Sample records for actin-activated myosin atpase

  1. Substitution Mutations in the Myosin Essential Light Chain Lead to Reduced Actin-activated ATPase Activity Despite Stoichiometric

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    are postulated to provide rigidity to the neck which is hypothesized to function as a "lever arm" for generating an effective power stroke (7). This lever arm concept is supported by the fact that weakening of the lever arm the lever arm 50% by deleting the RLC binding site produces myosin that moves actin at one-half the wild

  2. The 110-kD protein-calmodulin complex of the intestinal microvillus is an actin-activated MgATPase

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The microvillus 110-kD protein-calmodulin complex (designated 110K-CM) shares several properties with all myosins. In addition to its well- defined ATP-dependent binding interaction with F-actin, 110K-CM is an ATPase with diagnostically myosin-like divalent cation sensitivity. It exhibits maximum enzymatic activity in the presence of K+ and EDTA (0.24 mumol P1/mg per min) or in the presence of Ca++ (0.40 mumol P1/mg per min) and significantly less activity in physiological ionic conditions of salt and Mg++ (0.04 mumol P1/mg per min). This MgATPase is activated by F-actin in an actin concentration-dependent manner (up to 2.5-3.5-fold). The specific MgATPase activity of 110K-CM is also enhanced by the addition of 5-10 microM Ca++, but in the isolated complex, there is often also a decrease in the extent of actin activation in this range of free Ca++. Actin activation is maintained, however, in samples with exogenously added calmodulin; under these conditions, there is an approximately sevenfold stimulation of 110K- CM's enzymatic activity in the presence of 5-10 microM Ca++ and actin. 110K-CM is relatively indiscriminant in its nucleoside triphosphate specificity; in addition to ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP, and ITP are all hydrolyzed by the complex in the presence of either Mg++ or Ca++. Neither AMP nor the phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate are substrates for the enzymatic activity. The pH optimum for CaATPase activity is 6.0-7.5; maximum actin activation of MgATPase occurs over a broad pH range of 6.5-8.5. Finally, like myosins, purified 110K-CM crosslinks actin filaments into loosely ordered aggregates in the absence of ATP. Collectively these data support the proposal of Collins and Borysenko (1984, J. Biol. Chem., 259:14128-14135) that the 110K-CM complex is functionally analogous to the mechanoenzyme myosin. PMID:2956266

  3. Different subcellular localizations and functions of Arabidopsis myosin VIII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lior Golomb; Mohamad Abu-Abied; Eduard Belausov; Einat Sadot

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myosins are actin-activated ATPases that use energy to generate force and move along actin filaments, dragging with their tails different cargos. Plant myosins belong to the group of unconventional myosins and Arabidopsis myosin VIII gene family contains four members: ATM1, ATM2, myosin VIIIA and myosin VIIIB. RESULTS: In transgenic plants expressing GFP fusions with ATM1 (IQ-tail truncation, lacking the

  4. Functional Analysis of Myosin Mutations That Cause Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osha Roopnarine; Leslie A. Leinwand

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the actin-activated ATPase activities of three mutations in the motor domain of the myosin heavy chain that cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We placed these mutations in rodent ?-cardiac myosin to establish the relevance of using rodent systems for studying the biochemical mechanisms of the human disease. We also wished to determine whether the biochemical defects in these

  5. Myosin Dynamics on the Millisecond Time Scale

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Yan Hu, Jimmy; Ajtai, Katalin

    2007-01-01

    Myosin is a motor protein associating with actin and ATP. It translates along actin filaments against a force by transduction of free energy liberated with ATP hydrolysis. Various myosin crystal structures define time points during ATPase showing the protein undergoes large conformation change during transduction over a cycle with ?10 milliseconds periodicity. The protein conformation trajectory between two intermediates in the cycle is surmised by non-equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation utilizing free energy minimization. The trajectory shows myosin transduction of free energy to mechanical work giving evidence for: (i) a causal relationship between product release and work production in the native isoform that is correctly disrupted in a chemically modified protein, (ii) the molecular basis of ATP sensitive tryptophan fluorescence enhancement and acrylamide quenching, (iii) an actin binding site peptide containing the free energy barrier to ATPase product release defining the rate limiting step and, (iv) a scenario for actin-activation of myosin ATPase. PMID:17913331

  6. Myosin dynamics on the millisecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Hu, Jimmy Yan; Ajtai, Katalin

    2007-12-01

    Myosin is a motor protein associating with actin and ATP. It translates along actin filaments against a force by transduction of free energy liberated with ATP hydrolysis. Various myosin crystal structures define time points during ATPase showing the protein undergoes large conformation change during transduction over a cycle with approximately 10 ms periodicity. The protein conformation trajectory between two intermediates in the cycle is surmised by non-equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation utilizing free-energy minimization. The trajectory shows myosin transduction of free energy to mechanical work giving evidence for: (i) a causal relationship between product release and work production in the native isoform that is correctly disrupted in a chemically modified protein, (ii) the molecular basis of ATP-sensitive tryptophan fluorescence enhancement and acrylamide quenching, (iii) an actin-binding site peptide containing the free-energy barrier to ATPase product release defining the rate limiting step and, (iv) a scenario for actin-activation of myosin ATPase. PMID:17913331

  7. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, D V; Lebarch, E C; Moreira, C M; Wiggers, G A; Stefanon, I

    2008-09-01

    Lead (Pb2+) poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 microM) to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz), relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM), and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL) were determined before and after the addition of 100 microM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz) and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 microM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 microM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 microM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 microM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle. PMID:18820769

  8. Local energetic regulation of sarcoplasmic and myosin ATPase is differently impaired in rats with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Frederic; Wilding, James R; Fortin, Dominique; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Novotova, Marta; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Veksler, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Local control of ATP/ADP ratio is essential for efficient functioning of cellular ATPases. Since creatine kinase (CK) activity and mitochondrial content are reduced in heart failure (HF), and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure is altered, we hypothesized that these changes may affect the local energetic control of two major cardiac ATPases, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and the myosin ATPase. Heart failure was induced by aortic stenosis in rats. Electron microscopy confirmed that failing cardiomyocytes had intracellular disorganization, with fewer contacts between mitochondria and myofibrils. Despite normal SERCA protein content, spontaneous Ca2+ release measurements using Fluo-4 on saponin-permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed a lower SR loading in HF even when endogenous CK and mitochondria were fully activated. Similarly, in permeabilized fibres, SR Ca2+ loading supported by SR-bound CK and mitochondria was significantly reduced in HF (by 49% and 40%, respectively, 43% when both systems were activated, P < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase treatment had no effect, but glycolytic substrates normalized calcium loading in HF to the sham level. The control by CK and mitochondria of the local ATP/ADP ratio close to the myosin ATPase (estimated by rigor tension) was also significantly impaired in HF fibres (by 32% and 46%, respectively). However, while the contributions of mitochondria and CK to local ATP regeneration were equally depressed in HF for the control of SERCA, mitochondrial contribution was more severely impaired than CK (P < 0.05) with respect to myofilament regulation. These data show that local energetic regulation of essential ATPases is severely impaired in heart failure, and undergoes a complex remodelling as a result of a decreased activity of the ATP-generating systems and cytoarchitecture disorganization. PMID:18787038

  9. Structural and Enzymatic Comparison of Human Cardiac Muscle Myosins Isolated from Infants, Adults, and Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schier, John J.; Adelstein, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Human cardiac ventricular myosins were prepared from autopsy samples from nine adults, seven infants, and from surgical specimens from seven patients undergoing left ventricular septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Infant myosin differed from adult myosin in two important characteristics: (a) ?30% of the 27,000-dalton myosin light chain is replaced by a 28,000-dalton light chain, and (b) the actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity of infant myosin is significantly lower than that of adult myosin (64 nmol phosphate released/mg myosin per min vs. 124 nmol/mg per min at 37°C). The K+-EDTA ATPase activity of the myosin measured in 0.5M KCl is also lower in infants (1,210 nmol/mg per min vs. 620 nmol/mg per min at 37°C), but the Ca++-activated ATPase is not significantly different. There were no differences in enzymatic activity between the normal adult and cardiomyopathic myosins. A detailed study was performed to investigate possible variations in the structure of the myosin heavy chain in infant, adult, and cardiomyopathic samples. There were no significant differences between infant and normal adult, or between normal adult and cardiomyopathic myosins seen in pyrophosphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or peptide mapping using alpha-chymotrypsin, papain, or cyanogen bromide to generate peptides. These results suggest that isoenzymes of human ventricular myosin do not exist for the myosin heavy chain in the specimens examined from infants, adults, and patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The decreased actin-activated MgATPase activity found for infant myosin appears to be due solely to a partial replacement of the 27,000-dalton light chain of myosin with a 28,000-dalton light chain. Images PMID:6210710

  10. Myosin Mg-ATPase of molluscan muscles is slightly activated by F-actin under catch state in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akira; Yoshio, Maki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2013-05-01

    Molluscan muscle twitchin, a titin/connectin-related giant protein, regulates interactions between actin and myosin filaments at low Ca(2+) concentrations. When it is dephosphorylated, actin filaments tightly bind to myosin filaments, resulting in the catch state known as the state of high passive tension with very low energy consumption. Yet when twitchin is phosphorylated actin filaments detach from the myosin filaments, resulting in relaxation of the catch. Here, steady-state Mg-ATPase activities of purified myosin were measured under various conditions: without twitchin, with dephosphorylated twitchin, or with phosphorylated twitchin; with or without phalloidin-stabilized F-actin; and at various Ca(2+) concentrations. At low Ca(2+) concentration, Mg-ATPase was activated by F-actin only in the presence of dephosphorylated twitchin (catch state). The activation was about two orders lower than that fully activated by Ca(2+) and F-actin. In the absence of F-actin, twitchin and its phosphorylation state did not affect Mg-ATPase activities in any of the conditions we tested. Based on these results, we propose a molecular mechanism for the catch, where twitchin alone does not interact with the myosin catalytic motor domain but its complex with F-actin does, forming the bridge between actin and myosin filaments and the myosin slowly hydrolyzes Mg-ATP in the catch state. PMID:23535935

  11. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins. PMID:21757693

  12. The Kinetic Mechanism of Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Cruz, Enrique M.; Wells, Amber L.; Rosenfeld, Steven S.; Ostap, E. Michael; Sweeney, H. Lee

    1999-11-01

    Myosin V is an unconventional myosin proposed to be processive on actin filaments, analogous to kinesin on a microtubule [Mehta, A. D., et al. (1999) Nature (London) 400, 590-593]. To ascertain the unique properties of myosin V that permit processivity, we undertook a detailed kinetic analysis of the myosin V motor. We expressed a truncated, single-headed myosin V construct that bound a single light chain to study its innate kinetics, free from constraints imposed by other regions of the molecule. The data demonstrate that unlike any previously characterized myosin a single-headed myosin V spends most of its kinetic cycle (>70%) strongly bound to actin in the presence of ATP. This kinetic tuning is accomplished by increasing several of the rates preceding strong binding to actin and concomitantly prolonging the duration of the strongly bound state by slowing the rate of ADP release. The net result is a myosin unlike any previously characterized, in that ADP release is the rate-limiting step for the actin-activated ATPase cycle. Thus, because of a number of kinetic adaptations, myosin V is tuned for processive movement on actin and will be capable of transporting cargo at lower motor densities than any other characterized myosin.

  13. Myocyte contractility can be maintained by storing cells with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3 butanedione monoxime.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charles S; Mechas, Charles; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2015-06-01

    Isolated intact myocytes can be used to investigate contractile mechanisms and to screen new therapeutic compounds. These experiments typically require euthanizing an animal and isolating fresh cells each day or analyzing cultured myocytes, which quickly lose their rod-shaped morphology. Recent data suggest that the viability of canine myocytes can be prolonged using low temperature and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (an inhibitor of skeletal myosin ATPase). We performed similar studies in rat myocytes in order to test whether the cardiac myosin ATPase inhibitors 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) and blebbistatin help to maintain cell-level function over multiple days. Myocytes were isolated from rats and separated into batches that were stored at 4°C in a HEPES-buffered solution that contained 0.5 mmol L(-1) Ca(2+) and (1) no myosin ATPase inhibitors; (2) 10 mmol L(-1) BDM; or (3) 3 ?mol L(-1) blebbistatin. Functional viability of myocytes was assessed up to 3 days after the isolation by measuring calcium transients and unloaded shortening profiles induced by electrical stimuli in inhibitor-free Tyrode's solution. Cells stored without myosin ATPase inhibitors had altered morphology (fewer rod-shaped cells, shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths, and membrane blebbing) and were not viable for contractile assays after 24 h. Cells stored in BDM maintained morphology and contractile function for 48 h. Storage in blebbistatin maintained cell morphology for 72 h but inhibited contractility. These data show that storing cells with myosin ATPase inhibitors can extend the viability of myocytes that will be used for functional assays. This may help to refine and reduce the use of animals in experiments. PMID:26116551

  14. Advances in quantum simulations of ATPase catalysis in the myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    During its contraction cycle, the myosin motor catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP. Several combined quantum/classical mechanics (QM/MM) studies of this step have been published, which substantially contributed to our thinking about the catalytic mechanism. The methodological difficulties encountered over the years in the simulation of this complex reaction are now understood: (a) Polarization of the protein peptide groups surrounding the highly charged ATP(4-) cannot be neglected. (b) Some unsuspected protein groups need to be treated QM. (c) Interactions with the ?-phosphate versus the ?-phosphate favor a concurrent versus a sequential mechanism, respectively. Thus, these practical aspects strongly influence the computed mechanism, and should be considered when studying other catalyzed phosphor-ester hydrolysis reactions, such as in ATPases or GTPases. PMID:26005996

  15. Aberrant movement of ?-tropomyosin associated with congenital myopathy causes defective response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Avrova, Stanislava V; Rysev, Nikita A; Sirenko, Vladimir V; Simonyan, Armen O; Chernev, Aleksey A; Karpicheva, Olga E; Piers, Adam; Redwood, Charles S

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of the E41K, R91G, and E139del ?-tropomyosin (TM) mutations that cause congenital myopathy on the position of TM and orientation of actin monomers and myosin heads at different mimicked stages of the ATPase cycle in troponin-free ghost muscle fibers by polarized fluorimetry. A multi-step shifting of wild-type TM to the filament center accompanied by an increase in the amount of switched on actin monomers and the strongly bound myosin heads was observed during the ATPase cycle. The R91G mutation shifts TM further towards the inner and outer domains of actin at the strong- and weak-binding stages, respectively. The E139del mutation retains TM near the inner domains, while the E41K mutation captures it near the outer domains. The E41K and R91G mutations can induce the strong binding of myosin heads to actin, when TM is located near the outer domains. The E139del mutation inhibits the amount of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. PMID:25978979

  16. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Fischer, S. [University of Heidelberg

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  17. Mechanism of physiologic versus pathologic ventricular hypertrophy process: Enhanced or depressed myosin ATPase activity and contractility governed by type, degree and duration of inciting stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wikman-Coffelt; M. M. Laks; T. H. Riernenschneider; D. T. Mason

    1980-01-01

    Summary Types of hypertrophy, such as the normal development of the left ventricle of new-born lambs, induction of hypertrophy following administration of subhypertensive doses of norepinephrine, and hypertrophy where moderate pulmonic stenosis is the inciting stimulus, are all of a physiologic nature, i.e., cardiac function is elevated and K+ stimulated myosin ATPase activity is increased. The K+\\/EDTA stimulated myosin ATPase

  18. Reversible effects of okadaic acid and microcystin-LR on the ATP-dependent interaction between actin and myosin.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, K; Kohama, K

    1995-03-01

    Okadaic acid, a toxin from black sponge, and microcystin-LR, a toxin from blue-green algae, were found to stimulate and inhibit, respectively, the actin-activated ATPase activity of skeletal muscle myosin. These effects were confirmed by monitoring the sliding movement of actin-filaments on myosin. This technique also enabled us to demonstrate the reversibility of these effects, a property that is essential for their use as a pharmacological tool for the analysis of the mechanochemical characteristics of muscular contraction. The sites of action of both toxins were within the myosin molecule, as demonstrated by monitoring (i) their effects on the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of heavy meromyosin and (ii) their ATP-dependent effects on the ATPase activity. The former effects further suggest that myosin heads are their actual sites of action, and the latter effects suggest that they interact with the ATPase active sites located within the heads. PMID:7629015

  19. Elucidating the mechanism of wound contraction: rapid versus sustained myosin ATPase activity in attached-delayed-released compared with free-floating fibroblast-populated collagen lattices.

    PubMed

    Paul Ehrlich, H; Sun, Bonnie; Kainth, Koijan S; Kromah, Fatuma

    2006-01-01

    Wound contraction closes open wounds by the generation of contractile forces within granulation tissue. We investigated the mechanism of wound contraction using the in vitro fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) contraction model. The contraction of the free-floating (FF)-FPCL is through rapid myosin ATPase activity, while the contraction of the attached-delayed-released (ADR)-FPCL is through sustained myosin ATPase activity. All FPCLs were cast identically and the contraction of FF-FPCLs was recorded daily for 4 days and the contraction of ADR-FPCLs was recorded 1 hour after release on day 4. At day, 4 cell numbers were determined and cells undergoing apoptosis were identified and counted. Differences in sustained and rapid myosin ATPase activity were shown by added inosine triphosphate-induced cell contraction in permeabilized fibroblast monolayer preparations. At 2 days, the FF-FPCLs were mostly contracted, while an ADR-FPCL completed contraction 1 hour after release at day 4. Contracted myofibroblasts, identified by alpha-smooth muscle actin-stained stress fibers, were identified in contracted ADR-FPCL, whereas elongated fibroblasts were identified in contracted FF-FPCLs. Vanadate inhibited both inosine triphosphate-induced cell contraction and ADR-FPCL contraction, but neither inhibited ATP-induced cell contraction or FF-FPCL contraction. Genistein inhibited FF-FPCL contraction, but not ADR-FPCL contraction. Advancing tyrosine phosphorylation in fibroblasts promotes rapid myosin ATPase activity, while advancing tyrosine dephosphorylation in myofibroblasts promotes sustained myosin ATPase. The ADR-FPCL had a reduced cell count and a greater proportion of cells had entered apoptosis compared with FF-FPCL. These experiments show that FF-FPCL contraction is through elongated fibroblasts and rapid myosin ATPase, requiring tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast, the mechanism for ADR-FPCL contraction is through cell contraction by sustained myosin ATPase, involving tyrosine dephosphorylation. PMID:17014676

  20. Inhibiting Myosin-ATPase Reveals Dynamic Range of Mitochondrial Respiratory Control in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christopher G.R.; Kane, Daniel A.; Lin, Chien-Te; Kozy, Rachel; Cathey, Brook L.; Lark, Daniel S.; Kane, Constance L.; Brophy, Patricia M.; Gavin, Timothy P; Anderson, Ethan J.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiratory kinetics in permeabilized skeletal myofibres (PmFB) is increasingly used in clinical diagnostic and basic research settings. However, estimates of the Km for ADP vary considerably (?20-300 ?M) and tend to overestimate respiration at rest. Noting PmFBs spontaneously contract during respiration experiments, we systematically determined the impact of contraction, temperature and oxygenation on ADP-stimulated respiratory kinetics. Blebbistatin (BLEB), a myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blocked contraction under all conditions and yielded high Km values for ADP of >?250 and ?80 ?M in red and white rat PmFB, respectively. In the absence of BLEB, PmFB contracted and the Km for ADP decreased by ?2 to 10-fold in a temperature-dependent manner. PmFB were sensitive to hyperoxia (increased Km) in the absence of BLEB (contracted) at 30°C but not 37°C. In PmFB from humans, contraction elicited high sensitivity to ADP (m <100 ?M) whereas blocking contraction (+BLEB) and including PCr:Cr = 2 to mimic the resting energetic state yielded a Km for ADP = ?1560 ?M, consistent with estimates of in vivo resting respiratory rates of <1% maximum. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of muscle to ADP varies over a wide range in relation to contractile state and cellular energy charge, providing evidence that enzymatic coupling of energy transfer within skeletal muscle becomes more efficient in the working state. PMID:21554250

  1. The Myosin C-Loop Is an Allosteric Actin Contact Sensor in Actomyosin†

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Halstead, Miriam F.; Nyitrai, Miklós; Penheiter, Alan R.; Zheng, Ye; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    Actin and myosin form the molecular motor in muscle. Myosin is the enzyme performing ATP hydrolysis under the allosteric control of actin such that actin binding initiates product release and force generation in the myosin power stroke. Non-equilibrium Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulation of the power stroke suggested that a structured surface loop on myosin, the C-loop, is the actin contact sensor initiating actin activation of the myosin ATPase. Previous experimental work demonstrated C-loop binds actin and established the forward and reverse allosteric link between the C-loop and the myosin active site. Here, smooth muscle heavy meromyosin C-loop chimeras were constructed with skeletal (sCl) and cardiac (cCl) myosin C-loops substituted for the native sequence. In both cases, actin-activated ATPase inhibition is indicated mainly by the lower Vmax. In vitro motility was also inhibited in the chimeras. Motility data were collected as a function of myosin surface density, with unregulated actin, and with skeletal and cardiac isoforms of tropomyosin-bound actin for the wild type, cCl, and sCl. Slow and fast subpopulations of myosin velocities in the wild-type species were discovered and represent geometrically unfavorable and favorable actomyosin interactions, respectively. Unfavorable interactions are detected at all surface densities tested. Favorable interactions are more probable at higher myosin surface densities. Cardiac tropomyosin-bound actin promotes the favorable actomyosin interactions by lowering the inhibiting geometrical constraint barriers with a structural effect on actin. Neither higher surface density nor cardiac tropomyosin-bound actin can accelerate motility velocity in cCl or sCl, suggesting the element initiating maximal myosin activation by actin resides in the C-loop. PMID:19408946

  2. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. [Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1762 (United States)], E-mail: sellersj@nhlbi.nih.gov; Thirumurugan, Kavitha [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Sakamoto, Takeshi [Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1762 (United States); Hammer, John A. [Laboratory of Cell Biology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1762 (United States); Knight, Peter J. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  3. Recombinant motor domain constructs of Chara corallina myosin display fast motility and high ATPase activity

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    and it is the highest measured for a molecular motor protein, so far. Myosin converts chemical energy liberated by ATP the myosin responsible for fast cytoplasmic streaming. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords velocity, critical information about the chemo-mechanical energy conversion would be obtained

  4. Definite Differences between In Vitro Actin-Myosin Sliding and Muscle Contraction as Revealed Using Antibodies to Myosin Head

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Abe, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazushige; Saeki, Yasutake; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from attachment-detachment cycles between myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and actin filaments. It is generally believed that a myosin head first attaches to actin, undergoes conformational changes to produce force and motion in muscle, and then detaches from actin. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism of myosin head conformational changes still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. The myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (CVD) and lever arm (LD) domains. To give information about the role of these domains in the myosin head performance, we have examined the effect of three site-directed antibodies to the myosin head on in vitro ATP-dependent actin-myosin sliding and Ca2+-activated contraction of muscle fibers. Antibody 1, attaching to junctional peptide between 50K and 20K heavy chain segments in the CAD, exhibited appreciable effects neither on in vitro actin-myosin sliding nor muscle fiber contraction. Since antibody 1 covers actin-binding sites of the CAD, one interpretation of this result is that rigor actin-myosin linkage is absent or at most a transient intermediate in physiological actin-myosin cycling. Antibody 2, attaching to reactive lysine residue in the CVD, showed a marked inhibitory effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding without changing actin-activated myosin head (S1) ATPase activity, while it showed no appreciable effect on muscle contraction. Antibody 3, attaching to two peptides of regulatory light chains in the LD, had no significant effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding, while it reduced force development in muscle fibers without changing MgATPase activity. The above definite differences in the effect of antibodies 2 and 3 between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction can be explained by difference in experimental conditions; in the former, myosin heads are randomly oriented on a glass surface, while in the latter myosin heads are regularly arranged within filament-lattice structures. PMID:24918754

  5. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel molecular motor, Leishmania myosin-XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Woodall, Katy A; Toseland, Christopher P; Hundschell, Christian; Veigel, Claudia

