that the appearance of E-cadherin clusters often preceded that of nectin-2 clusters at sites of junction assembly. Inactivation of E-cadherin clustering by different strategies concomitantly suppressed the formation of nectin clusters. Furthermore, cadherin significantly increased the stability of nectin clusters, thereby making them resistant to the BC-12 antibody, which targets the nectin-2 adhesion interface. By testing different E-cadherin–α-catenin chimeras, we showed that the recruitment of nectin into chimera junctions is mediated by the actin-binding domain of α-catenin. Our data suggests that E-cadherin regulates assembly of nectin junctions through α-catenin-induced remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton around the cadherin clusters. PMID:25395582

  17. Cell Elasticity Is Regulated by the Tropomyosin Isoform Composition of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Iman; Heu, Celine; Cheng, Hong; Freittag, Hannah; Desouza, Melissa; Stehn, Justine R.; Bryce, Nicole S.; Whan, Renee M.; Hardeman, Edna C.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm), in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to a multi-gene family that form a co-polymer with actin filaments and differentially regulate actin filament stability, function and organization. Tpm isoform expression is highly regulated and together with the ability to sort to specific intracellular sites, result in the generation of distinct Tpm isoform-containing actin filament populations. Nanomechanical measurements conducted with an Atomic Force Microscope using indentation in Peak Force Tapping in indentation/ramping mode, demonstrated that Tpm impacts on cell stiffness and the observed effect occurred in a Tpm isoform-specific manner. Quantitative analysis of the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin) pool conducted both biochemically and with the use of a linear detection algorithm to evaluate actin structures revealed that an altered F-actin pool does not absolutely predict changes in cell stiffness. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II revealed that intracellular tension generated by myosin II is required for the observed increase in cell stiffness. Lastly, we show that the observed increase in cell stiffness is partially recapitulated in vivo as detected in epididymal fat pads isolated from a Tpm3.1 transgenic mouse line. Together these data are consistent with a role for Tpm in regulating cell stiffness via the generation of specific populations of Tpm isoform-containing actin filaments. PMID:25978408

  18. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  19. PFA fixation enables artifact-free super-resolution imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Kedziora, Katarzyna M; Isogai, Tadamoto; van den Broek, Bram; Jalink, Kees; Innocenti, Metello

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) allows precise localization of proteins in cellular organelles and structures, including the actin cytoskeleton. Yet sample preparation protocols for SRM are rather anecdotal and still being optimized. Thus, SRM-based imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins often remains challenging and poorly reproducible. Here, we show that proper paraformaldehyde (PFA)-based sample preparation preserves the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton almost as faithfully as gold-standard glutaraldehyde fixation. We show that this fixation is essential for proper immuno-based localization of actin-binding and actin-regulatory proteins involved in the formation of lamellipodia and ruffles, such as mDia1, WAVE2 and clathrin heavy chain, and provide detailed guidelines for the execution of our method. In summary, proper PFA-based sample preparation increases the multi-color possibilities and the reproducibility of SRM of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. PMID:27378434

  20. PFA fixation enables artifact-free super-resolution imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Kedziora, Katarzyna M.; Isogai, Tadamoto; van den Broek, Bram; Jalink, Kees

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) allows precise localization of proteins in cellular organelles and structures, including the actin cytoskeleton. Yet sample preparation protocols for SRM are rather anecdotal and still being optimized. Thus, SRM-based imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins often remains challenging and poorly reproducible. Here, we show that proper paraformaldehyde (PFA)-based sample preparation preserves the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton almost as faithfully as gold-standard glutaraldehyde fixation. We show that this fixation is essential for proper immuno-based localization of actin-binding and actin-regulatory proteins involved in the formation of lamellipodia and ruffles, such as mDia1, WAVE2 and clathrin heavy chain, and provide detailed guidelines for the execution of our method. In summary, proper PFA-based sample preparation increases the multi-color possibilities and the reproducibility of SRM of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. PMID:27378434

  1. Dephosphorylated synapsin I anchors synaptic vesicles to actin cytoskeleton: an analysis by videomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, P E; Grohovaz, F; Benfenati, F; Chieregatti, E; Greengard, P; Valtorta, F

    1995-03-01

    Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein which inhibits neurotransmitter release, an effect which is abolished upon its phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Based on indirect evidence, it was suggested that this effect on neurotransmitter release may be achieved by the reversible anchoring of synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton of the nerve terminal. Using video-enhanced microscopy, we have now obtained experimental evidence in support of this model: the presence of dephosphorylated synapsin I is necessary for synaptic vesicles to bind actin; synapsin I is able to promote actin polymerization and bundling of actin filaments in the presence of synaptic vesicles; the ability to cross-link synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for synapsin I and is not shared by other basic proteins; the cross-linking between synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for the membrane of synaptic vesicles and does not reflect either a non-specific binding of membranes to the highly surface active synapsin I molecule or trapping of vesicles within the thick bundles of actin filaments; the formation of the ternary complex is virtually abolished when synapsin I is phosphorylated by CaM kinase II. The data indicate that synapsin I markedly affects synaptic vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton assembly in the nerve terminal and provide a molecular basis for the ability of synapsin I to regulate the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis and thereby the efficiency of neurotransmitter release. PMID:7876313

  2. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G.; Hašek, Jiří; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrášek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role. PMID:18337510

  3. Distinct impact of targeted actin cytoskeleton reorganization on mechanical properties of normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Yu M; Dokrunova, A A; Efremenko, A V; Kirpichnikov, M P; Shaitan, K V; Sokolova, O S

    2015-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is substantially modified in cancer cells because of changes in actin-binding protein abundance and functional activity. As a consequence, cancer cells have distinctive motility and mechanical properties, which are important for many processes, including invasion and metastasis. Here, we studied the effects of actin cytoskeleton alterations induced by specific nucleation inhibitors (SMIFH2, CK-666), cytochalasin D, Y-27632 and detachment from the surface by trypsinization on the mechanical properties of normal Vero and prostate cancer cell line DU145. The Young's modulus of Vero cells was 1300±900 Pa, while the prostate cancer cell line DU145 exhibited significantly lower Young's moduli (600±400 Pa). The Young's moduli exhibited a log-normal distribution for both cell lines. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells demonstrated diverse viscoelastic behavior and different responses to actin cytoskeleton reorganization. They were more resistant to specific formin-dependent nucleation inhibition, and reinforced their cortical actin after detachment from the substrate. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:25970206

  4. Actin Cytoskeleton Contributes to the Elastic Modulus of Embryonic Tendon During Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R.; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L.; Hockaday, Laura A.; Marturano, Joseph E.; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. PMID:25721681

  5. The Plant Actin Cytoskeleton Responds to Signals from Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L.; Shimono, Masaki; Li, Jiejie; Chang, Jeff H.; Day, Brad; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a large and diverse array of microbes; however, most plants are immune to the majority of potential invaders and susceptible to only a small subset of pathogens. The cytoskeleton comprises a dynamic intracellular framework that responds rapidly to biotic stresses and supports numerous fundamental cellular processes including vesicle trafficking, endocytosis and the spatial distribution of organelles and protein complexes. For years, the actin cytoskeleton has been assumed to play a role in plant innate immunity against fungi and oomycetes, based largely on static images and pharmacological studies. To date, however, there is little evidence that the host-cell actin cytoskeleton participates in responses to phytopathogenic bacteria. Here, we quantified the spatiotemporal changes in host-cell cytoskeletal architecture during the immune response to pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Two distinct changes to host cytoskeletal arrays were observed that correspond to distinct phases of plant-bacterial interactions i.e. the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) during pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and perturbations by effector proteins during effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). We demonstrate that an immediate increase in actin filament abundance is a conserved and novel component of PTI. Notably, treatment of leaves with a MAMP peptide mimic was sufficient to elicit a rapid change in actin organization in epidermal cells, and this actin response required the host-cell MAMP receptor kinase complex, including FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1. Finally, we found that actin polymerization is necessary for the increase in actin filament density and that blocking this increase with the actin-disrupting drug latrunculin B leads to enhanced susceptibility of host plants to pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23593000

  6. Live cell tracking of symmetry break in actin cytoskeleton triggered by abrupt changes in micromechanical environments.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Frank, V; Hörning, M; Kaufmann, S; Yoshikawa, H Y; Madsen, J P; Lewis, A L; Armes, S P; Tanaka, M

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of stimulus-responsive hydrogel substrates composed of ABA triblock copolymer micelles, we monitored the morphological dynamics of myoblast (C2C12) cells in response to an abrupt change in the substrate elasticity by live cell imaging. The remodeling of actin cytoskeletons could be monitored by means of transient transfection with LifeAct-GFP. Dynamic changes in the orientational order of actin filaments were characterized by an order parameter, which enables one to generalize the mechanically induced actin cytoskeletons as a break of symmetry. The critical role that acto-myosin complexes play in the morphological transition was verified by the treatment of cells with myosin II inhibitor (blebbistatin) and the fluorescence localization of focal adhesion contacts. Such dynamically tunable hydrogels can be utilized as in vitro cellular micro-environments that can exert time-dependent stimuli to mechanically regulate target cells. PMID:26347909

  7. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  8. Anillin Regulates Neuronal Migration and Neurite Growth by Linking RhoG to the Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dong; Diao, Min; Jiang, Yuxiang; Sun, Lingfei; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Zhucheng; Huang, Shanjin; Ou, Guangshuo

    2015-05-01

    Neuronal migration and neurite growth are essential events in neural development, but it remains unclear how guidance cues are transduced through receptors to the actin cytoskeleton, which powers these processes. We report that a cytokinetic scaffold protein, Anillin, is redistributed to the leading edge of the C. elegans Q neuroblast during cell migration and neurite growth. To bypass the requirement for Anillin in cytokinesis, we used the somatic CRISPR-Cas9 technique to generate conditional mutations in Anillin. We demonstrate that Anillin regulates cell migration and growth cone extension by stabilizing the F-actin network at the leading edge. Our biochemical analysis shows that the actin-binding domain of Anillin is sufficient to stabilize F-actin by antagonizing the F-actin severing activity of Cofilin. We further uncover that the active form of RhoG/MIG-2 directly binds to Anillin and recruits it to the leading edge. Our results reveal a novel pathway in which Anillin transduces the RhoG signal to the actin cytoskeleton during neuronal migration and neurite growth. PMID:25843030

  9. Enhanced Gravitropism of Roots with a Disrupted Cap Actin Cytoskeleton1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90° reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90°. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle. PMID:12644685

  10. Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase affects the actin cytoskeleton in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Joanna; Spiess, Matthias; Stawiecka-Mirota, Marta; Monkaityte, Rasa; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine; Urban-Grimal, Daniele; Winsor, Barbara; Zoladek, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Yeast Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is involved in several cellular processes, including endocytosis. Actin patches are sites of endocytosis, a process involving actin assembly and disassembly. Here we show Rsp5 localization in cortical patches and demonstrate its involvement in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. We found that the Rsp5-F1-GFP2 N-terminal fragment and full length GFP-Rsp5 were recruited to peripheral patches that temporarily co-localized with Abp1-mCherry, a marker of actin patches. Actin cytoskeleton organization was defective in a strain lacking RSP5 or overexpressing RSP5, and this phenotype was accompanied by morphological abnormalities. Overexpression of RSP5 caused hypersensitivity of cells to Latrunculin A, an actin-depolymerizing drug and was toxic to cells lacking Las17, an activator of actin nucleation. Moreover, Rsp5 was required for efficient actin polymerization in a whole cell extract based in vitro system. Rsp5 interacted with Las17 and Las17-binding proteins, Lsb1 and Lsb2, in a GST-Rsp5-WW2/3 pull down assay. Rsp5 ubiquitinated Lsb1-HA and Lsb2-HA without directing them for degradation. Overexpression of RSP5 increased the cellular level of HA-Las17 in wild type and in lsb1Δ lsb2Δ strains in which the basal level of Las17 was already elevated. This increase was prevented in a strain devoid of Las17-binding protein Sla1 which is also a target of Rsp5 ubiquitination. Thus, Rsp5 together with Lsb1, Lsb2 and Sla1 regulate the level of Las17, an important activator of actin polymerization. PMID:22000681

  11. Retinoids and glucocorticoids have opposite effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in hippocampal HT22 cells.

    PubMed

    Hélène, Roumes; Julie, Brossaud; Aloïs, Lemelletier; Marie-Pierre, Moisan; Véronique, Pallet; Anabelle, Redonnet; Jean-Benoît, Corcuff

    2016-02-01

    A chronic excess of glucocorticoids elicits deleterious effects in the hippocampus. Conversely, retinoic acid plays a major role in aging brain plasticity. As synaptic plasticity depends on mechanisms related to cell morphology, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid and glucocorticoids in the remodelling of the HT22 neurons actin cytoskeleton. Cells exhibited a significantly more elongated shape with retinoic acid and a rounder shape with dexamethasone; retinoic acid reversed the effects of dexamethasone. Actin expression and abundance were unchanged by retinoic acid or dexamethasone but F-actin organization was dramatically modified. Indeed, retinoic acid and dexamethasone increased (70 ± 7% and 176 ± 5%) cortical actin while retinoic acid suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (90 ± 6%). Retinoic acid decreased (-22 ± 9%) and dexamethasone increased (134 ± 16%) actin stress fibres. Retinoic acid also suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (-21 ± 7%). Spectrin is a key protein in the actin network remodelling. Its abundance was decreased by retinoic acid and increased by dexamethasone (-21 ± 11% and 52 ± 10%). However, retinoic acid did not modify the effect of dexamethasone (48 ± 7%). Calpain activity on spectrin was increased by retinoic acid and decreased by dexamethasone (26 ± 14% and -57 ± 5%); retinoic acid mildly but significantly modified the effect of dexamethasone (-44 ± 7%). The calpain inhibitor calpeptin suppressed the effects of retinoic acid and dexamethasone on cell shape and actin stress fibres remodelling but did not modify the effects on cortical actin. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone have a dramatic but mainly opposite effect on actin cytoskeleton remodelling. These effects originate, at least partly, from calpain activity. PMID:26748244

  12. Association of thrombospondin-1 with the actin cytoskeleton of human thrombin-activated platelets through an alphaIIbbeta3- or CD36-independent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Saumet, Anne; Jesus, Nando de; Legrand, Chantal; Dubernard, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an adhesive glycoprotein which, when secreted from alpha-granules of activated platelets, can bind to the cell surface and participate in platelet aggregate formation. In this study, we show that thrombin activation leads to the rapid and specific association of a large amount of secreted alpha-granular TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton. This cytoskeletal association of TSP-1 was correlated with platelet secretion, but not aggregation, and was inhibited by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Association of TSP-1 with the actin cytoskeleton was mediated by membrane receptors, as shown by using MAII, a TSP-1-specific monoclonal antibody that inhibited both TSP-1 surface binding to activated platelets and cytoskeletal association. TSP-1 and its potential membrane receptors, e.g. alphaIIbbeta3 integrin, CD36 and CD47, concomitantly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. However, studies on platelets from a patient with type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia lacking alphaIIbbeta3 and another with barely detectable CD36 showed normal TSP-1 surface expression and association with the actin cytoskeleton. Likewise, no involvement of CD47 in TSP-1 association with the actin cytoskeleton could be inferred from experiments with control platelets using the function-blocking anti-CD47 antibody B6H12. Finally, assembly of signalling complexes, as observed through translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and kinases to the actin cytoskeleton, was found to occur in concert with cytoskeletal association of TSP-1, in control platelets as well as in thrombasthenic and CD36-deficient platelets. Our results imply a role for the actin cytoskeleton in the membrane-surface expression process of TSP-1 molecules and suggest a possible coupling of TSP-1 receptors to signalling events occurring independently of alphaIIbbeta3 or CD36. These results provide new insights into the link between surface-bound TSP-1 and the contractile actin

  13. Modulation of Prion Formation, Aggregation, and Toxicity by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ganusova, Elena E.; Ozolins, Laura N.; Bhagat, Srishti; Newnam, Gary P.; Wegrzyn, Renee D.; Sherman, Michael Y.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2006-01-01

    Self-perpetuating protein aggregates transmit prion diseases in mammals and heritable traits in yeast. De novo prion formation can be induced by transient overproduction of the corresponding prion-forming protein or its prion domain. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast prion protein Sup35 interacts with various proteins of the actin cortical cytoskeleton that are involved in endocytosis. Sup35-derived aggregates, generated in the process of prion induction, are associated with the components of the endocytic/vacuolar pathway. Mutational alterations of the cortical actin cytoskeleton decrease aggregation of overproduced Sup35 and de novo prion induction and increase prion-related toxicity in yeast. Deletion of the gene coding for the actin assembly protein Sla2 is lethal in cells containing the prion isoforms of both Sup35 and Rnq1 proteins simultaneously. Our data are consistent with a model in which cytoskeletal structures provide a scaffold for generation of large aggregates, resembling mammalian aggresomes. These aggregates promote prion formation. Moreover, it appears that the actin cytoskeleton also plays a certain role in counteracting the toxicity of the overproduced potentially aggregating proteins. PMID:16382152

  14. The Actin Cytoskeleton as a Therapeutic Target for the Prevention of Relapse to Methamphetamine Use.

    PubMed

    Young, Erica J; Briggs, Sherri B; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    A high rate of relapse is a defining characteristic of substance use disorder for which few treatments are available. Exposure to environmental cues associated with previous drug use can elicit relapse by causing the involuntary retrieval of deeply engrained associative memories that trigger a strong motivation to seek out drugs. Our lab is focused on identifying and disrupting mechanisms that support these powerful consolidated memories, with the goal of developing therapeutics. A particularly promising mechanism is regulation of synaptic dynamics by actin polymerization within dendritic spines. Emerging evidence indicates that memory is supported by structural and functional plasticity dendritic spines, for which actin polymerization is critical, and that prior drug use increases both spine and actin dynamics. Indeed we have found that inhibiting amygdala (AMY) actin polymerization immediately or twenty-four hours prior to testing disrupted methamphetamine (METH)-associated memories, but not food reward or fear memories. Furthermore, METH training increased AMY spine density which was reversed by actin depolymerization treatment. Actin dynamics were also shifted to a more dynamic state by METH training. While promising, actin polymerization inhibitors are not a viable therapeutic, as a multitude of peripheral process (e.g. cardiac function) rely on dynamic actin. For this reason, we have shifted our focus upstream of actin polymerization to nonmuscle myosin II. We and others have demonstrated that myosin IIb imparts a mechanical force that triggers spine actin polymerization in response to synaptic stimulation. Similar to an actin depolymerizing compound, pre-test inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity in the AMY produced a rapid and lasting disruption of drug-seeking behavior. While many questions remain, these findings indicate that myosin II represents a potential therapeutic avenue to target the actin cytoskeleton and disrupt the powerful, extinction

  15. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Ellis Dutch, Rebecca; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-08-15

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmic tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger.

  16. The WAVE Regulatory Complex Links Diverse Receptors to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoyu; Chen, Zhucheng; Brinkmann, Klaus; Pak, Chi W.; Liao, Yuxing; Shi, Shuoyong; Henry, Lisa; Grishin, Nick V.; Bogdan, Sven; Rosen, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) controls actin cytoskeletal dynamics throughout the cell by stimulating the actin nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex at distinct membrane sites. However, the factors that recruit the WRC to specific locations remain poorly understood. Here we have identified a large family of potential WRC ligands, consisting of ~120 diverse membrane proteins including protocadherins, ROBOs, netrin receptors, Neuroligins, GPCRs and channels. Structural, biochemical and cellular studies reveal that a novel sequence motif that defines these ligands binds to a highly conserved interaction surface of the WRC formed by the Sra and Abi subunits. Mutating this binding surface in flies resulted in defects in actin cytoskeletal organization and egg morphology during oogenesis, leading to female sterility. Our findings directly link diverse membrane proteins to the WRC and actin cytoskeleton, and have broad physiological and pathological ramifications in metazoans. PMID:24439376

  17. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in Arabidopsis roots under stress and during gravitropic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhvanov, Gregory; Medvedev, Sergei; Suslov, Dmitry; Demidchik, Vadim

    Among environmental factors, gravity vector is the only one which is constant in direction and accompanies the whole plant ontogenesis. That said, gravity vector can be considered as an essential factor for correct development of plants. Gravitropism is a plant growth response against changing its position relative to the gravity vector. It is well estableshed that gravitropism is directed by auxin redistribution across the gravistimulated organ. In addition to auxin, actin cytoskeleton was shown to be involved in gravitropism at different stages: gravity perception, signal transduction and gravitropic bending formation. However, the relationship between IAA and actin is still under discussion. In this work we studied rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton during root gravitropic response. Actin microfilaments were visualized in vivo in GFP-fABD2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and their angle distribution was acquired from MicroFilament Analyzer software. The curvature of actin microfilaments in root elongation zone was shown to be increased within 30-60 min of gravistimulation, the fraction of axially oriented microfilaments decreased with a concomitant increase in the fraction of oblique and transversally oriented microfilaments. In particular, the fraction of transversally oriented microfilaments (i.e. parallel to the gravity vector) increased 3-5 times. Under 10 min of sub-lethal salt stress impact, actin microfilament orientations widened from an initial axial orientation to a set of peaks at 15(°) , 45(°) and 90(°) . We conclude that the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements observed are associated with the regulation of basic mechanisms of cell extension growth by which the gravitropic bending is formed. Having common stress-related features, gravity-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is slower but results in higher number of g-vector-parallel microfilaments when compared to salt stress-induced rearrangement. Also, differences in gravistimulated root

  18. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the Ndel1-Tara complex is critical for cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji-Ho; Kwak, Yongdo; Woo, Youngsik; Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Lee, Haeryun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Yeongjun; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Goo, Bon Seong; Mun, Dong Jin; Sanada, Kamon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (Ndel1) plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. Ndel1 function by regulating microtubules and intermediate filaments; however, its functional link with the actin cytoskeleton is largely unknown. Here, we show that Ndel1 interacts with TRIO-associated repeat on actin (Tara), an actin-bundling protein, to regulate cell movement. In vitro wound healing and Boyden chamber assays revealed that Ndel1- or Tara-deficient cells were defective in cell migration. Moreover, Tara overexpression induced the accumulation of Ndel1 at the cell periphery and resulted in prominent co-localization with F-actin. This redistribution of Ndel1 was abolished by deletion of the Ndel1-interacting domain of Tara, suggesting that the altered peripheral localization of Ndel1 requires a physical interaction with Tara. Furthermore, co-expression of Ndel1 and Tara in SH-SY5Y cells caused a synergistic increase in F-actin levels and filopodia formation, suggesting that Tara facilitates cell movement by sequestering Ndel1 at peripheral structures to regulate actin remodeling. Thus, we demonstrated that Ndel1 interacts with Tara to regulate cell movement. These findings reveal a novel role of the Ndel1-Tara complex in actin reorganization during cell movement. PMID:27546710

  19. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the Ndel1-Tara complex is critical for cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji-Ho; Kwak, Yongdo; Woo, Youngsik; Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Lee, Haeryun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Yeongjun; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Goo, Bon Seong; Mun, Dong Jin; Sanada, Kamon; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear distribution element-like 1 (Ndel1) plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. Ndel1 function by regulating microtubules and intermediate filaments; however, its functional link with the actin cytoskeleton is largely unknown. Here, we show that Ndel1 interacts with TRIO-associated repeat on actin (Tara), an actin-bundling protein, to regulate cell movement. In vitro wound healing and Boyden chamber assays revealed that Ndel1- or Tara-deficient cells were defective in cell migration. Moreover, Tara overexpression induced the accumulation of Ndel1 at the cell periphery and resulted in prominent co-localization with F-actin. This redistribution of Ndel1 was abolished by deletion of the Ndel1-interacting domain of Tara, suggesting that the altered peripheral localization of Ndel1 requires a physical interaction with Tara. Furthermore, co-expression of Ndel1 and Tara in SH-SY5Y cells caused a synergistic increase in F-actin levels and filopodia formation, suggesting that Tara facilitates cell movement by sequestering Ndel1 at peripheral structures to regulate actin remodeling. Thus, we demonstrated that Ndel1 interacts with Tara to regulate cell movement. These findings reveal a novel role of the Ndel1-Tara complex in actin reorganization during cell movement. PMID:27546710

  20. Multiple CaMKII Binding Modes to the Actin Cytoskeleton Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid; Conte, Ianina; Carter, Tom; Bayer, K Ulrich; Molloy, Justin E

    2016-07-26

    Localization of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to dendritic spine synapses is determined in part by the actin cytoskeleton. We determined binding of GFP-tagged CaMKII to tag-RFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton within live cells using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking. Stepwise photobleaching showed that CaMKII formed oligomeric complexes. Photoactivation experiments demonstrated that diffusion out of the evanescent field determined the track lifetimes. Latrunculin treatment triggered a coupled loss of actin stress fibers and the colocalized, long-lived CaMKII tracks. The CaMKIIα (α) isoform, which was previously thought to lack F-actin interactions, also showed binding, but this was threefold weaker than that observed for CaMKIIβ (β). The βE' splice variant bound more weakly than α, showing that binding by β depends critically on the interdomain linker. The mutations βT287D and αT286D, which mimic autophosphorylation states, also abolished F-actin binding. Autophosphorylation triggers autonomous CaMKII activity, but does not impair GluN2B binding, another important synaptic protein interaction of CaMKII. The CaMKII inhibitor tatCN21 or CaMKII mutations that inhibit GluN2B association by blocking binding of ATP (βK43R and αK42M) or Ca(2+)/calmodulin (βA303R) had no effect on the interaction with F-actin. These results provide the first rationale for the reduced synaptic spine localization of the αT286D mutant, indicating that transient F-actin binding contributes to the synaptic localization of the CaMKIIα isoform. The track lifetime distributions had a stretched exponential form consistent with a heterogeneously diffusing population. This heterogeneity suggests that CaMKII adopts different F-actin binding modes, which is most easily rationalized by multiple subunit contacts between the CaMKII dodecamer and the F-actin cytoskeleton that stabilize the initial weak (micromolar

  1. Extracellular Inhibitors, Repellents, and Semaphorin/Plexin/MICAL-mediated Actin Filament Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ruei-Jiun; Terman, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple extracellular signals have been identified that regulate actin dynamics within motile cells, but how these instructive cues present on the cell surface exert their precise effects on the internal actin cytoskeleton is still poorly understood. One particularly interesting class of these cues is a group of extracellular proteins that negatively alter the movement of cells and their processes. Over the years, these types of events have been described using a variety of terms and herein we provide an overview of inhibitory/repulsive cellular phenomena and highlight the largest known protein family of repulsive extracellular cues, the Semaphorins. Specifically, the Semaphorins (Semas) utilize Plexin cell-surface receptors to dramatically collapse the actin cytoskeleton and we summarize what is known of the direct molecular and biochemical mechanisms of Sema-triggered actin filament (F-actin) disassembly. We also discuss new observations from our lab that reveal that the multi-domain oxidoreductase (Redox) enzyme MICAL, an important mediator of Sema/Plexin repulsion, is a novel F-actin disassembly factor. Our results indicate that MICAL triggers Sema/Plexin-mediated reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and suggest a role for specific Redox signaling events in regulating actin dynamics. PMID:21800438

  2. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  3. Activation of Protein Tyrosine Kinases by Coxiella burnetii: Role in Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Bacterial Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Meconi, Sonia; Capo, Christian; Remacle-Bonnet, Maryse; Pommier, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2001-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular microorganism that grows in monocytes/macrophages. The internalization of virulent organisms by monocytes is lower than that of avirulent variants and is associated with actin cytoskeleton reorganization. We studied the activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) by C. burnetii in THP-1 monocytes. Virulent organisms induced early PTK activation and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several endogenous substrates, including Hck and Lyn, two Src-related kinases. PTK activation reflects C. burnetii virulence since avirulent variants were unable to stimulate PTK. We also investigated the role of PTK activation in C. burnetii-stimulated F-actin reorganization. Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were colocalized with F-actin inside cell protrusions induced by C. burnetii, and PTK activity was increased in Triton X-100-insoluble fractions. In addition, lavendustin A, a PTK inhibitor, and PP1, a Src kinase inhibitor, prevented C. burnetii-induced cell protrusions and F-actin reorganization. We finally assessed the role of PTK activation in bacterial phagocytosis. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with lavendustin A and PP1 upregulated the uptake of virulent C. burnetii but had no effect on the phagocytosis of avirulent organisms. Thus, it is likely that PTK activation by C. burnetii negatively regulates bacterial uptake by interfering with cytoskeleton organization. PMID:11254615

  4. Role of G protein signaling in the formation of the fibrin(ogen)-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex in platelets.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2016-09-01

    Effective platelet function requires formation of a physical link between fibrin(ogen), integrin αIIbβ3, and cytoplasmic actin filaments. We investigated the role of the Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13 families of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) in the assembly of a ligand-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex. Selective and combined activation of the G proteins was achieved by using combinations of various platelet agonists and inhibitors. Formation and stability of fibrinogen-αIIbβ3 interaction were evaluated by the extent of platelet aggregation and the rate of eptifibatide-induced platelet disaggregation; association of αIIbβ3 with the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Formation of the fibrin-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex was evaluated by rotational thromboelastometry assay in which clot formation was induced by the mixture of reptilase and factor XIIIa. We demonstrated that involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in the formation of the ligand-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex depends on whether fibrinogen or fibrin serves as the integrin ligand. Formation of the fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex requires combined activation of at least two G protein pathways while the maximal αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton association and the strongest αIIbβ3-fibrinogen binding supporting irreversible platelet aggregation require combined activation of all three-Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13-G protein families. In contrast, formation of the fibrin-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex mediating clot retraction is critically dependent on the activation of the Gαi family, especially on the activation of Gαz. PMID:27026498

  5. Tumor metastatic promoter ABCE1 interacts with the cytoskeleton protein actin and increases cell motility.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Tian, Ye; Tian, Dali

    2016-06-01

    ABCE1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, is a candidate tumor metastatic promoter in lung cancer. Overexpression of ABCE1 is correlated with aggressive growth and metastasis in lung cancer cells. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, GST pull-down assay provided evidence of the possible interaction between ABCE1 and β-actin using GST-ABCE1 as a bait protein. Co-immunoprecipitation manifested ABCE1 formed complexes with β-actin in vivo. ABCE1 overexpression significantly increased the migration of lung cancer cells which may be attributed to the promotion of F-actin rearrangements. Taken together, these data suggest that overexpression of ABCE1 produces an obvious effect on the motility of lung cancer cells through cytoskeleton rearrangement. PMID:27109616

  6. Rituximab's new therapeutic target: the podocyte actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andrew C

    2011-06-01

    Therapeutic off-target activities are well recognized for small-molecule drugs. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) traditionally are believed to act specifically and lack off-target therapeutic effects. In this issue of Science Translational Medicine, Fornoni et al. show therapeutic benefit, through an off-target-mediated mechanism, of the mAb drug rituximab in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) after kidney transplantation. These data shed new light on FSGS pathogenesis and suggest new therapeutic interventions for proteinuric diseases. PMID:21632983

  7. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    A key challenge in normal development and in disease is to elucidate the mechanisms of cell migration. Here we approach this question using the tracheal system of Drosophila as a model. Tracheal cell migration requires the Breathless/FGFR pathway; however, how the pathway induces migration remains poorly understood. We find that the Breathless pathway upregulates singed at the tip of tracheal branches, and that this regulation is functionally relevant. singed encodes Drosophila Fascin, which belongs to a conserved family of actin-bundling proteins involved in cancer progression and metastasis upon misregulation. We show that singed is required for filopodia stiffness and proper morphology of tracheal tip cells, defects that correlate with an abnormal actin organisation. We propose that singed-regulated filopodia and cell fronts are required for timely and guided branch migration and for terminal branching and branch fusion. We find that singed requirements rely on its actin-bundling activity controlled by phosphorylation, and that active Singed can promote tip cell features. Furthermore, we find that singed acts in concert with forked, another actin cross-linker. The absence of both cross-linkers further stresses the relevance of tip cell morphology and filopodia for tracheal development. In summary, our results on the one hand reveal a previously undescribed role for forked in the organisation of transient actin structures such as filopodia, and on the other hand identify singed as a new target of Breathless signal, establishing a link between guidance cues, the actin cytoskeleton and tracheal morphogenesis. PMID:24496629

  8. Molecular Architecture of Synaptic Actin Cytoskeleton in Hippocampal Neurons Reveals a Mechanism of Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Korobova, Farida

    2010-01-01

    Excitatory synapses in the brain play key roles in learning and memory. The formation and functions of postsynaptic mushroom-shaped structures, dendritic spines, and possibly of presynaptic terminals, rely on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. However, the cytoskeletal architecture of synapses remains unknown hindering the understanding of synapse morphogenesis. Using platinum replica electron microscopy, we characterized the cytoskeletal organization and molecular composition of dendritic spines, their precursors, dendritic filopodia, and presynaptic boutons. A branched actin filament network containing Arp2/3 complex and capping protein was a dominant feature of spine heads and presynaptic boutons. Surprisingly, the spine necks and bases, as well as dendritic filopodia, also contained a network, rather than a bundle, of branched and linear actin filaments that was immunopositive for Arp2/3 complex, capping protein, and myosin II, but not fascin. Thus, a tight actin filament bundle is not necessary for structural support of elongated filopodia-like protrusions. Dynamically, dendritic filopodia emerged from densities in the dendritic shaft, which by electron microscopy contained branched actin network associated with dendritic microtubules. We propose that dendritic spine morphogenesis begins from an actin patch elongating into a dendritic filopodium, which tip subsequently expands via Arp2/3 complex-dependent nucleation and which length is modulated by myosin II-dependent contractility. PMID:19889835

  9. Importance of Interaction between Integrin and Actin Cytoskeleton in Suspension Adaptation of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christa G; Whitfield, Robert; James, David C

    2016-04-01

    The biopharmaceutical production process relies upon mammalian cell technology where single cells proliferate in suspension in a chemically defined synthetic environment. This environment lacks exogenous growth factors, usually contributing to proliferation of fibroblastic cell types such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Use of CHO cells for production hence requires a lengthy 'adaptation' process to select clones capable of proliferation as single cells in suspension. The underlying molecular changes permitting proliferation in suspension are not known. Comparison of the non-suspension-adapted clone CHO-AD and a suspension-adapted propriety cell line CHO-SA by flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly variable bi-modal expression pattern for cell-to-cell contact proteins in contrast to the expression pattern seen for integrins. Those have a uni-modal expression on suspension and adherent cells. Integrins showed a conformation distinguished by regularly distributed clusters forming a sphere on the cell membrane of suspension-adapted cells. Actin cytoskeleton analysis revealed reorganisation from the typical fibrillar morphology found in adherent cells to an enforced spherical subcortical actin sheath in suspension cells. The uni-modal expression and specific clustering of integrins could be confirmed for CHO-S, another suspension cell line. Cytochalasin D treatment resulted in breakdown of the actin sheath and the sphere-like integrin conformation demonstrating the link between integrins and actin in suspension-adapted CHO cells. The data demonstrates the importance of signalling changes, leading to an integrin rearrangement on the cell surface, and the necessity of the reinforcement of the actin cytoskeleton for proliferation in suspension conditions. PMID:26679704

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-06-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-{beta}(CaMKK{beta}), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKK{beta} inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  11. Cellular chirality arising from the self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Tee, Yee Han; Shemesh, Tom; Thiagarajan, Visalatchi; Hariadi, Rizal Fajar; Anderson, Karen L; Page, Christopher; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Kozlov, Michael M; Bershadsky, Alexander D

    2015-04-01

    Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. A radially symmetrical system of actin bundles consisting of α-actinin-enriched radial fibres (RFs) and myosin-IIA-enriched transverse fibres (TFs) evolved spontaneously into the chiral system as a result of the unidirectional tilting of all RFs, which was accompanied by a tangential shift in the retrograde movement of TFs. We showed that myosin-IIA-dependent contractile stresses within TFs drive their movement along RFs, which grow centripetally in a formin-dependent fashion. The handedness of the chiral pattern was shown to be regulated by α-actinin-1. Computational modelling demonstrated that the dynamics of the RF-TF system can explain the pattern transition from radial to chiral. Thus, actin cytoskeleton self-organization provides built-in machinery that potentially allows cells to develop left-right asymmetry. PMID:25799062

  12. Reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton during maturation division in the Tubifex egg: possible involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T

    1997-08-01

    Tubifex eggs undergo a drastic reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton during metaphase of the second meiosis. At the end of the first meiosis, the egg cortex displays only scattered actin filaments and tiny dots of F-actin; during the following 90 min, cortical F-actin gradually increases in amount, becomes organized into foci that are interlinked by actin bundles, and generates a geodesic dome-like organization. In this study, we have characterized this reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In living eggs injected with rhodamine-phalloidin at the beginning of the second meiosis, cortical actin assembly (i.e., formation of actin foci and bundles) proceeds normally, but labeled F-actin is not found to be included significantly in the formed cortical actin network, suggesting that the increase in cortical F-actin is not simply ascribable to the recruitment of preexisting actin filaments. Cortical actin assembly can be induced precociously not only by calcium ionophore A23187 but also by a phorbol ester PMA, an agonist of protein kinase C (PKC). Conversely, the formation of actin foci and bundles is inhibited by PKC antagonists, although cortical F-actin increases to some extent in the presence of these inhibitors. Similar inhibition of the cortical reorganization is elicited in eggs whose intracellular free calcium level ([Ca2+]i) has been clamped low by microinjection of a calcium chelator BAPTA. The treatment of BAPTA-injected eggs with PMA results in the formation of actin foci and bundles. An experiment with eggs injected with fluo-3 shows that [Ca2+]i increases during metaphase of the second meiosis. These results suggest that the reorganization of cortical actin during metaphase of the second meiosis requires activation of PKC, which depends on increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:9245516

  13. Post-polymerization crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network.

    PubMed

    Joo, E Emily; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Cellular cytoskeletal systems play many pivotal roles in living organisms by controlling cell shape, division, and migration, which ultimately govern morphology, physiology, and functions of animals. Although the cytoskeletal systems are distinct and play different roles, there is growing evidence that these diverse cytoskeletal systems coordinate their functions with each other. This coordination between cytoskeletal systems, often termed cytoskeletal crosstalk, has been identified when the dynamic state of one individual system affects the other system. In this review, we briefly describe some well-established examples of crosstalk between cytoskeletal systems and then introduce a newly discovered form of crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule network that does not appear to directly alter polymerization or depolymerization of either system. The biological impact and possible significance of this post-polymerization crosstalk between actin and microtubules will be discussed in detail. PMID:27058810

  14. Inhibition of FSS-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization by silencing LIMK2 gene increases the mechanosensitivity of primary osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Tan, Shuyi; Shen, Yun; Chen, Rui; Wu, Changjing; Xu, Yajuan; Song, Zijun; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical stimulation plays an important role in bone cell metabolic activity. However, bone cells lose their mechanosensitivity upon continuous mechanical stimulation (desensitization) and they can recover the sensitivity with insertion of appropriate rest period into the mechanical loading profiles. The concrete molecular mechanism behind the regulation of cell mechanosensitivity still remains unclear. As one kind of mechanosensitive cell to react to the mechanical stimulation, osteoblasts respond to fluid shear stress (FSS) with actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and the remodeling of actin cytoskeleton is closely associated with the alteration of cell mechanosensitivity. In order to find out whether inhibiting the actin cytoskeleton reorganization by silencing LIM-kinase 2 (LIMK2) gene would increase the mechanosensitivity of primary osteoblasts, we attenuated the formation of actin stress fiber under FSS in a more specific way: inhibiting the LIMK2 expression by RNA interference. We found that inhibition of LIMK2 expression by RNA interference attenuated the formation of FSS-induced actin stress fiber, and simultaneously maintained the integrity of actin cytoskeleton in primary osteoblasts. We confirmed that the decreased actin cytoskeleton reorganization in response to LIMK2 inhibition during FSS increased the mechanosensitivity of the osteoblasts, based on the increased c-Fos and COX-2 expression as well as the enhanced proliferative activity in response to FSS. These data suggest that osteoblasts can increase their mechanosensitivity under continuous mechanical stimulation by reducing the actin stress fiber formation through inhibiting the LIMK2 expression. This study provides us with a new and more specific method to regulate the osteoblast mechanosensitivity, and also a new therapeutic target to cure bone related diseases, which is of importance in maintaining bone mass and promoting osteogenesis. PMID:25549868

  15. Hepatocyte cytoskeleton during ischemia and reperfusion - influence of ANP-mediated p38 MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Melanie; Gerbes, Alexander L; Kulhanek-Heinze, Stefanie; Gerwig, Tobias; Grützner, Uwe; van Rooijen, Nico; Vollmar, Angelika M; Kiemer, Alexandra K

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine functional consequences of this activation, whereby we focused on a potential regulation of the hepatocyte cytoskeleton during ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: For in vivo experiments, animals received ANP (5 μg/kg) intravenously. In a different experimental setting, isolated rat livers were perfused with KH-buffer±ANP (200 nmol/L)±SB203580 (2 μmol/L). Livers were then kept under ischemic conditions for 24 h, and either transplanted or reperfused. Actin, Hsp27, and phosphorylated Hsp27 were determined by Western blotting, p38 MAPK activity by in vitro phosphorylation assay. F-actin distribution was determined by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We first confirmed that ANP preconditioning leads to an activation of p38 MAPK and observed alterations of the cytoskeleton in hepatocytes of ANP-preconditioned organs. ANP induced an increase of hepatic F-actin after ischemia, which could be prevented by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 but had no effect on bile flow. After ischemia untreated livers showed a translocation of Hsp27 towards the cytoskeleton and an increase in total Hsp27, whereas ANP preconditioning prohibited translocation but caused an augmentation of Hsp27 phosphorylation. This effect is also mediated via p38 MAPK, since it was abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that ANP-mediated p38 MAPK activation leads to changes in hepatocyte cytoskeleton involving an elevation of phosphorylated Hsp27 and thereby for the first time shows functional consequences of ANP-induced hepatic p38 MAPK activation. PMID:16437711

  16. Arp2/3-mediated actin-based motility: a tail of pathogen abuse

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Matthew D.; Way, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to exploit the different cellular systems of their unwilling hosts to facilitate their entry, replication and survival. In particular, a diverse range of bacteria and viruses have evolved unique strategies to harness the power of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization to enhance their cell-to-cell spread. In this review, we discuss how studying these pathogens has revolutionized our molecular understanding of Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly, and revealed key signalling pathways regulating actin assembly in cells. Further studies with known and newly emerging pathogens will undoubtedly continue to enhance our understanding of the role of the actin cytoskeleton during pathogenesis. Moreover, looking back over the last 20 years, it would be surprising if future analyses of microbe-host interactions did not continue to uncover new mechanisms regulating actin assembly and dynamics, as well as unexpected cellular functions for actin. PMID:24034611

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing and Genome-wide Association Analyses Reveal Lysosomal Function and Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghyeon; Reimers, Mark; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Yu, Hui; Liu, Chunyu; Sun, Jingchun; Wang, Quan; Jia, Peilin; Xu, Fengping; Zhang, Yong; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Xiangning

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are severe mental disorders with high heritability. Clinicians have long noticed the similarities of clinic symptoms between these disorders. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates some shared genetic liabilities. However, what is shared remains elusive. In this study, we conducted whole transcriptome analysis of postmortem brain tissues (cingulate cortex) from SCZ, BPD and control subjects, and identified differentially expressed genes in these disorders. We found 105 and 153 genes differentially expressed in SCZ and BPD, respectively. By comparing the t-test scores, we found that many of the genes differentially expressed in SCZ and BPD are concordant in their expression level (q ≤ 0.01, 53 genes; q ≤ 0.05, 213 genes; q ≤ 0.1, 885 genes). Using genome-wide association data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we found that these differentially and concordantly expressed genes were enriched in association signals for both SCZ (p < 10−7 ) and BPD (p = 0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a substantially large number of genes shows concordant expression and association for both SCZ and BPD. Pathway analyses of these genes indicated that they are involved in the lysosome, Fc gamma receptor mediated phagocytosis, regulation of actin skeleton pathways, along with several cancer pathways. Functional analyses of these genes revealed an interconnected pathway network centered on lysosomal function and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. These pathways and their interacting network were principally confirmed by an independent transcriptome sequencing dataset of hippocampus. Dysregulation of lysosomal function and cytoskeleton remodeling has direct impacts on endocytosis, phagocytosis, exocytosis, vesicle trafficking, neuronal maturation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synaptic density and plasticity, and different aspects of these processes have been implicated in SCZ and BPD