    2012-08-10

    The genome of the Leishmania parasite contains two classes of myosin. Myosin-XXI, seemingly the only myosin isoform expressed in the protozoan parasite, has been detected in both the promastigote and amastigote stages of the Leishmania life cycle. It has been suggested to perform a variety of functions, including roles in membrane anchorage, but also long-range directed movements of cargo. However, nothing is known about the biochemical or mechanical properties of this motor. Here we designed and expressed various myosin-XXI constructs using a baculovirus expression system. Both full-length (amino acids 1-1051) and minimal motor domain constructs (amino acids 1-800) featured actin-activated ATPase activity. Myosin-XXI was soluble when expressed either with or without calmodulin. In the presence of calcium (pCa 4.1) the full-length motor could bind a single calmodulin at its neck domain (probably amino acids 809-823). Calmodulin binding was required for motility but not for ATPase activity. Once bound, calmodulin remained stably attached independent of calcium concentration (pCa 3-7). In gliding filament assays, myosin-XXI moved actin filaments at ?15 nm/s, insensitive to both salt (25-1000 mm KCl) and calcium concentrations (pCa 3-7). Calmodulin binding to the neck domain might be involved in regulating the motility of the myosin-XXI motor for its various cellular functions in the different stages of the Leishmania parasite life cycle. PMID:22718767

  6. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Molecular Motor, Leishmania Myosin-XXI*

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Woodall, Katy A.; Toseland, Christopher P.; Hundschell, Christian; Veigel, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the Leishmania parasite contains two classes of myosin. Myosin-XXI, seemingly the only myosin isoform expressed in the protozoan parasite, has been detected in both the promastigote and amastigote stages of the Leishmania life cycle. It has been suggested to perform a variety of functions, including roles in membrane anchorage, but also long-range directed movements of cargo. However, nothing is known about the biochemical or mechanical properties of this motor. Here we designed and expressed various myosin-XXI constructs using a baculovirus expression system. Both full-length (amino acids 1–1051) and minimal motor domain constructs (amino acids 1–800) featured actin-activated ATPase activity. Myosin-XXI was soluble when expressed either with or without calmodulin. In the presence of calcium (pCa 4.1) the full-length motor could bind a single calmodulin at its neck domain (probably amino acids 809–823). Calmodulin binding was required for motility but not for ATPase activity. Once bound, calmodulin remained stably attached independent of calcium concentration (pCa 3–7). In gliding filament assays, myosin-XXI moved actin filaments at ?15 nm/s, insensitive to both salt (25–1000 mm KCl) and calcium concentrations (pCa 3–7). Calmodulin binding to the neck domain might be involved in regulating the motility of the myosin-XXI motor for its various cellular functions in the different stages of the Leishmania parasite life cycle. PMID:22718767

  7. Myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase from Dictyostelium: effects of reversible phosphorylation on myosin structure and function

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have partially purified myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) from Dictyostelium discoideum. MLCK was purified 4,700-fold with a yield of approximately 1 mg from 350 g of cells. The enzyme is very acidic as suggested by its tight binding to DEAE. Dictyostelium MLCK has an apparent native molecular mass on HPLC G3000SW of approximately 30,000 D. Mg2+ is required for enzyme activity. Ca2+ inhibits activity and this inhibition is not relieved by calmodulin. cAMP or cGMP have no effect on enzyme activity. Dictyostelium MLCK is very specific for the 18,000-D light chain of Dictyostelium myosin and does not phosphorylate the light chain of several other myosins tested. Myosin purified from log-phase amebas of Dictyostelium has approximately 0.3 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain as assayed by glycerol-urea gel electrophoresis. Dictyostelium MLCK can phosphorylate this myosin to a stoichiometry approaching 1 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain. MLCP, which was partially purified, selectively removes phosphate from the 18,000-D light chain but not from the heavy chain of Dictyostelium myosin. Phosphatase-treated Dictyostelium myosin has less than or equal to 0.01 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain. Phosphatase-treated myosin could be rephosphorylated to greater than or equal to 0.96 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain by incubation with MLCK and ATP. We found myosin thick filament assembly to be independent of the extent of 18,000-D light-chain phosphorylation when measured as a function of ionic strength. However, actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of Dictyostelium myosin was found to be directly related to the extent of phosphorylation of the 18,000-D light chain. MLCK-treated myosin moved in an in vitro motility assay (Sheetz, M. P., and J. A. Spudich, 1983, Nature (Lond.), 305:31-35) at approximately 1.4 micron/s whereas phosphatase-treated myosin moved only slowly or not at all. The effects of phosphatase treatment on the movement were fully reversed by subsequent treatment with MLCK. PMID:3032987

  8. Comparison of the molecular, antigenic and ATPase determinants of fast myosin heavy chains in rat and human: a single-fibre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. A. Pereira Sant’Ana; Steven Ennion; Anthony J. Sargeant; Antoon F. M. Moorman; G. Goldspink

    1997-01-01

    Combined methodologies of histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis\\u000a (SDS-PAGE), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a histochemical method specific for myofibrillar\\u000a ATPase (mATPase) of the type IIX myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform were used to study human and rat single fibres to examine\\u000a the homology between type II MyHC isoform-based fibres of both species. We demonstrate

  9. Myosin IIB and F-actin control apical vacuolar morphology and histamine-induced trafficking of H-K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles in gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Paramasivam; Crothers, James M; Rosen, Jared E; Nakada, Stephanie L; Rakholia, Milap; Okamoto, Curtis T; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2014-04-15

    Selective inhibitors of myosin or actin function and confocal microscopy were used to test the role of an actomyosin complex in controlling morphology, trafficking, and fusion of tubulovesicles (TV) containing H-K-ATPase with the apical secretory canaliculus (ASC) of primary-cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. In resting cells, myosin IIB and IIC, ezrin, and F-actin were associated with ASC, whereas H-K-ATPase localized to intracellular TV. Histamine caused fusion of TV with ASC and subsequent expansion resulting from HCl and water secretion; F-actin and ezrin remained associated with ASC whereas myosin IIB and IIC appeared to dissociate from ASC and relocalize to the cytoplasm. ML-7 (inhibits myosin light chain kinase) caused ASC of resting cells to collapse and most myosin IIB, F-actin, and ezrin to dissociate from ASC. TV were unaffected by ML-7. Jasplakinolide (stabilizes F-actin) caused ASC to develop large blebs to which actin, myosin II, and ezrin, as well as tubulin, were prominently localized. When added prior to stimulation, ML-7 and jasplakinolide prevented normal histamine-stimulated transformations of ASC/TV and the cytoskeleton, but they did not affect cells that had been previously stimulated with histamine. These results indicate that dynamic pools of actomyosin are required for maintenance of ASC structure in resting cells and for trafficking of TV to ASC during histamine stimulation. However, the dynamic pools of actomyosin are not required once the histamine-stimulated transformation of TV/ASC and cytoskeleton has occurred. These results also show that vesicle trafficking in parietal cells shares mechanisms with similar processes in renal collecting duct cells, neuronal synapses, and skeletal muscle. PMID:24578340

  10. Myosin IIB and F-actin control apical vacuolar morphology and histamine-induced trafficking of H-K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, James M.; Rosen, Jared E.; Nakada, Stephanie L.; Rakholia, Milap; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of myosin or actin function and confocal microscopy were used to test the role of an actomyosin complex in controlling morphology, trafficking, and fusion of tubulovesicles (TV) containing H-K-ATPase with the apical secretory canaliculus (ASC) of primary-cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. In resting cells, myosin IIB and IIC, ezrin, and F-actin were associated with ASC, whereas H-K-ATPase localized to intracellular TV. Histamine caused fusion of TV with ASC and subsequent expansion resulting from HCl and water secretion; F-actin and ezrin remained associated with ASC whereas myosin IIB and IIC appeared to dissociate from ASC and relocalize to the cytoplasm. ML-7 (inhibits myosin light chain kinase) caused ASC of resting cells to collapse and most myosin IIB, F-actin, and ezrin to dissociate from ASC. TV were unaffected by ML-7. Jasplakinolide (stabilizes F-actin) caused ASC to develop large blebs to which actin, myosin II, and ezrin, as well as tubulin, were prominently localized. When added prior to stimulation, ML-7 and jasplakinolide prevented normal histamine-stimulated transformations of ASC/TV and the cytoskeleton, but they did not affect cells that had been previously stimulated with histamine. These results indicate that dynamic pools of actomyosin are required for maintenance of ASC structure in resting cells and for trafficking of TV to ASC during histamine stimulation. However, the dynamic pools of actomyosin are not required once the histamine-stimulated transformation of TV/ASC and cytoskeleton has occurred. These results also show that vesicle trafficking in parietal cells shares mechanisms with similar processes in renal collecting duct cells, neuronal synapses, and skeletal muscle. PMID:24578340

  11. Quantification and localization of phosphorylated myosin I isoforms in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The actin-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of the three myosin I isoforms in Acanthamoeba castellanii are significantly expressed only after phosphorylation of a single site in the myosin I heavy chain. Synthetic phosphorylated and unphosphorylated peptides corresponding to the phosphorylation site sequences, which differ for the three myosin I isoforms, were used to raise isoform-specific antibodies that recognized only the phosphorylated myosin I or the total myosin I isoform (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated), respectively. With these antisera, the amounts of total and phosphorylated isoform were quantified, the phosphomyosin I isoforms localized, and the compartmental distribution of the phosphomyosin isoforms determined. Myosin IA, which was almost entirely in the actin-rich cortex, was 70- 100% phosphorylated and particularly enriched under phagocytic cups. Myosins IB and IC were predominantly associated with plasma membranes and large vacuole membranes, where they were only 10-20% phosphorylated, whereas cytoplasmic myosins IB and IC, like cytoplasmic myosin IA, were mostly phosphorylated (60-100%). Moreover, phosphomyosin IB was concentrated in actively motile regions of the plasma membrane. More than 20-fold more phosphomyosin IC and 10-fold more F-actin were associated with the membranes of contracting contractile vacuoles (CV) than of filling CVs. As the total amount of CV-associated myosin IC remained constant, it must be phosphorylated at the start of CV contraction. These data extend previous proposals for the specific functions of myosin I isozymes in Acanthamoeba (Baines, I.C., H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119: 1193-1203): phosphomyosin IA in phagocytosis, phosphomyosin IB in phagocytosis and pinocytosis, and phosphomyosin IC in contraction of the CV. PMID:7622560

  12. Functional Characterization of Human Myosin-18A and Its Interaction with F-actin and GOLPH3*

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Manuel H.; Behrmann, Elmar; Munske-Weidemann, Lena-Christin; Thiel, Claudia; Raunser, Stefan; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular motors of the myosin superfamily share a generic motor domain region. They commonly bind actin in an ATP-sensitive manner, exhibit actin-activated ATPase activity, and generate force and movement in this interaction. Class-18 myosins form heavy chain dimers and contain protein interaction domains located at their unique N-terminal extension. Here, we characterized human myosin-18A molecular function in the interaction with nucleotides, F-actin, and its putative binding partner, the Golgi-associated phosphoprotein GOLPH3. We show that myosin-18A comprises two actin binding sites. One is located in the KE-rich region at the start of the N-terminal extension and appears to mediate ATP-independent binding to F-actin. The second actin-binding site resides in the generic motor domain and is regulated by nucleotide binding in the absence of intrinsic ATP hydrolysis competence. This core motor domain displays its highest actin affinity in the ADP state. Electron micrographs of myosin-18A motor domain-decorated F-actin filaments show a periodic binding pattern independent of the nucleotide state. We show that the PDZ module mediates direct binding of myosin-18A to GOLPH3, and this interaction in turn modulates the actin binding properties of the N-terminal extension. Thus, myosin-18A can act as an actin cross-linker with multiple regulatory modulators that targets interacting proteins or complexes to the actin-based cytoskeleton. PMID:23990465

  13. Mutating the Converter–Relay Interface of Drosophila Myosin Perturbs ATPase Activity, Actin Motility, Myofibril Stability and Flight Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Kronert; Girish C. Melkani; Anju Melkani; Sanford I. Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    We used an integrative approach to probe the significance of the interaction between the relay loop and converter domain of the myosin molecular motor from Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle. During the myosin mechanochemical cycle, ATP-induced twisting of the relay loop is hypothesized to reposition the converter, resulting in cocking of the contiguous lever arm into the pre-power stroke configuration.

  14. 11036 Biochemistry 1991, 30, 11036-1 1045 Rotational Dynamics of Actin-Bound Intermediates in the Myosin ATPase Cycle?

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    11036 Biochemistry 1991, 30, 11036-1 1045 Articles Rotational Dynamics of Actin-Bound Intermediates August 27, 1991 ABSTRACT: We have used saturation-transfer electron paramagnetic resonance (ST-EPR of myosin heads bound to actin under ST-EPR conditions and the fraction of heads containing bound nucleotide

  15. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac ?- and ?-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of ?-myosin by 20% and ?-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  16. The effect of novel mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of unconventional myosins associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Jun; Oh, Se-Kyung; Park, Hong-Joon; Sato, Osamu; Venselaar, Hanka; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, SungHee; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Bok, Jinwoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Vriend, Gert; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Kim, Un-Kyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in five unconventional myosin genes have been associated with genetic hearing loss (HL). These genes encode the motor proteins myosin IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA. To date, most mutations in myosin genes have been found in the Caucasian population. In addition, only a few functional studies have been performed on the previously reported myosin mutations. We performed screening and functional studies for mutations in the MYO1A and MYO6 genes in Korean cases of autosomal dominant non-syndromic HL. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MYO6. Three mutations (p.R825X, p.R991X and Q918fsX941) produce a premature truncation of the myosin VI protein. Another mutation, p.R205Q, was associated with diminished actin-activated ATPase activity and actin gliding velocity of myosin VI in an in vitro analysis. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenicity of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. One missense variant, p.R544W, was found in the MYO1A gene, and in silico analysis suggested that this variant has deleterious effects on protein function. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenic effect of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. PMID:25080041

  17. The effect of novel mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of unconventional myosins associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Tae-Jun; Oh, Se-Kyung; Park, Hong-Joon; Sato, Osamu; Venselaar, Hanka; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, SungHee; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Bok, Jinwoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Vriend, Gert; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Kim, Un-Kyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in five unconventional myosin genes have been associated with genetic hearing loss (HL). These genes encode the motor proteins myosin IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA. To date, most mutations in myosin genes have been found in the Caucasian population. In addition, only a few functional studies have been performed on the previously reported myosin mutations. We performed screening and functional studies for mutations in the MYO1A and MYO6 genes in Korean cases of autosomal dominant non-syndromic HL. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MYO6. Three mutations (p.R825X, p.R991X and Q918fsX941) produce a premature truncation of the myosin VI protein. Another mutation, p.R205Q, was associated with diminished actin-activated ATPase activity and actin gliding velocity of myosin VI in an in vitro analysis. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenicity of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. One missense variant, p.R544W, was found in the MYO1A gene, and in silico analysis suggested that this variant has deleterious effects on protein function. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenic effect of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. PMID:25080041

  18. CaATP as a substrate to investigate the myosin lever arm hypothesis of force generation.

    PubMed Central

    Polosukhina, K; Eden, D; Chinn, M; Highsmith, S

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to test the lever arm model of force generation, the effects of replacing magnesium with calcium as the ATP-chelated divalent cation were determined for several myosin and actomyosin reactions. The isometric force produced by glycerinated muscle fibers when CaATP is the substrate is 20% of the value obtained with MgATP. For myosin subfragment 1 (S1), the degree of lever arm rotation, determined using transient electric birefringence to measure rates of rotational Brownian motion in solution, is not significantly changed when calcium replaces magnesium in an S1-ADP-vanadate complex. Actin activates S1 CaATPase activity, although less than it does MgATPase activity. The increase in actin affinity when S1. CaADP. P(i) is converted to S1. CaADP is somewhat greater than it is for the magnesium case. The ionic strength dependence of actin binding indicates that the change in apparent electrostatic charge at the acto-S1 interface for the S1. CaADP. P(i) to S1. CaADP step is similar to the change when magnesium is bound. In general, CaATP is an inferior substrate compared to MgATP, but all the data are consistent with force production by a lever arm mechanism for both substrates. Possible reasons for the reduced magnitude of force when CaATP is the substrate are discussed. PMID:10692332

  19. Cytoplasmic myosin from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Myosin is identified and purified from three different established Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (Schneider's lines 2 and 3 and Kc). Purification entails lysis in a low salt, sucrose buffer that contains ATP, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, precipitation with actin in the absence of ATP, gel filtration in a discontinuous KI-KCl buffer system, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Yield of pure cytoplasmic myosin is 5-10%. This protein is identified as myosin by its cross-reactivity with two monoclonal antibodies against human platelet myosin, the molecular weight of its heavy chain, its two light chains, its behavior on gel filtration, its ATP-dependent affinity for actin, its characteristic ATPase activity, its molecular morphology as demonstrated by platinum shadowing, and its ability to form bipolar filaments. The molecular weight of the cytoplasmic myosin's light chains and peptide mapping and immunochemical analysis of its heavy chains demonstrate that this myosin, purified from Drosophila cell lines, is distinct from Drosophila muscle myosin. Two-dimensional thin layer maps of complete proteolytic digests of iodinated muscle and cytoplasmic myosin heavy chains demonstrate that, while the two myosins have some tryptic and alpha-chymotryptic peptides in common, most peptides migrate with unique mobility. One-dimensional peptide maps of SDS PAGE purified myosin heavy chain confirm these structural data. Polyclonal antiserum raised and reacted against Drosophila myosin isolated from cell lines cross-reacts only weakly with Drosophila muscle myosin isolated from the thoraces of adult Drosophila. Polyclonal antiserum raised against Drosophila muscle myosin behaves in a reciprocal fashion. Taken together our data suggest that the myosin purified from Drosophila cell lines is a bona fide cytoplasmic myosin and is very likely the product of a different myosin gene than the muscle myosin heavy chain gene that has been previously identified and characterized. PMID:3095337

  20. Myosin gene expression in the respiratory muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Gea

    1997-01-01

    Myosin gene expression in the respiratory muscles. J.G. Gea. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Myosin is one of the basic structural components of skeletal mus- cles. Its interaction with actin results in muscle contraction. The myosin molecule is composed of two heavy (MyHC) and two light chains (MyLC) that, together with the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, determine the functional char-

  1. Structure and Regulation of the Movement of Human Myosin VIIA.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Jung, Hyun Suk; Sato, Osamu; Yamada, Masafumi D; You, Dong-Ju; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2015-07-10

    Human myosin VIIA (HM7A) is responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss in humans. Here we studied the regulation of HM7A. The actin-activated ATPase activity of full-length HM7A (HM7AFull) was lower than that of tail-truncated HM7A (HM7A?Tail). Deletion of the C-terminal 40 amino acids and mutation of the basic residues in this region (R2176A or K2179A) abolished the inhibition. Electron microscopy revealed that HM7AFull is a monomer in which the tail domain bends back toward the head-neck domain to form a compact structure. This compact structure is extended at high ionic strength or in the presence of Ca(2+). Although myosin VIIA has five isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motifs, the neck length seems to be shorter than the expected length of five bound calmodulins. Supporting this observation, the IQ domain bound only three calmodulins in Ca(2+), and the first IQ motif failed to bind calmodulin in EGTA. These results suggest that the unique IQ domain of HM7A is important for the tail-neck interaction and, therefore, regulation. Cellular studies revealed that dimer formation of HM7A is critical for its translocation to filopodial tips and that the tail domain (HM7ATail) markedly reduced the filopodial tip localization of the HM7A?Tail dimer, suggesting that the tail-inhibition mechanism is operating in vivo. The translocation of the HM7AFull dimer was significantly less than that of the HM7A?Tail dimer, and R2176A/R2179A mutation rescued the filopodial tip translocation. These results suggest that HM7A can transport its cargo molecules, such as USH1 proteins, upon release of the tail-dependent inhibition. PMID:26001786

  2. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Actin and myosin of rabbit pulmonary macrophages are influenced by two other proteins. A protein cofactor is required for the actin activation of macrophage myosin Mg2 ATPase activity, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein aggregates actin filaments (Stossel T.P., and J.H. Hartwig. 1975. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5706-5711)9 When warmed in 0.34 M sucrose solution containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol, these four proteins interact cooperatively. Acin-binding protein in the presence of actin causes the actin to form a gel, which liquifies when cooled. The myosin contracts the gel into an aggregate, and the rate of aggregation is accelerated by the cofactor. Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol. The gelled extracts are composed of tangled filaments. Relative to homogenates of resting macrophages, the distribution of actin-binding protein in homogenates of phagocytizing macrophages is altered such that 2-6 times more actin-binding protein is soluble. Sucrose extracts of phagocytizing macrophages gel more rapidly than extracts of resting macrophages. Phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages involves the formation of peripheral pseudopods containing filaments. The findings suggest that the actin-binding protein initiates a cooperative interaction of contractile proteins to generate cytoplasmic gelation, and that phagocytosis influences the behavior of the actin-binding protein. PMID:1035911

  3. Antibodies directed against N-terminal residues on actin do not block acto-myosin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.; Kalnoski, M.; Yunossi, Z.; Bulinski, J.C.; Reisler, E.

    1987-09-22

    Several studies using a variety of approaches have suggested a possible role for the amino-terminal residues of skeletal muscle actin in acto-myosin interaction. In order to assess the significance of acto-S-1 contacts involving the N-terminal segment of actin, the authors have prepared polyclonal antisera against a synthetic /sup 14/C-peptide corresponding to the seven amino-terminal residues of rabbit skeletal muscle actin (..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide). Affinity-purified immunoglobulin (Ig) G (and Fab) prepared from these antisera reacts strongly and specifically with the amino-terminal segment of both G- and F-actin but not with myosin subfragment 1 (S-1). This specificity was determined by Western blot analysis of actin and its proteolytic fragments and the inhibition of the above reactivity by the ..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide. The ..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide did not interact with S-1 in solution, affect S-1 and actin-activated S-1 MgATPase, or cause dissociation of the acto-S-1 complex. In separate experiments F-actin could be cosedimented with S-1 and affinity-purified IgG or Fab by using an air-driven ultracentrifuge. Densitometric analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels of pellet and supernatant fractions from such experiments demonstrated the binding of both S-1 and IgG or Fab to the same F-actin protomer. The results suggest that, while the acidic N-terminal amino acids of actin may contact the myosin head, these residues cannot be the main determinants of acto-S-1 interaction.

  4. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  6. Thiols of myosin. III. Spectrophotometric identification of the amino acid residue of myosin modified by rho-nitrobenzenediazonium fluoroborate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Kabasawa, I; Kimura, M; Sekine, T

    1975-08-01

    As previously reported, rho-nitrobenzenediazonium fluoroborate strongly inhibits Ca2+- ATPase of myosin [EC 3.6.1.3] without appreciable suppression of its EDTA-K+- ATPase activity, and the presence of ATP in the reaction medium reverses the pattern of alteration in both ATPase activities, i.e., causing selective inhibition of EDTA-K+ -ATPase. Spectrophotometric studies on the azo-coupling products of 17 amino acids and their derivatives revealed that the amino acid residue of myosin modified by the diazonium dye was cysteine in both the presence and absence of ATP. It is also suggested that the number of cysteinyl residues responsible for the activity changes was one mole per mole of myosin subunit. PMID:132431

  7. Oridonin suppress cell migration via regulation of nonmuscle myosin IIA.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Chao; Sun, Mo-Ran; Zhao, Yi-Hong; Fu, Xian-Zu; Xu, Hai-Wei; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2014-10-01

    Oridonin, which is isolated from Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, has been implicated in regulation of tumor cell migration and invasion. In this study, treatment with oridonin enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) that regulates the ATPase activity of myosin IIA. Meanwhile, stress fibers were significantly more prominent after oridonin incubation, which impaired cell migration in transwell migration assays. All of these effects may be caused by the decreased interaction between myosin IIA and myosin phosphatase complex, but not kinases. Our data provide clear evidence of this novel pharmacological function for oridonin in treating cancer cell migration. PMID:25297007

  8. Cytoskeletal Motors in Arabidopsis. Sixty-One Kinesins and Seventeen Myosins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuh-Ru Julie Lee; Bo Liu

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins are ATPases that use the energy released from ATP hydrolysis to move along the cytoskeletal elements of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Found among all eukaryotic organ- isms, kinesins are microtubule-based motor proteins with a conserved kinesin motor domain, and myosins are actin microfilament-based motor proteins with a conserved myosin motor domain. Cytoskeletal mo- tor proteins directly contribute

  9. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS ON MYOSIN FROM PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM

    PubMed Central

    Nachmias, Vivianne T.