  18. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Helicobacter pylori-induced migration and invasive growth of gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a significant hallmark of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected gastric epithelial cells leading to cell migration and invasive growth. Considering the cellular mechanisms, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) and the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) of H. pylori are well-studied initiators of distinct signal transduction pathways in host cells targeting kinases, adaptor proteins, GTPases, actin binding and other proteins involved in the regulation of the actin lattice. In this review, we summarize recent findings of how H. pylori functionally interacts with the complex signaling network that controls the actin cytoskeleton of motile and invasive gastric epithelial cells. PMID:22044652

  19. State of actin cytoskeleton and development of slow-frozen and vitrified rabbit pronuclear zygotes.

    PubMed

    Kulíková, Barbora; Jiménez-Trigos, Estrella; Makarevich, Alexander V; Chrenek, Peter; Vicente, José S; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    This study was focused on the effect of cryopreservation on the state of actin cytoskeleton and development of rabbit pronuclear zygotes. Zygotes were collected from superovulated females and immediately used for 1) slow-freezing in a solution containing 1.5 M 1,2-propanediol and 0.2 M sucrose, or 2) vitrification in a solution containing 42.0% (v/v) of ethylene glycol, 18.0% (w/v) of dextran and 0.3 M sucrose as cryoprotectants. After thawing or warming, respectively, zygotes were evaluated for 1) actin distribution, 2) in vitro or 3) in vivo development to blastocyst. Comparing actin filaments distribution, a significantly higher number of vitrified zygotes with actin distributed in cell border was observed (55 ± 7.7 vs. 74 ± 6.1% for slow-frozen vs. vitrified, respectively). After 24 and 72 h of in vitro development, significant differences in the cleavage and morula rate among the groups were observed (9 ± 2.4 and 3 ± 1.3 vs. 44 ± 3.0 and 28 ± 2.7% for slow-frozen vs. vitrified, respectively). None of the slow-frozen zygotes reached the blastocyst stage, in contrast to the vitrified counterparts (11 ± 1.9%). Under in vivo culture conditions, a significant difference in blastocyst rate was observed between vitrified and fresh embryos (6 ± 1.5 vs. 35 ± 4.4% respectively). Our results showed that alterations in actin cytoskeleton and deteriorated development are more evident in slow-frozen than vitrified pronuclear zygotes. Vitrification method seems to be a more effective option for rabbit zygotes cryopreservation, although pronuclear zygotes manipulation per se resulted in a notable decrease in embryo development. PMID:26687386

  20. HCMV pUL135 Remodels the Actin Cytoskeleton to Impair Immune Recognition of Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Richard J.; Prod’homme, Virginie; Purbhoo, Marco A.; Moore, Melanie; Aicheler, Rebecca J.; Heinzmann, Marcus; Bailer, Susanne M.; Haas, Jürgen; Antrobus, Robin; Weekes, Michael P.; Lehner, Paul J.; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Miners, Kelly L.; Man, Stephen; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Davison, Andrew J.; Wang, Eddie C.Y.; Tomasec, Peter; Wilkinson, Gavin W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Immune evasion genes help human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establish lifelong persistence. Without immune pressure, laboratory-adapted HCMV strains have undergone genetic alterations. Among these, the deletion of the UL/b’ domain is associated with loss of virulence. In a screen of UL/b’, we identified pUL135 as a protein responsible for the characteristic cytopathic effect of clinical HCMV strains that also protected from natural killer (NK) and T cell attack. pUL135 interacted directly with abl interactor 1 (ABI1) and ABI2 to recruit the WAVE2 regulatory complex to the plasma membrane, remodel the actin cytoskeleton and dramatically reduce the efficiency of immune synapse (IS) formation. An intimate association between F-actin filaments in target cells and the IS was dispelled by pUL135 expression. Thus, F-actin in target cells plays a critical role in synaptogenesis, and this can be exploited by pathogens to protect against cytotoxic immune effector cells. An independent interaction between pUL135 and talin disrupted cell contacts with the extracellular matrix. PMID:25121749

  1. Effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome in Physarum polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuijie; Sun, Yeqing

    Some researchers suggest that the changes of cell cycle under the effect of microgravity may be associated with many serious adverse physiological changes. In the search for underlying mechanisms and possible new countermeasures, we used the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in which all the nuclei traverse the cell cycle in natural synchrony to study the effects of altered gravity on the cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton and proteome. In parallel, the cell cycle was analyzed in Physarum incubated (1) in altered gravity for 20 h, (2) in altered gravity for 40 h, (3) in altered gravity for 80 h, and (4) in ground controls. The cell cycle, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteome in the altered gravity and ground controls were examined. The results indicated that the duration of the G2 phase was lengthened 20 min in high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) for 20 h, and prolonged 2 h in altered gravity either for 40 h or for 80 h, whereas the duration of other phases in the cell cycle was unchanged with respect to the control. The microfilaments in G2 phase had a reduced number of fibers and a unique abnormal morphology in altered gravity for 40 h, whereas the microfilaments in other phases of cell cycle were unchanged when compared to controls. Employing classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), we examined the effect of the altered gravity on P. polycephalum proteins. The increase in the duration of G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h was accompanied by changes in the 2-DE protein profiles, over controls. Out of a total of 200 protein spots investigated in G2 phase, which were reproducible in repeated experiments, 72 protein spots were visually identified as specially expressed, and 11 proteins were up-regulated by 2-fold and 28 proteins were down-regulated by 2-fold over controls. Out of a total of three low-expressed proteins in G2 phase in altered gravity for 40 h, two proteins were unknown proteins, and one protein was spherulin 3b by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS

  2. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  3. GLUTAMATE-INDUCED Ca2+ INFLUX IN THIRD-ORDER NEURONS OF SALAMANDER RETINA IS REGULATED BY THE ACTIN CYTOSKELETON

    PubMed Central

    AKOPIAN, A.; SZIKRA, T.; CRISTOFANILLI, M.; KRIZAJ, D.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) link to the cortical cytoskeleton via specialized scaffold proteins and thereby to appropriate signal transduction pathways in the cell. We studied the role of filamentous actin in the regulation of Ca influx through glutamate receptor-activated channels in third-order neurons of salamander retina. Staining by Alexa-Fluor 488-phalloidin, to visualize polymerized actin, we show localization of filamentous actin in neurites, and the membrane surrounding the cell soma. With Ca2+ imaging we found that in dissociated neurons, depolymerization of filamentous actin by latrunculin A, or cytochalasin D significantly reduced glutamate-induced intracellular Ca2+ accumulation to 53±7% of control value. Jasplakinolide, a stabilizer of filamentous actin, by itself slightly increased the glutamate-induced Ca2+ signal and completely attenuated the inhibitory effect when applied in combination with actin depolymerizing agents. These results indicate that in salamander retinal neurons the actin cytoskeleton regulates Ca2+ influx through ionotropic glutamate receptor-activated channels, suggesting regulatory roles for filamentous actin in a number of Ca2+-dependent physiological and pathological processes. PMID:16359816

  4. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J; Weisheit, Corinne E; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T; Suter, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-type complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91(phox) localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40(phox) . p40(phox) itself exhibited colocalization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91(phox) and p40(phox) with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in colocalization of p40(phox) with NOX2/gp91(phox) at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for actin organization and dynamics in neuronal growth cones as well as neurite outgrowth. Here, we report that the cytosolic subunit p40(phox) of the NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex is partially associated with F-actin in neuronal growth cones, while ROS produced by this complex regulates F-actin dynamics and neurite growth. These findings provide evidence for a bidirectional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones. PMID:24702317

  5. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  6. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. PMID:24462670

  7. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Panayotov, Ivan; Secret, Emilie; Cunin, Frédérique; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Martin, Marta

    2014-10-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions.

  8. Renal Lipotoxicity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Affects Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Yeo, Tet-Kin; Chen, Sheldon; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades a change in lifestyle has led to an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated complications. Obese patients are at increased risk of developing hypertension, heart disease, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and renal disease. The excess calories are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, but also may accumulate ectopically in other organs, including the kidney, which contributes to the damage through a toxic process named lipotoxicity. Recently, the evidence suggests that renal lipid accumulation leads to glomerular damage and, more specifically, produces dysfunction in podocytes, key cells that compose and maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Our aim was to analyze the early mechanisms underlying the development of renal disease associated with the process of lipotoxicity in podocytes. Our results show that treatment of podocytes with palmitic acid produced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. This was accompanied by the development of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. We found specific rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins (Nephrin, P-Cadherin, Vimentin) associated with this insulin resistance in palmitic-treated podocytes. We conclude that lipotoxicity accelerates glomerular disease through lipid accumulation and inflammation. Moreover, saturated fatty acids specifically promote insulin resistance by disturbing the cytoarchitecture of podocytes. These data suggest that renal lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangements may serve as a target for specific therapies aimed at slowing the progression of podocyte failure during metabolic syndrome. PMID:26545114

  9. Assessment of actin cytoskeleton and nuclei in bovine blastocysts developed under different culture conditions using a novel computer program.

    PubMed

    Kuzmany, A; Havlicek, V; Brem, G; Walter, I; Besenfelder, U

    2011-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects, in terms of nuclear material and actin cytoskeleton quantities (fluorescent pixel counts), of four different bovine blastocyst culturing techniques (in vitro, stepwise in vitro-to-in vivo, or purely in vivo). Cumulus oocyte complexes from abattoir-sourced ovaries were matured in vitro and allocated to four groups: IVP-group embryos developed up to blastocyst stage in vitro. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT)-group oocytes were co-incubated with semen for 4 h before transfer to oviducts of heifers. Following in vitro fertilization, cleaved embryos (day 2 of embryo development, day 2-7 group) were transferred into oviducts on day 2. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET)-group embryos were obtained by superovulating and inseminating heifers; the heifers' genital tracts were flushed at day 7 of blastocyst development. Within each group, ten blastocysts were selected to be differentially dyed (for nuclei and actin cytoskeleton) with fluorescent stains. A novel computer program (ColorAnalyzer) provided differential pixel counts representing organelle quantities. Blastocysts developed only in vivo (MOET group) showed significantly more nuclear material than did blastocysts produced by any other technique. In terms of actin cytoskeleton quantity, blastocysts produced by IVP and by day 2-7 transfer did not differ significantly from each other. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer- and MOET-group embryos showed significantly larger quantities of actin cytoskeleton when compared with any other group and differed significantly from each other. The results of this study indicate that culturing under in vitro conditions, even with part time in vivo techniques, may adversely affect the quantity of blastocyst nuclear material and actin cytoskeleton. The software employed may be useful for culture environment evaluation/developmental competence assessment. PMID:20477985

  10. Syntenin-1 and Ezrin Proteins Link Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule to the Actin Cytoskeleton*

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Cicerone; te Riet, Joost; Eich, Christina; Harkes, Rolf; Smisdom, Nick; Bouhuijzen Wenger, Jessica; Ameloot, Marcel; Holt, Matthew; Kanger, Johannes S.; Figdor, Carl G.; Cambi, Alessandra; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a type I transmembrane protein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. Involved in important pathophysiological processes such as the immune response, cancer metastasis, and neuronal development, ALCAM undergoes both homotypic interactions with other ALCAM molecules and heterotypic interactions with the surface receptor CD6 expressed at the T cell surface. Despite biochemical and biophysical evidence of a dynamic association between ALCAM and the actin cytoskeleton, no detailed information is available about how this association occurs at the molecular level. Here, we exploit a combination of complementary microscopy techniques, including FRET detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single-cell force spectroscopy, and we demonstrate the existence of a preformed ligand-independent supramolecular complex where ALCAM stably interacts with actin by binding to syntenin-1 and ezrin. Interaction with the ligand CD6 further enhances these multiple interactions. Altogether, our results propose a novel biophysical framework to understand the stabilizing role of the ALCAM supramolecular complex engaged to CD6 during dendritic cell-T cell interactions and provide novel information on the molecular players involved in the formation and signaling of the immunological synapse at the dendritic cell side. PMID:24662291

  11. Global architecture of F-actin cytoskeleton regulates cell shape-dependent endothelial mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yue; Mann, Jennifer M.; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Uniaxial stretch is an important biophysical regulator of cell morphology (or shape) and functions of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, it is unclear whether and how cell shape can independently regulate EC mechanotransductive properties under uniaxial stretch. Herein, utilizing a novel uniaxial cell-stretching device integrated with micropost force sensors, we reported the first experimental evidence showing cell shape-dependent EC mechanotransduction via cytoskeleton (CSK) contractile forces in response to uniaxial stretch. Combining experiments and theoretical modeling from first principles, we showed that it was the global architecture of the F-actin CSK that instructed the cell shape-dependent EC mechanotransductive process. Furthermore, a cell shape-dependent nature was relayed in EC mechanotransduction via dynamic focal adhesion (FA) assembly. Our results suggested a novel mechanotransductive process in ECs wherein the global architecture of the F-actin CSK, governed by cell shape, controls mechanotransduction via CSK contractile forces and force-dependent FA assembly under uniaxial stretch. PMID:24435061

  12. BNIP3 supports melanoma cell migration and vasculogenic mimicry by orchestrating the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Maes, H; Van Eygen, S; Krysko, D V; Vandenabeele, P; Nys, K; Rillaerts, K; Garg, A D; Verfaillie, T; Agostinis, P

    2014-01-01

    BNIP3 is an atypical BH3-only member of the BCL-2 family of proteins with reported pro-death as well as pro-autophagic and cytoprotective functions, depending on the type of stress and cellular context. In line with this, the role of BNIP3 in cancer is highly controversial and increased BNIP3 levels in cancer patients have been linked with both good as well as poor prognosis. In this study, using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral transduction to stably knockdown BNIP3 (BNIP3-shRNA) expression levels in melanoma cells, we show that BNIP3 supports cancer cell survival and long-term clonogenic growth. Although BNIP3-shRNA increased mitochondrial mass and baseline levels of reactive oxygen species production, which are features associated with aggressive cancer cell behavior, it also prevented cell migration and completely abolished the ability to form a tubular-like network on matrigel, a hallmark of vasculogenic mimicry (VM). We found that this attenuated aggressive behavior of these melanoma cells was underscored by severe changes in cell morphology and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton associated with loss of BNIP3. Indeed, BNIP3-silenced melanoma cells displayed enhanced formation of actin stress fibers and membrane ruffles, while lamellopodial protrusions and filopodia, tight junctions and adherens junctions were reduced. Moreover, loss of BNIP3 resulted in re-organization of focal adhesion sites associated with increased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase. Remarkably, BNIP3 silencing led to a drop of the protein levels of the integrin-associated protein CD47 and its downstream signaling effectors Rac1 and Cdc42. These observations underscore that BNIP3 is required to maintain steady-state levels of intracellular complexes orchestrating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton, which is integral to cell migration and other vital processes stimulating cancer progression. All together these results unveil an unprecedented pro-tumorigenic role of

  13. EphA4, RhoB and the molecular development of feather buds are maintained by the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    McKinnell, Iain W; Makarenkova, Helen; de Curtis, Ivan; Turmaine, Mark; Patel, Ketan

    2004-06-01

    The development of feather buds is a highly ordered process involving epithelial-mesenchymal signalling. Cellular morphology is determined by the actin cytoskeleton, which is controlled by networks of regulators such as the GTPases. EphA4 belongs to a receptor tyrosine kinase family that has been consistently shown to regulate the cytoskeleton via Rho family GTPases in neural development and is expressed in early stages of feather bud development though its role has not been defined. We therefore used an in vitro skin culture system to interfere with EphA4 levels in feather buds using anti-sense oligonucleotides, demonstrating a severe effect on both their number and morphological form. Analysis of the Rho family of GTPases revealed that this effect was mediated by the GTPase RhoB, the expression of which was altered in response to altered levels of EphA4. In addition, the inhibition of RhoB mimicked the effects of reduced EphA4 levels on feather development. Significantly, manipulation of cytoskeletal dynamics revealed that those cells undergoing morphogenetic change regulate the patterning signals responsible for initiating feather development. We propose that this molecular maintenance mechanism between EphA4-RhoB and the actin cytoskeleton converges or coordinates with other morphogenic signalling systems to control feather bud development. PMID:15136143

  14. Formation of cofilin-actin rods following cucurbitacin-B-induced actin aggregation depends on Slingshot homolog 1-mediated cofilin hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ting; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Xu, Li-Hui; Zha, Qing-Bing; He, Xian-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cucurbitacin B (CuB), as well as other cucurbitacins, damages the actin cytoskeleton in a variety of cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of such an effect is not well understood. In this study, we showed that CuB rapidly induced actin aggregation followed by actin rod formation in melanoma cells. Cofilin, a critical regulator of actin dynamics, was dramatically dephosphorylated (i.e., activated) upon CuB treatment. Notably, the activated cofilin subsequently formed rod-like aggregates, which were highly colocalized with actin rods, indicating the formation of cofilin-actin rods. Cofilin knockdown significantly suppressed rod formation but did not prevent actin aggregation. Furthermore, knockdown of the cofilin phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1), but not chronophin (CIN), alleviated CuB-induced cofilin hyperactivation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The activity of Rho kinase and LIM kinase, two upstream regulators of cofilin activation, was downregulated after cofilin hyperactivation. Pretreatment with a thiol-containing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, but not other ROS inhibitors without thiol groups, suppressed CuB-induced actin aggregation, cofilin hyperactivation and cofilin-actin rod formation, suggesting that thiol oxidation might be involved in these processes. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CuB-induced formation of cofilin-actin rods was mediated by SSH1-dependent but CIN-independent cofilin hyperactivation. PMID:23695982

  15. Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Elizabeth I; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidence that actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich anchoring junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmic specialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr(407), known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons. PMID:26894662

  16. Berberine induces dedifferentiation by actin cytoskeleton reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Chung, Ki-Wha; Seo, Sung-Yum; Kim, Song-Ja

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a nonrheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, the majority of which is extracted from Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis). Although numerous studies have revealed the anticancer activity of BBR, its effects on normal cells, such as chondrocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions remain elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of BBR on rabbit articular chondrocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. BBR induced dedifferentiation by inhibiting activation of phosphoinositide-3(PI3)-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase and PI3-kinase/Akt with SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation. BBR also caused actin cytoskeletal architecture reorganization and, therefore, we investigated if these effects were involved in the dedifferentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D reversed the BBR-induced dedifferentiation by activating PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. In contrast, the induction of actin filament aggregation by jasplakinolide accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation via PI3-kinase/Akt inhibition and p38 kinase activation. Taken together, these data suggest that BBR strongly induces dedifferentiation, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization is a crucial requirement for this effect. Furthermore, the dedifferentiation activity of BBR appears to be mediated via PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes. PMID:26851252

  17. A vital role for myosin-9 in puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte injury by affecting actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanggang; Zhao, Chuanyan; An, Xiaofei; Wu, Lin; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Min; Bai, Mi; Duan, Suyan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Aihua; Xing, Changying

    2016-06-01

    Podocyte injury is an early pathological change of many kidney diseases. In particular, the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining the normal function of podocytes. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton is a feature of podocyte injury in proteinuric nephropathies. Recent studies showed that myosin-9 was localized in the podocyte foot processes and was necessary in maintaining podocyte structural homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether myosin-9 maintains podocyte structure by affecting actin cytoskleton. Here, the role of myosin-9 in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte injury was explored both in vitro and in vivo. In cultured mouse podocytes (MPC5), it was determined that PAN downregulated myosin-9 expression, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton and reduced the adhesion ability. Reduced myosin-9 expression by siRNA precipitated podocyte cytoskeletal damage and accelerated PAN-induced podocyte detachment. Overexpression of myosin-9 protected against PAN-induced podocyte detachment. Furthermore, administration of an antioxidant Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) inhibited PAN-induced podocyte cytoskeletal damage and podocyte detachment by restoring the expression of myosin-9. In the rat PAN nephropathy model, MnTBAP could also attenuate PAN-induced reduction of myosin-9 and podocyte loss. Taken together, these findings pinpointed that oxidative stress contributed to PAN-induced podocyte injury through the repression of a cytoskeletal protein myosin-9, which provided novel insights into a potential target for the treatment of podocyte injury-associated glomerulopathies. PMID:26902808

  18. Fucus as a Model System to Study the Role of Auxin Transport and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Gravity Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2003-01-01

    The overarching goal of this proposal was to examine the mechanisms for the cellular asymmetry in auxin transport proteins. As auxin transport polarity changes in response to reorientation of algal and plant cells relative to the gravity vector, it was critical to ask how auxin transport polarity is established and how this transport polarity may change in response to gravity stimulation. The experiments conducted with this NASA grant fell into two categories. The first area of experimentation was to explore the biochemical interactions between an auxin transport protein and the actin cytoskeleton. These experiments used biochemical techniques, including actin affinity chromatography, to demonstrate that one auxin transport protein interacts with the actin cytoskeleton. The second line of experiments examined whether in the initially symmetrical single celled embryos of Fucus distichus, whether auxin regulates development and whether gravity is a cue to control the morphogenesis of these embryos and whether gravi-morphogenesis is auxin dependent. Results in these two areas are summarized separately below. As a result of this funding, in combination with results from other investigators, we have strong evidence for an important role for the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and change auxin transport polarity. It is also clear that Fucus distichus embryos are auxin responsive and gravity controls their morphogenesis.

  19. Nuclear Import of β-Dystroglycan Is Facilitated by Ezrin-Mediated Cytoskeleton Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Limeta, Alejandra; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Ortega, Arturo; Crouch, Dorothy H.; Jans, David A.; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2014-01-01

    The β-dystroglycan (β-DG) protein has the ability to target to multiple sites in eukaryotic cells, being a member of diverse protein assemblies including the transmembranal dystrophin-associated complex, and a nuclear envelope-localised complex that contains emerin and lamins A/C and B1. We noted that the importin α2/β1-recognised nuclear localization signal (NLS) of β-DG is also a binding site for the cytoskeletal-interacting protein ezrin, and set out to determine whether ezrin binding might modulate β-DG nuclear translocation for the first time. Unexpectedly, we found that ezrin enhances rather than inhibits β-DG nuclear translocation in C2C12 myoblasts. Both overexpression of a phosphomimetic activated ezrin variant (Ez-T567D) and activation of endogenous ezrin through stimulation of the Rho pathway resulted in both formation of actin-rich surface protrusions and significantly increased nuclear translocation of β-DG as shown by quantitative microscopy and subcellular fractionation/Western analysis. In contrast, overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable inactive ezrin variant (Ez-T567A) or inhibition of Rho signaling, decreased nuclear translocation of β-DG concomitant with a lack of cell surface protrusions. Further, a role for the actin cytoskeleton in ezrin enhancement of β-DG nuclear translocation was implicated by the observation that an ezrin variant lacking its actin-binding domain failed to enhance nuclear translocation of β-DG, while disruption of the actin cytoskeleton led to a reduction in β-DG nuclear localization. Finally, we show that ezrin-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization enhances nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic but not the transmembranal fraction of β-DG. This is the first study showing that cytoskeleton reorganization can modulate nuclear translocation of β-DG, with the implication that β-DG can respond to cytoskeleton-driven changes in cell morphology by translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to orchestrate

  20. CADM1 Controls Actin Cytoskeleton Assembly and Regulates Extracellular Matrix Adhesion in Human Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moiseeva, Elena P.; Straatman, Kees R.; Leyland, Mark L.; Bradding, Peter

    2014-01-01

    CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs) to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion. PMID:24465823

  1. VASP Activation via the Gα13/RhoA/PKA Pathway Mediates Cucurbitacin-B-Induced Actin Aggregation and Cofilin-Actin Rod Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ting; Xu, Li-Hui; Lu, Qun; Liu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Pei-Yan; Ji, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation (i.e. activation) at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells. Knockdown of VASP or inhibition of VASP activation using PKA-specific inhibitor H89 suppressed CuB-induced VASP activation, actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The VASP activation was mediated by cAMP-independent PKA activation as CuB decreased the levels of cAMP while MDL12330A, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, had weak effect on VASP activation. Knockdown of either Gα13 or RhoA not only suppressed VASP activation, but also ameliorated CuB-induced actin aggregation and abrogated cofilin-actin rod formation. Collectively, our studies highlighted that the CuB-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation was mediated via the Gα13/RhoA/PKA/VASP pathway. PMID:24691407

  2. Ultra-fast optical manipulation of single proteins binding to the actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, Marco; Gardini, Lucia; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-02-01

    In the last decade, forces and mechanical stresses acting on biological systems are emerging as regulatory factors essential for cell life. Emerging evidences indicate that factors such as applied forces or the rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) determine the shape and function of cells and organisms1. Classically, the regulation of biological systems is described through a series of biochemical signals and enzymatic reactions, which direct the processes and cell fate. However, mechanotransduction, i.e. the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical and biomolecular signals, is at the basis of many biological processes fundamental for the development and differentiation of cells, for their correct function and for the development of pathologies. We recently developed an in vitro system that allows the investigation of force-dependence of the interaction of proteins binding the actin cytoskeleton, at the single molecule level. Our system displays a delay of only ~10 μs between formation of the molecular bond and application of the force and is capable of detecting interactions as short as 100 μs. Our assay allows direct measurements of load-dependence of lifetimes of single molecular bonds and conformational changes of single proteins and molecular motors. We demonstrate our technique on molecular motors, using myosin II from fast skeletal muscle and on protein-DNA interaction, specifically on Lactose repressor (LacI). The apparatus is stabilized to less than 1 nm with both passive and active stabilization, allowing resolving specific binding regions along the actin filament and DNA molecule. Our technique extends single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to molecular complexes that have been inaccessible up to now, opening new perspectives for the investigation of the effects of forces on biological processes.

  3. New Aspects of Progesterone Interactions with the Actin Cytoskeleton and Neurosteroidogenesis in the Cerebellum and the Neuronal Growth Cone

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Lisa; Olbrich, Laura; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The impact of progesterone on neuronal tissues in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system is of significant scientific and therapeutic interest. Glial and neuronal cells of vertebrates express steroidogenic enzymes, and are able to synthesize progesterone de novo from cholesterol. Progesterone is described to have neuroprotective, neuroreparative, anti-degenerative, and anti-apoptotic effects in the CNS and the PNS. Thus, the first clinical studies promise new therapeutic options using progesterone in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. Additionally, experimental data from different animal models suggest further positive effects of progesterone on neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia, peripheral nerve injury and amyothropic lateral sclerosis. In regard to this future clinical use of progesterone, we discuss in this review the underlying physiological principles of progesterone effects in neuronal tissues. Mechanisms leading to morphological reorganizations of neurons in the CNS and PNS affected by progesterone are addressed, with special focus on the actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, new aspects of a progesterone-dependent regulation of neurosteroidogenesis mediated by the recently described progesterone binding protein PGRMC1 in the nervous system are discussed. PMID:25141866

  4. CDK5 Is Essential for Soluble Amyloid β-Induced Degradation of GKAP and Remodeling of the Synaptic Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Francesco; Livrea, Paolo; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2011-01-01

    The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are marked by synaptic dysfunction and loss. This process results from the disassembly and degradation of synaptic components, in particular of scaffolding proteins that compose the post-synaptic density (PSD), namely PSD95, Homer and Shank. Here we investigated in rat frontal cortex dissociated culture the mechanisms involved in the downregulation of GKAP (SAPAP1), which links the PSD95 complex to the Shank complex and cytoskeletal structures within the PSD. We show that Aβ causes the rapid loss of GKAP from synapses through a pathway that critically requires cdk5 activity, and is set in motion by NMDAR activity and Ca2+ influx. We show that GKAP is a direct substrate of cdk5 and that its phosphorylation results in polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of GKAP and remodeling (collapse) of the synaptic actin cytoskeleton; the latter effect is abolished in neurons expressing GKAP mutants that are resistant to phosphorylation by cdk5. Given that cdk5 also regulates degradation of PSD95, these results underscore the central position of cdk5 in mediating Aβ-induced PSD disassembly and synapse loss. PMID:21829588

  5. WASp-dependent actin cytoskeleton stability at the dendritic cell immunological synapse is required for extensive, functional T cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Dessislava; Fritzsche, Marco; Nowosad, Carla R; Armer, Hannah; Munro, Peter M G; Blundell, Michael P; Charras, Guillaume; Tolar, Pavel; Bouma, Gerben; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The immunological synapse is a highly structured and molecularly dynamic interface between communicating immune cells. Although the immunological synapse promotes T cell activation by dendritic cells, the specific organization of the immunological synapse on the dendritic cell side in response to T cell engagement is largely unknown. In this study, confocal and electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the role of dendritic cell actin regulation in immunological synapse formation, stabilization, and function. In the dendritic cell-restricted absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an important regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells, the immunological synapse contact with T cells occupied a significantly reduced surface area. At a molecular level, the actin network localized to the immunological synapse exhibited reduced stability, in particular, of the actin-related protein-2/3-dependent, short-filament network. This was associated with decreased polarization of dendritic cell-associated ICAM-1 and MHC class II, which was partially dependent on Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein phosphorylation. With the use of supported planar lipid bilayers incorporating anti-ICAM-1 and anti-MHC class II antibodies, the dendritic cell actin cytoskeleton organized into recognizable synaptic structures but interestingly, formed Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-dependent podosomes within this area. These findings demonstrate that intrinsic dendritic cell cytoskeletal remodeling is a key regulatory component of normal immunological synapse formation, likely through consolidation of adhesive interaction and modulation of immunological synapse stability. PMID:26590149

  6. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J.; Weisheit, Corinne E.; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T.; Suter, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91phox localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40phox. p40phox itself exhibited co-localization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91phox and p40phox with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in co-localization of p40phox with NOX2/gp91phox at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. PMID:24702317

  7. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stefen, Holly; Chaichim, Chanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:27127658

  8. Initial stem cell adhesion on porous silicon surface: molecular architecture of actin cytoskeleton and filopodial growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The way cells explore their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) during development and migration is mediated by lamellipodia at their leading edge, acting as an actual motor pulling the cell forward. Lamellipodia are the primary area within the cell of actin microfilaments (filopodia) formation. In this work, we report on the use of porous silicon (pSi) scaffolds to mimic the ECM of mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSC) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that pSi promoted the appearance of lateral filopodia protruding from the DPSC cell body and not only in the lamellipodia area. The formation of elongated lateral actin filaments suggests that pores provided the necessary anchorage points for protrusion growth. Although MCF-7 cells displayed a lower presence of organized actin network on both pSi and nonporous silicon, pSi stimulated the formation of extended cell protrusions. PMID:25386101

  9. A Feedback Loop between Dynamin and Actin Recruitment during Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marcus J.; Lampe, Marko; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis proceeds by a sequential series of reactions catalyzed by discrete sets of protein machinery. The final reaction in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is membrane scission, which is mediated by the large guanosine triophosphate hydrolase (GTPase) dynamin and which may involve the actin-dependent recruitment of N-terminal containing BIN/Amphiphysin/RVS domain containing (N-BAR) proteins. Optical microscopy has revealed a detailed picture of when and where particular protein types are recruited in the ∼20–30 s preceding scission. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms and functions that underpin protein recruitment are not well understood. Here we used an optical assay to investigate the coordination and interdependencies between the recruitment of dynamin, the actin cytoskeleton, and N-BAR proteins to individual clathrin-mediated endocytic scission events. These measurements revealed that a feedback loop exists between dynamin and actin at sites of membrane scission. The kinetics of dynamin, actin, and N-BAR protein recruitment were modulated by dynamin GTPase activity. Conversely, acute ablation of actin dynamics using latrunculin-B led to a ∼50% decrease in the incidence of scission, an ∼50% decrease in the amplitude of dynamin recruitment, and abolished actin and N-BAR recruitment to scission events. Collectively these data suggest that dynamin, actin, and N-BAR proteins work cooperatively to efficiently catalyze membrane scission. Dynamin controls its own recruitment to scission events by modulating the kinetics of actin and N-BAR recruitment to sites of scission. Conversely actin serves as a dynamic scaffold that concentrates dynamin and N-BAR proteins at sites of scission. PMID:22505844

  10. Visualization of prosomes (MCP-proteasomes), intermediate filament and actin networks by "instantaneous fixation" preserving the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Arcangeletti, C; Sütterlin, R; Aebi, U; De Conto, F; Missorini, S; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    1997-06-01

    A new "instantaneous" fixation/extraction procedure, yielding good preservation of intermediate filaments (IFs) and actin filaments when applied at 37 degrees C, has been explored to reexamine the relationships of the prosomes to the cytoskeleton. Prosomes are protein complexes of variable subunit composition, including occasionally a small RNA, which were originally observed as trans-acting factors in untranslated mRNPs. Constituting also the proteolytic core of the 26S proteasomes, they are also called "multicatalytic proteinase (MCP) complexes" or "20S-Proteasomes." In Triton X-100-extracted epithelial, fibroblastic, and muscle cells, prosome particles were found associated primarily with the IFs (Olink-Coux et al., 1994). Application of "instantaneous fixation" has now led to the new observation that a major fraction of prosome particles, composed of specific sets of subunits, is distributed in variable proportions between the IFs and the microfilament/ stress fiber system in PtK1 epithelial cells and human fibroblasts. Electron microscopy using gold-labeled antibodies confirms this dual localization on classical whole mounts and on cells exposed to instantaneous fixation. In contrast to the resistance of the prosome-IF association, a variable fraction of the prosome particles is released from the actin cytoskeleton by Triton X-100 when applied prior to fixation. Moreover, in vitro copolymerization of prosomes with G-actin made it possible to observe "ladder-like" filamentous structures in the electron microscope, in which the prosome particles, like the "rungs of a ladder," laterally crosslink two or more actin filaments in a regular pattern. These results demonstrate that prosomes are bound in the cell not only to IFs but also to the actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, not only within large M(r) complexes (possibly mRNPs and/or 26S proteasomes), but also directly, as individual prosome particles. PMID:9216087

  11. Anti-Tumor Activity of Yuanhuacine by Regulating AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway and Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Bae, Song Yi; Jung, Cholomi; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Yuanhuacine (YC), a daphnane diterpenoid from the flowers of Daphne genkwa, exhibited a potential growth inhibitory activity against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. YC also suppressed the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we report that YC significantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and suppressed mTORC2-mediated downstream signaling pathway in H1993 human NSCLC cells. AMPK plays an important role in energy metabolism and cancer biology. Therefore, activators of AMPK signaling pathways can be applicable to the treatment of cancer. YC enhanced the expression of p-AMPKα. The co-treatment of YC and compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) or metformin (an AMPK activator) also confirmed that YC increases p-AMPKα. YC also suppressed the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression, a downstream target of AMPK. Further study revealed that YC modulates mTORC2-associated downstream signaling pathways with a decreased expressions of p-Akt, p-protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), p-ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and filamentous actin (F-actin) that are known to activate cell growth and organize actin cytoskeleton. In addition, YC inhibited the tumor growth in H1993 cell-implanted xenograft nude mouse model. These data suggest the YC could be a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapeutic agents derived from natural products by regulating AMPK/mTORC2 signaling pathway and actin cytoskeleton organization. PMID:26656173

  12. Jak3 Enables Chemokine-Dependent Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization by Regulating Cofilin and Rac/Rhoa GTPases Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ambriz-Peña, Xochitl; García-Zepeda, Eduardo Alberto; Meza, Isaura; Soldevila, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that Jak3 is involved in the signaling pathways of CCR7, CCR9 and CXCR4 in murine T lymphocytes and that Jak3−/− lymphocytes display an intrinsic defect in homing to peripheral lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the defective migration observed in Jak3−/− lymphocytes remains elusive. Here, it is demonstrated for the first time, that Jak3 is required for the actin cytoskeleton reorganization in T lymphocytes responding to chemokines. It was found that Jak3 regulates actin polymerization by controlling cofilin inactivation in response to CCL21 and CXCL12. Interestingly, cofilin inactivation was not precluded in PTX- treated cells despite their impaired actin polymerization. Additionally, Jak3 was required for small GTPases Rac1 and RhoA activation, which are indispensable for acquisition of the migratory cell phenotype and the generation of a functional leading edge and uropod, respectively. This defect correlates with data obtained by time-lapse video-microscopy showing an incompetent uropod formation and impaired motility in Jak3-pharmacologically inhibited T lymphocytes. Our data support a new model in which Jak3 and heterotrimeric G proteins can use independent, but complementary, signaling pathways to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics during cell migration in response to chemokines. PMID:24498424

  13. Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Giretti, Maria Silvia; Montt Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Spina, Stefania; Bernacchi, Guja; Di Bello, Silvia; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro D.; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on T47-D ER+ breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, re-distribution of actin fibers toward the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, an inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin–radixin–moesin family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr558, which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of estrogen receptor-α. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring ER modulator in the breast. PMID:24904530

  14. Effects of Estetrol on Migration and Invasion in T47-D Breast Cancer Cells through the Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Giretti, Maria Silvia; Montt Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Cecchi, Elena; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Spina, Stefania; Bernacchi, Guja; Di Bello, Silvia; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Genazzani, Alessandro D; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on T47-D ER+ breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, re-distribution of actin fibers toward the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, an inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin-radixin-moesin family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr(558), which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of estrogen receptor-α. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring ER modulator in the breast. PMID:24904530

  15. Interaction between MyRIP and the actin cytoskeleton regulates Weibel–Palade body trafficking and exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Ianina L.; Hellen, Nicola; Bierings, Ruben; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Kiskin, Nikolai I.; Hannah, Matthew J.; Molloy, Justin E.; Carter, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weibel–Palade body (WPB)–actin interactions are essential for the trafficking and secretion of von Willebrand factor; however, the molecular basis for this interaction remains poorly defined. Myosin Va (MyoVa or MYO5A) is recruited to WPBs by a Rab27A–MyRIP complex and is thought to be the prime mediator of actin binding, but direct MyRIP–actin interactions can also occur. To evaluate the specific contribution of MyRIP–actin and MyRIP–MyoVa binding in WPB trafficking and Ca2+-driven exocytosis, we used EGFP–MyRIP point mutants with disrupted MyoVa and/or actin binding and high-speed live-cell fluorescence microscopy. We now show that the ability of MyRIP to restrict WPB movement depends upon its actin-binding rather than its MyoVa-binding properties. We also show that, although the role of MyRIP in Ca2+-driven exocytosis requires both MyoVa- and actin-binding potential, it is the latter that plays a dominant role. In view of these results and together with the analysis of actin disruption or stabilisation experiments, we propose that the role of MyRIP in regulating WPB trafficking and exocytosis is mediated largely through its interaction with actin rather than with MyoVa. PMID:26675235

  16. Dictyostelium Dock180-related RacGEFs regulate the actin cytoskeleton during cell motility.

    PubMed

    Para, Alessia; Krischke, Miriam; Merlot, Sylvain; Shen, Zhouxin; Oberholzer, Michael; Lee, Susan; Briggs, Steven; Firtel, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Cell motility of amoeboid cells is mediated by localized F-actin polymerization that drives the extension of membrane protrusions to promote forward movements. We show that deletion of either of two members of the Dictyostelium Dock180 family of RacGEFs, DockA and DockD, causes decreased speed of chemotaxing cells. The phenotype is enhanced in the double mutant and expression of DockA or DockD complements the reduced speed of randomly moving DockD null cells' phenotype, suggesting that DockA and DockD are likely to act redundantly and to have similar functions in regulating cell movement. In this regard, we find that overexpressing DockD causes increased cell speed by enhancing F-actin polymerization at the sites of pseudopod extension. DockD localizes to the cell cortex upon chemoattractant stimulation and at the leading edge of migrating cells and this localization is dependent on PI3K activity, suggesting that DockD might be part of the pathway that links PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) production to F-actin polymerization. Using a proteomic approach, we found that DdELMO1 is associated with DockD and that Rac1A and RacC are possible in vivo DockD substrates. In conclusion, our work provides a further understanding of how cell motility is controlled and provides evidence that the molecular mechanism underlying Dock180-related protein function is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:19037099

  17. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971–amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG− cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401–600 and aa 501–550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501–550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG− cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG− cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  18. Actin-binding protein G (AbpG) participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Wang, Liang-Chen; Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2015-03-15

    Cell migration is involved in various physiological and pathogenic events, and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum displays chemotactic locomotion in stages of its life cycle. By characterizing a Dictyostelium mutant defective in chemotactic responses, we identified a novel actin-binding protein serving to modulate cell migration and named it actin-binding protein G (AbpG); this 971-amino acid (aa) protein contains an N-terminal type 2 calponin homology (CH2) domain followed by two large coiled-coil regions. In chemoattractant gradients, abpG(-) cells display normal directional persistence but migrate significantly more slowly than wild-type cells; expressing Flag-AbpG in mutant cells eliminates the motility defect. AbpG is enriched in cortical/lamellipodial regions and colocalizes well with F-actin; aa 401-600 and aa 501-550 fragments of AbpG show the same distribution as full-length AbpG. The aa 501-550 region of AbpG, which is essential for AbpG to localize to lamellipodia and to rescue the phenotype of abpG(-) cells, is sufficient for binding to F-actin and represents a novel actin-binding protein domain. Compared with wild-type cells, abpG(-) cells have significantly higher F-actin levels. Collectively our results suggest that AbpG may participate in modulating actin dynamics to optimize cell locomotion. PMID:25609090

  19. Srv2/CAP is required for polarized actin cable assembly and patch internalization during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Junko Y; Horikomi, Chika; Okada, Asuka; Hatori, Makiko N; Nagano, Makoto; Masuda, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Wataru; Siekhaus, Daria Elisabeth; Toshima, Jiro

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments is essential for the formation and transport of vesicles during endocytosis. In yeast, two types of actin structures, namely cortical patches and cytoplasmic cables, play a direct role in endocytosis, but how their interaction is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that Srv2/CAP, an evolutionarily conserved actin regulator, is required for efficient endocytosis owing to its role in the formation of the actin patches that aid initial vesicle invagination and of the actin cables that these move along. Deletion of the SRV2 gene resulted in the appearance of aberrant fragmented actin cables that frequently moved past actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. We find that the C-terminal CARP domain of Srv2p is vitally important for the proper assembly of actin patches and cables; we also demonstrate that the N-terminal helical folded domain of Srv2 is required for its localization to actin patches, specifically to the ADP-actin rich region through an interaction with cofilin. These results demonstrate the in vivo roles of Srv2p in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:26604224

  20. Guanine Nucleotides in the Meiotic Maturation of Starfish Oocytes: Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton and of Ca2+ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kyozuka, Keiichiro; Chun, Jong T.; Puppo, Agostina; Gragnaniello, Gianni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2009-01-01

    Background Starfish oocytes are arrested at the first prophase of meiosis until they are stimulated by 1-methyladenine (1-MA). The two most immediate responses to the maturation-inducing hormone are the quick release of intracellular Ca2+ and the accelerated changes of the actin cytoskeleton in the cortex. Compared with the later events of oocyte maturation such as germinal vesicle breakdown, the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events involving Ca2+ signaling and actin changes are poorly understood. Herein, we have studied the roles of G-proteins in the early stage of meiotic maturation. Methodology/Principal Findings By microinjecting starfish oocytes with nonhydrolyzable nucleotides that stabilize either active (GTPγS) or inactive (GDPβS) forms of G-proteins, we have demonstrated that: i) GTPγS induces Ca2+ release that mimics the effect of 1-MA; ii) GDPβS completely blocks 1-MA-induced Ca2+; iii) GDPβS has little effect on the amplitude of the Ca2+ peak, but significantly expedites the initial Ca2+ waves induced by InsP3 photoactivation, iv) GDPβS induces unexpectedly striking modification of the cortical actin networks, suggesting a link between the cytoskeletal change and the modulation of the Ca2+ release kinetics; v) alteration of cortical actin networks with jasplakinolide, GDPβS, or actinase E, all led to significant changes of 1-MA-induced Ca2+ signaling. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate that G-proteins are implicated in the early events of meiotic maturation and support our previous proposal that the dynamic change of the actin cytoskeleton may play a regulatory role in modulating intracellular Ca2+ release. PMID:19617909