    1972-01-01

    Myosin has been separated from Physarum polycephalum actomyosin in confirmation of the results of Hatano and Tazawa. In an intermediate step, myosin-enriched actomyosin has also been obtained. The mean yield of free myosin was 4.4 mg from 100 g of mold. It was obtained as water-clear solutions at µ = 0.055 with calcium ATPase activity of up to 0.5 µM Pi/min per mg. Negatively stained preparations were examined by electron microscopy. Physarum myosin in 0.5 M KCl interacted with actin from rabbit skeletal muscle to form polarized arrowhead complexes similar to but less regular than those of natural actomyosin from muscle or myosin-enriched Physarum actomyosin. The Physarum myosin-enriched actomyosin at low ionic strength displayed evidence of head-to-tail and tail-to-tail aggregation attributable to the myosin component. Yet Physarum myosin alone did not produce detectable filaments at µ = 0.055 at pH 7, 6.5, or 5.8, nor when dialyzed against 0.01 M ammonium acetate, nor when the dielectric constant of the medium was reduced. However, aggregation approaching the extent of ‘thick filaments’ up to 0.3 µ long was found in some preparations of myosin-enriched actomyosin put into solutions containing adenosine triphosphate. Myosin alone in such solutions did not form filaments. The results are compatible with the idea that head-to-tail aggregations are favored by actin-myosin interactions in Physarum, possibly due to alignment of the extended or tail portions of this myosin molecule. PMID:5061886

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Allosteric communication in Dictyostelium myosin II

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    123 J Muscle Res Cell Motil DOI 10.1007/s10974-012-9304-y #12;to gain insight into the structural to that of skeletal muscle myosin II) was obtained only by adding all native Cys and an artificial lever arm extension during the actomyosin ATPase cycle generates force and motility in muscle and non-muscle cells

  11. Dynamic electron microscopy of ATP-induced myosin head movement in living muscle thick?filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sutoh, Kazuo; Chaen, Shigeru; Oishi, Noboru; Suzuki, Suechika

    1997-01-01

    Although muscle contraction is known to result from movement of the myosin heads on the thick filaments while attached to the thin filaments, the myosin head movement coupled with ATP hydrolysis still remains to be investigated. Using a gas environmental (hydration) chamber, in which biological specimens can be kept in wet state, we succeeded in recording images of living muscle thick filaments with gold position markers attached to the myosin heads. The position of individual myosin heads did not change appreciably with time in the absence of ATP, indicating stability of the myosin head mean position. On application of ATP, the position of individual myosin heads was found to move by ?20 nm along the filament axis, whereas no appreciable movement of the filaments was detected. The ATP-induced myosin head movement was not observed in filaments in which ATPase activity of the myosin heads was eliminated. Application of ADP produced no appreciable myosin head movement. These results show that the ATP-induced myosin head movement takes place in the absence of the thin filaments. Because ATP reacts rapidly with the myosin head (M) to form the complex (M?ADP?Pi) with an average lifetime of >10 s, the observed myosin head movement may be mostly associated with reaction, M + ATP ? M?ADP?Pi. This work will open a new research field to study dynamic structural changes of individual biomolecules, which are kept in a living state in an electron microscope. PMID:9113997

  12. Temperature induced denaturation of myosin: evidence of structural alterations of myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2014-10-01

    Denaturation of myofibrillar proteins in porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle was investigated after pre-rigor temperature incubation at 20, 30 and 40°C. At 24h myofibrils were isolated and myosin was further cleaved by chymotrypsin. High temperature pre-rigor induced release of myosin S1 (subfragment-1), less (P < 0.05) Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and structural alterations of the region of the myosin molecule that harbors S1. Surface hydrophobicity of myofibrils from the 40°C group increased (P<0.001), suggesting a temperature-induced structural rearrangement exposing hydrophobic groups on the surface of myofibrils which in turn may explain the reduced water-holding of PSE meat. PMID:24927048

  13. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jonathan E.; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R.; Friedman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin–specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end–directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (?430 nm·s?1 at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (kcat ?6 s?1) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (kdet = 6.2 s?1) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  14. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jonathan E; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R; Friedman, Thomas B

    2014-08-26

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin-specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end-directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (? 430 nm · s(-1) at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (k(cat) ? 6 s(-1)) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (k(det) = 6.2 s(-1)) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  15. Myosins in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions. PMID:22954512

  16. Higher plant myosin XI moves processively on actin with 35 nm steps at high velocity

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Yokota, Etsuo; Orii, Hidefumi; Nakamori, Rinna; Katayama, Eisaku; Anson, Michael; Shimmen, Teruo; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2003-01-01

    High velocity cytoplasmic streaming is found in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. We characterized mechanical and enzymatic properties of a higher plant myosin purified from tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, responsible for cytoplasmic streaming, having a 175 kDa heavy chain and calmodulin light chains. Sequence analysis shows it to be a class XI myosin and a dimer with six IQ motifs in the light chain-binding domains of each heavy chain. Electron microscopy confirmed these predictions. We measured its ATPase characteristics, in vitro motility and, using optical trap nanometry, forces and movement developed by individual myosin XI molecules. Single myosin XI molecules move processively along actin with 35 nm steps at 7 ?m/s, the fastest known processive motion. Processivity was confirmed by actin landing rate assays. Mean maximal force was ?0.5 pN, smaller than for myosin IIs. Dwell time analysis of beads carrying single myosin XI molecules fitted the ATPase kinetics, with ADP release being rate limiting. These results indicate that myosin XI is highly specialized for generation of fast processive movement with concomitantly low forces. PMID:12628919

  17. Kinetic mechanism of Nicotiana tabacum myosin-11 defines a new type of a processive motor.

    PubMed

    Diensthuber, Ralph P; Tominaga, Motoki; Preller, Matthias; Hartmann, Falk K; Orii, Hidefumi; Chizhov, Igor; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The 175-kDa myosin-11 from Nicotiana tabacum (Nt(175kDa)myosin-11) is exceptional in its mechanical activity as it is the fastest known processive actin-based motor, moving 10 times faster than the structurally related class 5 myosins. Although this ability might be essential for long-range organelle transport within larger plant cells, the kinetic features underlying the fast processive movement of Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 still remain unexplored. To address this, we generated a single-headed motor domain construct and carried out a detailed kinetic analysis. The data demonstrate that Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 is a high duty ratio motor, which remains associated with actin most of its enzymatic cycle. However, different from other processive myosins that establish a high duty ratio on the basis of a rate-limiting ADP-release step, Nt(175kDa)myosin-11 achieves a high duty ratio by a prolonged duration of the ATP-induced isomerization of the actin-bound states and ADP release kinetics, both of which in terms of the corresponding time constants approach the total ATPase cycle time. Molecular modeling predicts that variations in the charge distribution of the actin binding interface might contribute to the thermodynamic fine-tuning of the kinetics of this myosin. Our study unravels a new type of a high duty ratio motor and provides important insights into the molecular mechanism of processive movement of higher plant myosins. PMID:25326536

  18. Hereditary myosin myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Oldfors

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies have emerged as a new group of muscle diseases with highly variable clinical features and onset during fetal development, childhood or adulthood. They are caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes. Mutations have been reported in two of the three MyHC isoforms expressed in adult limb skeletal muscle: type I (slow\\/?-cardiac MyHC; MYH7)

  19. Plant Myosins VIII, XI, And XIII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Yamamoto

    There are three classes of myosins in plants: myosins VIII, XI, and XIII. Myosins VIII and XI are widely distributed and found\\u000a not only in higher plants, but also in Chlamydomonas, while myosin XIII is found only in Acetabularia. Biochemical studies have been done mainly on myosin XI, which is the most abundantly expressed myosin in plants.

  20. Ultraslow myosin molecular motors of placental contractile stem villi in humans.

    PubMed

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Guerin, Catherine; Hébert, Jean-Louis; Arsalane, Abdelilah; Moumen, Abdelouahab; Krokidis, Xénophon; Michel, Francine; Timbely, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Human placental stem villi (PSV) present contractile properties. In vitro mechanics were investigated in 40 human PSV. Contraction of PSV was induced by both KCl exposure (n?=?20) and electrical tetanic stimulation (n?=?20). Isotonic contractions were registered at several load levels ranging from zero-load up to isometric load. The tension-velocity relationship was found to be hyperbolic. This made it possible to apply the A. Huxley formalism for determining the rate constants for myosin cross-bridge (CB) attachment and detachment, CB single force, catalytic constant, myosin content, and maximum myosin ATPase activity. These molecular characteristics of myosin CBs did not differ under either KCl exposure or tetanus. A comparative approach was established from studies previously published in the literature and driven by mean of a similar method. As compared to that described in mammalian striated muscles, we showed that in human PSV, myosin CB rate constants for attachment and detachment were about 103 times lower whereas myosin ATPase activity was 105 times lower. Up to now, CB kinetics of contractile cells arranged along the long axis of the placental sheath appeared to be the slowest ever observed in any mammalian contractile tissue. PMID:25268142

  1. Yeast UCS proteins promote actomyosin interactions and limit myosin turnover in cells.

    PubMed

    Lord, Matthew; Sladewski, Thomas E; Pollard, Thomas D

    2008-06-10

    Two functions are proposed for the conserved family of UCS proteins: helping to fold myosin motor proteins and stimulating the motor function of folded myosins. We examined both functions in yeast. The fission yeast UCS protein (Rng3p) concentrates in nodes containing myosin-II (Myo2) and other proteins that condense into the cytokinetic contractile ring. Both the N-terminal (central) and C-terminal (UCS) domains of Rng3p can concentrate independently in contractile rings, but only full-length Rng3p supports contractile ring function in vivo. The presence of Rng3p in ATPase assays doubles the apparent affinity (K(ATPase)) of both native Myo2 and recombinant heads of Myo2 for actin filaments. Rng3p promotes gliding of actin filaments by full-length Myo2 molecules, but not Myo2 heads alone. Myo2 isolated from mutant strains defective for Rng3p function is soluble and supports actin filament gliding. In budding yeast the single UCS protein (She4p) acts on both myosin-I isoforms (Myo3p and Myo5p) and one of two myosin-V isoforms (Myo4p). Myo5p turns over approximately 10 times faster in she4Delta cells than wild-type cells, reducing the level of Myo5p in cells 10-fold and in cortical actin patches approximately 4-fold. Nevertheless, Myo5p isolated from she4Delta cells has wild-type ATPase and motility activities. Thus, a fraction of this yeast myosin can fold de novo in the absence of UCS proteins, but UCS proteins promote myosin stability and interactions with actin. PMID:18523008

  2. Dynamic interaction between cardiac myosin isoforms modifies velocity of actomyosin sliding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sata, M; Sugiura, S; Yamashita, H; Momomura, S; Serizawa, T

    1993-10-01

    To study the functional significance of cardiac isomyosin heterogeneity, active sliding of actin-myosin was studied using two different types of in vitro motility assay systems: (1) a sliding actin filament assay, in which fluorescently labeled actin filaments were made to slide on a myosin layer attached to a glass coverslip, and (2) a myosin-coated bead assay, in which myosin-coated latex beads were made to slide on actin cables of an alga. Two different isomyosins were obtained from 3-week-old (V1) and hypothyroid (V3) rat hearts and were mixed to form solutions with various mixing ratios [V1/(V1 + V3)]. For these myosin mixtures, both ATPase activity and sliding velocity of actin-myosin were determined. As the relative content of V1 increased, both ATPase activity and velocity increased. However, in contrast to the linear relation between the mixing ratio and ATPase activity, the relation between the mixing ratio and sliding velocity was sigmoid, suggesting the existence of mechanical interaction between different isomyosins. To clarify the nature of this interaction, sliding velocity was measured for mixtures of V1 and p-N,N'-phenylene-dimaleimide-treated V1 myosin (pPDM-M). A convex relation was observed between the relative content of pPDM-M and velocity. Because pPDM-M is known to form a noncycling and weakly bound crossbridge with actin, it is expected to exert a constant internal load on V1, in contrast to the actively cycling V3. In conclusion, in actomyosin sliding, different isomyosins mechanically interact when they coexist. The interaction may be a dynamic one that cannot be explained by a simple load effect. PMID:8370124

  3. Local heat activation of single myosins based on optical trapping of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Atsuko H; Ikezaki, Keigo; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Myosin is a mechano-enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP in order to move unidirectionally along actin filaments. Here we show by single molecule imaging that myosin V motion can be activated by local heat. We constructed a dark-field microscopy that included optical tweezers to monitor 80 nm gold nanoparticles (GNP) bound to single myosin V molecules with nanometer and submillisecond accuracy. We observed 34 nm processive steps along actin filaments like those seen when using 200 nm polystyrene beads (PB) but dwell times (ATPase activity) that were 4.5 times faster. Further, by using DNA nanotechnology (DNA origami) and myosin V as a nanometric thermometer, the temperature gradient surrounding optically trapped GNP could be estimated with nanometer accuracy. We propose our single molecule measurement system should advance quantitative analysis of the thermal control of biological and artificial systems like nanoscale thermal ratchet motors. PMID:25736894

  4. Expression of the inclusion body myopathy 3 mutation in Drosophila depresses myosin function and stability and recapitulates muscle inclusions and weakness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Melkani, Girish C; Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Anju; Kronert, William A; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies are characterized by variable clinical features. Inclusion body myopathy 3 (IBM-3) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a missense mutation (E706K) in the myosin heavy chain IIa gene. Adult patients experience progressive muscle weakness. Biopsies reveal dystrophic changes, rimmed vacuoles with cytoplasmic inclusions, and focal disorganization of myofilaments. We constructed a transgene encoding E706K myosin and expressed it in Drosophila (E701K) indirect flight and jump muscles to establish a novel homozygous organism with homogeneous populations of fast IBM-3 myosin and muscle fibers. Flight and jump abilities were severely reduced in homozygotes. ATPase and actin sliding velocity of the mutant myosin were depressed >80% compared with wild-type myosin. Light scattering experiments and electron microscopy revealed that mutant myosin heads bear a dramatic propensity to collapse and aggregate. Thus E706K (E701K) myosin appears far more labile than wild-type myosin. Furthermore, mutant fly fibers exhibit ultrastructural hallmarks seen in patients, including cytoplasmic inclusions containing aberrant proteinaceous structures and disorganized muscle filaments. Our Drosophila model reveals the unambiguous consequences of the IBM-3 lesion on fast muscle myosin and fibers. The abnormalities observed in myosin function and muscle ultrastructure likely contribute to muscle weakness observed in our flies and patients. PMID:22496423

  5. Comparative study on acid-induced gelation of myosin from Atlantic cod (Gardus morhua) and burbot (Lota lota).

    PubMed

    Riebroy, Siriporn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Erikson, Ulf; Rustad, Turid

    2008-07-01

    Physicochemical and rheological properties of myosin from Atlantic cod and burbot during acid-induced gelation at room temperature (22-23°C) by d-gluconic acid-?-lactone (GDL) were monitored. Turbidity and particle size of both myosins increased and salt soluble content decreased when pH decreased, suggesting the formation of protein aggregates caused by acidification. The formation of disulphide bonds in myosin gelation was induced by acid. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of myosin decreased (p<0.05), while surface hydrophobicity increased during acidification (p<0.05). Furthermore, the decreases in maximum transition temperature (Tmax) and the denaturation enthalpies (?H) were found in both myosins. During acidification, the increases in storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G?) of myosin were observed (p<0.05), revealing the formation of elastic gel matrix. Thus, gelation of myosin from Atlantic cod and burbot could take place under acidic pH via denaturation and aggregation. However, myosin from Atlantic cod was generally more favourable to gelation than was burbot myosin. PMID:26054263

  6. Catalytic strategy used by the myosin motor to hydrolyze ATP

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Myosin is a molecular motor responsible for biological motions such as muscle contraction and intracellular cargo transport, for which it hydrolyzes adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Early steps of the mechanism by which myosin catalyzes ATP hydrolysis have been investigated, but still missing are the structure of the final ADP·inorganic phosphate (Pi) product and the complete pathway leading to it. Here, a comprehensive description of the catalytic strategy of myosin is formulated, based on combined quantum–classical molecular mechanics calculations. A full exploration of catalytic pathways was performed and a final product structure was found that is consistent with all experiments. Molecular movies of the relevant pathways show the different reorganizations of the H-bond network that lead to the final product, whose ?-phosphate is not in the previously reported HP?O42? state, but in the H2P?O4? state. The simulations reveal that the catalytic strategy of myosin employs a three-pronged tactic: (i) Stabilization of the ?-phosphate of ATP in a dissociated metaphosphate (P?O3?) state. (ii) Polarization of the attacking water molecule, to abstract a proton from that water. (iii) Formation of multiple proton wires in the active site, for efficient transfer of the abstracted proton to various product precursors. The specific role played in this strategy by each of the three loops enclosing ATP is identified unambiguously. It explains how the precise timing of the ATPase activation during the force generating cycle is achieved in myosin. The catalytic strategy described here for myosin is likely to be very similar in most nucleotide hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:25006262

  7. Biochemical and conformational changes of myosin purified from Pacific sardine at various pHs.

    PubMed

    Park, J D; Yongsawatdigul, J; Choi, Y J; Park, J W

    2008-04-01

    Biochemical and conformational changes of purified sardine myosin were investigated at various pHs. The purity of myosin, as determined by SDS-PAGE, was approximately 94.6%. One major band at 205 kDa, corresponding to myosin heavy chain, and 3 light chains at 31, 24, and 23 kDa were observed on the SDS-PAGE gel. The greatest myosin protein solubility was observed at pH 7 and remained constant up to pH 11. Sardine myosin showed no solubility at pHs 2.5 to 5.0. Three endothermic peaks were obtained for samples prepared at pHs 7 and 10, while no peaks were shown for pH 2 samples, indicating chemical denaturation of myosin occurred before thermal treatment. The greatest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was observed at pH 7, while no activity was observed between pHs 2 and 5 and at pH 11. Total sulfhydryl content was not measured at pHs 2.5 to 4 while the greatest measure was obtained for samples at pH 5.5. Surface hydrophobicity was not detected from pHs 2.5 to 5.0; thereafter the content remained consistent through pH 11. Storage modulus, indicating the elastic element of myosin gels, was minimally affected at pH 2, indicating myosin was chemically denatured before the temperature sweep treatment. However, at pH 10, the thermal exposure of myosin, as evidenced by dynamic thermograms with deeper valleys at 40 to 60 degrees C, was noted, indicating myosin was not damaged by adjustment to pH 10 and therefore was still able to undergo thermal gelation. PMID:18387098

  8. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The control systems regulating muscle contraction in approximately 100 organisms have been categorized. Both myosin control and actin control operate simultaneously in the majority of invertebrates tested. These include insects, chelicerates, most crustaceans, annelids, priapulids, nematodes, and some sipunculids. Single myosin control is present in the muscles of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, echiuroids, and nemertine worms. Single actin control was found in the fast muscles of decapods, in mysidacea, in a single sipunculid species, and in vertebrate striated muscles. Classification is based on functional tests that include measurements of the calcium dependence of the actomyosin ATPase activity in the presence and the absence of purified rabbit actin and myosin. In addition, isolated thin filaments and myosins were also analyzed. Molluscs lack actin control since troponin is not present in sufficient quantities. Even though the functional tests indicate the complete lack of myosin control in vertebrate striated muscle, it is difficult to exclude unambiguously the in vivo existence of this regulation. Both control systems have been found in animals from phyla which evolved early. We cannot ascribe any simple correlation between ATPase activity, muscle structure, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:125778

  9. Mammalian Myosin-18A, a Highly Divergent Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Heissler, Sarah M.; Billington, Neil; Takagi, Yasuharu; Yang, Yi; Knight, Peter J.; Homsher, Earl; Sellers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Mus musculus myosin-18A gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, ? and ?, with reported roles in Golgi localization, in maintenance of cytoskeleton, and as receptors for immunological surfactant proteins. Both myosin-18A isoforms feature a myosin motor domain, a single predicted IQ motif, and a long coiled-coil reminiscent of myosin-2. The myosin-18A? isoform, additionally, has an N-terminal PDZ domain. Recombinant heavy meromyosin- and subfragment-1 (S1)-like constructs for both myosin-18A? and -18? species were purified from the baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. These constructs bound both essential and regulatory light chains, indicating an additional noncanonical light chain binding site in the neck. Myosin-18A?-S1 and -18A?-S1 molecules bound actin weakly with Kd values of 4.9 and 54 ?m, respectively. The actin binding data could be modeled by assuming an equilibrium between two myosin conformations, a competent and an incompetent form to bind actin. Actin binding was unchanged by presence of nucleotide. Both myosin-18A isoforms bound N-methylanthraniloyl-nucleotides, but the rate of ATP hydrolysis was very slow (<0.002 s?1) and not significantly enhanced by actin. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain had no effect on ATP hydrolysis, and neither did the addition of tropomyosin or of GOLPH3, a myosin-18A binding partner. Electron microscopy of myosin-18A-S1 showed that the lever is strongly angled with respect to the long axis of the motor domain, suggesting a pre-power stroke conformation regardless of the presence of ATP. These data lead us to conclude that myosin-18A does not operate as a traditional molecular motor in cells. PMID:23382379

  10. Rotational dynamics of actin-bound intermediates of the myosin adenosine triphosphatase cycle in myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, C L; Thomas, D D

    1994-01-01

    We have used saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance (ST-EPR) to measure the microsecond rotational motion of actin-bound myosin heads in spin-labeled myofibrils in the presence of the ATP analogs AMPPNP (5'-adenylylimido-diphosphate) and ATP gamma S (adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)). AMPPNP and ATP gamma S are believed to trap myosin in two major conformational intermediates of the actomyosin ATPase cycle, respectively known as the weakly bound and strongly bound states. Previous ST-EPR experiments with solutions of acto-S1 have demonstrated that actin-bound myosin heads are rotationally mobile on the microsecond time scale in the presence of ATP gamma S, but not in the presence of AMPPNP. However, it is not clear that results obtained with acto-S1 in solution can be extended to actomyosin constrained within the myofibrillar lattice. Therefore, ST-EPR spectra of spin-labeled myofibrils were analyzed explicitly in terms of the actin-bound component of myosin heads in the presence of AMPPNP and ATP gamma S. The fraction of actin-attached myosin heads was determined biochemically in the spin-labeled myofibrils, using the proteolytic rates actomyosin binding assay. At physiological ionic strength (mu = 165 mM), actin-bound myosin heads were found to be rotationally mobile on the microsecond time scale (tau r = 24 +/- 8 microseconds) in the presence of ATP gamma S, but not AMPPNP. Similar results were obtained at low ionic strength, confirming the acto-S1 solution studies. The microsecond rotational motions of actin-attached myosin heads in the presence of ATP gamma S are similar to those observed for spin-labeled myosin heads during the steady-state cycling of the actomyosin ATPase, both in solution and in an active isometric muscle fiber. These results indicate that weakly bound myosin heads, in the pre-force phase of the ATPase cycle, are rotationally mobile, while strongly bound heads, in the force-generating phase, are rotationally immobile. We propose that force generation involves a transition from a dynamically disordered crossbridge to a rigid and stereospecific one. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:7918993

  11. Internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Arata, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiro; Nakajima, Kenji; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2015-04-10

    Various biological functions related to cell motility are driven by the interaction between the partner proteins, actin and myosin. To obtain insights into how this interaction occurs, the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were characterized by the quasielastic neutron scattering measurements on the solution samples of F-actin and S1. Contributions of the internal motions of the proteins to the scattering spectra were separated from those of the global macromolecular diffusion. Analysis of the spectra arising from the internal dynamics showed that the correlation times of the atomic motions were about two times shorter for F-actin than for S1, suggesting that F-actin fluctuates more rapidly than S1. It was also shown that the fraction of the immobile atoms is larger for S1 than for F-actin. These results suggest that F-actin actively facilitates the binding of myosin by utilizing the more frequent conformational fluctuations than those of S1. PMID:25747714

  12. Calcium-Pumping ATPases in Vesicles from Carrot Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ling; Pierce, Wayne S.; Sze, Heven

    1991-01-01

    Ca2+-ATPases keep cytoplasmic [Ca2+] low by pumping Ca2+ into intracellular compartments or out of the cell. The transport properties of Ca2+-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in vesicles that comigrated with an endoplasmic reticulum marker, was stimulated three- to fourfold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity; however, it had no effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ uptake driven by ATP or GTP. The results would suggest the presence of two types of Ca2+-ATPases, an endoplasmic reticulum- and a plasma membrane-type. Interestingly, incubation of membranes with [gamma32P]ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl [32P]phosphoprotein of 120 kilodaltons. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca2+, but independent of Mg2+. Its enhancement by La3+ is characteristic of a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate of a plasma membrane-type Ca-ATPase. Calmodulin stimulated Ca2+ transport was decreased by W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist), ML-7 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitor) or thyroxine. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca2+ transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca2+ pump of 120 kilodaltons. The possibility of calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, as well as the plasma membrane is suggested. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668581