  1. Actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation and Rac1 activity has implications on ROS production, cell migration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sehar Saleem; Parray, Arif Ali; Mushtaq, Umar; Fazili, Khalid Majid; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) and Rac1 are part of a signaling pathway via the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). Both SNTA1 and Rac1 proteins are over-expressed in various carcinomas. It is through the DGC signaling pathway that SNTA1 has been shown to act as a link between the extra cellular matrix, the internal cell signaling apparatus and the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 is involved in the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton and actin reorganization. Rac1 also controls actin cytoskeletal organization in the cell. In this study, we present the interplay between f-actin, SNTA1 and Rac1. We analyzed the effect of actin depolymerization on SNTA1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity using actin depolymerizing drugs, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. Our results indicate a marked decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of SNTA1 upon actin depolymerization. Results suggest that actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation leads to loss of interaction between SNTA1 and Rac1, with a concomitant loss of Rac1 activation. The loss of SNTA1tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity by actin depolymerization results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell migration and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast carcinoma cells. Collectively, our results present a possible role of f-actin in the SNTA1-Rac1 signaling pathway and implications of actin depolymerization on cell migration, ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:27048259

  2. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection. PMID:27349187

  3. TAGLN2 regulates T cell activation by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton at the immunological synapse

    PubMed Central

    Na, Bo-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ran; Piragyte, Indre; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Kwon, Min-Sung; Akber, Uroos; Lee, Hyun-Su; Park, Do-Sim; Song, Woo Keun; Park, Zee-Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Rho, Mun-Chual; Hyun, Young-Min; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    The formation of an immunological synapse (IS) requires tight regulation of actin dynamics by many actin polymerizing/depolymerizing proteins. However, the significance of actin stabilization at the IS remains largely unknown. In this paper, we identify a novel function of TAGLN2—an actin-binding protein predominantly expressed in T cells—in stabilizing cortical F-actin, thereby maintaining F-actin contents at the IS and acquiring LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1) activation after T cell receptor stimulation. TAGLN2 blocks actin depolymerization and competes with cofilin both in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of TAGLN2 (TAGLN2−/−) reduced F-actin content and destabilized F-actin ring formation, resulting in decreased cell adhesion and spreading. TAGLN2−/− T cells displayed weakened cytokine production and cytotoxic effector function. These findings reveal a novel function of TAGLN2 in enhancing T cell responses by controlling actin stability at the IS. PMID:25869671

  4. The CEACAM1-L Glycoprotein Associates with the Actin Cytoskeleton and Localizes to Cell–Cell Contact through Activation of Rho-like GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Sadekova, Svetlana; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie; Li, Xiaodong; Beauchemin, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Associations between plasma membrane-linked proteins and the actin cytoskeleton play a crucial role in defining cell shape and determination, ensuring cell motility and facilitating cell–cell or cell–substratum adhesion. Here, we present evidence that CEACAM1-L, a cell adhesion molecule of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, is associated with the actin cytoskeleton. We have delineated the regions involved in actin cytoskeleton association to the distal end of the CEACAM1-L long cytoplasmic domain. We have demonstrated that CEACAM1-S, an isoform of CEACAM1 with a truncated cytoplasmic domain, does not interact with the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, a major difference in subcellular localization of the two CEACAM1 isoforms was observed. Furthermore, we have established that the localization of CEACAM1-L at cell–cell boundaries is regulated by the Rho family of GTPases. The retention of the protein at the sites of intercellular contacts critically depends on homophilic CEACAM1–CEACAM1 interactions and association with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results provide new evidence on how the Rho family of GTPases can control cell adhesion: by directing an adhesion molecule to its proper cellular destination. In addition, these results provide an insight into the mechanisms of why CEACAM1-L, but not CEACAM1-S, functions as a tumor cell growth inhibitor. PMID:10637291

  5. Correlated light and electron microscopy observations of the uterine epithelial cell actin cytoskeleton using fluorescently labeled resin-embedded sections.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad L; Cheng, Delfine; Shami, Gerald J; Murphy, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    In order to perform correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) more precisely, we have modified existing specimen preparation protocols allowing fluorescence retention within embedded and sectioned tissue, facilitating direct observation across length scales. We detail a protocol which provides a precise correlation accuracy using accessible techniques in biological specimen preparation. By combining a pre-embedding uranyl acetate staining step with the progressive lowering of temperature (PLT) technique, a methacrylate embedded tissue specimen is ultrathin sectioned and mounted onto a TEM finder grid for immediate viewing in the confocal and electron microscope. In this study, the protocol is applied to rat uterine epithelial cells in vivo during early pregnancy. Correlative overlay data was used to track changes in filamentous actin that occurs in these cells from fertilization (Day 1) to implantation on Day 6 as part of the plasma membrane transformation, a process essential in the development of uterine receptivity in the rat. CLEM confirmed that the actin cytoskeleton is disrupted as apical microvilli are progressively lost toward implantation, and revealed the thick and continuous terminal web is replaced by a thinner and irregular actin band, with individually distinguishable filaments connecting actin meshworks which correspond with remaining plasma membrane protrusions. PMID:26930006

  6. Calponin isoforms CNN1, CNN2 and CNN3: Regulators for actin cytoskeleton functions in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Jin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated regulatory protein expressed in smooth muscle and many types of non-muscle cells. Three homologous genes, CNN1, CNN2 and CNN3, encoding calponin isoforms 1, 2, and 3, respectively, are present in vertebrate species. All three calponin isoforms are actin-binding proteins with functions in inhibiting actin-activated myosin ATPase and stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton, while each isoform executes different physiological roles based on their cell type-specific expressions. Calponin 1 is specifically expressed in smooth muscle cells and plays a role in fine-tuning smooth muscle contractility. Calponin 2 is expressed in both smooth muscle and non-muscle cells and regulates multiple actin cytoskeleton-based functions. Calponin 3 participates in actin cytoskeleton-based activities in embryonic development and myogenesis. Phosphorylation has been extensively studied for the regulation of calponin functions. Cytoskeleton tension regulates the transcription of CNN2 gene and the degradation of calponin 2 protein. This review summarizes our knowledge learned from studies over the past three decades, focusing on the evolutionary lineage of calponin isoform genes, their tissue- and cell type-specific expressions, structure-function relationships, and mechanoregulation. PMID:26970176

  7. Wdpcp, a PCP Protein Required for Ciliogenesis, Regulates Directional Cell Migration and Cell Polarity by Direct Modulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lozito, Thomas P.; Zhang, Zhen; Francis, Richard J.; Yagi, Hisato; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Sanker, Subramaniam; Francis, Deanne; Yu, Qing; San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Chatterjee, Tania; Tansey, Terry; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kelley, Matthew W.; Spiliotis, Elias T.; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Tuan, Rocky; Pazour, Gregory J.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet–Biedl/Meckel–Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin cytoskeleton to

  8. TrkB-T1 regulates the RhoA signaling and actin cytoskeleton in glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Koji; Homma, Koichi J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Shun; Hayashi, Motoharu . E-mail: hayashi@pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    Recently, the truncated TrkB receptor, T1, has been reported to be involved in the control of cell morphology via the regulation of Rho proteins, through which T1 binds Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) 1 and dissociates it in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. However, it is unclear whether T1 signaling regulates the downstream of Rho signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated this question using C6 rat glioma cells, which express T1 endogenously. Rho GDI1 was dissociated from T1 in a BDNF-dependent manner, which also causes decreases in the activities of Rho-signaling molecules such as RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, p21-activated kinase, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase1/2. Moreover, BDNF treatment resulted in the disappearance of stress fibers in the cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA, and in morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, a competitive assay with cyan fluorescent protein fusion proteins of T1-specific sequences reduced the effects of BDNF. These results suggest that T1 regulates the Rho-signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton.

  9. Deguelin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells via regulating actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Zuncheng

    2015-01-01

    Deguelin, the main components from Mundulea sericea, was reported to suppress the growth of various cancer cells. However, the effect of Deguelin on tumor cell invasion and metastasis and its mechanism still unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the effects of Deguelin on the cell invasion in human lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. Our results demonstrate that Deguelin can significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. Moreover, Deguelin could also affected reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and decreased filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed decreased the tumor metastasis related genes such as CD44, MMP2 and MMP9 at protein and mRNA levels and the content of CEA, SCC, NSE, CYFAR21-1. In addition, Deguelin down-regulated protein expression of Rac1 and Rock1, which are impotent in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility. Together, our results suggest that Deguelin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and might be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer. PMID:26884827

  10. The actin cytoskeleton is a suppressor of the endogenous skewing behaviour of Arabidopsis primary roots in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, J; Liao, F; Sparks, J A; Tang, Y; Blancaflor, E B

    2014-01-01

    Before plants can be effectively utilised as a component of enclosed life-support systems for space exploration, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which they develop in microgravity. Using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware on board the second to the last flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-131 mission), we studied how microgravity impacts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ground-based studies showed that the actin cytoskeleton negatively regulates root gravity responses on Earth, leading us to hypothesise that actin might also be an important modulator of root growth behaviour in space. We investigated how microgravity impacted root growth of wild type (ecotype Columbia) and a mutant (act2-3) disrupted in a root-expressed vegetative actin isoform (ACTIN2). Roots of etiolated wild-type and act2-3 seedlings grown in space skewed vigorously toward the left, which was unexpected given the reduced directional cue provided by gravity. The left-handed directional root growth in space was more pronounced in act2-3 mutants than wild type. To quantify differences in root orientation of these two genotypes in space, we developed an algorithm where single root images were converted into binary images using computational edge detection methods. Binary images were processed with Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), and histogram and entropy were used to determine spectral distribution, such that high entropy values corresponded to roots that deviated more strongly from linear orientation whereas low entropy values represented straight roots. We found that act2-3 roots had a statistically stronger skewing/coiling response than wild-type roots, but such differences were not apparent on Earth. Ultrastructural studies revealed that newly developed cell walls of space-grown act2-3 roots were more severely disrupted compared to space-grown wild type, and ground control wild-type and act2-3 roots. Collectively, our results provide

  11. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M.; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate–bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA–MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein–cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. PMID:26169353

  12. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-07-20

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate-bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA-MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein-cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. PMID:26169353

  13. Rotavirus Infection of Cells in Culture Induces Activation of RhoA and Changes in the Actin and Tubulin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Sorondo, Orlando; Alcala, Ana; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Diaz, Yuleima; Ruiz, Marie Christine; Michelangeli, Fabian; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus infection induces an increase in [Ca2+]cyto, which in turn may affect the distribution of the cytoskeleton proteins in the infected cell. Changes in microfilaments, including the formation of stress fibers, were observed starting at 0.5 h.p.i. using fluorescent phalloidin. Western blot analysis indicated that RhoA is activated between 0.5 and 1 h.p.i. Neither the phosphorylation of RhoA nor the formation of stress fibers were observed in cells infected with virions pre-treated with an anti-VP5* non-neutralizing mAb, suggesting that RhoA activation is stimulated by the interaction of the virus with integrins forming the cell receptor complex. In addition, the structure of the tubulin cytoskeleton was also studied. Alterations of the microtubules were evident starting at 3 h.p.i. and by 7 h.p.i. when microtubules were markedly displaced toward the periphery of the cell cytoplasm. Loading of rotavirus-infected cells with either a Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA) or transfection with siRNAs to silence NSP4, reversed the changes observed in both the microfilaments and microtubules distribution, but not the appearance of stress fibers. These results indicate that alterations in the distribution of actin microfilaments are initiated early during infection by the activation of RhoA, and that latter changes in the Ca2+ homeostasis promoted by NSP4 during infection may be responsible for other alterations in the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton. PMID:23082182

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Candidate Wolbachia pipientis Type IV Effector That Interacts with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Kathy B.; Martin, MaryAnn; Lesser, Cammie F.; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many bacteria live as intracellular symbionts, causing persistent infections within insects. One extraordinarily common infection is that of Wolbachia pipientis, which infects 40% of insect species and induces reproductive effects. The bacteria are passed from generation to generation both vertically (through the oocyte) and horizontally (by environmental transmission). Maintenance of the infection within Drosophila melanogaster is sensitive to the regulation of actin, as Wolbachia inefficiently colonizes strains hemizygous for the profilin or villin genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that Wolbachia must depend on the host actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we identify and characterize a Wolbachia protein (WD0830) that is predicted to be secreted by the bacterial parasite. Expression of WD0830 in a model eukaryote (the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induces a growth defect associated with the appearance of aberrant, filamentous structures which colocalize with rhodamine-phalloidin-stained actin. Purified WD0830 bundles actin in vitro and cosediments with actin filaments, suggesting a direct interaction of the two proteins. We characterized the expression of WD0830 throughout Drosophila development and found it to be upregulated in third-instar larvae, peaking in early pupation, during the critical formation of adult tissues, including the reproductive system. In transgenic flies, heterologously expressed WD0830 localizes to the developing oocyte. Additionally, overexpression of WD0830 results in increased Wolbachia titers in whole flies, in stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and in embryos, compared to controls, suggesting that the protein may facilitate Wolbachia’s replication or transmission. Therefore, this candidate secreted effector may play a role in Wolbachia’s infection of and persistence within host niches. PMID:27381293

  15. Reversible Disassembly of the Actin Cytoskeleton Improves the Survival Rate and Developmental Competence of Cryopreserved Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Basarab G.; Mullen, Steven F.; Critser, John K.; Forgacs, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    Effective cryopreservation of oocytes is critically needed in many areas of human reproductive medicine and basic science, such as stem cell research. Currently, oocyte cryopreservation has a low success rate. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms associated with oocyte cryopreservation through biophysical means using a mouse model. Specifically, we experimentally investigated the biomechanical properties of the ooplasm prior and after cryopreservation as well as the consequences of reversible dismantling of the F-actin network in mouse oocytes prior to freezing. The study was complemented with the evaluation of post-thaw developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Our results show that the freezing-thawing process markedly alters the physiological viscoelastic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. The reversible depolymerization of the F-actin network prior to freezing preserves normal ooplasm viscoelastic properties, results in high post-thaw survival and significantly improves developmental competence. These findings provide new information on the biophysical characteristics of mammalian oocytes, identify a pathophysiological mechanism underlying cryodamage and suggest a novel cryopreservation method. PMID:18665248

  16. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 23 gene transcription depends on actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    Fajol, Abul; Honisch, Sabina; Zhang, Bingbing; Schmidt, Sebastian; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud; Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Föller, Michael

    2016-03-01

    FGF23 regulates renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. Loss of FGF23 results in massive calcification and rapid aging. FGF23 production is stimulated by 1,25(OH)2 D3 and NFκB signaling. Here, we report that treatment of UMR106 osteoblast-like cells with 1,25(OH)2 D3 , inducing Fgf23 transcription, resulted in actin polymerization which was blocked by NFκB inhibitor wogonin. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced Fgf23 gene transcription was abolished by the actin microfilament-disrupting agent cytochalasin B, as well as by the inhibition of actin-regulating Rac1/PAK1 signaling. Our results provide strong evidence that actin redistribution regulated by the Rac1/PAK1 pathway participates in 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced Fgf23 gene transcription. PMID:26878191

  17. Fluid Shear Stress Upregulates E-Tmod41 via miR-23b-3p and Contributes to F-Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling during Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Weiyun; Wang, Xifu; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhu, Sida; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Sung, Lanping Amy; Yao, Weijuan

    2015-01-01

    The membrane skeleton of mature erythrocyte is formed during erythroid differentiation. Fluid shear stress is one of the main factors that promote embryonic hematopoiesis, however, its effects on erythroid differentiation and cytoskeleton remodeling are unclear. Erythrocyte tropomodulin of 41 kDa (E-Tmod41) caps the pointed end of actin filament (F-actin) and is critical for the formation of hexagonal topology of erythrocyte membrane skeleton. Our study focused on the regulation of E-Tmod41 and its role in F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling during erythroid differentiation induced by fluid shear stress. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and embryonic erythroblasts were subjected to fluid shear stress (5 dyn/cm2) and erythroid differentiation was induced in both cells. F-actin content and E-Tmod41 expression were significantly increased in MEL cells after shearing. E-Tmod41 overexpression resulted in a significant increase in F-actin content, while the knockdown of E-Tmod41 generated the opposite result. An E-Tmod 3’UTR targeting miRNA, miR-23b-3p, was found suppressed by shear stress. When miR-23b-3p level was overexpressed / inhibited, both E-Tmod41 protein level and F-actin content were reduced / augmented. Furthermore, among the two alternative promoters of E-Tmod, PE0 (upstream of exon 0), which mainly drives the expression of E-Tmod41, was found activated by shear stress. In conclusion, our results suggest that fluid shear stress could induce erythroid differentiation and F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. It upregulates E-Tmod41 expression through miR-23b-3p suppression and PE0 promoter activation, which, in turn, contributes to F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:26308647

  18. Fluid Shear Stress Upregulates E-Tmod41 via miR-23b-3p and Contributes to F-Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling during Erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Weiyun; Wang, Xifu; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhu, Sida; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Sung, Lanping Amy; Yao, Weijuan

    2015-01-01

    The membrane skeleton of mature erythrocyte is formed during erythroid differentiation. Fluid shear stress is one of the main factors that promote embryonic hematopoiesis, however, its effects on erythroid differentiation and cytoskeleton remodeling are unclear. Erythrocyte tropomodulin of 41 kDa (E-Tmod41) caps the pointed end of actin filament (F-actin) and is critical for the formation of hexagonal topology of erythrocyte membrane skeleton. Our study focused on the regulation of E-Tmod41 and its role in F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling during erythroid differentiation induced by fluid shear stress. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and embryonic erythroblasts were subjected to fluid shear stress (5 dyn/cm2) and erythroid differentiation was induced in both cells. F-actin content and E-Tmod41 expression were significantly increased in MEL cells after shearing. E-Tmod41 overexpression resulted in a significant increase in F-actin content, while the knockdown of E-Tmod41 generated the opposite result. An E-Tmod 3'UTR targeting miRNA, miR-23b-3p, was found suppressed by shear stress. When miR-23b-3p level was overexpressed / inhibited, both E-Tmod41 protein level and F-actin content were reduced / augmented. Furthermore, among the two alternative promoters of E-Tmod, PE0 (upstream of exon 0), which mainly drives the expression of E-Tmod41, was found activated by shear stress. In conclusion, our results suggest that fluid shear stress could induce erythroid differentiation and F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. It upregulates E-Tmod41 expression through miR-23b-3p suppression and PE0 promoter activation, which, in turn, contributes to F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:26308647

  19. Environmental toxicants perturb human Sertoli cell adhesive function via changes in F-actin organization mediated by actin regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Lee, Will M.; John, Constance M.; Turek, Paul J.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro and that have formed an epithelium be used as a model to monitor toxicant-induced junction disruption and to better understand the mechanism(s) by which toxicants disrupt cell adhesion at the Sertoli cell blood–testis barrier (BTB)? SUMMARY ANSWER Our findings illustrate that human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro serve as a reliable system to monitor the impact of environmental toxicants on the BTB function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Suspicions of a declining trend in semen quality and a concomitant increase in exposures to environmental toxicants over the past decades reveal the need of an in vitro system that efficiently and reliably monitors the impact of toxicants on male reproductive function. Furthermore, studies in rodents have confirmed that environmental toxicants impede Sertoli cell BTB function in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION We examined the effects of two environmental toxicants: cadmium chloride (0.5–20 µM) and bisphenol A (0.4–200 µM) on human Sertoli cell function. Cultured Sertoli cells from three men were used in this study, which spanned an 18-month period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Human Sertoli cells from three subjects were cultured in F12/DMEM containing 5% fetal bovine serum. Changes in protein expression were monitored by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence analyses were used to assess changes in the distribution of adhesion proteins, F-actin and actin regulatory proteins following exposure to two toxicants: cadmium chloride and bisphenol A (BPA). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Human Sertoli cells were sensitive to cadmium and BPA toxicity. Changes in the localization of cell adhesion proteins were mediated by an alteration of the actin-based cytoskeleton. This alteration of F-actin network in Sertoli cells as manifested by truncation and depolymerization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli cell BTB was caused by

  20. Thiolutin inhibits endothelial cell adhesion by perturbing Hsp27 interactions with components of the actin and intermediate filament cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yifeng; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Isenberg, Jeff S.; Dai, Shujia; Sipes, John M.; Field, Lyndsay; Zeng, Bixi; Bandle, Russell W.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Wink, David A.; Ramchandran, Ramani; Karger, Barry L.

    2009-01-01

    Thiolutin is a dithiole synthesized by Streptomyces sp. that inhibits endothelial cell adhesion and tumor growth. We show here that thiolutin potently inhibits developmental angiogenesis in zebrafish and vascular outgrowth from tissue explants in 3D cultures. Thiolutin is a potent and selective inhibitor of endothelial cell adhesion accompanied by rapid induction of HSPB1 (Hsp27) phosphorylation. The inhibitory effects of thiolutin on endothelial cell adhesion are transient, potentially due to a compensatory increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Accordingly, heat shock induction of Hsp27 limits the anti-adhesive activity of thiolutin. Thiolutin treatment results in loss of actin stress fibers, increased cortical actin as cells retract, and decreased cellular F-actin. Mass spectrometric analysis of Hsp27 binding partners following immunoaffinity purification identified several regulatory components of the actin cytoskeleton that associate with Hsp27 in a thiolutin-sensitive manner including several components of the Arp2/3 complex. Among these, ArpC1a is a direct binding partner of Hsp27. Thiolutin treatment induces peripheral localization of phosphorylated Hsp27 and Arp2/3. Hsp27 also associates with the intermediate filament components vimentin and nestin. Thiolutin treatment specifically ablates Hsp27 interaction with nestin and collapses nestin filaments. These results provide new mechanistic insights into regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics by Hsp27. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-009-0130-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19579057

  1. The actin cytoskeleton of chemotactic amoebae operates close to the onset of oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westendorf, Christian; Negrete, Jose, Jr.; Bae, Albert; Sandmann, Rabea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2013-03-01

    We report evidence that the actin machinery of chemotactic Dictyostelium cells operates close to an oscillatory instability. The averaged F-actin response of many cells to a short-time pulse of cAMP is reminiscent of a damped oscillation. At the single-cell level, however, the response dynamics ranged from short, strongly damped responses to slowly decaying, weakly damped oscillations. Furthermore, in a small subpopulation, we observed self-sustained oscillations in the cortical F-actin concentration. We systematically exposed a large number of cells to periodic pulse trains. The results indicate a resonance peak at periodic inputs of around 20 s. We propose a delayed feedback model that explains our experimental findings based on a time-delay in the actin regulatory network. To quantitatively test the model, we performed stimulation experiments with cells that express GFP-tagged fusion proteins of Coronin and Aip1. These served as markers of the F-actin disassembly process and thus allow us to estimate the delay time. Based on this independent estimate, our model predicts an intrinsic period of 20 s, which agrees with the resonance observed experimentally. Financial support by the Max-Planck Society and the DFG (SFB 937).