  13. Fluorescence studies on the nucleotide- and Ca2+-binding domains of molluscan myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, C; Warriner, K E; Bagshaw, C R

    1985-01-01

    The effects of nucleotides and Ca2+ on the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of molluscan myosin and its proteolytic fragments were studied. By using these proteins from the scallop, Pecten maximus, the existence of two distinct tryptophan-containing domains was established, which respond independently to ATP and Ca2+-specific binding. The latter is located in the 'neck' region of the myosin, which constitutes the regulatory domain. Subfragment 1, lacking the regulatory domain, responded only to ATP binding. On the other hand a tryptic fragment comprising the regulatory domain responded only to Ca2+ binding. Subfragment 1, containing the regulatory domain, responded to both ATP and Ca2+, but its ATPase activity was Ca2+-insensitive. By contrast, the ATPase activity of HMM was Ca2+-sensitive. Increasing the ionic strength had a detrimental effect on Ca2+-sensitivity, and fluorescence studies on solubilized myosin were therefore of limited value. Myosin and its fragments from other molluscan species which were investigated produced similar changes to those of Pectan maximus. Images PMID:3904736

  14. Head-head interaction characterizes the relaxed state of Limulus muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Woodhead, John L

    2009-01-16

    Regulation of muscle contraction via the myosin filaments occurs in vertebrate smooth and many invertebrate striated muscles. Studies of unphosphorylated vertebrate smooth muscle myosin suggest that activity is switched off through an intramolecular interaction between the actin-binding region of one head and the converter and essential light chains of the other, inhibiting ATPase activity and actin interaction. The same interaction (and additional interaction with the tail) is seen in three-dimensional reconstructions of relaxed, native myosin filaments from tarantula striated muscle, suggesting that such interactions are likely to underlie the off-state of myosin across a wide spectrum of the animal kingdom. We have tested this hypothesis by carrying out cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction of myosin filaments from horseshoe crab (Limulus) muscle. The same head-head and head-tail interactions seen in tarantula are also seen in Limulus, supporting the hypothesis. Other data suggest that this motif may underlie the relaxed state of myosin II in all species (including myosin II in nonmuscle cells), with the possible exception of insect flight muscle. The molecular organization of the myosin tails in the backbone of muscle thick filaments is unknown and may differ between species. X-ray diffraction data support a general model for crustaceans in which tails associate together to form 4-nm-diameter subfilaments, with these subfilaments assembling together to form the backbone. This model is supported by direct observation of 4-nm-diameter elongated strands in the tarantula reconstruction, suggesting that it might be a general structure across the arthropods. We observe a similar backbone organization in the Limulus reconstruction, supporting the general existence of such subfilaments. PMID:18976661

  15. Structural basis of the relaxed state of a Ca2+-regulated myosin filament and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Woodhead, John L.; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Myosin filaments of muscle are regulated either by phosphorylation of their regulatory light chains or Ca2+ binding to the essential light chains, contributing to on–off switching or modulation of contraction. Phosphorylation-regulated filaments in the relaxed state are characterized by an asymmetric interaction between the two myosin heads, inhibiting their actin binding or ATPase activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar interaction switches off activity in myosin filaments regulated by Ca2+ binding. Cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle image reconstruction of Ca2+-regulated (scallop) filaments reveals a helical array of myosin head-pair motifs above the filament surface. Docking of atomic models of scallop myosin head domains into the motifs reveals that the heads interact in a similar way to those in phosphorylation-regulated filaments. The results imply that the two major evolutionary branches of myosin regulation—involving phosphorylation or Ca2+ binding—share a common structural mechanism for switching off thick-filament activity in relaxed muscle. We suggest that the Ca2+-binding mechanism evolved from the more ancient phosphorylation-based system to enable rapid response of myosin-regulated muscles to activation. Although the motifs are similar in both systems, the scallop structure is more tilted and higher above the filament backbone, leading to different intermolecular interactions. The reconstruction reveals how the myosin tail emerges from the motif, connecting the heads to the filament backbone, and shows that the backbone is built from supramolecular assemblies of myosin tails. The reconstruction provides a native structural context for understanding past biochemical and biophysical studies of this model Ca2+-regulated myosin. PMID:23650385

  16. Fluorescence energey transfer in myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed

    Marsh, D J; Lowey, S

    1980-02-19

    Fluorescent probes have been selectively introduced into skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 and the fluorescence emission characteristics of the labeled products studied. The fluorophores employed were the thiol-specific reagents N-[[(iodoacetyl)aminolethyl-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonic acid and 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein, the spectral properties of which render them a particularly effective donor-acceptor pair in Förster energy-transfer studies. Alkali 1 light chain, labeled at a single cysteine with either of these probes, was incorporated into chymotryptic subfragment-1 by the exchange procedure of Wagner & Weeds [Wagner, P.D., & Weeds, A.G. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 109, 455-473]. The resultant, fluorescently labeled subfragment-1 was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. Determination of the extent of incorporation by extinction and fluorescence indicated that greater than 80% of the subfragment-1 population possessed a fluorescently labeled alkali 1 light chain. The introduction of labeled alkali 1 did not perturb the K+-, Ca2+-, or actin-activated adenosine triphosphatases of subfragment-1. The addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), liganded by various cations, to this singly labeled subfragment-1 induced a 6-10% decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the extrinsic chromophore. An intensity decrease of approximately 4% was obtained when the hydrolysis of ATP was complete, and also upon direct addition of adenosine diphosphate. The ATP analogue adenylyl imidodiphosphate induced a decrease of approximately 7% in intensity. The addition of F-actin to the subfragment-1 in the presence of MgATP elicited no further fluorescence intensity change. A second, appropriate fluorophore was introduced into the singly labeled subfragment-1 at the SH1 thiol on the heavy chain. Förster energy transfer was observed between this labeled site and the fluorophore previously introduced on the alkali 1 light chain. The measured efficiency of energy transfer indicated that the two fluorophores were approximately 40 A apart. The same value was obtained upon reversal of the donor and acceptor attachment sites, suggesting that the uncertainty in the calculated distance introduced by the choice of orientation factor is probably less than 20%. Steady-state observations did not reveal any obvious change in this distance upon the addition of MgATP and then F-actin to the doubly labeled subfragment-1. PMID:6444519

  17. Azidoblebbistatin, a photoreactive myosin inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Képiró, Miklós; Várkuti, Boglárka H.; Bodor, Andrea; Hegyi, György; Drahos, László; Kovács, Mihály; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2012-01-01

    Photoreactive compounds are important tools in life sciences that allow precisely timed covalent crosslinking of ligands and targets. Using a unique technique we have synthesized azidoblebbistatin, which is a derivative of blebbistatin, the most widely used myosin inhibitor. Without UV irradiation azidoblebbistatin exhibits identical inhibitory properties to those of blebbistatin. Using UV irradiation, azidoblebbistatin can be covalently crosslinked to myosin, which greatly enhances its in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. Photo-crosslinking also eliminates limitations associated with the relatively low myosin affinity and water solubility of blebbistatin. The wavelength used for photo-crosslinking is not toxic for cells and tissues, which confers a great advantage in in vivo tests. Because the crosslink results in an irreversible association of the inhibitor to myosin and the irradiation eliminates the residual activity of unbound inhibitor molecules, azidoblebbistatin has a great potential to become a highly effective tool in both structural studies of actomyosin contractility and the investigation of cellular and physiological functions of myosin II. We used azidoblebbistatin to identify previously unknown low-affinity targets of the inhibitor (EC50 ? 50 ?M) in Dictyostelium discoideum, while the strongest interactant was found to be myosin II (EC50 = 5 ?M). Our results demonstrate that azidoblebbistatin, and potentially other azidated drugs, can become highly useful tools for the identification of strong- and weak-binding cellular targets and the determination of the apparent binding affinities in in vivo conditions. PMID:22647605

  18. Resolution of three structural states of spin-labeled myosin in contracting muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ostap, E M; Barnett, V A; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to detect ATP- and calcium-induced changes in the structure of spin-labeled myosin heads in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers in key physiological states. The probe was a nitroxide iodoacetamide derivative attached selectively to myosin SH1 (Cys 707), the conventional EPR spectra of which have been shown to resolve several conformational states of the myosin ATPase cycle, on the basis of nanosecond rotational motion within the protein. Spectra were acquired in rigor and during the steady-state phases of relaxation and isometric contraction. Spectral components corresponding to specific conformational states and biochemical intermediates were detected and assigned by reference to EPR spectra of trapped kinetic intermediates. In the absence of ATP, all of the myosin heads were rigidly attached to the thin filament, and only a single conformation was detected, in which there was no sub-microsecond probe motion. In relaxation, the EPR spectrum resolved two conformations of the myosin head that are distinct from rigor. These structural states were virtually identical to those observed previously for isolated myosin and were assigned to the populations of the M*.ATP and M**.ADP.Pi states. During isometric contraction, the EPR spectrum resolves the same two conformations observed in relaxation, plus a small fraction (20-30%) of heads in the oriented actin-bound conformation that is observed in rigor. This rigor-like component is a calcium-dependent, actin-bound state that may represent force-generating cross-bridges. As the spin label is located near the nucleotide-binding pocket in a region proposed to be pivotal for large-scale force-generating structural changes in myosin, we propose that the observed spectroscopic changes indicate directly the key steps in energy transduction in the molecular motor of contracting muscle. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:7669895

  19. Myosin-10 produces its power-stroke in two phases and moves processively along a single actin filament under low load

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Yasuharu; Farrow, Rachel E.; Billington, Neil; Nagy, Attila; Batters, Christopher; Yang, Yi; Sellers, James R.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin-10 is an actin-based molecular motor that participates in essential intracellular processes such as filopodia formation/extension, phagocytosis, cell migration, and mitotic spindle maintenance. To study this motor protein’s mechano-chemical properties, we used a recombinant, truncated form of myosin-10 consisting of the first 936 amino acids, followed by a GCN4 leucine zipper motif, to force dimerization. Negative-stain electron microscopy reveals that the majority of molecules are dimeric with a head-to-head contour distance of ?50 nm. In vitro motility assays show that myosin-10 moves actin filaments smoothly with a velocity of ?310 nm/s. Steady-state and transient kinetic analysis of the ATPase cycle shows that the ADP release rate (?13 s?1) is similar to the maximum ATPase activity (?12–14 s?1) and therefore contributes to rate limitation of the enzymatic cycle. Single molecule optical tweezers experiments show that under intermediate load (?0.5 pN), myosin-10 interacts intermittently with actin and produces a power stroke of ?17 nm, composed of an initial 15-nm and subsequent 2-nm movement. At low optical trap loads, we observed staircase-like processive movements of myosin-10 interacting with the actin filament, consisting of up to six ?35-nm steps per binding interaction. We discuss the implications of this load-dependent processivity of myosin-10 as a filopodial transport motor. PMID:24753602

  20. Flagellar localization of a novel isoform of myosin, myosin XXI, in Leishmania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santharam S. Katta; Amogh A. Sahasrabuddhe; Chhitar M. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Leishmania major genome analysis revealed the presence of putative genes corresponding to two myosins, which have been designated to class IB and a novel class, class XXI, specifically present in kinetoplastids. To characterize these myosin homologs in Leishmania, we have cloned and over-expressed the full-length myosin XXI gene and variable region of myosin IB gene in bacteria, purified the corresponding

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the major component of the thick filament in muscle cell structures called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres, which are made up ... cardiac ; cell ; contraction ; gait ; gene ; inclusion body ; inherited ; muscle cell ; mutation ; myosin ; myosin heavy chain ; prevalence ; protein ; skeletal ...

  2. Interaction of the Endocytic Scaffold Protein Pan1 with the Type I Myosins Contributes to the Late Stages of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Sarah L.; Lee, Linda; Pierce, B. Daniel; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Drubin, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The yeast endocytic scaffold Pan1 contains an uncharacterized proline-rich domain (PRD) at its carboxy (C)-terminus. We report that the pan1-20 temperature-sensitive allele has a disrupted PRD due to a frame-shift mutation in the open reading frame of the domain. To reveal redundantly masked functions of the PRD, synthetic genetic array screens with a pan1?PRD strain found genetic interactions with alleles of ACT1, LAS17 and a deletion of SLA1. Through a yeast two-hybrid screen, the Src homology 3 domains of the type I myosins, Myo3 and Myo5, were identified as binding partners for the C-terminus of Pan1. In vitro and in vivo assays validated this interaction. The relative timing of recruitment of Pan1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Myo3/5-red fluorescent protein (RFP) at nascent endocytic sites was revealed by two-color real-time fluorescence microscopy; the type I myosins join Pan1 at cortical patches at a late stage of internalization, preceding the inward movement of Pan1 and its disassembly. In cells lacking the Pan1 PRD, we observed an increased lifetime of Myo5-GFP at the cortex. Finally, Pan1 PRD enhanced the actin polymerization activity of Myo5–Vrp1 complexes in vitro. We propose that Pan1 and the type I myosins interactions promote an actin activity important at a late stage in endocytic internalization. PMID:17522383

  3. Mechanoenzymatic Characterization of Human Myosin Vb †

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinya Watanabe; Katsuhide Mabuchi; Reiko Ikebe; Mitsuo Ikebe

    2006-01-01

    There are three isoforms of class V myosin in mammals. While myosin Va has been studied well, little is known about the function of other myosin V isoforms (Vb and Vc) at a molecular level. Here we report the mechanoenzymatic function of human myosin Vb (HuM5B) for the first time. Electron microscopic observation showed that HuM5B has a double-headed structure

  4. Mechanochemical coupling in muscle: attempts to measure simultaneously shortening and ATPase rates in myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Lionne, C; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1996-01-01

    We studied the ATPase of shortening myofibrils at 4 degrees C by the rapid flow quench method. The progress curve has three phases: a P(i) burst, a fast linear phase kF of duration tB, and a deceleration to a slow kS. We propose that kF is the ATPase of myofibrils shortening under zero external load; at tB shortening and ATPase rates are reduced by passive resistance. The total ATP consumed during the rapid shortening is ATPc. Our purpose was to obtain information on the myofibrillar shortening velocity from their ATPase progress curves. We tested tB as an indicator of shortening velocity by determining the effects of different probes upon it and the other ATPase parameters. The dependence of tB upon the initial sarcomere length was linear, giving a shortening velocity close to that of muscle fibres (Vo). The Km of ATP was larger for tB than for kF, as found with fibers for Vo and their ATPase. ADP and 2,3-butanedione monoxime, but not P(i), inhibited tB to the same extent as Vo. The delta H for tB and Vo were similar. ATPc was independent of the sarcomere length, implying that the more the myofibrils shorten, the less ATP expended per myosin head per micron shortened. We propose that tB can be used as an indicator for myofibrillar shortening velocities. PMID:8789106

  5. Cytokinesis Depends on the Motor Domains of Myosin-II in Fission Yeast but Not in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Matthew; Laves, Ellen; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast possesses one myosin-II, Myo1p, whereas fission yeast has two, Myo2p and Myp2p, all of which contribute to cytokinesis. We find that chimeras consisting of Myo2p or Myp2p motor domains fused to the tail of Myo1p are fully functional in supporting budding yeast cytokinesis. Remarkably, the tail alone of budding yeast Myo1p localizes to the contractile ring, supporting both its constriction and cytokinesis. In contrast, fission yeast Myo2p and Myp2p require both the catalytic head domain as well as tail domains for function, with the tails providing distinct functions (Bezanilla and Pollard, 2000). Myo1p is the first example of a myosin whose cellular function does not require a catalytic motor domain revealing a novel mechanism of action for budding yeast myosin-II independent of actin binding and ATPase activity. PMID:16148042

  6. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A. (UPENN); (Duke); (MRCLMB); (FSU); (Jikei-Med)

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very different from strong binding attachments.

  7. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. Methodology We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the “target zone”, situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77°/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127° range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. Conclusion We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very different from strong binding attachments. PMID:20844746

  8. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M.; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  9. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia [University of Heidelberg; Koppole, Sampath [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Fischer, S. [University of Heidelberg

    2006-12-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by {approx}60 degrees. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin's ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a see-saw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston/seesaw motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery stroke by using Principal Component Analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions.

  10. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  11. Specificity and kinetic effects of nitrophenol analogues that activate myosin subfragment 1.

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, V P; Ribeiro, A S; Dinucci, A N; Mignaco, J A; Sorenson, M M

    1997-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) activates the myosin ATPase of mammalian skeletal muscle in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+, and inhibits it when the bivalent cations are replaced by K+ and EDTA. Activation of Mg2+ATPase is abolished by the presence of unregulated actin. 3-Nitrophenol (3-NP) is also an activator, whereas other analogues (2-nitrophenol, 2-NP, and 4-nitrophenol, 4-NP) are much less effective. Concentrations required for their half-maximal effects (K0.5) range from 2 to 15 mM for 3-NP and DNP in the presence of different cations, and the sequence for the analogues is 3-NP<=DNP<<2-NP approximately 4-NP, which is apparently unrelated to either hydrophobicity or pK. DNP and 3-NP have almost identical effects on the ATPase activity of chymotryptic subfragment 1 as they do on myosin, which is an indication that their target is the globular head region rather than the tail, or the 18 kDa (regulatory) light chain. Analysis of the ATP concentration dependence for subfragment- 1 ATPase in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ shows that DNP activates only at high substrate concentrations, becoming increasingly effective with ATP concentrations in the physiological range. At low substrate concentrations, DNP inhibits hydrolysis by increasing the apparent Km for ATP at the catalytic site. In the presence of Mg2+, it mimics the effect of actin, which increases the Km and accelerates the release of products following hydrolysis. At high substrate concentrations, activation by DNP appears to involve a kinetic component with low affinity for ATP that can increase the overall reaction rate by a factor of 2- to 9-fold, depending on the bivalent cation. This low-affinity component is either induced by the drug (in the presence of Mg2+) or shifted by the drug to a lower ATP concentration range (in the presence of Ca2+). PMID:9210412

  12. Flagellar localization of a novel isoform of myosin, myosin XXI, in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2009-04-01

    Leishmania major genome analysis revealed the presence of putative genes corresponding to two myosins, which have been designated to class IB and a novel class, class XXI, specifically present in kinetoplastids. To characterize these myosin homologs in Leishmania, we have cloned and over-expressed the full-length myosin XXI gene and variable region of myosin IB gene in bacteria, purified the corresponding proteins, and then used the affinity purified anti-sera to analyze the expression and intracellular distribution of these proteins. Whereas myosin XXI was expressed in both the promastigote and amastigote stages, no expression of myosin IB could be detected in any of the two stages of these parasites. Further, myosin XXI expression was more predominant in the promastigote stage where it was preferentially localized in the proximal region of the flagellum. The observed flagellar localization was not dependent on the myosin head region or actin but was exclusively determined by the myosin tail region, as judged by over-expressing GFP conjugates of full-length myosin XXI, its head domain and its tail domain separately in Leishmania. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy analyses revealed that this protein was partly associated with paraflagellar rod proteins but not with tubulins in the flagellar axoneme. Our results, for the first time, report the expression and detailed analysis of cellular localization of a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI in trypanosomatids. PMID:19121339

  13. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  14. Maize myosins: Diversity, localization, and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyun Liu; Juhua Zhou; Thomas C. Pesacreta

    2001-01-01

    This first analysis of monocotyledon myosin genes showed that at least five genes, one of which was probably spliced to yield two isoforms, were expressed in maize (Zea mays L.). The complete coding sequence of ZMM1 was determined, as were most of the sequences of two other myosin cDNAs (ZMM2 and ZMM3). ZMM1 and ZMM2 belonged to myosin class XI

  15. Visualization of myosin in living cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balraj Mittal; Jean M. Sanger; Joseph W. Sanger

    1987-01-01

    Myosin light chains labeled with rhodamine are incorporated into myosin-containing structures when microinjected into live muscle and nonmuscle cells. A mixture of myosin light chains was prepared from chicken skeletal muscle, labeled with the fluores- cent dye iodoacetamido rhodamine, and separated into individual labeled light chains, LC-1, LC-2, and LC-3. In isolated rabbit and insect myofibrils, the fluorescent light chains

  16. Coordinate changes in Myosin heavy chain isoform gene expression are selectively associated with alterations in dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, W. T.; Gilbert, E. M.; Lowes, B. D.; Minobe, W. A.; Larrabee, P.; Roden, R. L.; Dutcher, D.; Sederberg, J.; Lindenfeld, J. A.; Wolfel, E. E.; Shakar, S. F.; Ferguson, D.; Volkman, K.; Linseman, J. V.; Quaife, R. A.; Robertson, A. D.; Bristow, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most common cause of chronic heart failure in the US is secondary or primary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The DCM phenotype exhibits changes in the expression of genes that regulate contractile function and pathologic hypertrophy. However, it is unclear if any of these alterations in gene expression are disease producing or modifying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One approach to providing evidence for cause-effect of a disease-influencing gene is to quantitatively compare changes in phenotype to changes in gene expression by employing serial measurements in a longitudinal experimental design. We investigated the quantitative relationships between changes in gene expression and phenotype n 47 patients with idiopathic DCM. In endomyocardial biopsies at baseline and 6 months later, we measured mRNA expression of genes regulating contractile function (beta-adrenergic receptors, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2) + ATPase, and alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain isoforms) or associated with pathologic hypertrophy (beta-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide), plus beta-adrenergic receptor protein expression. Left ventricular phenotype was assessed by radionuclide ejection fraction. RESULTS: Improvement in DCM phenotype was directly related to a coordinate increase in alpha- and a decrease in beta-myosin heavy chain mRNA expression. In contrast, modification of phenotype was unrelated to changes in the expression of beta(1)- or beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mRNA or protein, or to the mRNA expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2) + ATPase and atrial natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in human DCM, phenotypic modification is selectively associated with myosin heavy chain isoform changes. These data support the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain isoform changes contribute to disease progression in human DCM. PMID:12520092

  17. New insights into myosin evolution and classification

    PubMed Central

    Foth, Bernardo J.; Goedecke, Marc C.; Soldati, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan “myosome,” we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

  18. New insights into myosin evolution and classification.

    PubMed

    Foth, Bernardo J; Goedecke, Marc C; Soldati, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive phylogenetic examination of many previously unclassified myosins, with particular emphasis on sequences from apicomplexan and other chromalveolate protists including the model organism Toxoplasma, the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using different phylogenetic inference methods and taking protein domain architectures, specific amino acid polymorphisms, and organismal distribution into account, we demonstrate a hitherto unrecognized common origin for ciliate and apicomplexan class XIV myosins. Our data also suggest common origins for some apicomplexan myosins and class VI, for classes II and XVIII, for classes XII and XV, and for some microsporidian myosins and class V, thereby reconciling evolutionary history and myosin structure in several cases and corroborating the common coevolution of myosin head, neck, and tail domains. Six novel myosin classes are established to accommodate sequences from chordate metazoans (class XIX), insects (class XX), kinetoplastids (class XXI), and apicomplexans and diatom algae (classes XXII, XXIII, and XXIV). These myosin (sub)classes include sequences with protein domains (FYVE, WW, UBA, ATS1-like, and WD40) previously unknown to be associated with myosin motors. Regarding the apicomplexan "myosome," we significantly update class XIV classification, propose a systematic naming convention, and discuss possible functions in these parasites. PMID:16505385

  19. Motor proteins: kinesin can replace Myosin.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Kathleen; Tran, Phong T

    2012-01-24

    Directional transport of specific cargos is tuned to specific molecular motors and specific cytoskeletal tracks. Myosin V transports its cargo on actin cables, whereas kinesin or dynein transport their cargo on microtubules. A recent study shows that an engineered kinesin can substitute for myosin V and its cargo-specific transport and subsequent cellular functions. PMID:22280907

  20. The myosin converter domain modulates muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Swank, Douglas M; Knowles, Aileen F; Suggs, Jennifer A; Sarsoza, Floyd; Lee, Annie; Maughan, David W; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2002-04-01

    Myosin is the molecular motor that powers muscle contraction as a result of conformational changes during its mechanochemical cycle. We demonstrate that the converter, a compact structural domain that differs in sequence between Drosophila melanogaster myosin isoforms, dramatically influences the kinetic properties of myosin and muscle fibres. Transgenic replacement of the converter in the fast indirect flight muscle with the converter from an embryonic muscle slowed muscle kinetics, forcing a compensatory reduction in wing beat frequency to sustain flight. Conversely, replacing the embryonic converter with the flight muscle converter sped up muscle kinetics and increased maximum power twofold, compared to flight muscles expressing the embryonic myosin isoform. The substitutions also dramatically influenced in vitro actin sliding velocity, suggesting that the converter modulates a rate-limiting step preceding cross-bridge detachment. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that isoform-specific differences in the myosin converter allow different muscle types to meet their specific locomotion demands. PMID:11901423

  1. In situ reconstitution of myosin filaments within the myosin-extracted myofibril in cultured skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIEKO TANIGUCHI; HARUNORI ISHIKAWA

    1982-01-01

    We studied the in situ reconstitution of myosin filaments within the myosin- extracted myofibrils in cultured chick embryo skeletal muscle cells using the electron micro- scope and polarization microscope . Myosin was first extracted from the myofibrils in glycerin- ated muscle cells with a high-salt solution containing 0.6 M KCI . When rabbit skeletal muscle myosin was added to the

  2. Myosin IIC: A Third Molecular Motor Driving Neuronal Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal dynamics result from the integration of forces developed by molecular motors, especially conventional myosins. Myosin IIC is a recently discovered nonsarcomeric conventional myosin motor, the function of which is poorly understood, particularly in relation to the separate but coupled activities of its close homologues, myosins IIA and IIB, which participate in neuronal adhesion, outgrowth and retraction. To determine myosin IIC function, we have applied a comparative functional knockdown approach by using isoform-specific antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides to deplete expression within neuronally derived cells. Myosin IIC was found to be critical for driving neuronal process outgrowth, a function that it shares with myosin IIB. Additionally, myosin IIC modulates neuronal cell adhesion, a function that it shares with myosin IIA but not myosin IIB. Consistent with this role, myosin IIC knockdown caused a concomitant decrease in paxillin-phospho-Tyr118 immunofluorescence, similar to knockdown of myosin IIA but not myosin IIB. Myosin IIC depletion also created a distinctive phenotype with increased cell body diameter, increased vacuolization, and impaired responsiveness to triggered neurite collapse by lysophosphatidic acid. This novel combination of properties suggests that myosin IIC must participate in distinctive cellular roles and reinforces our view that closely related motor isoforms drive diverse functions within neuronal cells. PMID:18614800

  3. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  4. Palytoxin Acts on Na + ,K + ATPase but not Nongastric H + ,K + ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saida Guennoun-Lehmann; James E. Fonseca; Jean-Daniel Horisberger; Robert F. Rakowski

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX) opens a pathway for ions to pass through Na,K-ATPase. We investigate here whether PTX also acts on nongastric\\u000a H,K-ATPases. The following combinations of cRNA were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: Bufo marinus bladder H,K-ATPase ?2- and Na,K-ATPase ?2-subunits; Bufo Na,K-ATPase ?1- and Na,K-ATPase ?2-subunits; and Bufo Na,K-ATPase ?2-subunit alone. The response to PTX was measured after blocking endogenous

  5. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia [University of Heidelberg; Koppole, Sampath [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Fischer, S. [University of Heidelberg

    2007-03-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by 60{sup o}. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a seesaw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston-like motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery-stroke by using principal component analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large-amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the seesaw motion of the relay helix dominates in the dynamics of the pre-recovery stroke structure, but not in the dynamics of the post-recovery stroke structure, and vice versa for the piston motion of the SH1 helix. This is consistent with the order of the proposed two-phase model for the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke. Molecular movies of these principal motions are available at http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/biocomp/fischer.