  2. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  3. Novel Protein Kinases Ark1p and Prk1p Associate with and Regulate the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cope, M.Jamie T.V.; Yang, Shirley; Shang, Ching; Drubin, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Ark1p (actin regulating kinase 1) was identified as a yeast protein that binds to Sla2p, an evolutionarily conserved cortical actin cytoskeleton protein. Ark1p and a second yeast protein, Prk1p, contain NH2-terminal kinase domains that are 70% identical. Together with six other putative kinases from a number of organisms, these proteins define a new protein kinase family that we have named the Ark family. Lack of both Ark1p and Prk1p resulted in the formation of large cytoplasmic actin clumps and severe defects in cell growth. These defects were rescued by wild-type, but not by kinase-dead versions of the proteins. Elevated levels of either Ark1p or Prk1p caused a number of actin and cell morphological defects that were not observed when the kinase-dead versions were overexpressed instead. Ark1p and Prk1p were shown to localize to actin cortical patches, making these two kinases the first signaling proteins demonstrated to be patch components. These results suggest that Ark1p and Prk1p may be downstream effectors of signaling pathways that control actin patch organization and function. Furthermore, results of double-mutant analyses suggest that Ark1p and Prk1p function in overlapping but distinct pathways that regulate the cortical actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10087264

  4. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  5. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Bhanu; Jin, Tao; Mellor, Liliana F; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Ligler, Frances S; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy provides a new opportunity to study fine sub-cellular structures and highly dynamic cellular processes, which are challenging to observe using conventional optical microscopy. Using actin as an example, we explored the feasibility of using a continuous wave (CW)-STED microscope to study the fine structure and dynamics in fixed and live cells. Actin plays an important role in cellular processes, whose functioning involves dynamic formation and reorganization of fine structures of actin filaments. Frequently used confocal fluorescence and STED microscopy dyes were employed to image fixed PC-12 cells (dyed with phalloidin- fluorescein isothiocyante) and live rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS) transfected with actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, CW-STED microscopy shows improved spatial resolution in both fixed and live cells. We were able to monitor cell morphology changes continuously; however, the number of repetitive analyses were limited primarily by the dyes used in these experiments and could be improved with the use of dyes less susceptible to photobleaching. In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed. PMID:26393614

  6. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Bhanu; Jin, Tao; Mellor, Liliana F.; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Ligler, Frances S.; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy provides a new opportunity to study fine sub-cellular structures and highly dynamic cellular processes, which are challenging to observe using conventional optical microscopy. Using actin as an example, we explored the feasibility of using a continuous wave (CW)-STED microscope to study the fine structure and dynamics in fixed and live cells. Actin plays an important role in cellular processes, whose functioning involves dynamic formation and reorganization of fine structures of actin filaments. Frequently used confocal fluorescence and STED microscopy dyes were employed to image fixed PC-12 cells (dyed with phalloidin- fluorescein isothiocyante) and live rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS) transfected with actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, CW-STED microscopy shows improved spatial resolution in both fixed and live cells. We were able to monitor cell morphology changes continuously; however, the number of repetitive analyses were limited primarily by the dyes used in these experiments and could be improved with the use of dyes less susceptible to photobleaching. In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed. PMID:26393614

  7. The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the signal transduction and antigen processing functions of the B cell antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Chaohong; FALLEN, Margaret K.; MILLER, Heather; UPADHYAYA, Arpita; SONG, Wenxia

    2014-01-01

    The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is the sensor on the B cell surface that surveys foreign molecules (antigen) in our bodies and activates B cells to generate antibody responses upon encountering cognate antigen. The binding of antigen to the BCR induces signaling cascades in the cytoplasm, which provides the first signal for B cell activation. Subsequently, BCRs internalize and target bound antigen to endosomes, where antigen is processed into T cell recognizable forms. T helper cells generate the second activation signal upon binding to antigen presented by B cells. The optimal activation of B cells requires both signals, thereby depending on the coordination of BCR signaling and antigen transport functions. Antigen binding to the BCR also induces rapid remodeling of the cortical actin network of B cells. While being initiated and controlled by BCR signaling, recent studies reveal that this actin remodeling is critical for both the signaling and antigen processing functions of the BCR, indicating a role for actin in coordinating these two pathways. Here we will review previous and recent studies on actin reorganization during BCR activation and BCR-mediated antigen processing, and discuss how actin remodeling translates BCR signaling into rapid antigen uptake and processing while providing positive and negative feedback to BCR signaling. PMID:24999354

  8. Actin-associated protein palladin promotes tumor cell invasion by linking extracellular matrix degradation to cell cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Gucciardo, Erika; Lohi, Jouko; Li, Rui; Sugiyama, Nami; Carpen, Olli; Lehti, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas, characterized by unfavorable prognosis and frequent metastases, are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During this process, cancer cells undergo cytoskeletal reorganization and up-regulate membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), which functions in actin-based pseudopods to drive invasion by extracellular matrix degradation. However, the mechanisms that couple matrix proteolysis to the actin cytoskeleton in cell invasion have remained unclear. On the basis of a yeast two-hybrid screen for the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins, we identify here a novel Src-regulated protein interaction between the dynamic cytoskeletal scaffold protein palladin and MT1-MMP. These proteins were coexpressed in invasive human basal-like breast carcinomas and corresponding cell lines, where they were associated in the same matrix contacting and degrading membrane complexes. The silencing and overexpression of the 90-kDa palladin isoform revealed the functional importance of the interaction with MT1-MMP in pericellular matrix degradation and mesenchymal tumor cell invasion, whereas in MT1-MMP–negative cells, palladin overexpression was insufficient for invasion. Moreover, this invasion was inhibited in a dominant-negative manner by an immunoglobulin domain–containing palladin fragment lacking the dynamic scaffold and Src-binding domains. These results identify a novel protein interaction that links matrix degradation to cytoskeletal dynamics and migration signaling in mesenchymal cell invasion. PMID:24989798

  9. Imaging the fine-scale structure of the cellular actin cytoskeleton by Single Particle Tracking and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustata, Gina-Mirela

    It has been proposed that diffusion in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells it is compartmentalized due to the interaction with the underlying actin-based membrane skeleton that comes into close proximity to the lipid bilayer. The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables cell motion, and plays important roles in both intra-cellular transport and cellular division. We show here the evidence of plasma membrane compartmentalization using Single Particle Tracking (SPT) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging. SPT of Quantum dot labeled lipid in the plasma membrane of live normal rat kidney cells show compartments ranging from 325 nm to 391 nm depending on the sampling time. Using AFM imaging of live NRK cell in the presence of phalloidin, the membrane compartmentalization it is visible with the average size of the compartments of 325 +/- 10 nm (the main peak is centered at 260 nm). Further, the underlying membrane skeleton in fixed cells was directly imaged after partial removal of the plasma membrane to reveal size of the membrane skeleton meshwork of 339 +/- 10 nm. A new method of measuring the characteristics of the actin meshwork was proposed. Probing the local compliance of the plasma membrane through the deflection of a soft AFM cantilever we can expect that the stiffness of the membrane will be higher at locations directly above a cortical actin. This new method provided information about the structure of the skeletal meshwork of neuronal cell body predicting an average compartment size of about 132 nm. This was confirmed through SPT of QD-lipid incorporated into the neuronal cell membrane.

  10. Cytoskeleton and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ndozangue-Touriguine, Olivia; Hamelin, Jocelyne; Bréard, Jacqueline

    2008-07-01

    Apoptosis is a genetically programmed and physiological mode of cell death that leads to the removal of unwanted or abnormal cells. Cysteine-proteases called caspases are responsible for the apoptotic execution phase which is characterized by specific biochemical events as well as morphological changes. These changes, which lead to the orderly dismantling of the apoptotic cell, include cell contraction, dynamic membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, nuclear disintegration, cell fragmentation followed by phagocytosis of the dying cell. They involve major modifications of the cytoskeleton which are largely mediated by cleavage of several of its components by caspases. For example, dynamic membrane blebbing is due to the increased contractility of the acto-myosin system following myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. MLC phosphorylation is a consequence of the cleavage of a Rho GTPase effector, the kinase ROCK I, by caspase-3. This cleavage induces a constitutive kinase activity by removal of an inhibitory domain. Chromatin condensation is facilitated by the processing of lamins by caspases. Collapse of the cytokeratin network is mediated by cleavage of keratin 18. On another hand, the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement needed in the phagocyte for engulfment of the dying cell is due to the activation of the small GTPase Rac, a GTPase of the Rho family that induces actin polymerisation and formation of lamellipodia. In addition to mediating the morphological modifications of the apoptotic cell, several proteins of the cytoskeleton such as actin and keratins are also involved in the regulation of apoptotic signaling. PMID:18462707

  11. Phospholipase D is involved in myogenic differentiation through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Komati, Hiba; Naro, Fabio; Mebarek, Saida; De Arcangelis, Vania; Adamo, Sergio; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France; Némoz, Georges

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) in myogenic differentiation of cultured L6 rat skeletal myoblasts. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), a differentiation inducer, rapidly activated PLD in a Rho-dependent way, as shown by almost total suppression of activation by C3 exotoxin pretreatment. Addition of 1-butanol, which selectively inhibits PA production by PLD, markedly decreased AVP-induced myogenesis. Conversely, myogenesis was potentiated by PLD1b isoform overexpression but not by PLD2 overexpression, establishing that PLD1 is involved in this process. The expression of the PLD isoforms was differentially regulated during differentiation. AVP stimulation of myoblasts induced the rapid formation of stress fiber-like actin structures (SFLSs). 1-Butanol selectively inhibited this response, whereas PLD1b overexpression induced SFLS formation, showing that it was PLD dependent. Endogenous PLD1 was located at the level of SFLSs, and by means of an intracellularly expressed fluorescent probe, PA was shown to be accumulated along these structures in response to AVP. In addition, AVP induced a PLD-dependent neosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which also was accumulated along actin fibers. These data support the hypothesis that PLD participates in myogenesis through PA- and PIP2-dependent actin fiber formation. PMID:15616193

  12. FMNL3 FH2-actin structure gives insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Morgan E; Heimsath, Ernest G; Gauvin, Timothy J; Higgs, Henry N; Kull, F Jon

    2012-12-09

    Formins are actin-assembly factors that act in a variety of actin-based processes. The conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain promotes filament nucleation and influences elongation through interaction with the barbed end. FMNL3 is a formin that induces assembly of filopodia but whose FH2 domain is a poor nucleator. The 3.4-Å structure of a mouse FMNL3 FH2 dimer in complex with tetramethylrhodamine-actin uncovers details of formin-regulated actin elongation. We observe distinct FH2 actin-binding regions; interactions in the knob and coiled-coil subdomains are necessary for actin binding, whereas those in the lasso-post interface are important for the stepping mechanism. Biochemical and cellular experiments test the importance of individual residues for function. This structure provides details for FH2-mediated filament elongation by processive capping and supports a model in which C-terminal non-FH2 residues of FMNL3 are required to stabilize the filament nucleus.

  13. Adenylyl cyclase AC8 directly controls its micro-environment by recruiting the actin cytoskeleton in a cholesterol-rich milieu

    PubMed Central

    Ayling, Laura J.; Briddon, Stephen J.; Halls, Michelle L.; Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Vaca, Luis; Pacheco, Jonathan; Hill, Stephen J.; Cooper, Dermot M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The central and pervasive influence of cAMP on cellular functions underscores the value of stringent control of the organization of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) in the plasma membrane. Biochemical data suggest that ACs reside in membrane rafts and could compartmentalize intermediary scaffolding proteins and associated regulatory elements. However, little is known about the organization or regulation of the dynamic behaviour of ACs in a cellular context. The present study examines these issues, using confocal image analysis of various AC8 constructs, combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These studies reveal that AC8, through its N-terminus, enhances the cortical actin signal at the plasma membrane; an interaction that was confirmed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments. AC8 also associates dynamically with lipid rafts; the direct association of AC8 with sterols was confirmed in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and lipid rafts indicates that AC8 tracks along the cytoskeleton in a cholesterol-enriched domain, and the cAMP that it produces contributes to sculpting the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, an adenylyl cyclase is shown not just to act as a scaffold, but also to actively orchestrate its own micro-environment, by associating with the cytoskeleton and controlling the association by producing cAMP, to yield a highly organized signalling hub. PMID:22399809

  14. Actin-mediated motion of meiotic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Koszul, R.; Kim, K. P.; Prentiss, M.; Kleckner, N.; Kameoka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Chromosome movement is prominent during meiosis. Here, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we elucidate the basis for dynamic mid-prophase chromosome movement in budding yeast. Diverse finding reveal a process in which, at the pachytene stage, individual telomere/nuclear envelope (NE) ensembles attach passively to, and then move in concert with, nucleus-hugging actin cables that are continuous with the global cytoskeletal actin network. Other chromosomes move in concert with lead chromosome(s). The same process, in modulated form, explains the zygotene "bouquet" configuration in which, immediately preceding pachytene, chromosome ends colocalize dynamically in a restricted region of the NE. Mechanical properties of the system and biological roles of mid-prophase movement for meiosis, including recombination, are discussed. PMID:18585353

  15. Weak Power Frequency Magnetic Field Acting Similarly to EGF Stimulation, Induces Acute Activations of the EGFR Sensitive Actin Cytoskeleton Motility in Human Amniotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Cao, Mei-Ping; Shen, Yun-Yun; Chu, Ke-Ping; Tao, Wu-Bin; Song, Wei-Tao; Liu, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Fang; Chen, Shu-De; Zeng, Qun-Li; Xia, Ruo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have examined the motility-related effects of weak power frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitive motility mechanism, including the F-actin cytoskeleton, growth of invasive protrusions and the levels of signal molecules in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells. Without extracellular EGF stimulation, the field stimulated a large growth of new protrusions, especially filopodia and lamellipodia, an increased population of vinculin-associated focal adhesions. And, an obvious reduction of stress fiber content in cell centers was found, corresponding to larger cell surface areas and decreased efficiency of actin assembly of FL cells in vitro, which was associated with a decrease in overall F-actin content and special distributions. These effects were also associated with changes in protein content or distribution patterns of the EGFR downstream motility-related signaling molecules. All of these effects are similar to those following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of the cells and are time dependent. These results suggest that power frequency MF exposure acutely affects the migration/motility-related actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is regulated by the EGFR-cytoskeleton signaling pathway. Therefore, upon the MF exposure, cells are likely altered to be ready to transfer into a state of migration in response to the stimuli. PMID:24505297

  16. Oxidative stress and alterations in actin cytoskeleton trigger glutathione efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bradamante, Silvia; Villa, Alessandro; Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; Orlandi, Ivan; Vai, Marina

    2010-12-01

    A marked deficiency in glutathione (GSH), the most abundant antioxidant in living systems, plays a major role in aging and the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from neurological disorders to early atherosclerosis and the impairment of various immunological functions. In an attempt to shed light on GSH homeostasis, we carried out the space experiment SCORE (Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidative stress response evaluation) during the FOTON-M3 mission. Microgravity and hyperoxic conditions induced an enormous extracellular release of GSH from S. cerevisiae cells (≈40% w/dw), changed the distribution of the buds, and activated the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and cell integrity/PKC pathways, as well as protein carbonylation. The results from the single spaceflight experiment were validated by a complete set of experiments under conditions of simulated microgravity and indicate that cytoskeletal alterations are mainly responsible for the observed effects. The results of ground experiments in which we induced cytoskeletal modifications by means of treatment with dihydrocytochalasin B (DHCB), a potent inhibitor of actin polymerisation, or (R)-(+)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride monohydrate (Y-27632), a selective ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase) inhibitor, confirmed the role of actin in GSH efflux. We also found that the GSH release can be inhibited using the potent chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). PMID:20708643

  17. CFTR regulation in human airway epithelial cells requires integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and compartmentalized cAMP and PKA activity

    PubMed Central

    Monterisi, Stefania; Favia, Maria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Cardone, Rosa A.; Marzulli, Domenico; Reshkin, Stephan J.; Casavola, Valeria; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation ΔF508CFTR still causes regulatory defects when rescued to the apical membrane, suggesting that the intracellular milieu might affect its ability to respond to cAMP regulation. We recently reported that overexpression of the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor NHERF1 in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway cell line CFBE41o-rescues the functional expression of ΔF508CFTR by promoting F-actin organization and formation of the NHERF1–ezrin–actin complex. Here, using real-time FRET reporters of both PKA activity and cAMP levels, we find that lack of an organized subcortical cytoskeleton in CFBE41o-cells causes both defective accumulation of cAMP in the subcortical compartment and excessive cytosolic accumulation of cAMP. This results in reduced subcortical levels and increased cytosolic levels of PKA activity. NHERF1 overexpression in CFBE41o-cells restores chloride secretion, subcortical cAMP compartmentalization and local PKA activity, indicating that regulation of ΔF508CFTR function requires not only stable expression of the mutant CFTR at the cell surface but also depends on both generation of local cAMP signals of adequate amplitude and activation of PKA in proximity of its target. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of wild-type CFTR in the non-CF 16HBE14o-cells results in both altered cytoskeletal organization and loss of cAMP compartmentalization, whereas stable overexpression of wt CFTR in CF cells restores cytoskeleton organization and re-establishes the compartmentalization of cAMP at the plasma membrane. This suggests that the presence of CFTR on the plasma membrane influences the cytoskeletal organizational state and, consequently, cAMP distribution. Our data show that a sufficiently high concentration of cAMP in the subcortical compartment is required to achieve PKA-mediated regulation of CFTR activity. PMID:22302988

  18. Cell adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton at immune synapses and kinapses.

    PubMed

    Dustin, Michael L

    2007-10-01

    The immunological synapse is a stable adhesive junction between a polarized immune effector cell and an antigen-bearing cell. Immunological synapses are often observed to have a striking radial symmetry in the plane of contact with a prominent central cluster of antigen receptors surrounded by concentric rings of adhesion molecules and actin-rich projections. There is a striking similarity between the radial zones of the immunological synapse and the dynamic actinomyosin modules employed by migrating cells. Breaking the symmetry of an immunological synapse generates a moving adhesive junction that can be defined as a kinapse, which facilitates signal integration by immune cells while moving over the surface of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:17923403

  19. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-01

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  20. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase in the actin cytoskeleton and in entry into mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F C; Arndt, K T

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 2A phosphatase (PP2A) mutant, pph21-102. At the restrictive temperature, the pph21-102 cells arrested predominantly with small or aberrant buds, and their actin cytoskeleton and chitin deposition were abnormal. The involvement of PP2A in bud growth may be due to the role of PP2A in actin distribution during the cell cycle. Moreover, after a shift to the non-permissive temperature, the pph21-102 cells were blocked in G2 and had low activity of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase. Expression of Clb2 from the S.cerevisiae ADH promoter in pph21-102 cells was able to partially bypass the G2 arrest in the first cell cycle, but was not able to stimulate passage through a second mitosis. These cells had higher total amounts of Clb2-Cdc28 kinase activity, but the Clb2-normalized specific activity was lower in the pph21-102 cells compared with wild-type cells. Unlike wild-type strains, a PP2A-deficient strain was sensitive to the loss of MIH1, which is a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitotic inducer cdc25+. Furthermore, the cdc28F19 mutation cured the synthetic defects of a PP2A-deficient strain containing a deletion of MIH1. These results suggest that PP2A is required during G2 for the activation of Clb-Cdc28 kinase complexes for progression into mitosis. Images PMID:7796803

  1. CsmA, a Class V Chitin Synthase with a Myosin Motor-like Domain, Is Localized through Direct Interaction with the Actin Cytoskeleton in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Norio; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    One of the essential features of fungal morphogenesis is the polarized synthesis of cell wall components such as chitin. The actin cytoskeleton provides the structural basis for cell polarity in Aspergillus nidulans, as well as in most other eukaryotes. A class V chitin synthase, CsmA, which contains a myosin motor-like domain (MMD), is conserved among most filamentous fungi. The ΔcsmA null mutant showed remarkable abnormalities with respect to cell wall integrity and the establishment of polarity. In this study, we demonstrated that CsmA tagged with 9× HA epitopes localized near actin structures at the hyphal tips and septation sites and that its MMD was able to bind to actin. Characterization of mutants bearing a point mutation or deletion in the MMD suggests that the interaction between the MMD and actin is not only necessary for the proper localization of CsmA, but also for CsmA function. Thus, the finding of a direct interaction between the chitin synthase and the actin cytoskeleton provides new insight into the mechanisms of polarized cell wall synthesis and fungal morphogenesis. PMID:15703213

  2. Optogenetics to target actin-mediated synaptic loss in Alzheimer's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Atena; DeFea, Kathryn; Ethell, Iryna

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) animal models show that overproduction of Aβ peptides and their oligomerization can distort dendrites, damage synapses, and decrease the number of dendritic spines and synapses. Aβ may trigger synapse loss by modulating activity of actin-regulating proteins, such as Rac1 and cofilin. Indeed, Aβ1-42 oligomers can activate actin severing protein cofilin through calcineurin-mediated activation of phosphatase slingshot and inhibit an opposing pathway that suppresses cofilin phosphorylation through Rac-mediated activation of LIMK1. Excessive activation of actin-severing protein cofilin triggers the formation of a non-dynamic actin bundles, called rods that are found in AD brains and cause loss of synapses. Hence, regulation of these actin-regulating proteins in dendritic spines could potentially provide useful tools for preventing the synapse/spine loss associated with earlier stages of AD neuropathology. However, lack of spatiotemporal control over their activity is a key limitation. Recently, optogenetic advancements have provided researchers with convenient light-activating proteins such as photoactivatable Rac (PARac). Here, we transfected cultured primary hippocampal neurons and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells with a PARac/ mCherry-containing plasmid and the mCherry-positive cells were identified and imaged using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Rac1 activation was achieved by irradiation with blue light (480nm) and live changes in dendritic spine morphology were observed using mCherry (587nm). Rac activation was confirmed by immunostaining for phosphorylated form of effector proteinP21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and reorganization of actin. Thus, our studies confirm the feasibility of using the PA-Rac construct to trigger actin re-organization in the dendritic spines.

  3. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots.

  4. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize.

    PubMed Central

    Blancaflor, E B; Hasenstein, K H

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots. PMID:11536803

  5. BLOC-1 Brings Together the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons to Generate Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Ripoll, Léa; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Dennis, Megan K; Linares, Ricardo A; Derman, Laura; Gokhale, Avanti; Morel, Etienne; Faundez, Victor; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2016-01-11

    Recycling endosomes consist of a tubular network that emerges from vacuolar sorting endosomes and diverts cargoes toward the cell surface, the Golgi, or lysosome-related organelles. How recycling tubules are formed remains unknown. We show that recycling endosome biogenesis requires the protein complex BLOC-1. Mutations in BLOC-1 subunits underlie an inherited disorder characterized by albinism, the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome, and are associated with schizophrenia risk. We show here that BLOC-1 coordinates the kinesin KIF13A-dependent pulling of endosomal tubules along microtubules to the Annexin A2/actin-dependent stabilization and detachment of recycling tubules. These components cooperate to extend, stabilize and form tubular endosomal carriers that function in cargo recycling and in the biogenesis of pigment granules in melanocytic cells. By shaping recycling endosomal tubules, our data reveal that dysfunction of the BLOC-1-KIF13A-Annexin A2 molecular network underlies the pathophysiology of neurological and pigmentary disorders. PMID:26725201

  6. Impact of Concanavalin-A-Mediated Cytoskeleton Disruption on Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Internalization and Cell Surface Expression in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Samuel Burke; Pratt, Jonathan; Beauchemin, David; Haidara, Khadidja; Annabi, Borhane

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a multiligand endocytic receptor, which plays a pivotal role in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics during cancer cell migration. Its rapid endocytosis further allows efficient clearance of extracellular ligands. Concanavalin-A (ConA) is a lectin used to trigger in vitro physiological cellular processes, including cytokines secretion, nitric oxide production, and T-lymphocytes activation. Given that ConA exerts part of its effects through cytoskeleton remodeling, we questioned whether it affected LRP-1 expression, intracellular trafficking, and cell surface function in grade IV U87 glioblastoma cells. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we found that loss of the cell surface 600-kDa mature form of LRP-1 occurs upon ConA treatment. Consequently, internalization of the physiological α2-macroglobulin and the synthetic angiopep-2 ligands of LRP-1 was also decreased. Silencing of known mediators of ConA, such as the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and the Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-6 was unable to rescue ConA-mediated LRP-1 expression decrease, implying that the loss of LRP-1 was independent of cell surface relayed signaling. The ConA-mediated reduction in LRP-1 expression was emulated by the actin cytoskeleton-disrupting agent cytochalasin-D, but not by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole, and required both lysosomal- and ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated degradation. Our study implies that actin cytoskeleton integrity is required for proper LRP-1 cell surface functions and that impaired trafficking leads to specialized compartmentation and degradation. Our data also strengthen the biomarker role of cell surface LRP-1 functions in the vectorized transport of therapeutic angiopep bioconjugates into brain cancer cells. PMID:27226736

  7. Low dose latrunculin-A inhibits dexamethasone-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton and alters extracellular matrix protein expression in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wu, Z; Sheibani, N; Brandt, C R; Polansky, J R; Kaufman, P L

    2003-08-01

    We determined the effects of a low dose of the actin-disrupting agent latrunculin (LAT)-A on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced changes in actin organization, focal adhesions, and production of extracellular matrix proteins in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. HTM cells were cultured to a highly confluent stage with stable endothelium-like morphology and incubated with 0.1 or 0.2 microM DEX and/or 0.1 microM LAT-A. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton and vinculin-containing focal contacts were evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and fibronectin (FN) in HTM cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The results showed that DEX induced morphological changes and actin reorganization in HTM cells. The cells partly recovered after DEX withdrawal, but the addition of low dose LAT-A hastened the recovery. In addition, DEX failed to induce changes when co-incubated with LAT-A for at least 4 weeks, and for at least 2 weeks when cells were pre-treated with LAT-A for 2 weeks. HTM cells treated with 0.1 microM LAT-A only for 5 days showed mild disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, which persisted during the 4 weeks of treatment. DEX stimulated production of FN in HTM cells independent of LAT-A treatment. LAT-A and, to a lesser extent, DEX inhibited production of TSP1 by HTM cells. Although LAT-A is not a DEX receptor antagonist, it is able to prevent the effects of DEX on the actin cytoskeleton in cultured HTM cells at a dose subthreshold for increasing outflow facility in monkeys. This suggests that LAT-A at low doses may be useful in treating steroid and other glaucomas. TSP1 may be an important target of LAT-A in HTM cells and modulation of TSP may influence the actin cytoskeleton of the trabecular meshwork (TM), and consequently, intraocular pressure. PMID:12873448

  8. Wsp1 Is Downstream of Cin1 and Regulates Vesicle Transport and Actin Cytoskeleton as an Effector of Cdc42 and Rac1 in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gui; Zhou, Erxun; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a scaffold linking upstream signals to the actin cytoskeleton. In response to intersectin ITSN1 and Rho GTPase Cdc42, WASP activates the Arp2/3 complex to promote actin polymerization. The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans contains the ITSN1 homolog Cin1 and the WASP homolog Wsp1, which share more homology with human proteins than those of other fungi. Here we demonstrate that Cin1, Cdc42/Rac1, and Wsp1 function in an effector pathway similar to that of mammalian models. In the cin1 mutant, expression of the autoactivated Wsp1-B-GBD allele partially suppressed the mutant defect in endocytosis, and expression of the constitutively active CDC42Q61L allele restored normal actin cytoskeleton structures. Similar phenotypic suppression can be obtained by the expression of a Cdc42-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Wsp1 fusion protein. In addition, Rac1, which was found to exhibit a role in early endocytosis, activates Wsp1 to regulate vacuole fusion. Rac1 interacted with Wsp1 and depended on Wsp1 for its vacuolar membrane localization. Expression of the Wsp1-B-GBD allele restored vacuolar membrane fusion in the rac1 mutant. Collectively, our studies suggest novel ways in which this pathogenic fungus has adapted conserved signaling pathways to control vesicle transport and actin organization, likely benefiting survival within infected hosts. PMID:22327008

  9. The IQGAP-related protein DGAP1 interacts with Rac and is involved in the modulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Faix, J; Clougherty, C; Konzok, A; Mintert, U; Murphy, J; Albrecht, R; Mühlbauer, B; Kuhlmann, J

    1998-10-01

    DGAP1 of Dictyostelium discoideum is a cell cortex associated 95 kDa protein that shows homology to both RasGTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) and RasGAP-related proteins. When tested for RasGAP activity, recombinant DGAP1 protein did not promote the GTPase activity of human H-Ras or of Dictyostelium RasG in vitro. Instead, DGAP1 bound to Dictyostelium Rac1A and human Rac1, but not to human Cdc42. DGAP1 preferentially interacted with the activated GTP-bound forms of Rac1 and Rac1A, but did not affect the GTPase activities. Since Rho-type GTPases are implicated in the formation of specific F-actin structures and in the control of cell morphology, the microfilament system of mutants that either lack or overexpress DGAP1 has been analysed. DGAP1-null mutants showed elevated levels of F-actin that was organised in large leading edges, membrane ruffles or numerous large filopods. Expression of actin fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to monitor the actin dynamics in these cells, and revealed that the F-actin cytoskeleton of DGAP1-null cells was rapidly re-arranged to form ruffles and filopods. Conversely, in DGAP1-overexpressing cells, the formation of cellular projections containing F-actin was largely suppressed. Measurement of cell migration demonstrated that DGAP1 expression is inversely correlated with the speed of cell motility. PMID:9739079

  10. The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A; Manzo, Carlo; Salio, Mariolina; Aichinger, Michael C; Oddone, Anna; Lakadamyali, Melike; Shepherd, Dawn; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2016-02-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize endogenous and exogenous lipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d molecules. The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms regulating such "tonic" activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. Overall, these results define a previously unidentified mechanism that modulates iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen-loaded CD1d nanoclusters. PMID:26798067

  11. The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Manzo, Carlo; Salio, Mariolina; Aichinger, Michael C.; Oddone, Anna; Lakadamyali, Melike; Shepherd, Dawn; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize endogenous and exogenous lipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d molecules. The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms regulating such “tonic” activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. Overall, these results define a previously unidentified mechanism that modulates iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen-loaded CD1d nanoclusters. PMID:26798067

  12. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. (13)C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  13. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  14. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I.; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A.; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. 13C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  15. Mechanisms of cytoskeleton-mediated mechanical signal transmission in cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Gouget, Cecile L.M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid long-distance transmission of mechanical forces within cells. Because the speed of this transmission greatly exceeds that of reaction-diffusion signaling, it has been conjectured that it occurs via the propagation of elastic waves through the actin stress fiber network. To explore the plausibility of this conjecture, we recently developed a model of small amplitude stress fiber deformations in prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers subjected to external forces. The model results demonstrated that rapid mechanical signal transmission is only possible when the external force is applied orthogonal to the stress fiber axis and that the dynamics of this transmission are governed by a balance between the prestress in the stress fiber and the stress fiber's material viscosity. The present study, which is a follow-up on our previous model, uses dimensional analysis to: (1) further evaluate the plausibility of the elastic wave conjecture and (2) obtain insight into mechanical signal transmission dynamics in simple stress fiber networks. We show that the elastic wave scenario is likely not the mechanism of rapid mechanical signal transmission in actin stress fibers due to the highly viscoelastic character of these fibers. Our analysis also demonstrates that the time constant characterizing mechanical stimulus transmission is strongly dependent on the topology of the stress fiber network, implying that network organization plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cellular responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:23336020

  16. Reciprocal regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodelling and cell migration by Ca2+ and Zn2+: role of TRPM2 channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang; Abuarab, Nada; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2016-05-15

    Cell migration is a fundamental feature of tumour metastasis and angiogenesis. It is regulated by a variety of signalling molecules including H2O2 and Ca(2+) Here, we asked whether the H2O2-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Ca(2+) channel serves as a molecular link between H2O2 and Ca(2+) H2O2-mediated activation of TRPM2 channels induced filopodia formation, loss of actin stress fibres and disassembly of focal adhesions, leading to increased migration of HeLa and prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells. Activation of TRPM2 channels, however, caused intracellular release of not only Ca(2+) but also of Zn(2+) Intriguingly, elevation of intracellular Zn(2+) faithfully reproduced all of the effects of H2O2, whereas Ca(2+) showed opposite effects. Interestingly, H2O2 caused increased trafficking of Zn(2+)-enriched lysosomes to the leading edge of migrating cells, presumably to impart polarisation of Zn(2+) location. Thus, our results indicate that a reciprocal interplay between Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) regulates actin remodelling and cell migration; they call for a revision of the current notion that implicates an exclusive role for Ca(2+) in cell migration. PMID:27068538

  17. Noise-induced cochlear F-actin depolymerization is mediated via ROCK2/p-ERM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Wang, Xianren; Chen, Jun; Sha, Su-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work has suggested that traumatic noise activates Rho-GTPase pathways in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), resulting in cell death and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we investigated Rho effectors, Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs), and the targets of ROCKs, the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins, in the regulation of the cochlear actin cytoskeleton using adult CBA/J mice under conditions of noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) hearing loss, which result in changes to the F/G-actin ratio. The levels of cochlear ROCK2 and p-ERM decreased 1 h after either TTS- or PTS-noise exposure. In contrast, ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs decreased only after PTS-, not after TTS-noise exposure. Treatment with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of the Rho pathway, resulted in significant reversal of the F/G-actin ratio changes caused by noise exposure and attenuated OHC death and NIHL. Conversely, the down-regulation of ROCK2 by pretreatment with ROCK2 siRNA reduced the expression of ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs, exacerbated TTS to PTS, and worsened OHC loss. Additionally, pretreatment with siRNA against radixin, an ERM protein, aggravated TTS to PTS. Our results indicate that a ROCK2-mediated ERM-phosphorylation signaling cascade modulates noise-induced hair cell loss and NIHL by targeting the cytoskeleton. PMID:25683353

  18. Calcium, TRPC channels, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes: towards a future of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Wieder, Nicolas; Greka, Anna

    2016-07-01

    With more than 6,000 new pediatric patients with treatment-resistant nephrotic syndrome in the US each year alone, the unmet need for novel, podocyte-specific therapies is substantial. Recently, the established therapeutic benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) was used as a starting point to gain insight into the pathomechanism of primary podocytopathies. A calcium (Ca(2+))-mediated pathway has been identified that connects the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) to podocyte cytoskeletal dynamics, essential for a functioning glomerular filtration barrier. This discovery provided an important missing piece in our understanding of the pathomechanism of filter barrier damage, revealing Ca(2+) signaling as critical for podocyte health and disease. The identification of the two Ca(2+) permeant channels TRPC5 and TRPC6 as mediators of this pathway not only bolstered the importance of podocyte cytoskeleton dynamics but also revealed promising drug targets for treatment-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This review will focus on this novel signaling pathway in primary podocytopathies and its implications for next-generation therapies for glomerular disease. PMID:26490951

  19. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the “status” of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  20. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the "status" of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  1. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    SciTech Connect

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael; and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  2. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

    PubMed

    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:17632722

  3. Why do peroxisomes associate with the cytoskeleton?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Alexander; Eggeling, Christian; Erdmann, Ralf; Schliebs, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Attachment of peroxisomes to cytoskeleton and movement along microtubular filaments and actin cables are essential and highly regulated processes enabling metabolic efficiency, biogenesis, maintenance and inheritance of this dynamic cellular compartment. Several peroxisome-associated proteins have been identified, which mediate interaction with motor proteins, adaptor proteins or other constituents of the cytoskeleton. It appears that there is a species-specific complexity of protein-protein interactions required to control directional movement and arresting. An open question is why some proteins with a specific role in peroxisomal protein import have an additional function in the regulation of cytoskeleton binding and motility of peroxisomes. PMID:26616035

  4. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  5. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  6. The geodiamolide H, derived from Brazilian sponge Geodia corticostylifera, regulates actin cytoskeleton, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells cultured in three-dimensional environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Vanessa M; Rangel, Marisa; Bisson, Letícia F; Jaeger, Ruy G; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M

    2008-09-01

    We are investigating effects of the depsipeptide geodiamolide H, isolated from the Brazilian sponge Geodia corticostylifera, on cancer cell lines grown in 3D environment. As shown previously geodiamolide H disrupts actin cytoskeleton in both sea urchin eggs and breast cancer cell monolayers. We used a normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF 10A that in 3D assay results formation of polarized spheroids. We also used cell lines derived from breast tumors with different degrees of differentiation: MCF7 positive for estrogen receptor and the Hs578T, negative for hormone receptors. Cells were placed on top of Matrigel. Spheroids obtained from these cultures were treated with geodiamolide H. Control and treated samples were analyzed by light and confocal microscopy. Geodiamolide H dramatically affected the poorly differentiated and aggressive Hs578T cell line. The peptide reverted Hs578T malignant phenotype to polarized spheroid-like structures. MCF7 cells treated by geodiamolide H exhibited polarization compared to controls. Geodiamolide H induced striking phenotypic modifications in Hs578T cell line and disruption of actin cytoskeleton. We investigated effects of geodiamolide H on migration and invasion of Hs578T cells. Time-lapse microscopy showed that the peptide inhibited migration of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore invasion assays revealed that geodiamolide H induced a 30% decrease on invasive behavior of Hs578T cells. Our results suggest that geodiamolide H inhibits migration and invasion of Hs578T cells probably through modifications in actin cytoskeleton. The fact that normal cell lines were not affected by treatment with geodiamolide H stimulates new studies towards therapeutic use for this peptide. PMID:18330887

  7. PLCβ3 mediates cortactin interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced actin polymerization and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Chandaka, Giri Kumar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2015-12-15

    Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in vascular wall remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying MCP1-induced VSMC migration have not been understood. Here we identify the signaling pathway associated with MCP1-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) migration. MCP1, a G protein-coupled receptor agonist, activates phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues in a time-dependent manner, and inhibition of its phosphorylation attenuates MCP1-induced HASMC G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and migration. Cortactin phosphorylation on S405/S418 is found to be critical for its interaction with WAVE2, a member of the WASP family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins required for cell migration. In addition, the MCP1-induced cortactin phosphorylation is dependent on PLCβ3-mediated PKCδ activation, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of either of these molecules prevents cortactin interaction with WAVE2, affecting G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Upstream, MCP1 activates CCR2 and Gαq/11 in a time-dependent manner, and down-regulation of their levels attenuates MCP1-induced PLCβ3 and PKCδ activation, cortactin phosphorylation, cortactin-WAVE2 interaction, G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Together these findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues is required for its interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, facilitating HASMC migration. PMID:26490115

  8. PLCβ3 mediates cortactin interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced actin polymerization and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Chandaka, Giri Kumar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in vascular wall remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying MCP1-induced VSMC migration have not been understood. Here we identify the signaling pathway associated with MCP1-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) migration. MCP1, a G protein–coupled receptor agonist, activates phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues in a time-dependent manner, and inhibition of its phosphorylation attenuates MCP1-induced HASMC G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and migration. Cortactin phosphorylation on S405/S418 is found to be critical for its interaction with WAVE2, a member of the WASP family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins required for cell migration. In addition, the MCP1-induced cortactin phosphorylation is dependent on PLCβ3-mediated PKCδ activation, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of either of these molecules prevents cortactin interaction with WAVE2, affecting G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Upstream, MCP1 activates CCR2 and Gαq/11 in a time-dependent manner, and down-regulation of their levels attenuates MCP1-induced PLCβ3 and PKCδ activation, cortactin phosphorylation, cortactin–WAVE2 interaction, G-actin polymerization, F-actin stress fiber formation, and HASMC migration. Together these findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin on S405 and S418 residues is required for its interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, facilitating HASMC migration. PMID:26490115

  9. GhCFE1A, a dynamic linker between the ER network and actin cytoskeleton, plays an important role in cotton fibre cell initiation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Fenni; Wang, Haihai; Wang, Xinyu; Han, Libo; Ma, Yinping; Wang, Sen; Feng, Zhidi; Niu, Xiaowei; Cai, Caiping; Kong, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in fibreless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development. PMID:25609828

  10. GhCFE1A, a dynamic linker between the ER network and actin cytoskeleton, plays an important role in cotton fibre cell initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fenni; Wang, Haihai; Wang, Xinyu; Han, Libo; Ma, Yinping; Wang, Sen; Feng, Zhidi; Niu, Xiaowei; Cai, Caiping; Kong, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-04-01

    Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in fibreless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development. PMID:25609828

  11. Apical Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Salmonella typhimurium Requires Villin to Remodel the Brush Border Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lhocine, Nouara; Arena, Ellen T.; Bomme, Perrine; Ubelmann, Florent; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Robine, Sylvie; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cells requires extensive, though transient, actin modifications at the site of bacterial entry. The actin-modifying protein villin is present in the brush border where it participates in the constitution of microvilli and in epithelial restitution after damage through its actin-severing activity. We investigated a possible role for villin in Salmonella invasion. The absence of villin, which is normally located at the bacterial entry site, leads to a decrease in Salmonella invasion. Villin is necessary for early membrane-associated processes and for optimal ruffle assembly by balancing the steady-state level of actin. The severing activity of villin is important for Salmonella invasion in vivo. The bacterial phosphatase SptP tightly regulates villin phosphorylation, while the actin-binding effector SipA protects F-actin and counterbalances villin-severing activity. Thus, villin plays an important role in establishing the balance between actin polymerization and actin severing to facilitate the initial steps of Salmonella entry. PMID:25600187

  12. Transfer of a Redox-Signal through the Cytosol by Redox-Dependent Microcompartmentation of Glycolytic Enzymes at Mitochondria and Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Groß, Felicitas; Leffers, Hans-Martin; Kang, Minhee; Schneider, Markus; Scheibe, Renate

    2013-01-01

    The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12, GapC) plays an important role in glycolysis by providing the cell with ATP and NADH. Interestingly, despite its glycolytic function in the cytosol, GAPDH was reported to possess additional non-glycolytic activities, correlating with its nuclear, or cytoskeletal localization in animal cells. In transiently transformed mesophyll protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana colocalization and interaction of the glycolytic enzymes with the mitochondria and with the actin cytoskeleton was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) using fluorescent protein fusions and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid screens, dot-blot overlay assays, and co-sedimentation assays were used to identify potential protein–protein interactions between two cytosolic GAPDH isoforms (GapC1, At3g04120; GapC2, At1g13440) from A. thaliana with the neighboring glycolytic enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA6, At2g36460), the mitochondrial porin (VDAC3; At5g15090), and actin in vitro. From these experiments, a mitochondrial association is suggested for both glycolytic enzymes, GAPDH and aldolase, which appear to bind to the outer mitochondrial membrane, in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, both glycolytic enzymes were found to bind to F-actin in co-sedimentation assays, and lead to bundling of purified rabbit actin, as visualized by cLSM. Actin-binding and bundling occurred reversibly under oxidizing conditions. We speculate that such dynamic formation of microcompartments is part of a redox-dependent retrograde signal transduction network for adaptation upon oxidative stress. PMID:23316205

  13. Mutations of the Mouse ELMO Domain Containing 1 Gene (Elmod1) Link Small GTPase Signaling to Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hair Cell Stereocilia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Longo-Guess, Chantal M.; Gagnon, Leona H.