  6. Expression of myosin VIIA during mouse embryogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iman Sahly; Aziz El-Amraoui; Marc Abitbol; Christine Petit; Jean-Louis Dufier

    1997-01-01

    The gene encoding myosin VIIA is responsible for the mouse shaker-1 phenotype, which consists of deafness and balance deficiency related to cochlear and vestibular neuroepithelial defects. In\\u000a humans, a defective myosin VIIA gene is responsible for Usher syndrome type IB, which associates congenital deafness, vestibular\\u000a dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. In an attempt to progress in the understanding of the function(s)

  7. The mechanism of force generation in myosin: a disorder-to-order transition, coupled to internal structural changes.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D. D.; Ramachandran, S.; Roopnarine, O.; Hayden, D. W.; Ostap, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a molecular mechanism of force generation in muscle, based primarily on site-specific spectroscopic probe studies of myosin heads in contracting muscle fibers and myofibrils. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) of probes attached to SH1 (Cys 707, in the catalytic domain of the head) have consistently shown that most myosin heads in contracting muscle are dynamically disordered, undergoing large-amplitude rotations in the microsecond time range. Some of these disordered heads are bound to actin, especially in the early (weak-binding, preforce) phase of the ATPase cycle. The small ordered population (10-20%) is rigidly oriented precisely as in rigor, with no other distinct angle observed in contraction or in the presence of intermediate states trapped by nucleotide analogs. These results are not consistent with the classical model in which the entire head undergoes a 45 degree transition between two distinct orientations. Therefore, it has been proposed that the catalytic domain of the myosin head has only one stereospecific (rigor-like) actin-binding angle, and that the head's internal structure changes during force generation, causing the distal light-chain-binding domain to rotate. To test this model, we have performed EPR and TPA studies of probes attached to regulatory light chains (RLCs) in rabbit and scallop myofibrils and fibers. The RLC results confirm the predominance of dynamic (microsecond) rotational disorder in both relaxation and contraction, and show that the different mechanisms of calcium regulation in the two muscles produce different rotational dynamics. In rabbit myofibrils, RLC probes are more dynamically disordered than SH1 probes, especially in rigor and contraction,indicating that the light-chain-binding domain undergoes rotational motions relative to the catalytic domain when myosin heads interact with actin. An SH1-bound spin label, which is sensitive to myosin's internal dynamics, resolves three distinct conformations during contraction, and time-resolved EPR shows that these transitions are coupled to specific steps in the ATPase cycle. We propose that force is generated during contraction by a disorder-to-order transition, in which myosin heads first attach weakly to actin in a nonstereospecific mode characterized by large-scale dynamic disorder, then undergo at least two conformational transitions involving large-scale structural (rotational) changes within the head, culminating in a highly ordered strong-binding state that bears force. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:7787056

  8. The mechanism of force generation in myosin: a disorder-to-order transition, coupled to internal structural changes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D D; Ramachandran, S; Roopnarine, O; Hayden, D W; Ostap, E M

    1995-04-01

    We propose a molecular mechanism of force generation in muscle, based primarily on site-specific spectroscopic probe studies of myosin heads in contracting muscle fibers and myofibrils. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) of probes attached to SH1 (Cys 707, in the catalytic domain of the head) have consistently shown that most myosin heads in contracting muscle are dynamically disordered, undergoing large-amplitude rotations in the microsecond time range. Some of these disordered heads are bound to actin, especially in the early (weak-binding, preforce) phase of the ATPase cycle. The small ordered population (10-20%) is rigidly oriented precisely as in rigor, with no other distinct angle observed in contraction or in the presence of intermediate states trapped by nucleotide analogs. These results are not consistent with the classical model in which the entire head undergoes a 45 degree transition between two distinct orientations. Therefore, it has been proposed that the catalytic domain of the myosin head has only one stereospecific (rigor-like) actin-binding angle, and that the head's internal structure changes during force generation, causing the distal light-chain-binding domain to rotate. To test this model, we have performed EPR and TPA studies of probes attached to regulatory light chains (RLCs) in rabbit and scallop myofibrils and fibers. The RLC results confirm the predominance of dynamic (microsecond) rotational disorder in both relaxation and contraction, and show that the different mechanisms of calcium regulation in the two muscles produce different rotational dynamics. In rabbit myofibrils, RLC probes are more dynamically disordered than SH1 probes, especially in rigor and contraction,indicating that the light-chain-binding domain undergoes rotational motions relative to the catalytic domain when myosin heads interact with actin. An SH1-bound spin label, which is sensitive to myosin's internal dynamics, resolves three distinct conformations during contraction, and time-resolved EPR shows that these transitions are coupled to specific steps in the ATPase cycle. We propose that force is generated during contraction by a disorder-to-order transition, in which myosin heads first attach weakly to actin in a nonstereospecific mode characterized by large-scale dynamic disorder, then undergo at least two conformational transitions involving large-scale structural (rotational) changes within the head, culminating in a highly ordered strong-binding state that bears force. PMID:7787056

  9. Progress in Cardiology myosin binding protein C (cMBPC),6 ventricular myosin

    E-print Network

    Lee, Won-Ha

    Progress in Cardiology myosin binding protein C (cMBPC),6 ventricular myosin essential light chain actin, -tropomyosin,4 cardiac troponin T (cTnT),4 cardiac troponin I,5 cardiac From the aCardiology, Kurume, and the dDepartment of Cardiology, Research Institute of Environmen- tal Medicine, Nagoya

  10. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain causes diastolic disturbance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Muthu, Priya; Duggal, Divya; Farman, Gerrie P; Sorensen, Lars; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P; Moore, Jeffrey R; Borejdo, Julian; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results were compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5 to 6month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype. PMID:24992035

  11. Random myosin loss along thick-filaments increases myosin attachment time and the proportion of bound myosin heads to mitigate force decline in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; McNabb, Mark; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.; Miller, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished skeletal muscle performance with aging, disuse, and disease may be partially attributed to the loss of myofilament proteins. Several laboratories have found a disproportionate loss of myosin protein content relative to other myofilament proteins, but due to methodological limitations, the structural manifestation of this protein loss is unknown. To investigate how variations in myosin content affect ensemble cross-bridge behavior and force production we simulated muscle contraction in the half-sarcomere as myosin was removed either i) uniformly, from the Z-line end of thick-filaments, or ii) randomly, along the length of thick-filaments. Uniform myosin removal decreased force production, showing a slightly steeper force-to-myosin content relationship than the 1:1 relationship that would be expected from the loss of cross-bridges. Random myosin removal also decreased force production, but this decrease was less than observed with uniform myosin loss, largely due to increased myosin attachment time (ton) and fractional cross-bridge binding with random myosin loss. These findings support our prior observations that prolonged ton may augment force production in single fibers with randomly reduced myosin content from chronic heart failure patients. These simulation also illustrate that the pattern of myosin loss along thick-filaments influences ensemble cross-bridge behavior and maintenance of force throughout the sarcomere. PMID:24486373

  12. Structure of the Rigor Actin-Tropomyosin-Myosin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Müller, Mirco; Penczek, Pawel A.; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Raunser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of myosin with actin filaments is the central feature of muscle contraction and cargo movement along actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Myosin converts the chemical energy stored in ATP into force and movement along actin filaments. Myosin binding to actin induces conformational changes that are coupled to the nucleotide-binding pocket and amplified by a specialized region of the motor domain for efficient force generation. Tropomyosin plays a key role in regulating the productive interaction between myosins and actin. Here, we report the 8 Å resolution structure of the actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex determined by cryo electron microscopy. The pseudo-atomic model of the complex obtained from fitting crystal structures into the map defines the large actin-myosin-tropomyosin interface and the molecular interactions between the proteins in detail and allows us to propose a structural model for tropomyosin dependent myosin binding to actin and actin-induced nucleotide release from myosin. PMID:22817895

  13. Luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister Getz, E; Cooke, R; Selvin, P R

    1998-01-01

    Myosin is thought to generate force by a rotation between the relative orientations of two domains. Direct measurements of distances between the domains could potentially confirm and quantify these conformational changes, but efforts have been hampered by the large distances involved. Here we show that luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET), which uses a luminescent lanthanide as the energy-transfer donor, is capable of measuring these long distances. Specifically, we measure distances between the catalytic domain (Cys707) and regulatory light chain domain (Cys108) of the myosin head. An energy transfer efficiency of 21.2 +/- 1.9% is measured in the myosin complex without nucleotide or actin, corresponding to a distance of 73 A, consistent with the crystal structure of Rayment et al. Upon binding to actin, the energy transfer efficiency decreases by 4.5 +/- 1.0%, indicating a conformational change in myosin that involves a relative rotation and/or translation of Cys707 relative to the light chain domain. Addition of ADP also alters the energy transfer efficiency, likely through a rotation of the probe attached to Cys707. These results demonstrate that LRET is capable of making accurate measurements on the relatively large actomyosin complex, and is capable of detecting conformational changes between the catalytic and light chain domains of myosin. PMID:9591671

  14. Myosin motors with artificial lever arms.

    PubMed Central

    Anson, M; Geeves, M A; Kurzawa, S E; Manstein, D J

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain and a light chain binding domain (LCBD). The coupling efficiency between ATP hydrolysis and myosin-induced actin movement is known to decline as the LCBD is truncated or destabilized. However, it was not clear whether the observed alteration in the production of force and movement reflects only the mechanical changes to the length of the LCBD or whether these changes also affect the kinetic properties of the catalytic domain. Here we show that replacement of the LCBD with genetically engineered domains of similar rigidity and dimensions produces functional molecular motors with unchanged kinetic properties. The resulting single-chain, single-headed motors were produced in Dictyostelium discoideum and obtained after purification from a standard peptone-based growth medium at levels of up to 12 mg/l. Their actin motility properties are similar or greater than those of native myosin. Rates of 2.5 and 3.3 microm/s were observed for motor domains fused to one or two of these domains, respectively. Their kinetic and functional similarity to the extensively studied myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and their accessibility to molecular genetic approaches makes these simple constructs ideal models for the investigation of chemo-mechanical coupling in the myosin motor. Images PMID:8947029

  15. Anillin binds nonmuscle myosin II and regulates the contractile ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron F. Straight; Christine M. Field; Timothy J. Mitchison

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the contractile ring protein anillin interacts directly with nonmuscle myosin II and that this interaction is regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation. We show that despite their interaction, anillin and myosin II are independently targeted to the contractile ring. Depletion of anillin in Drosophila or human cultured cells results in cytokinesis failure. Human cells depleted for anillin

  16. The p-type ATPase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chan, Henry; Babayan, Vartan; Blyumin, Elya; Gandhi, Charmy; Hak, Kunal; Harake, Danielle; Kumar, Kris; Lee, Perry; Li, Tze T; Liu, Hao Yi; Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Meyer, Cynthia J; Stanford, Steven; Zamora, Krista S; Saier, Milton H

    2010-01-01

    P-type ATPases function to provide homeostasis in higher eukaryotes, but they are essentially ubiquitous, being found in all domains of life. Thever and Saier [J Memb Biol 2009;229:115-130] recently reported analyses of eukaryotic P-type ATPases, dividing them into nine functionally characterized and 13 functionally uncharacterized (FUPA) families. In this report, we analyze P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for which complete genome sequence data are available, and we compare the results with those for eukaryotic P-type ATPases. Topological type I (heavy metal) P-type ATPases predominate in prokaryotes (approx. tenfold) while type II ATPases (specific for Na(+),K(+), H(+) Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and phospholipids) predominate in eukaryotes (approx. twofold). Many P-type ATPase families are found exclusively in prokaryotes (e.g. Kdp-type K(+) uptake ATPases (type III) and all ten prokaryotic FUPA familes), while others are restricted to eukaryotes (e.g. phospholipid flippases and all 13 eukaryotic FUPA families). Horizontal gene transfer has occurred frequently among bacteria and archaea, which have similar distributions of these enzymes, but rarely between most eukaryotic kingdoms, and even more rarely between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In some bacterial phyla (e.g. Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteria and Fusobacteria), ATPase gene gain and loss as well as horizontal transfer occurred seldom in contrast to most other bacterial phyla. Some families (i.e. Kdp-type ATPases) underwent far less horizontal gene transfer than other prokaryotic families, possibly due to their multisubunit characteristics. Functional motifs are better conserved across family lines than across organismal lines, and these motifs can be family specific, facilitating functional predictions. In some cases, gene fusion events created P-type ATPases covalently linked to regulatory catalytic enzymes. In one family (FUPA Family 24), a type I ATPase gene (N-terminal) is fused to a type II ATPase gene (C-terminal) with retention of function only for the latter. Several pseudogene-encoded nonfunctional ATPases were identified. Genome minimalization led to preferential loss of P-type ATPase genes. We suggest that in prokaryotes and some unicellular eukaryotes, the primary function of P-type ATPases is protection from extreme environmental stress conditions. The classification of P-type ATPases of unknown function into phylogenetic families provides guides for future molecular biological studies. PMID:20962537

  17. Purification of native myosin filaments from muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, C; Padrón, R; Horowitz, R; Zhao, F Q; Craig, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the structure and function of native thick (myosin-containing) filaments of muscle has been hampered in the past by the difficulty of obtaining a pure preparation. We have developed a simple method for purifying native myosin filaments from muscle filament suspensions. The method involves severing thin (actin-containing) filaments into short segments using a Ca(2+)-insensitive fragment of gelsolin, followed by differential centrifugation to purify the thick filaments. By gel electrophoresis, the purified thick filaments show myosin heavy and light chains together with nonmyosin thick filament components. Contamination with actin is below 3.5%. Electron microscopy demonstrates intact thick filaments, with helical cross-bridge order preserved, and essentially complete removal of thin filaments. The method has been developed for striated muscles but can also be used in a modified form to remove contaminating thin filaments from native smooth muscle myofibrils. Such preparations should be useful for thick filament structural and biochemical studies. PMID:11606293

  18. ATP consumption and efficiency of human single muscle fibers with different myosin isoform composition.

    PubMed Central

    He, Z H; Bottinelli, R; Pellegrino, M A; Ferenczi, M A; Reggiani, C

    2000-01-01

    Chemomechanical transduction was studied in single fibers isolated from human skeletal muscle containing different myosin isoforms. Permeabilized fibers were activated by laser-pulse photolytic release of 1.5 mM ATP from p(3)-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethylester of ATP. The ATP hydrolysis rate in the muscle fibers was determined with a fluorescently labeled phosphate-binding protein. The effects of varying load and shortening velocity during contraction were investigated. The myosin isoform composition was determined in each fiber by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At 12 degrees C large variations (three- to fourfold) were found between slow and fast (2A and 2A-2B) fibers in their maximum shortening velocity, peak power output, velocity at which peak power is produced, isometric ATPase activity, and tension cost. Isometric tension was similar in all fiber groups. The ATP consumption rate increased during shortening in proportion to shortening velocity. At 12 degrees C the maximum efficiency was similar (0.21-0.27) for all fiber types and was reached at a higher speed of shortening for the faster fibers. In all fibers, peak efficiency increased to approximately 0.4 when the temperature was raised from 12 degrees C to 20 degrees C. The results were simulated with a kinetic scheme describing the ATPase cycle, in which the rate constant controlling ADP release is sensitive to the load on the muscle. The main difference between slow and fast fibers was reproduced by increasing the rate constant for the hydrolysis step, which was rate limiting at low loads. Simulation of the effect of increasing temperature required an increase in the force per cross-bridge and an acceleration of the rate constants in the reaction pathway. PMID:10920025

  19. The P-Type ATPase Superfamily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Chan; Vartan Babayan; Elya Blyumin; Charmy Gandhi; Kunal Hak; Danielle Harake; Kris Kumar; Perry Lee; Tze T. Li; Hao Yi Liu; Tony Chung Tung Lo; Cynthia J. Meyer; Steven Stanford; Krista S. Zamora; Milton H. Saier Jr

    2010-01-01

    P-type ATPases function to provide homeostasis in higher eukaryotes, but they are essentially ubiquitous, being found in all domains of life. Thever and Saier [J Memb Biol 2009;229:115–130] recently reported analyses of eukaryotic P-type ATPases, dividing them into nine functionally characterized and 13 functionally uncharacterized (FUPA) families. In this report, we analyze P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for

  20. A classical and ab initio study of the interaction of the myosin triphosphate binding domain with ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Minehardt, Todd J; Marzari, Nicola; Cooke, Roger; Pate, Edward; Kollman, Peter A; Car, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    We used classical molecular mechanics (MM) simulations and quantum mechanical (QM) structural relaxations to examine the active site of myosin when bound to ATP. Two conformations of myosin have been determined by x-ray crystallography. In one, there is no direct interaction between switch 2 and the nucleotide (open state). In the other (closed state), the universally conserved switch 2 glycine forms a hydrogen bond with a gamma-phosphate oxygen. MM simulations indicate that the two states are thermodynamically stable and allow us to investigate the extent to which the P-loop, switch 1, and switch 2 are involved in hydrolysis. We find that the open structure has a higher affinity for ATP than the closed structure, and that ATP is distorted toward a transition state by interactions with the protein. We also examine how the structure of the binding site changes with either MgATP or CaATP as the nucleotide in myosin in the open conformer. Our analyses suggest that higher CaATPase rates occur because the leaving phosphate (P(i)) group is more weakly bound and dissociation occurs faster. Finally, we validate the use of a particular formulation of a QM methodology (Car-Parrinello) to further refine the structures of the active site. PMID:11806909

  1. Getting myosin-V on the right track

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a novel mechanism of myosin regulation in which the actin-binding protein tropomyosin converts atypical type-V myosins into processive cargo transporters. To achieve this, tropomyosin's primary role appears to lie in its ability to influence myosin's enzyme kinetics, prolonging the strong actin-bound ADP/apo state to enable hand-over-hand walking of myosin-V dimers along actin tracks. Activation of myosin-V mediated transport by tropomyosin underscores its function in helping to direct cargos to specific actin tracks and subcellular destinations. This type of regulation supports the broader notion that tropomyosin plays a key role in actomyosin sorting. PMID:24531330

  2. The motor mechanism of myosin V: insights for muscle contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2004-01-01

    It is 50 years since the sliding of actin and myosin filaments was proposed as the basis of force generation and shortening in striated muscle. Although this is now generally accepted, the detailed molecular mechanism of how myosin uses adenosine triphosphate to generate force during its cyclic interaction with actin is only now being unravelled. New insights have come from the unconventional myosins, especially myosin V. Myosin V is kinetically tuned to allow movement on actin filaments as a single molecule, which has led to new kinetic, mechanical and structural data that have filled in missing pieces of the actomyosin-chemo-mechanical transduction puzzle. PMID:15647159

  3. Myosin-induced changes in F-actin: fluorescence probing of subdomain 2 by dansyl ethylenediamine attached to Gln-41.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E; Miller, C J; Motoki, M; Seguro, K; Muhlrad, A; Reisler, E

    1996-01-01

    Actin labeled at Gln-41 with dansyl ethylenediamine (DED) via transglutaminase reaction was used for monitoring the interaction of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) with the His-40-Gly-42 site in the 38-52 loop on F-actin. Proteolytic digestions of F-actin with subtilisin and trypsin, and acto-S1 ATPase measurements on heat-treated F-actin revealed that the labeling of Gln-41 had a stabilizing effect on subdomain 2 and the actin filaments. DED on Gln-41 had no effect on the values of K(m) and Vmax of the acto-S1 ATPase and the sliding velocities of actin filaments in the in vitro motility assays. This suggests either that S1 does not bind to the 40-42 site on actin or that such binding is not functionally important. The binding of monoclonal antidansyl IgG to DED-F-actin did not affect acto-S1 binding in the absence of nucleotides, indicating that the 40-42 site does not contribute much to rigor acto-S1 binding. Myosin-induced changes in subdomain 2 on actin were manifested through an increase in the fluorescence of DED-F-actin, a decrease in the accessibility of the probe to collisional quenchers, and a partial displacement of antidansyl IgG from actin by S1. It is proposed that these changes in the 38-52 loop on actin originate from S1 binding to other myosin recognition sites on actin. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8785300

  4. Myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphorylation effect frequency-dependent potentiation of skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhi; Jeffrey W. Ryder; Jian Huang; Peiguo Ding; Yue Chen; Yingming Zhao; Kristine E. Kamm; James T. Stull

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive stimulation potentiates contractile tension of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. We examined the role of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation in this physiological response by ablating Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene expression. Western blot and quantitative-PCR showed that MLCK is expressed predominantly in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers with insignificant amounts in heart and smooth muscle. In

  5. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  6. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times within bilaterian evolution. PMID:24498429

  7. Vacuolar ATPase in phagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Kissing, Sandra; Hermsen, Christina; Repnik, Urska; Nesset, Cecilie Kåsi; von Bargen, Kristine; Griffiths, Gareth; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lee, Beth S; Schwake, Michael; De Brabander, Jef; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul

    2015-05-29

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase) complex is instrumental in establishing and maintaining acidification of some cellular compartments, thereby ensuring their functionality. Recently it has been proposed that the transmembrane V0 sector of v-ATPase and its a-subunits promote membrane fusion in the endocytic and exocytic pathways independent of their acidification functions. Here, we tested if such a proton-pumping independent role of v-ATPase also applies to phagosome-lysosome fusion. Surprisingly, endo(lyso)somes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the V0 a3 subunit of the v-ATPase acidified normally, and endosome and lysosome marker proteins were recruited to phagosomes with similar kinetics in the presence or absence of the a3 subunit. Further experiments used macrophages with a knockdown of v-ATPase accessory protein 2 (ATP6AP2) expression, resulting in a strongly reduced level of the V0 sector of the v-ATPase. However, acidification appeared undisturbed, and fusion between latex bead-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, as analyzed by electron microscopy, was even slightly enhanced, as was killing of non-pathogenic bacteria by V0 mutant macrophages. Pharmacologically neutralized lysosome pH did not affect maturation of phagosomes in mouse embryonic cells or macrophages. Finally, locking the two large parts of the v-ATPase complex together by the drug saliphenylhalamide A did not inhibit in vitro and in cellulo fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Hence, our data do not suggest a fusion-promoting role of the v-ATPase in the formation of phagolysosomes. PMID:25903133

  8. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, ShanTou University Medical College, ShanTou, GuangDong 515041 (China); Feng, HaoTian [Department of Surgery, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Cai, YanLing [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, ShanTou University Medical College, ShanTou, GuangDong 515041 (China); Qi, WeiLi [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, ShanTou University Medical College, ShanTou, GuangDong 515041 (China); Kong, KangMei [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, ShanTou University Medical College, ShanTou, GuangDong 515041 (China)]. E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  9. Transient kinetics and mechanics of myosin's force-generating rotation in muscle: resolution of millisecond rotational transitions in the spin-labeled myosin light-chain domain.