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia, the modified microvilli projecting from the apical surfaces of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear, are essential to the mechanoelectrical transduction process underlying hearing and balance. The actin-filled stereocilia on each hair cell are tethered together by fibrous links to form a highly patterned hair bundle. Although many structural components of hair bundles have been identified, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that regulate their development, morphology, and maintenance. Here, we describe two naturally occurring, allelic mutations that result in hearing and balance deficits in mice, named roundabout (rda) and roundabout-2J (rda2J). Positional cloning identified both as mutations of the mouse ELMO domain containing 1 gene (Elmod1), a poorly characterized gene with no previously reported mutant phenotypes. The rda mutation is a 138 kb deletion that includes exons 1–5 of Elmod1, and rda2J is an intragenic duplication of exons 3–8 of Elmod1. The deafness associated with these mutations is caused by cochlear hair cell dysfunction, as indicated by conspicuous elongations and fusions of inner hair cell stereocilia and progressive degeneration of outer hair cell stereocilia. Mammalian ELMO-family proteins are known to be involved in complexes that activate small GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis and cell migration. ELMOD1 and ELMOD2 recently were shown to function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for the Arf family of small G proteins. Our finding connecting ELMOD1 deficiencies with stereocilia dysmorphologies thus establishes a link between the Ras superfamily of small regulatory GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton dynamics of hair cell stereocilia. PMID:22558334

  14. Mutations of the mouse ELMO domain containing 1 gene (Elmod1) link small GTPase signaling to actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hair cell stereocilia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth R; Longo-Guess, Chantal M; Gagnon, Leona H

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia, the modified microvilli projecting from the apical surfaces of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear, are essential to the mechanoelectrical transduction process underlying hearing and balance. The actin-filled stereocilia on each hair cell are tethered together by fibrous links to form a highly patterned hair bundle. Although many structural components of hair bundles have been identified, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that regulate their development, morphology, and maintenance. Here, we describe two naturally occurring, allelic mutations that result in hearing and balance deficits in mice, named roundabout (rda) and roundabout-2J (rda(2J)). Positional cloning identified both as mutations of the mouse ELMO domain containing 1 gene (Elmod1), a poorly characterized gene with no previously reported mutant phenotypes. The rda mutation is a 138 kb deletion that includes exons 1-5 of Elmod1, and rda(2J) is an intragenic duplication of exons 3-8 of Elmod1. The deafness associated with these mutations is caused by cochlear hair cell dysfunction, as indicated by conspicuous elongations and fusions of inner hair cell stereocilia and progressive degeneration of outer hair cell stereocilia. Mammalian ELMO-family proteins are known to be involved in complexes that activate small GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis and cell migration. ELMOD1 and ELMOD2 recently were shown to function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for the Arf family of small G proteins. Our finding connecting ELMOD1 deficiencies with stereocilia dysmorphologies thus establishes a link between the Ras superfamily of small regulatory GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton dynamics of hair cell stereocilia. PMID:22558334

  15. Characterization of the interaction between protein 4.1R and ZO-2. A possible link between the tight junction and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mattagajasingh, S N; Huang, S C; Hartenstein, J S; Benz, E J

    2000-09-29

    Multiple isoforms of the red cell protein 4.1R are expressed in nonerythroid cells, including novel 135-kDa isoforms. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, immunocolocalization, immunoprecipitation, and in vitro binding studies, we found that two 4.1R isoforms of 135 and 150 kDa specifically interact with the protein ZO-2 (zonula occludens-2). 4.1R is colocalized with ZO-2 and occludin at Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell tight junctions. Both isoforms of 4.1R coprecipitated with proteins that organize tight junctions such as ZO-2, ZO-1, and occludin. Western blot analysis also revealed the presence of actin and alpha-spectrin in these immunoprecipitates. Association of 4.1R isoforms with these tight junction and cytoskeletal proteins was found to be specific for the tight junction and was not seen in nonconfluent MDCK cells. The amino acid residues that sustain the interaction between 4.1R and ZO-2 reside within the amino acids encoded by exons 19-21 of 4.1R and residues 1054-1118 of ZO-2. Exogenously expressed 4.1R containing the spectrin/actin- and ZO-2-binding domains was recruited to tight junctions in confluent MDCK cells. Taken together, our results suggest that 4.1R might play an important role in organization and function of the tight junction by establishing a link between the tight junction and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10874042

  16. Scapinin, the Protein Phosphatase 1 Binding Protein, Enhances Cell Spreading and Motility by Interacting with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Junji; Arata, Toshiaki; Taniguchi, Shunichiro

    2009-01-01

    Scapinin, also named phactr3, is an actin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding protein, which is expressed in the adult brain and some tumor cells. At present, the role(s) of scapinin in the brain and tumors are poorly understood. We show that the RPEL-repeat domain of scapinin, which is responsible for its direct interaction with actin, inhibits actin polymerization in vitro. Next, we established a Hela cell line, where scapinin expression was induced by tetracycline. In these cells, expression of scapinin stimulated cell spreading and motility. Scapinin was colocalized with actin at the edge of spreading cells. To explore the roles of the RPEL-repeat and PP1-binding domains, we expressed wild-type and mutant scapinins as fusion proteins with green fluorescence protein (GFP) in Cos7 cells. Expression of GFP-scapinin (wild type) also stimulated cell spreading, but mutation in the RPEL-repeat domain abolished both the actin binding and the cell spreading activity. PP1-binding deficient mutants strongly induced cell retraction. Long and branched cytoplasmic processes were developed during the cell retraction. These results suggest that scapinin enhances cell spreading and motility through direct interaction with actin and that PP1 plays a regulatory role in scapinin-induced morphological changes. PMID:19158953

  17. AT14A mediates the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum in Arabidopsis thaliana cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Bing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hongcheng; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-06-01

    AT14A has a small domain that has sequence similarities to integrins from animals. Integrins serve as a transmembrane linker between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, which play critical roles in a variety of biological processes. Because the function of AT14A is unknown, Arabidopsis thaliana AT14A, which is a transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules and a middle member of the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum in plants, has been described. AT14A, co-expressed with green fluorescent protein (GFP), was found to localize mainly to the plasma membrane. The mutant Arabidopsis at14a-1 cells exhibit various phenotypes with cell shape, cell cluster size, thickness, and cellulose content of cell wall, the adhesion between cells, and the adhesion of plasma membrane to cell wall varied by plasmolysis. Using direct staining of filamentous actin and indirect immunofluorescence staining of microtubules, cortical actin filaments and microtubules arrays were significantly altered in cells, either where AT14A was absent or over-expressed. It is concluded that AT14A may be a substantial middle member of the cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum and play an important role in the continuum by regulating cell wall and cortical cytoskeleton organization. PMID:22456678

  18. Orchestration of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton in trichome cell shape determination by a plant-unique kinesin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Juan; Han, Libo; Feng, Zhidi; Wang, Guangda; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Yinping; Yu, Yanjun; Kong, Zhaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (F-actin) function cooperatively to regulate plant cell morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between these two cytoskeletal systems, particularly in cell shape control, remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that introduction of the MyTH4-FERM tandem into KCBP (kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein) during evolution conferred novel functions. The MyTH4 domain and the FERM domain in the N-terminal tail of KCBP physically bind to MTs and F-actin, respectively. During trichome morphogenesis, KCBP distributes in a specific cortical gradient and concentrates at the branching sites and the apexes of elongating branches, which lack MTs but have cortical F-actin. Further, live-cell imaging and genetic analyses revealed that KCBP acts as a hub integrating MTs and actin filaments to assemble the required cytoskeletal configuration for the unique, polarized diffuse growth pattern during trichome cell morphogenesis. Our findings provide significant insights into the mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape determination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09351.001 PMID:26287478

  19. Actin depolymerization under force is governed by lysine 113:glutamic acid 195-mediated catch-slip bonds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho-yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G; Ono, Shoichiro; Chien, Shu; Rubenstein, Peter A; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V

    2013-03-26

    As a key element in the cytoskeleton, actin filaments are highly dynamic structures that constantly sustain forces. However, the fundamental question of how force regulates actin dynamics is unclear. Using atomic force microscopy force-clamp experiments, we show that tensile force regulates G-actin/G-actin and G-actin/F-actin dissociation kinetics by prolonging bond lifetimes (catch bonds) at a low force range and by shortening bond lifetimes (slip bonds) beyond a threshold. Steered molecular dynamics simulations reveal force-induced formation of new interactions that include a lysine 113(K113):glutamic acid 195 (E195) salt bridge between actin subunits, thus suggesting a molecular basis for actin catch-slip bonds. This structural mechanism is supported by the suppression of the catch bonds by the single-residue replacements K113 to serine (K113S) and E195 to serine (E195S) on yeast actin. These results demonstrate and provide a structural explanation for actin catch-slip bonds, which may provide a mechanoregulatory mechanism to control cell functions by regulating the depolymerization kinetics of force-bearing actin filaments throughout the cytoskeleton. PMID:23460697

  20. Palmitoylation of cytoskeleton associated protein 4 by DHHC2 regulates antiproliferative factor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Planey, Sonia L; Keay, Susan K; Zhang, Chen-Ou; Zacharias, David A

    2009-03-01

    Previously, we identified cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) as a major substrate of the palmitoyl acyltransferase, DHHC2, using a novel proteomic method called palmitoyl-cysteine identification, capture and analysis (PICA). CKAP4 is a reversibly palmitoylated and phosphorylated protein that links the ER to the cytoskeleton. It is also a high-affinity receptor for antiproliferative factor (APF), a small sialoglycopeptide secreted from bladder epithelial cells of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). The role of DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in the antiproliferative response of HeLa and normal bladder epithelial cells to APF was investigated. Our data show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 and consequent suppression of CKAP4 palmitoylation inhibited the ability of APF to regulate cellular proliferation and blocked APF-induced changes in the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and ZO-1 (genes known to play a role in cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis). Immunocytochemistry revealed that CKAP4 palmitoylation by DHHC2 is required for its trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane and for its nuclear localization. These data suggest an important role for DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in IC and in opposing cancer-related cellular behaviors and support the idea that DHHC2 is a tumor suppressor. PMID:19144824

  1. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26471000

  2. The heterochronic microRNA let-7 inhibits cell motility by regulating the genes in the actin cytoskeleton pathway in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Guo, Jinyi; Zheng, Lan; Li, Chunsheng; Zheng, Tim M; Tanyi, Janos L; Liang, Shun; Benedetto, Chiara; Mitidieri, Marco; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Youcheng; Huang, Qihong; Zhang, Lin

    2013-03-01

    The heterochronic gene let-7 serves as a tumor suppressor microRNA by targeting various oncogenic pathways in cancer cells. Considerable evidence indicates that reduced expression of let-7 might be associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Here, we report that the expression levels of three let-7 family members, let-7a, let-7b, and let-7g, were significantly decreased in the patients with breast cancer with lymph node metastasis compared with those without lymph node metastasis. Enforced expression of let-7b significantly inhibits breast cancer cell motility and affects actin dynamics. Using bioinformatic and experimental approaches, four genes in the actin cytoskeleton pathway, including PAK1, DIAPH2, RDX, and ITGB8, were identified as let-7 direct targets. Blocking the expression of PAK1, DIAPH2, and RDX significantly inhibits breast cancer cell migration induced by let-7b repression. Our results indicate that reconstitution of let-7 expression in tumor cells could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:23339187

  3. Rab11-FIP3 is a Rab11-binding protein that regulates breast cancer cell motility by modulating the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Tarbutton, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gayle; Prekeris, Rytis

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion and motility are very dynamic processes that require the temporal and spatial coordination of many cellular structures. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) has emerged as master regulator of endocytic membrane traffic and cytoskeletal dynamics during cell movement. Recently, a novel Arf6-binding protein known as FIP3/arfophilin/eferin has been identified. In addition to Arf6, FIP3 also interacts with Rab11, a small monomeric GTPase that regulates endocytic membrane transport. Both Arf6 and Rab11 GTPases have been implicated in regulation of cell motility. Here we test the role of FIP3 in breast carcinoma cell motility. First, we demonstrate that FIP3 is associated with recycling endosomes that are present at the leading edge of motile cells. Second, we show that FIP3 is required for the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Third, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates Rac1-dependent actin cytoskeleton dynamics and modulates the formation and ruffling of lamellipodia. Finally, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates the localization of Arf6 at the plasma membrane of MDA-MB-231 cells. Based on our data we propose that FIP3 affects cell motility by regulating Arf6 localization to the plasma membrane of the leading edge, thus regulating polarized Rac1 activation and actin dynamics. PMID:19327867

  4. Polycystin-1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and directional cell migration through a novel PC1-Pacsin 2-N-Wasp complex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Su, Xuefeng; Nguyen, Vy; Roberts, Kristina; Li, Xiaogang; Takakura, Ayumi; Plomann, Markus; Zhou, Jing

    2014-05-15

    How epithelial cells form a tubule with defined length and lumen diameter remains a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. Loss of control of tubule lumen size in multiple organs including the kidney, liver and pancreas features polycystic kidney disease (PKD). To gain insights into autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the C-terminus of polycystin-1 (PC1) as bait. Here, we report that PC1 interacts with Pacsin 2, a cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that has been implicated in cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and more recently in cell intercalation during gastrulation. PC1 binds to a 107-residue fragment containing the α3 helix of the F-BAR domain of Pacsin 2 via a coiled-coil domain in its C-tail. PC1 and Pacsin 2 co-localize on the lamellipodia of migrating kidney epithelial cells. PC1 and Pacsin 2-deficient kidney epithelial cells migrate at a slower speed with reduced directional persistency. We further demonstrate that PC1, Pacsin 2 and N-Wasp are in the same protein complex, and both PC1 and Pacsin 2 are required for N-Wasp/Arp2/3-dependent actin remodeling. We propose that PC1 modulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and directional cell migration through the Pacsin 2/N-Wasp/Arp2/3 complex, which consequently contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the sophisticated tubular architecture. Disruption of this complex contributes to cyst formation in PKD. PMID:24385601

  5. Gelsolin mediates calcium-dependent disassembly of Listeria actin tails

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Laura; Arnaudeau, Serge; Gibson, Bruce; Li, Wei; Krause, Ryoko; Hao, Binghua; Bamburg, James R.; Lew, Daniel P.; Demaurex, Nicolas; Southwick, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly has not been clearly defined. We show that reduction of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) to <40 nM in Listeria monocytogenes-infected, EGFP–actin-transfected Madin–Darby canine kidney cells results in a 3-fold lengthening of actin filament tails. This increase in tail length is the consequence of marked slowing of the actin filament disassembly rate, without a significant change in assembly rate. The Ca2+-sensitive actin-severing protein gelsolin concentrates in the Listeria rocket tails at normal resting [Ca2+]i and disassociates from the tails when [Ca2+]i is lowered. Reduction in [Ca2+]i also blocks the severing activity of gelsolin, but not actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin microinjected into Listeria-infected cells. In Xenopus extracts, Listeria tail lengths are also calcium-sensitive, markedly shortening on addition of calcium. Immunodepletion of gelsolin, but not Xenopus ADF/cofilin, eliminates calcium-sensitive actin-filament shortening. Listeria tail length is also calcium-insensitive in gelsolin-null mouse embryo fibroblasts. We conclude that gelsolin is the primary Ca2+-sensitive actin filament recycling protein in the cell and is capable of enhancing Listeria actin tail disassembly at normal resting [Ca2+]i (145 nM). These experiments illustrate the unique and complementary functions of gelsolin and ADF/cofilin in the recycling of actin filaments. PMID:15671163

  6. Signaling Network Triggers and Membrane Physical Properties Control the Actin Cytoskeleton-Driven Isotropic Phase of Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Rangamani, Padmini; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Xiong, Yuguang; Lipshtat, Azi; Rossier, Olivier; Sheetz, Michael P.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Cell spreading is regulated by signaling from the integrin receptors that activate intracellular signaling pathways to control actin filament regulatory proteins. We developed a hybrid model of whole-cell spreading in which we modeled the integrin signaling network as ordinary differential equations in multiple compartments, and cell spreading as a three-dimensional stochastic model. The computed activity of the signaling network, represented as time-dependent activity levels of the actin filament regulatory proteins, is used to drive the filament dynamics. We analyzed the hybrid model to understand the role of signaling during the isotropic phase of fibroblasts spreading on fibronectin-coated surfaces. Simulations showed that the isotropic phase of spreading depends on integrin signaling to initiate spreading but not to maintain the spreading dynamics. Simulations predicted that signal flow in the absence of Cdc42 or WASP would reduce the spreading rate but would not affect the shape evolution of the spreading cell. These predictions were verified experimentally. Computational analyses showed that the rate of spreading and the evolution of cell shape are largely controlled by the membrane surface load and membrane bending rigidity, and changing information flow through the integrin signaling network has little effect. Overall, the plasma membrane acts as a damper such that only ∼5% of the actin dynamics capability is needed for isotropic spreading. Thus, the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane can condense varying levels of signaling network activities into a single cohesive macroscopic cellular behavior. PMID:21320428

  7. How HIV-1 Takes Advantage of the Cytoskeleton during Replication and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Martin; Nikolic, Damjan S.; Piguet, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infects T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells and can manipulate their cytoskeleton structures at multiple steps during its replication cycle. Based on pharmacological and genetic targeting of cytoskeleton modulators, new imaging approaches and primary cell culture models, important roles for actin and microtubules during entry and cell-to-cell transfer have been established. Virological synapses and actin-containing membrane extensions can mediate HIV-1 transfer from dendritic cells or macrophage cells to T cells and between T cells. We will review the role of the cytoskeleton in HIV-1 entry, cellular trafficking and cell-to-cell transfer between primary cells. PMID:21994805

  8. Cytoskeleton reorganization mediates alpha6beta1 integrin-associated actions of laminin on proliferation and survival, but not on steroidogenesis of ovine granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Bellego, Frédérique Le; Fabre, Stéphane; Pisselet, Claudine; Monniaux, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Background Laminin (LN) is one of the most abundant extracellular matrix components of the basal lamina and granulosa cell layers of ovarian follicles. Culture of ovine granulosa cells (GC) on LN substratum induces cell spreading, enhances cell survival and proliferation, and promotes luteinization. Previous investigations have shown that these effects are mostly mediated by the alpha6beta1 integrin, but its signalization pathways have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the importance of the cytoskeleton in the alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated actions of laminin on survival, proliferation and steroidogenesis of ovine GC. Methods The relationships between morphology and functions of ovine GC cultured on substrata containing LN or/and RGD peptides were investigated. The effects of (1) cytochalasin D, an actin cytoskeleton-disrupting drug, (2) a specific function-blocking antibody raised against alpha6 integrin subunit (anti-alpha6 IgG), and (3) an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signalization pathway (PD98059) were assessed for GC shape, pyknosis and proliferation rates, oestradiol and progesterone secretions. Results Cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D induced cell rounding, inhibited proliferation, promoted pyknosis, inhibited progesterone secretion and enhanced oestradiol secretion by GC cultured on LN. When GC were cultured on various substrata containing LN and/or RGD peptides in the presence or absence of anti-alpha6 IgG, both the existence of close correlations between the percentage of round cells, and the GC proliferation rate (r = -0.87) and pyknotic rate (r = 0.76) were established, but no relationship was found between cell shape and steroidogenesis. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalization pathway by PD98059 had no effect on GC shape, proliferation or pyknotic rates. However, it dramatically reduced progesterone secretion, expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 3beta-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase enzymes, and enhanced

  9. Actin polymerization stabilizes α4β1 integrin anchors that mediate monocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Henry; Hyduk, Sharon J.; Wong, Janice C.; Digby, Genevieve; Arora, Pamma D.; Cano, Adrianet Puig; Hartwig, John; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Leukocytes arrested on inflamed endothelium via integrins are subjected to force imparted by flowing blood. How leukocytes respond to this force and resist detachment is poorly understood. Live-cell imaging with Lifeact-transfected U937 cells revealed that force triggers actin polymerization at upstream α4β1 integrin adhesion sites and the adjacent cortical cytoskeleton. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this culminates in the formation of structures that anchor monocyte adhesion. Inhibition of actin polymerization resulted in cell deformation, displacement, and detachment. Transfection of dominant-negative constructs and inhibition of function or expression revealed key signaling steps required for upstream actin polymerization and adhesion stabilization. These included activation of Rap1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ isoform, and Rac but not Cdc42. Thus, rapid signaling and structural adaptations enable leukocytes to stabilize adhesion and resist detachment forces. PMID:22472442

  10. Arp2/3 Controls the Motile Behavior of N-WASP-Functionalized GUVs and Modulates N-WASP Surface Distribution by Mediating Transient Links with Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Delatour, Vincent; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Didry, Dominique; Lê, Kim Hô Diêp; Gaucher, Jean-François; Carlier, Marie-France; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Spatially controlled assembly of actin in branched filaments generates cell protrusions or the propulsion of intracellular vesicles and pathogens. The propulsive movement of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) functionalized by N-WASP (full-length or truncated) is reconstituted in a biochemically controlled medium, and analyzed using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the links between membrane components and the actin cytoskeleton that determine motile behavior. Actin-based propulsion displays a continuous regime or a periodic saltatory regime. The transition between the two regimes is controlled by the concentration of Arp2/3 complex, which branches filaments by interacting with N-WASP at the liposome surface. Saltatory motion is linked to cycles in the distribution of N-WASP at the membrane between a homogeneous and a segregated state. Comparison of the changes in distribution of N-WASP, Arp2/3, and actin during propulsion demonstrates that actin filaments bind to N-WASP, and that these bonds are transitory. This interaction, mediated by Arp2/3, drives N-WASP segregation. VC-fragments of N-WASP, that interact more weakly than N-WASP with the Arp2/3 complex, segregate less than N-WASP at the rear of the GUVs. GUV propulsion is inhibited by the presence of VCA-actin covalent complex, showing that the release of actin from the nucleator is required for movement. The balance between segregation and free diffusion determines whether continuous movement can be sustained. Computed surface distributions of N-WASP, derived from a theoretical description of this segregation-diffusion mechanism, account satisfactorily for the measured density profiles of N-WASP, Arp2/3 complex, and actin. PMID:18326652