    PubMed

    LaConte, Leslie E W; Baker, Josh E; Thomas, David D

    2003-08-19

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of spin-labeled scallop muscle, in conjunction with laser flash photolysis of caged ATP, to resolve millisecond rotational transitions of the myosin light-chain domain (LCD) during transient force generation. We previously used EPR to resolve two distinct orientations of the LCD [Baker, J. E., Brust-Mascher, I., Ramachandran, S., LaConte, L. E., and Thomas, D. D. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 2944-2949], correlated these structural states with biochemical states in the actin-myosin ATPase reaction, and showed that a small shift in the steady-state distribution between these two LCD orientations (i.e., a net lever arm rotation) is associated with force generation in muscle. In the study presented here, we measured millisecond changes in this orientational distribution (i.e., the rates of transition between the two LCD orientations) in muscle following flash photolysis of caged ATP, in both the presence and absence of Ca. The transient acquired in the absence of Ca is dominated by a rapid (1/tau(1) = 37 s(-1)) disordering transition from the single orientation in rigor to the bimodal orientation distribution observed for detached cross-bridges in relaxation (i.e., the reversal of the lever arm rotation), followed by a recovery phase (1/tau(2) = 2.4 s(-1)) of very small amplitude (small fraction of heads participating). In the presence of Ca, the transient exhibited a similar initial disordering phase (1/tau(1) = 38.5 s(-1)), followed by a recovery phase (1/tau(2) = 8.33 s(-1)) of substantial amplitude, corresponding to the forward rotation and ordering of the lever arm. A standard kinetic model was used to fit these data, revealing rate constants consistent with those previously determined by other methods. Surprisingly, a comparison of the EPR transients with force transients reveals that the rate of force development (91 s(-1)) is faster than the rate of the forward lever arm rotation (8 s(-1)). This observed relationship between the kinetics of the lever arm rotation and transient force development in muscle provides new insight into how myosin both generates and responds to muscle force. PMID:12911323

  10. Aurora B but Not Rho/MLCK Signaling Is Required for Localization of Diphosphorylated Myosin II Regulatory Light Chain to the Midzone in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tomo; Isoda, Rieko; Ookusa, Takayuki; Kamijo, Keiju; Hamao, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II is stimulated by monophosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) at Ser19 (1P-MRLC). MRLC diphosphorylation at Thr18/Ser19 (2P-MRLC) further enhances the ATPase activity of myosin II. Phosphorylated MRLCs localize to the contractile ring and regulate cytokinesis as subunits of activated myosin II. Recently, we reported that 2P-MRLC, but not 1P-MRLC, localizes to the midzone independently of myosin II heavy chain during cytokinesis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the mechanism underlying the distinct localization of 1P- and 2P-MRLC during cytokinesis is unknown. Here, we showed that depletion of the Rho signaling proteins MKLP1, MgcRacGAP, or ECT2 inhibited the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring but not the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone. In contrast, depleting or inhibiting a midzone-localizing kinase, Aurora B, perturbed the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone but not the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring. We did not observe any change in the localization of phosphorylated MRLC in myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)-inhibited cells. Furrow regression was observed in Aurora B- and 2P-MRLC-inhibited cells but not in 1P-MRLC-perturbed dividing cells. Furthermore, Aurora B bound to 2P-MRLC in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Aurora B, but not Rho/MLCK signaling, is essential for the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone in dividing HeLa cells. PMID:23951055

  11. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae. PMID:16350755

  12. Calponin in Non-Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Chun Wu; J.-P. Jin

    2008-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated regulatory protein expressed in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Calponin is an\\u000a inhibitor of the actin-activated myosin ATPase. Three isoforms of calponin have been found in the vertebrates. Whereas the\\u000a role of calponin in regulating smooth muscle contractility has been extensively investigated, the function and regulation\\u000a of calponin in non-muscle cells is much less understood.

  13. From the Cover: New insights into myosin evolution and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo J. Foth; Marc C. Goedecke; Dominique Soldati

    2006-01-01

    Myosins are eukaryotic actin-dependent molecular motors important for a broad range of functions like muscle contraction, vision, hearing, cell motility, and host cell invasion of apicomplexan parasites. Myosin heavy chains consist of distinct head, neck, and tail domains and have previously been categorized into 18 different classes based on phylogenetic analysis of their conserved heads. Here we describe a comprehensive

  14. Mouse Class III myosins: Kinase activity and phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, J.S.; Stevens, S. M.; Alvarez, S.; Munoz, N.; Kempler, K.E.; Dose, A.C.; Burnside, B.; Battelle, B-A.

    2011-01-01

    Since class III unconventional myosins are motor proteins with an N-terminal kinase domain, it seems likely they play a role in both signaling and actin based transport. A growing body of evidence indicates that the motor functions of human class IIIA myosin, which has been implicated in progressive hearing loss, are modulated by intermolecular autophosphorylation. However, the phosphorylation sites have not been identified. We studied the kinase activity and phosphorylation sites of mouse class III myosins, mMyo3A and 3B, which are highly similar to their human orthologs. We demonstrate that the kinase domains of mMyo3A and 3B are active kinases, and that they have similar, if not identical, substrate specificities. We show that the kinase domains of these proteins autophosphorylate, and that they can phosphorylate sites within their myosin and tail domains. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified phosphorylated sites in the kinase, myosin motor and tail domains of both mMyo3A and 3B. Most of the phosphorylated sites we identified and their consensus phosphorylation motifs are highly conserved among vertebrate class III myosins, including human class III myosins. Our findings are a major step toward understanding how the functions of class III myosins are regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:21895655

  15. Myosin XI is essential for tip growth in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Luis; Burkart, Graham M; Augustine, Robert C; Kerdavid, Erin; Tüzel, Erkan; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2010-06-01

    Class XI myosins are plant specific and responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. Because of the large number of myosin XI genes in angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role, particularly with respect to tip growth. The moss Physcomitrella patens provides an ideal system to study myosin XI function. P. patens has only two myosin XI genes, and these genes encode proteins that are 94% identical to each other. To determine their role in tip growth, we used RNA interference to specifically silence each myosin XI gene using 5' untranslated region sequences. We discovered that the two myosin XI genes are functionally redundant, since silencing of either gene does not affect growth or polarity. However, simultaneous silencing of both myosin XIs results in severely stunted plants composed of small rounded cells. Although similar to the phenotype resulting from silencing of other actin-associated proteins, we show that this phenotype is not due to altered actin dynamics. Consistent with a role in tip growth, we show that a functional, full-length fusion of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region of actively growing protonemal cells. PMID:20525854

  16. Regulation of myosin II activity by actin architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Stam, Samantha; McCall, Patrick; Munro, Edwin; Gardel, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Networks of actin filaments containing myosin II motors generate forces and motions that promote biological processes such as cell division, motility, and cargo transport. In cells, actin filaments are arranged in various structures from disordered meshworks to tight bundles. Clusters of myosin II motors, known as myosin filaments, crosslink and generate force on neighboring actin filaments. We hypothesized that the local actin architecture controls the magnitude and duration of force generated by myosin II motors. We used fluorescence imaging to directly measure the mobility of myosin II filaments on actin networks and bundles with varying actin filament polarity, orientation, spacing, and length. On unipolar bundles, myosin exhibits fast, unidirectional motion consistent with their unloaded gliding speed. On mixed polarity bundles, myosin speed is reduced by one order of magnitude and marked by direction switching and trapping. Increasing filament spacing and bundle flexibility reduces the duration of trapping and enhances the mobility of motors. Simulations indicate that stable trapping is a signature of large generated forces while increased mobility indicates force release. Our data underscore that the efficiency of force generation by myosin motors in an actin network depends sensitively on its architecture and suggests actin crosslinking proteins are tuned to optimize actomyosin contractility.

  17. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. PMID:20691789

  18. The unconventional myosin-VIIa associates with lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Lily E.; Warren, Carmen M.; Bucci, Cecilia; Orten, Dana J.; Hasson, Tama

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the myosin-VIIa (MYO7a) gene cause human Usher disease, characterized by hearing impairment and progressive retinal degeneration. In the retina, myosin-VIIa is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, where it plays a role in the positioning of melanosomes and other digestion organelles. Using a human cultured retinal pigmented epithelia cell line, ARPE-19, as a model system, we have found that a population of myosin-VIIa is associated with cathepsin D- and Rab7-positive lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was Rab7 independent, as dominant negative and dominant active versions of Rab7 did not disrupt myosin-VIIa recruitment to lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was also independent of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Myosin-VIIa copurified with lysosomes on density gradients, and fractionation and extraction experiments suggested that it was tightly associated with the lysosome surface. These studies suggest that myosin-VIIa is a lysosome motor. PMID:16001398

  19. Role of Toxoplasma gondii Myosin A in Powering Parasite

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Role of Toxoplasma gondii Myosin A in Powering Parasite Gliding and Host Cell Invasion Markus Meissner,1 Dirk Schlu¨ter,2 Dominique Soldati1 * Obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites rely of this myosin caused severe impairment in host cell invasion and parasite spreading in cultured cells

  20. Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+ clearance proteins in smooth muscle: a functional unit

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Tracy J.; Bowman, Peggy Sue; Jefferson, Andrew; Tosun, Metiner; Lynch, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) can affect intracellular Ca2+ concentration regulation via coupling to the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and may be important in myogenic tone. We previously reported that in mice carrying a transgene for the NKA ?2-isoform in smooth muscle (?2sm+), the ?2-isoform protein as well as the ?1-isoform (not contained in the transgene) increased to similar degrees (2–7-fold). Aortas from ?2sm+ mice relaxed faster from a KCl-induced contraction, hypothesized to be related to more rapid Ca2+ clearance. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this faster relaxation, we therefore measured the expression and distribution of proteins involved in Ca2+ clearance. Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) proteins were all elevated up to approximately fivefold, whereas actin, myosin light chain, and calponin proteins were not changed in smooth muscle from ?2sm+ mice. Interestingly, the corresponding Ca2+ clearance mRNA levels were unchanged. Immunocytochemical data indicate that the Ca2+ clearance proteins are distributed similarly in wild-type and ?2sm+ aorta cells. In studies measuring relaxation half-times from a KCl-induced contraction in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors of SERCA and PMCA, we estimated that together these proteins were responsible for ?60–70% of relaxation in aorta. Moreover, the percent contribution of SERCA and PMCA to relaxation rates in ?2sm+ aorta was not significantly different from that in wild-type aorta. The coordinate expressions of NKA and Ca2+ clearance proteins without change in the relative contributions of each individual protein to smooth muscle function suggest that NKA may be but one component of a larger functional Ca2+ clearance system. PMID:20543086

  1. Myosin-5, kinesin-1 and myosin-17 cooperate in secretion of fungal chitin synthase.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Treitschke, Steffi; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Molloy, Justin; Harmer, Nicholas J; Steinberg, Gero

    2012-01-01

    Plant infection by pathogenic fungi requires polarized secretion of enzymes, but little is known about the delivery pathways. Here, we investigate the secretion of cell wall-forming chitin synthases (CHSs) in the corn pathogen Ustilago maydis. We show that peripheral filamentous actin (F-actin) and central microtubules (MTs) form independent tracks for CHSs delivery and both cooperate in cell morphogenesis. The enzyme Mcs1, a CHS that contains a myosin-17 motor domain, is travelling along both MTs and F-actin. This transport is independent of kinesin-3, but mediated by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. Arriving vesicles pause beneath the plasma membrane, but only ~15% of them get exocytosed and the majority is returned to the cell centre by the motor dynein. Successful exocytosis at the cell tip and, to a lesser extent at the lateral parts of the cell requires the motor domain of Mcs1, which captures and tethers the vesicles prior to secretion. Consistently, Mcs1-bound vesicles transiently bind F-actin but show no motility in vitro. Thus, kinesin-1, myosin-5 and dynein mediate bi-directional motility, whereas myosin-17 introduces a symmetry break that allows polarized secretion. PMID:22027862

  2. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  3. Movement and force produced by a single myosin head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, J. E.; Burns, J. E.; Kendrick-Jones, J.; Tregear, R. T.; White, D. C. S.

    1995-11-01

    MUSCLE contraction is driven by the cyclical interaction of myosin with actin, coupled to the breakdown of ATP. Studies of the interaction of filamentous myosin1 and of a double-headed proteolytic fragment, heavy meromyosin (HMM)2,3, with actin have demonstrated discrete mechanical events, arising from stochastic interaction of single myosin molecules with actin. Here we show, using an optical-tweezers transducer2,4, that a single myosin subfragment-1 (S1), which is a single myosin head, can act as an independent generator of force and movement. Our analysis accounts for the broad distribution of displacement amplitudes observed, and indicates that the underlying movement (working stroke) produced by a single acto-Sl interaction is ˜4 nm, considerably shorter than previous estimates1-3,5 but consistent with structural data6. We measure the average force generated by S1 or HMM to be at least 1.7 pN under isometric conditions.

  4. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ?20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  5. Identification and Localization of Myosin Superfamily Members in Fish Retina and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Sohlberg, Lorraine; Dosé, Andréa; Breckler, Jennifer; Hillman, David W.; Burnside, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Myosins are cytoskeletal motors critical for generating the forces necessary for establishing cell structure and mediating actin-dependent cell motility. In each cell type a multitude of myosins are expressed, each myosin contributing to aspects of morphogenesis, transport, or motility occurring in that cell type. To examine the roles of myosins in individual retinal cell types, we first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to identify myosins expressed in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), followed by immunohistochemistry to examine the cellular and subcellular localizations of seven of these expressed myosins. In the myosin PCR screen of cDNA from striped bass retina and striped bass RPE, we amplified 17 distinct myosins from eight myosin classes from retinal cDNA and 11 distinct myosins from seven myosin classes from RPE cDNA. By using antibodies specific for myosins IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, VI, VIIA, and IXB, we examined the localization patterns of these myosins in retinas and RPE of fish, and in isolated inner/outer segment fragments of green sunfish photoreceptors. Each of the myosins exhibited unique expression patterns in fish retina. Individual cell types expressed multiple myosin family members, some of which colocalized within a particular cell type. Because much is known about the functions and properties of these myosins from studies in other systems, their cellular and subcellular localization patterns in the retina help us understand which roles they might play in the vertebrate retina and RPE. PMID:19137585

  6. Neuromuscular Development and Regulation of Myosin Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, Sue

    1997-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine whether the absence of gravity during embryogenesis influences the postnatal development of the neuromuscular system. Further, we examined the effects of reduced gravity on hindlimb muscles of the pregnant rats. Microgravity may have short and long-term effects on the development of muscle fiber type differentiation and force producing capabilities. Microgravity will reduce muscle fiber size and cause a shift in myosin heavy chain expression from slow to fast in hindlimb muscles of the adult pregnant rats.

  7. Physicochemical changes of myosin and gelling properties of washed tilapia mince as influenced by oxidative stress and microbial transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Chanarat, Sochaya; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-06-01

    Physicochemical properties of myosin from tilapia subjected to oxidation via Fenton's reaction using H2O2 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 1 and 5 mM) were determined. With increasing H2O2 concentrations and times (from 0 to 12 h), sulfhydryl group content and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity decreased, while carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased to a higher extent. After being subjected to oxidation, cross-linking via disulfide bond along with increased storage modulus (G´) was observed. Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) induced polymerization of myosin in both non-oxidized and oxidized forms and increased gel G´. Gel properties of washed mince and oxidized washed mince were determined in the presence and absence of MTGase. A stronger gel was observed when 0.3 unit MTGase/g was added, regardless of oxidation process. Nevertheless, the gel strengthening effect of MTGase was hampered when mince was subjected to severe oxidation. Excessive protein aggregation of oxidized samples prior to gelation resulted in the reduction of gel strength and water-holding capacity. Negative effect of protein oxidation on gelation could therefore be alleviated to some degree by MTGase addition. PMID:26028767

  8. Rotational catalysis in proton pumping ATPases: from E. coli F-ATPase to mammalian V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Futai, Masamitsu; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Okamoto, Haruko; Sekiya, Mizuki; Nakamoto, Robert K

    2012-10-01

    We focus on the rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli F-ATPase (ATP synthase, F(O)F(1)). Using a probe with low viscous drag, we found stochastic fluctuation of the rotation rates, a flat energy pathway, and contribution of an inhibited state to the overall behavior of the enzyme. Mutational analyses revealed the importance of the interactions among ? and ? subunits and the ? subunit catalytic domain. We also discuss the V-ATPase, which has different physiological roles from the F-ATPase, but is structurally and mechanistically similar. We review the rotation, diversity of subunits, and the regulatory mechanism of reversible subunit dissociation/assembly of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian complexes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22459334

  9. The dynamic stator stalk of rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Lee, Lawrence K.; Donohoe, Mhairi; Chaston, Jessica J.; Stock, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis/synthesis with proton translocation across biological membranes and so are central components of the biological energy conversion machinery. Their peripheral stalks are essential components that counteract torque generated by rotation of the central stalk during ATP synthesis or hydrolysis. Here we present a 2.25-Å resolution crystal structure of the peripheral stalk from Thermus thermophilus A-type ATPase/synthase. We identify bending and twisting motions inherent within the structure that accommodate and complement a radial wobbling of the ATPase headgroup as it progresses through its catalytic cycles, while still retaining azimuthal stiffness necessary to counteract rotation of the central stalk. The conformational freedom of the peripheral stalk is dictated by its unusual right-handed coiled-coil architecture, which is in principle conserved across all rotary ATPases. In context of the intact enzyme, the dynamics of the peripheral stalks provides a potential mechanism for cooperativity between distant parts of rotary ATPases. PMID:22353718

  10. Malignant familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy D166V mutation in the ventricular myosin regulatory light chain causes profound effects in skinned and intact papillary muscle fibers from transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yingcai; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ?95% of the D166V (aspartic acid to valine) mutation in the ventricular myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) shown to cause a malignant familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) phenotype were generated, and the skinned and intact papillary muscle fibers from the Tg-D166V mice were examined using a Guth muscle research system. A large increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of force and ATPase (?pCa50>0.25) and a significant decrease in maximal force and ATPase were observed in skinned muscle fibers from Tg-D166V mice compared with control mice. The cross-bridge dissociation rate g was dramatically decreased, whereas the energy cost (ATPase/force) was slightly increased in Tg-D166V fibers compared with controls. The calculated average force per D166V cross-bridge was also reduced. Intact papillary muscle data demonstrated prolonged force transients with no change in calcium transients in Tg-D166V fibers compared with control fibers. Histopathological examination revealed fibrotic lesions in the hearts of the older D166V mice. Our results suggest that a charge effect of the D166V mutation and/or a mutation-dependent decrease in RLC phosphorylation could initiate the slower kinetics of the D166V cross-bridges and ultimately affect the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. Profound cellular changes observed in Tg-D166V myocardium when placed in vivo could trigger a series of pathological responses and result in poor prognosis for D166V-positive patients.—Kerrick, W. G. L., Kazmierczak, K., Xu, Y., Wang, Y., Szczesna-Cordary, D. Malignant familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy D166V mutation in the ventricular myosin regulatory light chain causes profound effects in skinned and intact papillary muscle fibers from transgenic mice. PMID:18987303

  11. Biosynthesis of the tonoplast H sup + -ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.K. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1989-04-01

    To determine whether the tonoplast H{sup +}-ATPase was differentially synthesized in oat seedlings, sections were labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and ATPase subunits were immunoprecipitated. Subunits were detected in all portions of the seedling with the exception of the seed. The intracellular site of synthesis for two peripheral ATPase subunits was investigated. RNA encoding the 72 kDa (catalytic) subunit was found in membrane-bound polysomes. In contrast, message for the 60 kDa subunit was found on free polysomes. Polypeptides synthesized in vivo or obtained from RNA translated in vitro exhibited no apparent size differences, suggesting the absence of cleaved precursors for the 72 or 60 kDa subunits.

  12. Myosin motor isoforms direct specification of actomyosin function by tropomyosins.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Joseph E; Pollard, Luther W; Murray, George G; Lord, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Myosins and tropomyosins represent two cytoskeletal proteins that often work together with actin filaments in contractile and motile cellular processes. While the specialized role of tropomyosin in striated muscle myosin-II regulation is well characterized, its role in nonmuscle myosin regulation is poorly understood. We previously showed that fission yeast tropomyosin (Cdc8p) positively regulates myosin-II (Myo2p) and myosin-V (Myo52p) motors. To understand the broader implications of this regulation we examined the role of two mammalian tropomyosins (Tpm3.1cy/Tm5NM1 and Tpm4.2cy/Tm4) recently implicated in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Like Cdc8p, the Tpm3.1cy and Tpm4.2cy isoforms significantly enhance Myo2p and Myo52p motor activity, converting nonprocessive Myo52p molecules into processive motors that can walk along actin tracks as single molecules. In contrast to the positive regulation of Myo2p and Myo52p, Cdc8p and the mammalian tropomyosins potently inhibited skeletal muscle myosin-II, while having negligible effects on the highly processive mammalian myosin-Va. In support of a conserved role for certain tropomyosins in regulating nonmuscle actomyosin structures, Tpm3.1cy supported normal contractile ring function in fission yeast. Our work reveals that actomyosin regulation by tropomyosin is dependent on the myosin isoform, highlighting a general role for specific isoforms of tropomyosin in sorting myosin motor outputs. PMID:25712463

  13. Ouabain Assembles Signaling Cascades through the Caveolar Na /K -ATPase*

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    membrane fractions. Consis- tently, ouabain induced the formation of a Na /K - ATPase-Src-caveolin complex -cyclodextrin or caveo- lin-1 by siRNA significantly reduced the caveolar Na / K -ATPase and Src. Concomitantly, cholesterol deple- tion abolished ouabain-induced recruitment of Src to the Na /K -ATPase signaling complex

  14. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?olovi?, M.; Krsti?, D.; Krinulovi?, K.; Momi?, T.; Savi?, J.; Vuja?i?, A.; Vasi?, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  15. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganeishi, Tokyo184-8588 (Japan) [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganeishi, Tokyo184-8588 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganeishi, Tokyo184-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganeishi, Tokyo184-8588 (Japan); Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Katayama, Eisaku [Graduate School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Takeyuki [Department of Biosciences, School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Utsunomiya, Tochigiken 320-8551 (Japan)] [Department of Biosciences, School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Utsunomiya, Tochigiken 320-8551 (Japan); Akimoto, Tsuyoshi [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Sugi, Haruo, E-mail: sugi@kyf.biglobe.ne.jp [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  16. Melanophilin Stimulates Myosin-5a Motor Function by Allosterically Inhibiting the Interaction between the Head and Tail of Myosin-5a

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Cao, Qing-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Yang; Li, Xiang-dong

    2015-01-01

    The tail-inhibition model is generally accepted for the regulation of myosin-5a motor function. Inhibited myosin-5a is in a folded conformation in which its globular tail domain (GTD) interacts with its head and inhibits its motor function, and high Ca2+ or cargo binding may reduce the interaction between the GTD and the head of myosin-5a, thus activating motor activity. Although it is well established that myosin-5a motor function is regulated by Ca2+, little is known about the effects of cargo binding. We previously reported that melanophilin (Mlph), a myosin-5a cargo-binding protein, is capable of activating myosin-5a motor function. Here, we report that Mlph-GTBDP, a 26 amino-acid-long peptide of Mlph, is sufficient for activating myosin-5a motor function. We demonstrate that Mlph-GTBDP abolishes the interaction between the head and GTD of myosin-5a, thereby inducing a folded-to-extended conformation transition for myosin-5a and activating its motor function. Mutagenesis of the GTD shows that the GTD uses two distinct, non-overlapping regions to interact with Mlph-GTBDP and the head of myosin-5a. We propose that the GTD is an allosteric protein and that Mlph allosterically inhibits the interaction between the GTD and head of myosin-5a, thereby activating myosin-5a motor function. PMID:26039755

  17. Tropomyosin and myosin-II cellular levels promote actomyosin ring assembly in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Sladewski, Thomas E; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2010-03-15

    Myosin-II (Myo2p) and tropomyosin are essential for contractile ring formation and cytokinesis in fission yeast. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to understand how these proteins function at contractile rings. We find that ring assembly is delayed in Myo2p motor and tropomyosin mutants, but occurs prematurely in cells engineered to express two copies of myo2. Thus, the timing of ring assembly responds to changes in Myo2p cellular levels and motor activity, and the emergence of tropomyosin-bound actin filaments. Doubling Myo2p levels suppresses defects in ring assembly associated with a tropomyosin mutant, suggesting a role for tropomyosin in maximizing Myo2p function. Correspondingly, tropomyosin increases Myo2p actin affinity and ATPase activity and promotes Myo2p-driven actin filament gliding in motility assays. Tropomyosin achieves this by favoring the strong actin-bound state of Myo2p. This mode of regulation reflects a role for tropomyosin in specifying and stabilizing actomyosin interactions, which facilitates contractile ring assembly in the fission yeast system. PMID:20110347

  18. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  19. How actin initiates the motor activity of Myosin.

    PubMed

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-05-26

    Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential for using the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines. PMID:25936506

  20. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  1. An unconventional myosin required for cell polarization and chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Breshears, Laura M.; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R.; Titus, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    MyTH/FERM (myosin tail homology 4/band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) myosins have roles in cellular adhesion, extension of actin-filled projections such as filopodia and stereocilia, and directional migration. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a simple complement of MyTH/FERM myosins, a class VII (M7) myosin required for cell-substrate adhesion and a unique myosin named MyoG. Mutants lacking MyoG exhibit a wide range of normal actin-based behaviors, including chemotaxis to folic acid, but have a striking defect in polarization and chemotaxis to cAMP. Although the myoG mutants respond to cAMP stimulation by increasing persistence and weakly increasing levels of cortical F-actin, they do not polarize; instead, they maintain a round shape and move slowly and randomly when exposed to a chemotactic gradient. The mutants also fail to activate and localize PI3K to the membrane closest to the source of chemoattractant. These data reveal a role for a MyTH/FERM myosin in mediating early chemotactic signaling and suggest that MyTH/FERM proteins have conserved roles in signaling and the generation of cell polarity. PMID:20351273

  2. An unconventional myosin required for cell polarization and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Breshears, Laura M; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R; Titus, Margaret A

    2010-04-13

    MyTH/FERM (myosin tail homology 4/band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) myosins have roles in cellular adhesion, extension of actin-filled projections such as filopodia and stereocilia, and directional migration. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a simple complement of MyTH/FERM myosins, a class VII (M7) myosin required for cell-substrate adhesion and a unique myosin named MyoG. Mutants lacking MyoG exhibit a wide range of normal actin-based behaviors, including chemotaxis to folic acid, but have a striking defect in polarization and chemotaxis to cAMP. Although the myoG mutants respond to cAMP stimulation by increasing persistence and weakly increasing levels of cortical F-actin, they do not polarize; instead, they maintain a round shape and move slowly and randomly when exposed to a chemotactic gradient. The mutants also fail to activate and localize PI3K to the membrane closest to the source of chemoattractant. These data reveal a role for a MyTH/FERM myosin in mediating early chemotactic signaling and suggest that MyTH/FERM proteins have conserved roles in signaling and the generation of cell polarity. PMID:20351273

  3. Continued Expression of Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain in Adult Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandman, Everett

    1985-02-01

    The expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was examined in normal and dystrophic chicken muscle with a monoclonal antibody specific for neonatal myosin. Adult dystrophic muscle continued to contain neonatal myosin long after it disappeared from adult normal muscle. A new technique involving western blotting and peptide mapping demonstrated that the immunoreactive myosin in adult dystrophic muscle was identical to that found in neonatal normal muscle. Immunocytochemistry revealed that all fibers in the dystrophic muscle failed to repress neonatal myosin heavy chain. These studies suggest that muscular dystrophy inhibits the myosin gene switching that normally occurs during muscle maturation.

  4. Cooperative regulation of myosin-S1 binding to actin filaments by a continuous flexible Tm-Tn chain.

    PubMed

    Mijailovich, Srboljub M; Kayser-Herold, Oliver; Li, Xiaochuan; Griffiths, Hugh; Geeves, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The regulation of striated muscle contraction involves cooperative interactions between actin filaments, myosin-S1 (S1), tropomyosin (Tm), troponin (Tn), and calcium. These interactions are modeled by treating overlapping tropomyosins as a continuous flexible chain (CFC), weakly confined by electrostatic interactions with actin. The CFC is displaced locally in opposite directions on the actin surface by the binding of either S1 or Troponin I (TnI) to actin. The apparent rate constants for myosin and TnI binding to and detachment from actin are then intrinsically coupled via the CFC model to the presence of neighboring bound S1s and TnIs. Monte Carlo simulations at prescribed values of the CFC stiffness, the CFC's degree of azimuthal confinement, and the angular displacements caused by the bound proteins were able to predict the stopped-flow transients of S1 binding to regulated F-actin. The transients collected over a large range of calcium concentrations could be well described by adjusting a single calcium-dependent parameter, the rate constant of TnI detachment from actin, k(-I). The resulting equilibrium constant K(B) ? 1/K(I) varied sigmoidally with the free calcium, increasing from 0.12 at low calcium (pCa >7) to 12 at high calcium (pCa <5.5) with a Hill coefficient of ~2.15. The similarity of the curves for excess-actin and excess-myosin data confirms their allosteric relationship. The spatially explicit calculations confirmed variable sizes for the cooperative units and clustering of bound myosins at low calcium concentrations. Moreover, inclusion of negative cooperativity between myosin units predicted the observed slowing of myosin binding at excess-myosin concentrations. PMID:23052974

  5. cAMP can raise or lower cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity depending on alpha-adrenergic activity.

    PubMed

    McClellan, G; Weisberg, A; Winegrad, S

    1994-08-01

    Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or beta-adrenergic stimulation has been shown to increase actomyosin adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity in cardiac muscle. Because the major catecholamine transmitters have both alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity, the possibility of a role for alpha-adrenergic stimulation in the regulation of ATPase activity has been investigated. Histochemical measurement of actomyosin ATPase activity in quickly frozen rat hearts has been used as the assay of enzymatic function of the contractile proteins. The dose-response curve of ATPase activity to cAMP shows an increase in ATPase activity at a threshold concentration of 0.01 microM, a peak effect at 0.5-1.0 microM, and a decline beyond 1.5 microM to a level below control at 10 microM cAMP. Kinetic studies varying ATP concentration from 0.5 to 10 mM indicated the existence of multiple forms of actomyosin ATPase activity in the absence of cAMP and only one form with a higher maximum velocity in the presence of 1 microM cAMP. Apparently cAMP raises the enzymatic activity of the individual actomyosin molecule rather than increasing the number of active molecules. The addition of an alpha-adrenergic blocker had no significant effect in the absence of added cAMP, but in the presence of the cyclic nucleotide, 1 microM prazosin always produced a negative effect on ATPase activity. Over the entire range of 0.01-10 microM, cAMP lowered ATPase activity when the alpha-adrenergic antagonist was present. The integrity of the cAMP regulatory system was sensitive to the tissue oxygen tension at the time the heart was quickly frozen. At certain oxygen tension, the stimulatory component of the cAMP regulation was observed without any inhibitory component, suggesting that there are two relatively independent parts of the regulatory mechanism, an inhibitory and a stimulatory. In the presence of gamma-labeled [32P]ATP, 32P was incorporated into several proteins, including the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TNI), C protein, and the regulatory light chain of myosin. cAMP (1 microM) caused an increase in 32P labeling of TNI and C protein. The addition of prazosin with cAMP caused a decrease in the overall level of phosphorylation with specific dephosphorylation of C protein and TNI, the former to a degree similar to the decrease in actomyosin ATPase activity, the latter to a greater degree. These results indicate that alpha-adrenergic activity modulates the balance between kinase and phosphatase activity in the presence of cAMP, probably by inhibiting phosphatase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7915082

  6. Partial Purification of a Tonoplast ATPase from Corn Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Mandala, Suzanne; Taiz, Lincoln

    1985-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase from corn coleoptile membranes was solubilized using a two-step procedure consisting of a pretreatment with 0.15% (w/v) deoxycholate to remove 60% of the protein, and 40 millimolar octyl-glucoside to solubilize the ATPase. During ultracentrifugation, the solublized ATPase entered a linear sucrose gradient faster than the majority of the protein, resulting in an 11-fold purification over the initial specific activity. The partially purified ATPase was almost completely inhibited by KNO3 with an estimated Ki of 10 millimolar. The specific activity of the KNO3-sensitive ATPase was increased 29-fold during purification. N,N?-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide also completely inhibited the ATPase with half-maximal effects at a concentration of 4 micromolar. Neither vanadate nor azide inhibited enzyme activity. The purified ATPase was stimulated by Cl? and preferred Mg-ATP as substrate. Analysis of frations from the sucrose gradient by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis led to the identification of two major polypeptides at 72,000 and 62,000 daltons which were best correlated with ATPase activity. Several minor bands also appeared to copurify with enzyme activity, but were less consistent. Radiation inactivation experiments with intact membranes indicated that the functional molecular size of the tonoplast ATPase was nearly 400,000 daltons. This suggests that the ATPase is composed of several polypeptides, possibly including the 72,000- and 62,000-dalton proteins. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16664239

  7. Arabidopsis myosin XI: a motor rules the tracks.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L; Szymanski, Daniel B; Staiger, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Plant cell expansion relies on intracellular trafficking of vesicles and macromolecules, which requires myosin motors and a dynamic actin network. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myosin XI powers the motility of diverse cellular organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endomembrane vesicles, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. Several recent studies show that there are changes in actin organization and dynamics in myosin xi mutants, indicating that motors influence the molecular tracks they use for transport. However, the mechanism by which actin organization and dynamics are regulated by myosin XI awaits further detailed investigation. Here, using high spatiotemporal imaging of living cells, we quantitatively assessed the architecture and dynamic behavior of cortical actin arrays in a mutant with three Myosin XI (XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K) genes knocked out (xi3KO). In addition to apparent reduction of organ and cell size, the mutant showed less dense and more bundled actin filament arrays in epidermal cells. Furthermore, the overall actin dynamicity was significantly inhibited in the xi3KO mutant. Because cytoskeletal remodeling is contributed mainly by filament assembly/disassembly and translocation/buckling, we also examined the dynamic behavior of individual actin filaments. We found that the xi3KO mutant had significantly decreased actin turnover, with a 2-fold reduction in filament severing frequency. Moreover, quantitative analysis of filament shape change over time revealed that myosin XI generates the force for buckling and straightening of both single actin filaments and actin bundles. Thus, our data provide genetic evidence that three Arabidopsis class XI myosins contribute to actin remodeling by stimulating turnover and generating the force for filament shape change. PMID:25237128

  8. Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks

    E-print Network

    Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

    2014-07-08

    Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.

  9. The assignment of the Ca2+-ATPase activity of chromaffin granules to the proton translocating ATPase.

    PubMed

    Flatmark, T; Grønberg, M; Husebye, E; Berge, S V

    1985-03-11

    CaATP is shown to function as a substrate for the proton translocating ATPase of chromaffin granule ghosts at concentrations which are comparable to that of MgATP. Using the initial rate of the proton pump activity as the measure (delta pH/delta t), an apparent Km-value of 139 +/- 8 microM was estimated for CaATP and 59 +/- 3 microM for MgATP. The maximal rate was markedly higher with MgATP than with CaATP, partly due to an inhibition of the hydrolytic activity at the higher concentrations of CaATP. The proton pump activity with CaATP was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide at concentrations similar to that found for MgATP. No inhibition was observed with sodium vanadate in the concentration range 0-15 microM. Calmodulin and trifluoperazine had no effect on the overall ATPase activity with CaATP. These findings establish this activity as an intrinsic property of the chromaffin granules, i.e., linked to the H+-ATPase. No evidence was obtained for the presence of a Ca2+-translocating ATPase [Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase) in the chromaffin granules. PMID:2857662

  10. Reciprocal and dynamic polarization of planar cell polarity core components and myosin.

    PubMed

    Newman-Smith, Erin; Kourakis, Matthew J; Reeves, Wendy; Veeman, Michael; Smith, William C

    2015-01-01

    The Ciona notochord displays planar cell polarity (PCP), with anterior localization of Prickle (Pk) and Strabismus (Stbm). We report that a myosin is polarized anteriorly in these cells and strongly colocalizes with Stbm. Disruption of the actin/myosin machinery with cytochalasin or blebbistatin disrupts polarization of Pk and Stbm, but not of myosin complexes, suggesting a PCP-independent aspect of myosin localization. Wash out of cytochalasin restored Pk polarization, but not if done in the presence of blebbistatin, suggesting an active role for myosin in core PCP protein localization. On the other hand, in the pk mutant line, aimless, myosin polarization is disrupted in approximately one third of the cells, indicating a reciprocal action of core PCP signaling on myosin localization. Our results indicate a complex relationship between the actomyosin cytoskeleton and core PCP components in which myosin is not simply a downstream target of PCP signaling, but also required for PCP protein localization. PMID:25866928

  11. Regulation of Myosin Phosphatase by Rho and RhoAssociated Kinase (Rho Kinase)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazushi Kimura; Masaaki Ito; Mutsuki Amano; Kazuyasu Chihara; Yuko Fukata; Masato Nakafuku; Bunpei Yamamori; Jianhua Feng; Takeshi Nakano; Katsuya Okawa; Akihiro Iwamatsu; Kozo Kaibuchi

    1996-01-01

    The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP\\\\cdotRhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase, which regulates the extent of phosphorylation of MLC. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which

  12. Elastic lever arm model for myosin V

    E-print Network

    Andrej Vilfan

    2005-03-14

    We present a mechanochemical model for myosin V, a two-headed processive motor protein. We derive the properties of a dimer from those of an individual head, which we model both with a 4-state cycle (detached, attached with ADP.Pi, attached with ADP and attached without nucleotide) and alternatively with a 5-state cycle (where the power stroke is not tightly coupled to the phosphate release). In each state the lever arm leaves the head at a different, but fixed, angle. The lever arm itself is described as an elastic rod. The chemical cycles of both heads are coordinated exclusively by the mechanical connection between the two lever arms. The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the power stroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its power stroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. Both models (4- and 5-state) reproduce the observed hand-over-hand motion and fit the measured force-velocity relations. The main difference between the two models concerns the load dependence of the run length, which is much weaker in the 5-state model. We show how systematic processivity measurement under varying conditions could be used to distinguish between both models and to determine the kinetic parameters.

  13. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ? 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  14. Evolutionary history and higher order classification of AAA+ ATPases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshminarayan M Iyer; Detlef D Leipe; Eugene V Koonin; L Aravind

    2004-01-01

    The AAA+ ATPases are enzymes containing a P-loop NTPase domain, and function as molecular chaperones, ATPase subunits of proteases, helicases or nucleic-acid-stimulated ATPases. All available sequences and structures of AAA+ protein domains were compared with the aim of identifying the definitive sequence and structure features of these domains and inferring the principal events in their evolution. An evolutionary classification of

  15. The long physiological reach of the yeast vacuolar H + ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Kane

    2007-01-01

    V-ATPases are structurally conserved and functionally versatile proton pumps found in all eukaryotes. The yeast V-ATPase has\\u000a emerged as a major model system, in part because yeast mutants lacking V-ATPase subunits (vma mutants) are viable and exhibit a distinctive Vma- phenotype. Yeast vma mutants are present in ordered collections of all non-essential yeast deletion mutants, and a number of additional

  16. Dissecting the N-terminal myosin binding site of human cardiac myosin-binding protein C. Structure and myosin binding of domain C2.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2007-03-23

    Myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) binds to myosin with two binding sites, one close to the N terminus and the other at the C terminus. Here we present the solution structure of one part of the N-terminal binding site, the third immunoglobulin domain of the cardiac isoform of human MyBP-C (cC2) together with a model of its interaction with myosin. Domain cC2 has the beta-sandwich structure expected from a member of the immunoglobulin fold. The C-terminal part of the structure of cC2 is very closely related to telokin, the myosin binding fragment of myosin light chain kinase. Domain cC2 also contains two cysteines on neighboring strands F and G, which would be able to form a disulfide bridge in a similar position as in telokin. Using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrate that cC2 alone binds to a fragment of myosin, S2Delta, with low affinity (kD = 1.1 mM) but exhibits a highly specific binding site. This consists of the C-terminal surface of the C'CFGA' beta-sheet, which includes Glu(301), a residue mutated to Gln in the disease familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The binding site on S2 was identified by a combination of NMR binding experiments of cC2 with S2Delta containing the cardiomyopathy-linked mutation R870H and molecular modeling. This mutation lowers the binding affinity and changes the arrangement of side chains at the interface. Our model of the cC2-S2Delta complex gives a first glimpse of details of the MyBP-C-myosin interaction. Using this model we suggest that most key interactions are between polar amino acids, explaining why the mutations E301Q in cC2 and R870H in S2Delta could be involved in cardiomyopathy. We expect that this model will stimulate future research to further refine the details of this interaction and their importance for cardiomyopathy. PMID:17192269

  17. Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural distribution and force generation in rat fibers

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural distribution and force generation in rat fibers. Snow, LaDora V. Thompson, and David D. Thomas. Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural muscle activity could reverse myosin structural alterations that occur in aged rat muscle and whether

  18. Muscle and nonmuscle myosins probed by a spin label at equivalent sites in

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    structural technique is needed. Previous EPR studies, with a spin label attached to SH1 in muscle myosin states, which are defined by the nucleotide bound to the active site. Structural changes of muscle myosinMuscle and nonmuscle myosins probed by a spin label at equivalent sites in the force

  19. Yeast UCS proteins promote actomyosin interactions and limit myosin turnover in cells

    E-print Network

    Yeast UCS proteins promote actomyosin interactions and limit myosin turnover in cells Matthew Lord of folded myosins. We examined both func- tions in yeast. The fission yeast UCS protein (Rng3p) concentrates and supports actin filament gliding. In budding yeast the single UCS protein (She4p) acts on both myosin

  20. Dynamics of Myosin-Driven Skeletal Muscle Contraction: I. Steady-State Force Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganhui Lan; Sean X. Sun

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is a canonical example of motor-driven force generation. Despite the long history of research in this topic, a mechanistic explanation of the collective myosin force generation is lacking. We present a theoretical model of muscle contraction based on the conformational movements of individual myosins and experimentally measured chemical rate constants. Detailed mechanics of the myosin motor and

  1. Interaction of amphipols with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Champeil, P; Menguy, T; Tribet, C; Popot, J L; le Maire, M

    2000-06-23

    Amphipols are short-chain amphipathic polymers designed to keep membrane proteins soluble in aqueous solutions. We have evaluated the effects of the interaction of amphipols with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase either in a membrane-bound or a soluble form. If the addition of amphipols to detergent-solubilized ATPase was followed by removal of detergent, soluble complexes formed, but these complexes retained poor ATPase activity, were not very stable upon long incubation periods, and at high concentrations they experienced aggregation. Nevertheless, adding excess detergent to diluted detergent-free ATPase-amphipol complexes incubated for short periods immediately restored full activity to these complexes, showing that amphipols had protected solubilized ATPase from the rapid and irreversible inactivation that otherwise follows detergent removal. Amphipols also protected solubilized ATPase from the rapid and irreversible inactivation observed in detergent solutions if the ATPase Ca(2+) binding sites remain vacant. Moreover, in the presence of Ca(2+), amphipol/detergent mixtures stabilized concentrated ATPase against inactivation and aggregation, whether in the presence or absence of lipids, for much longer periods of time (days) than detergent alone. Our observations suggest that mixtures of amphipols and detergents are promising media for handling solubilized Ca(2+)-ATPase under conditions that would otherwise lead to its irreversible denaturation and/or aggregation. PMID:10747917

  2. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid sequence identity with a 723-aa protein from mouse brain reported to be a glutamic acid decarboxylase. The neck region of chicken myosin-V, which contains the IQ-motifs, was demonstrated to contain the binding sites for CM by analyzing CM binding to bacterially expressed fusion proteins containing the head, neck, and tail domains. Immunolocalization of myosin-V in brain and in cultured cells revealed an unusual distribution for this myosin in both neurons and nonneuronal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1469047

  3. Myosin Binding Protein C Positioned to Play a Key Role in Regulation of Muscle Contraction: Structure and Interactions of Domain C1

    PubMed Central

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Rostkova, Elena; Mistry, Shreena; Masurier, Clare Le; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) is a thick filament protein involved in the regulation of muscle contraction. Mutations in the gene for MyBP-C are the second most frequent cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. MyBP-C binds to myosin with two binding sites, one at its C-terminus and another at its N-terminus. The N-terminal binding site, consisting of immunoglobulin domains C1 and C2 connected by a flexible linker, interacts with the S2 segment of myosin in a phosphorylation-regulated manner. It is assumed that the function of MyBP-C is to act as a tether that fixes the S1 heads in a resting position and that phosphorylation releases the S1 heads into an active state. Here, we report the structure and binding properties of domain C1. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR interaction experiments, we identified the binding site of domain C1 in the immediate vicinity of the S1–S2 hinge, very close to the light chains. In addition, we identified a zinc binding site on domain C1 in close proximity to the S2 binding site. Its zinc binding affinity (Kd of approximately 10–20 ?M) might not be sufficient for a physiological effect. However, the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mutation of one of the zinc ligands, glutamine 210 to histidine, will significantly increase the binding affinity, suggesting that this mutation may affect S2 binding. The close proximity of the C1 binding site to the hinge, the light chains and the S1 heads also provides an explanation for recent observations that (a) shorter fragments of MyBP-C unable to act as a tether still have an effect on the actomyosin ATPase and (b) as to why the myosin head positions in phosphorylated wild-type mice and MyBP-C knockout mice are so different: Domain C1 bound to the S1–S2 hinge is able to manipulate S1 head positions, thus influencing force generation without tether. The potentially extensive extra interactions of C1 are expected to keep it in place, while phosphorylation dislodges the C1–C2 linker and domain C2. As a result, the myosin heads would always be attached to a tether that has phosphorylation-dependent length regulation. PMID:18926831

  4. Myosin binding protein C positioned to play a key role in regulation of muscle contraction: structure and interactions of domain C1.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Rostkova, Elena; Mistry, Shreena; Le Masurier, Clare; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2008-12-19

    Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) is a thick filament protein involved in the regulation of muscle contraction. Mutations in the gene for MyBP-C are the second most frequent cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. MyBP-C binds to myosin with two binding sites, one at its C-terminus and another at its N-terminus. The N-terminal binding site, consisting of immunoglobulin domains C1 and C2 connected by a flexible linker, interacts with the S2 segment of myosin in a phosphorylation-regulated manner. It is assumed that the function of MyBP-C is to act as a tether that fixes the S1 heads in a resting position and that phosphorylation releases the S1 heads into an active state. Here, we report the structure and binding properties of domain C1. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR interaction experiments, we identified the binding site of domain C1 in the immediate vicinity of the S1-S2 hinge, very close to the light chains. In addition, we identified a zinc binding site on domain C1 in close proximity to the S2 binding site. Its zinc binding affinity (K(d) of approximately 10-20 microM) might not be sufficient for a physiological effect. However, the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mutation of one of the zinc ligands, glutamine 210 to histidine, will significantly increase the binding affinity, suggesting that this mutation may affect S2 binding. The close proximity of the C1 binding site to the hinge, the light chains and the S1 heads also provides an explanation for recent observations that (a) shorter fragments of MyBP-C unable to act as a tether still have an effect on the actomyosin ATPase and (b) as to why the myosin head positions in phosphorylated wild-type mice and MyBP-C knockout mice are so different: Domain C1 bound to the S1-S2 hinge is able to manipulate S1 head positions, thus influencing force generation without tether. The potentially extensive extra interactions of C1 are expected to keep it in place, while phosphorylation dislodges the C1-C2 linker and domain C2. As a result, the myosin heads would always be attached to a tether that has phosphorylation-dependent length regulation. PMID:18926831

  5. Mammalian myosin I alpha, I beta, and I gamma: new widely expressed genes of the myosin I family

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction strategy was devised to identify new members of the mammalian myosin I family of actin-based motors. Using cellular RNA from mouse granular neurons and PC12 cells, we have cloned and sequenced three 1.2-kb polymerase chain reaction products that correspond to novel mammalian myosin I genes designated MMI alpha, MMI beta, MMI gamma. The pattern of expression for each of the myosin I's is unique: messages are detected in diverse tissues including the brain, lung, kidney, liver, intestine, and adrenal gland. Overlapping clones representing full-length cDNAs for MMI alpha were obtained from mouse brain. These encode a 1,079 amino acid protein containing a myosin head, a domain with five calmodulin binding sites, and a positively charged COOH-terminal tail. In situ hybridization reveals that MMI alpha is highly expressed in virtually all neurons (but not glia) in the postnatal and adult mouse brain and in neuroblasts of the cerebellar external granular layer. Expression varies in different brain regions and undergoes developmental regulation. Myosin I's are present in diverse organisms from protozoa to vertebrates. This and the expression of three novel members of this family in brain and other mammalian tissues suggests that they may participate in critical and fundamental cellular processes. PMID:8449986

  6. Nuclear actin and myosin as control elements in nucleocytoplasmic transport

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to examine the role of actin and myosin in the transport of dextrans through the nuclear pore complex. Anti-actin antibodies added to isolated rat liver nuclei significantly reduced the flux rate of fluorescently labeled 64-kD dextrans. The addition of 3 mM ATP to nuclei, which enhances the flux rate in control nuclei by approximately 250%, had no enhancement effect in the presence of either anti-actin or anti-myosin antibody. Phalloidin (10 microM) and cytochalasin D (1 micrograms/ml) individually inhibited the ATP stimulation of transport. Rabbit serum, anti-fibronectin, and anti-lamins A and C antibodies had no effect on transport. These results suggest a model for nuclear transport in which actin/myosin are involved in an ATP-dependent process that alters the effective transport rate across the nuclear pore complex. PMID:2419345

  7. The Smooth Muscle Myosin Seven Amino Acid Heavy Chain Insert's Kinetic Role in the Crossbridge Cycle for Mouse Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Peter; Babu, Gopal J; Periasamy, Muthu; Brozovich, Frank V

    2003-01-01

    The seven amino acid insert in the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain is thought to regulate the kinetics of contraction, contributing to the differences between fast and slow smooth muscle. The effects of this insert on force and stiffness were determined in bladder tissue of a transgenic mouse line expressing the insert SMB at one of three levels: an SMB wild type (+/+), an SMA homozygous type (?/?) and a heterozygous type (+/?). For skinned muscle, an increase in MgADP or inorganic phosphate (Pi) should shift the distribution of crossbridges in the actomyosin ATPase (AMATPase) to increase the relative population of the crossbridge state prior to ADP release and Pi release, respectively. Exogenous ADP increased force and stiffness in a manner consistent with increasing the Ca2+ concentration in both the +/+ and +/? mouse types. However, the ?/? type showed a significantly greater increase in force than in stiffness suggesting that immediately prior to ADP release, the AMATPase either has an additional force producing isomerization state or a slower ADP dissociation rate for the ?/? type compared to the +/+ or +/? types. Exogenous Pi led to a significantly greater decrease in stiffness than in force for all three mouse types suggesting that there is a force producing state prior to Pi release. In addition, the increase in Pi showed similar changes in the +/+ and ?/? types whereas in the +/? type the decreases in both force and stiffness were greater than the other two mouse types indicating that the insert can affect the cooperativity between myosin heads. In conclusion, the seven amino acid insert modulates the kinetics and/or states of the AMATPase, which could lead to differences in the kinetics of contraction between fast and slow smooth muscle. PMID:12562924

  8. Photocleavage of myosin subfragment 1 by vanadate

    SciTech Connect

    Cremo, C.R.; Long, G.T.; Grammer, J.C. (Colorado College, Colorado Springs (USA))

    1990-08-28

    The heavy chain of myosin's subfragment 1 (S1) was cleaved at two distinct sites (termed V1 and V2) after irradiation with UV light in the presence of millimolar concentrations of vanadate and in the absence of nucleotides or divalent metals. The V1 site cleavage appeared to be identical with the previously described active site cleavage at serine-180, which is effected by irradiation of a photomodified form of the S1-MgADP-Vi complex. The V2 site was cleaved specifically, without cleavage at the V1 site, first by formation of the light-stable S1-Co2+ADP-Vi complex at the active site and then by irradiation in the presence of millimolar vanadate. By gel electrophoresis, the V2 site was localized to a region about 20 kDa from the COOH terminus of the S1 heavy chain. From the results of tryptic digestion experiments, the COOH-terminal V2 cleavage peptide appeared to contain lysine-636 in the linker region between the 50- and 20-kDa tryptic peptides of the heavy chain. This site appeared to be the same site cleaved by irradiation of S1 (not complexed with Co2+ADP-Vi) in the presence of millimolar vanadate as previously described. Cleavage at the V2 site was inhibited by Co2+ but was not significantly affected by the presence of nucleotides or Mg2+ ions. Tris buffer significantly inhibited V2 cleavage. From the results of UV-visible absorption, 51V NMR, and frozen-solution EPR spectral experiments, it was concluded that irradiation with UV light reduced vanadate +5 to the +4 oxidation state, which was then protected from rapid reoxidation by O2 by complexation with the Tris buffer. The relatively stable reduced form or forms of vanadium were not competent to cleave S1 at either the V1 or the V2 site.

  9. Ecto-ATPase activity of vertebrate blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bencic, D C; Yates, T J; Ingermann, R L

    1997-01-01

    Ecto-ATPase activity was measured for red blood cells, white blood cells, and whole blood from a variety of vertebrates. A large range of red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity was observed; for example, at 10 degrees C, red blood cells from a catastomid fish (Catostomus macrocheilus) and a newt (Taricha rivularis) had activities of 56 +/- 9 and 25,000,000 +/- 14,000,000 pmol ATP per 10(6) red blood cells per hour, respectively (mean +/- SD). Several control experiments verified that the measured ATPase activity was not the result of intracellular ATPases released due to cell damage or lysis nor due to the release of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate or uptake of extracellular ATP. Red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity was relatively low within the teleosts, was high within the reptiles, and had the greatest range and single highest value within the amphibians. Within the endotherms, avian red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities were greater than mammalian red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities, which were the lowest for all vertebrates examined. The lowest ecto-ATPase activities measured were for human and skunk red blood cells, which had activities of 13 +/- 1 and 11 +/- 2 pmol ATP per 10(6) red blood cells per hour, respectively, at 35 degrees C. Ecto-ATPase activity was measured in white blood cells of several vertebrate species and appeared generally high and less variable than red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity. Measured whole blood ecto-ATPase activity showed a range of three orders of magnitude and correlated positively with red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities. Ecto-ATPase activity was also determined for red blood cells from fetal, 1-3 d old neonatal, and pregnant garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans); these activities were not significantly different from the activity of red blood cells from nonpregnant adult females. Overall, the data from the present study demonstrate a wide range of red blood cell and whole blood ecto-ATPase activities among vertebrates and include some of the highest ecto-ATPase activities reported to date. PMID:9361136

  10. Comparative effects of structurally related cyclodiene pesticides on ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, B D; Bansal, S K; Desaiah, D

    1982-12-01

    Comparative effects of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and telodrin, on different ATPase activities in beef heart mitochondrial and rat brain synaptosomal fractions were determined in vitro. Beef heart mitochondrial fractions were prepared by the conventional centrifugation method and the rat brain synaptosomes were prepared by Ficoll-sucrose gradient centrifugation method. Na+-K+-ATPase, oligomycin-sensitive and -insensitive Mg2+-ATPases, and K+-paranitrophenylphosphatase were determined in rat brain synaptosomes. In beef heart mitochondria, only the Mg2+-ATPase activities were determined. Concentration response curves were determined by assaying the enzyme activities in the absence and presence of 10-120 microM concentrations of each test chemical. Beef heart mitochondrial (oligomycin-sensitive) Mg2+-ATPase activity was inhibited by all five chemicals at all the concentrations tested. Aldrin and telodrin were the most potent inhibitors with an IC50 of 40 and 80 microM, respectively. About 30% was observed with dieldrin, endrin and isodrin, and the inhibition was not concentration-dependent. Oligomycin-insensitive Mg2+-ATPase was not significantly inhibited by any chemical except aldrin. Rat brain synaptosomal ATPases were also sensitive to these compounds. Aldrin and telodrin were more effective than other compounds. A 50% inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg2+-ATPase activity was obtained at 80 microM of aldrin and telodrin. Na+-K+-ATPase and oligomycin-insensitive Mg2+-ATPase activities showed a maximum inhibition of 40% at the highest concentration tested for aldrin and telodrin. K+-paranitrophenylphosphatase was not inhibited significantly by any compound tested. These results suggest that ATPase system in rat heart and CNS may be selectively inhibited by aldrin and telodrin, but not by their structural analogs. PMID:6224843

  11. Regulation and Control of Myosin-I by the Motor and Light Chain Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Ostap, E. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Members of the myosin-I family of molecular motors are expressed in many eukaryotes where they are involved in a multitude of critical processes. Humans express 8 distinct members of the myosin-I family, making it the second largest family of myosins expressed in humans. Despite the high degree of sequence conservation in the motor and light chain binding domains of these myosins, recent studies have revealed surprising diversity of function and regulation arising from isoform-specific differences in these domains. Here we review the regulation of myosin-I function and localization by the motor and light chain binding domains. PMID:23200340

  12. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  13. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I? regulates breast cancer cell migration and invasion via interaction with the actin/myosin-associated protein caldesmon

    PubMed Central

    Schwappacher, Raphaela; Rangaswami, Hema; Su-Yuo, Jacqueline; Hassad, Aaron; Spitler, Ryan; Casteel, Darren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The two isoforms of type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKGI? and PKGI?) differ in their first ?100 amino acids, giving each isoform unique dimerization and autoinhibitory domains. The dimerization domains form coiled-coil structures and serve as platforms for isoform-specific protein–protein interactions. Using the PKGI? dimerization domain as an affinity probe in a proteomic screen, we identified the actin/myosin-associated protein caldesmon (CaD) as a PKGI?-specific binding protein. PKGI? phosphorylated human CaD on serine 12 in vitro and in intact cells. Phosphorylation on serine 12 or mutation of serine 12 to glutamic acid (S12E) reduced the interaction between CaD and myosin IIA. Because CaD inhibits myosin ATPase activity and regulates cell motility, we examined the effects of PKGI? and CaD on cell migration and invasion. Inhibition of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway reduced migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells, whereas PKG activation enhanced their motility and invasion. siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous CaD had pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects in human breast cancer cells. Reconstituting cells with wild-type CaD slowed migration and invasion; however, CaD containing a phospho-mimetic S12E mutation failed to reverse the pro-migratory and pro-invasive activity of CaD depletion. Our data suggest that PKGI? enhances breast cancer cell motility and invasive capacity, at least in part, by phosphorylating CaD. These findings identify a pro-migratory and pro-invasive function for PKGI? in human breast cancer cells, suggesting that PKGI? is a potential target for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23418348

  14. Myosins VIII and XI Play Distinct Roles in Reproduction and Transport of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Khalid; Di Donato, Martin; Dolja, Valerian V.; Heinlein, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory parasites that depend on host cellular factors for their replication as well as for their local and systemic movement to establish infection. Although myosin motors are thought to contribute to plant virus infection, their exact roles in the specific infection steps have not been addressed. Here we investigated the replication, cell-to-cell and systemic spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using dominant negative inhibition of myosin activity. We found that interference with the functions of three class VIII myosins and two class XI myosins significantly reduced the local and long-distance transport of the virus. We further determined that the inactivation of myosins XI-2 and XI-K affected the structure and dynamic behavior of the ER leading to aggregation of the viral movement protein (MP) and to a delay in the MP accumulation in plasmodesmata (PD). The inactivation of myosin XI-2 but not of myosin XI-K affected the localization pattern of the 126k replicase subunit and the level of TMV accumulation. The inhibition of myosins VIII-1, VIII-2 and VIII-B abolished MP localization to PD and caused its retention at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that class XI myosins contribute to the viral propagation and intracellular trafficking, whereas myosins VIII are specifically required for the MP targeting to and virus movement through the PD. Thus, TMV appears to recruit distinct myosins for different steps in the cell-to-cell spread of the infection. PMID:25329993

  15. Ensemble Force Changes that Result from Human Cardiac Myosin Mutations and a Small-Molecule Effector.

    PubMed

    Aksel, Tural; Choe Yu, Elizabeth; Sutton, Shirley; Ruppel, Kathleen M; Spudich, James A

    2015-05-12

    Cardiomyopathies due to mutations in human ?-cardiac myosin are a significant cause of heart failure, sudden death, and arrhythmia. To understand the underlying molecular basis of changes in the contractile system's force production due to such mutations and search for potential drugs that restore force generation, an in vitro assay is necessary to evaluate cardiac myosin's ensemble force using purified proteins. Here, we characterize the ensemble force of human ?- and ?-cardiac myosin isoforms and those of ?-cardiac myosins carrying left ventricular non-compaction (M531R) and dilated cardiomyopathy (S532P) mutations using a utrophin-based loaded in vitro motility assay and new filament-tracking software. Our results show that human ?- and ?-cardiac myosin, as well as the mutants, show opposite mechanical and enzymatic phenotypes with respect to each other. We also show that omecamtiv mecarbil, a previously discovered cardiac-specific myosin activator, increases ?-cardiac myosin force generation. PMID:25937279

  16. Intersubunit rotation in active F-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbert, D.; Engelbrecht, S.; Junge, W.

    1996-06-01

    THE enzyme ATP synthase, or F-ATPase, is present in the membranes of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Its structure is bipartite, with a proton-conducting, integral membrane portion, F0, and a peripheral portion, F1. Solubilized F1 is composed of five different subunits, (??)3???, and is active as an ATPase1,2. The function of F-ATPase is to couple proton translocation through F0 with ATP synthesis in F1 (ref. 3). Several lines of evidence support the spontaneous formation of ATP on F1 (refs 4,5) and its endergonic release6 at cooperative and rotating (or at least alternating) sites7. The release of ATP at the expense of protonmotive force might involve mechanical energy transduction from F0 into F1 by rotation of the smaller subunits (mainly ?) within (??)3, the catalytic hexagon of F1 as suggested by electron microscopy8, by X-ray crystal structure analysis9 and by the use of cleavable crosslinkers10. Here we record an intersubunit rotation in real time in the functional enzyme by applying polarized absorption relaxation after photobleaching to immobilized F1 with eosin-labelled ?. We observe the rotation of ? relative to immobilized (??)3 in a timespan of 100 ms, compatible with the rate of ATP hydrolysis by immobilized F1. Its angular range, which is of at least 200 degrees, favours a triple-site mechanism of catalysis7,11, with ? acting as a crankshaft in (??)3. The rotation of ? is blocked when ATP is substituted with its non-hydrolysable analogue AMP-PNP.

  17. Phosphorylation of the myosin IIA tailpiece regulates single myosin IIA molecule association with lytic granules to promote NK-cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Mace, Emily M.; Rak, Gregory D.; Difeo, Analisa; Martignetti, John A.; Pecci, Alessandro; Bussel, James B.; Favier, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that provide critical defense against virally infected and transformed cells. NK-cell cytotoxicity requires the formation of an F-actin rich immunologic synapse (IS), as well as the polarization of perforin-containing lytic granules to the IS and secretion of their contents at the IS. It was reported previously that NK-cell cytotoxicity requires nonmuscle myosin IIA function and that granule-associated myosin IIA mediates the interaction of granules with F-actin at the IS. In the present study, we evaluate the nature of the association of myosin IIA with lytic granules. Using NK cells from patients with mutations in myosin IIA, we found that the nonhelical tailpiece is required for NK-cell cytotoxicity and for the phosphorylation of granule-associated myosin IIA. Ultra-resolution imaging techniques demonstrated that single myosin IIA molecules associate with NK-cell lytic granules via the nonhelical tailpiece. Phosphorylation of myosin IIA at residue serine 1943 (S1943) in the tailpiece is needed for this linkage. This defines a novel mechanism for myosin II function, in which myosin IIA can act as a single-molecule actin motor, claiming granules as cargo through tail-dependent phosphorylation for the execution of a pre-final step in human NK-cell cytotoxicity. PMID:22123909

  18. Phosphorylation of the myosin IIA tailpiece regulates single myosin IIA molecule association with lytic granules to promote NK-cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Keri B; Mace, Emily M; Rak, Gregory D; Difeo, Analisa; Martignetti, John A; Pecci, Alessandro; Bussel, James B; Favier, Rémi; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-11-24

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that provide critical defense against virally infected and transformed cells. NK-cell cytotoxicity requires the formation of an F-actin rich immunologic synapse (IS), as well as the polarization of perforin-containing lytic granules to the IS and secretion of their contents at the IS. It was reported previously that NK-cell cytotoxicity requires nonmuscle myosin IIA function and that granule-associated myosin IIA mediates the interaction of granules with F-actin at the IS. In the present study, we evaluate the nature of the association of myosin IIA with lytic granules. Using NK cells from patients with mutations in myosin IIA, we found that the nonhelical tailpiece is required for NK-cell cytotoxicity and for the phosphorylation of granule-associated myosin IIA. Ultra-resolution imaging techniques demonstrated that single myosin IIA molecules associate with NK-cell lytic granules via the nonhelical tailpiece. Phosphorylation of myosin IIA at residue serine 1943 (S1943) in the tailpiece is needed for this linkage. This defines a novel mechanism for myosin II function, in which myosin IIA can act as a single-molecule actin motor, claiming granules as cargo through tail-dependent phosphorylation for the execution of a pre-final step in human NK-cell cytotoxicity. PMID:22123909

  19. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  20. Myosin heavy chain isoform transitions in canine skeletal muscles during postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Štrbenc, Malan; Smerdu, Vika; Poga?nik, Azra; Fazarinc, Gregor

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the normal characteristics of developing canine muscles, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression was analysed in the axial and limb skeletal muscles of 18 young dogs whose ages ranged from the late prenatal stage to 6 months. We compared the results of immunohistochemistry using ten monoclonal antibodies, specific to different MHC isoforms, and enzyme-histochemical reactions, which demonstrate the activity of myofibrillar ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ?-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (?-GPDH). In the skeletal muscles of fetuses and neonatal dogs the developmental isoforms MHC-emb and MHC-neo were prevalent. In all muscles the primary fibres, located centrally in each muscle fascicle, strongly expressed the slow isoform MHC-I. The adult fast isoform MHC-IIa was first noted in some of the secondary fibres on fetal day 55. During the first 10 days after birth, the expression of MHC-emb declined, as did that of MHC-neo during the second and third weeks. Correspondingly, the expression of MHC-IIa, and later, of MHC-I increased in the secondary fibres. Between the sixth week and second month the expression of MHC-IIx became prominent. The slow rhomboideus muscle exhibited an early expression of the slow isoform in the secondary fibres. Our results indicate that the timing of muscle maturation depends on its activity immediately following birth. The fastest developing muscle was the diaphragm, followed by the fast muscles. A pronounced changeover from developmental to adult isoforms was noted at 4–6 weeks of age, which coincides with the increased physical activity of puppies. PMID:16879596

  1. How Fo-ATPase generates rotary torque.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Wang, H; Grabe, M

    2000-04-29

    The F-ATPases synthesize ATP using a transmembrane ionmotive force (IMF) established by the electron transport chain. This transduction involves first converting the IMF to a rotary torque in the transmembrane Fo portion. This torque is communicated from Fo to the F1 portion where the energy is used to release the newly synthesized ATP from the catalytic sites according to Boyer's binding change mechanism. Here we explain the principle by which an IMF generates this rotary torque in the Fo ion engine. PMID:10836505

  2. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  3. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-04-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  4. Constraints on the attachment of myosin to actin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Tregear

    1988-01-01

    Actomyosin links form in groups at regular intervals along thin filaments in striated muscles. Modelling of vertebrate skeletal muscle in rigor [see the paper by Squire & Harford in this issue] shows that the orientation of the actin helix relative to the neighbouring myosin filament determines whether crossbridges can form. The orientation limits are approximately +45° so that about half

  5. Structural kinetics of myosin by transient time-resolved FRET

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Structural kinetics of myosin by transient time-resolved FRET Yuri E. Nesmelova,1,2 , Roman V technique, ðTRÞ2 FRET (transient time-resolved FRET), which resolves protein structural states on the submillisecond timescale during the tran- sient phase of a biochemical reaction. ðTRÞ2FRET is accomplished

  6. The local expression of adult chicken heart myosins during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sanders; I. J. M. Groot; W. J. C. Geerts; F. Jong; A. A. Horssen; J. A. Los; A. F. M. Moorman

    1986-01-01

    The development of the ventricular conducting tissue of the embryonic chicken heart has been studied using a previous finding that morphologically recognizable atrial conducting tissue coexpresses the atrial and the ventricular myosin isoforms. It is found that, by these criteria, at 9 days part of the ventricular conduction system consists of a myocardial ring located around the infundibula of the

  7. Embryonic chicken gizzard: immunolocalization of collagen and smooth muscle myosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke R. Paul; Truc Linh Vo; Andreas Meyer; Ute Gröschel-Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to chicken gizzard myosin and to chicken skin collagen type I allow the myofibrillar and connective tissue development in the embryonic chicken gizzard to be followed. Fibroblasts are assumed to synthesize collagen prior to the onset of smooth muscle cell development in the muscle primordium (day 5); they are presumably also responsible for collagen synthesis close to the presumptive

  8. Regulation and function of the fission yeast myosins.

    PubMed

    East, Daniel A; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2011-05-01

    It is now quarter of a century since the actin cytoskeleton was first described in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Since then, a substantial body of research has been undertaken on this tractable model organism, extending our knowledge of the organisation and function of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in fission yeast and eukaryotes in general. Yeast represents one of the simplest eukaryotic model systems that has been characterised to date, and its genome encodes genes for homologues of the majority of actin regulators and actin-binding proteins found in metazoan cells. The ease with which diverse methodologies can be used, together with the small number of myosins, makes fission yeast an attractive model system for actomyosin research and provides the opportunity to fully understand the biochemical and functional characteristics of all myosins within a single cell type. In this Commentary, we examine the differences between the five S. pombe myosins, and focus on how these reflect the diversity of their functions. We go on to examine the role that the actin cytoskeleton plays in regulating the myosin motor activity and function, and finally explore how research in this simple unicellular organism is providing insights into the substantial impacts these motors can have on development and viability in multicellular higher-order eukaryotes. PMID:21502135

  9. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac Myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a ?-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  10. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enilza M. Espreafico; Richard E. Cheney; Michela Matteoli; Alexandra A. C. Nascimento; Pietro V. De Camilli; Roy E. Larson; Mark S. Mooseker

    1992-01-01

    Abstract. Recent biochemical studies of p190, a cal- modulin,(CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of prop- erties with myosins (Espindola, E S., E. M. Esprea- rico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, E R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J.

  11. Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kekic, M; Huang, W; Moens, P D; Hambly, B D; dos Remedios, C G

    1996-01-01

    We reacted a fluorescent probe, N-methyl-2-anilino-6-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride (MNS-Ci), with a specific lysine residue of porcine cardiac myosin located in the S-2 region of myosin. We performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy measurements between this site and three loci (Cys109, Cys125, and Cys154) located within different myosin light-chain 2s (LC2) bound to the myosin "head". We used LC2s from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (Cys125), chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (Cys109), or a genetically engineered mutant of chicken skeletal muscle myosin (Cys154). The atomic coordinates of these LC2 loci can be closely approximated, and the FRET measurements were used to determine the position of the MNS-labeled lysine with respect to the myosin head. The C-terminus of myosin subfragment-1 determined by Rayment et al. ends abruptly after a sharp turn of its predominantly alpha-helical structure. We have constructed a model based on our FRET distance data combined with the known structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. This model suggests that the loci that bracket the head-rod junction will be useful for evaluating dynamic changes in this region. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8804587

  12. Modulation of cellular morphology and locomotory activity by antibodies against myosin

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies directed against chicken brush border myosin were used to study the possible function of myosin in microfilament organization and locomotion of chicken fibroblasts. These antibodies bind to distinct and separate epitopes on the heavy chain of chicken nonmuscle myosin and display differential effects of myosin filament formation and actin-myosin interaction (Citi, S., and J. Kendrick-Jones. 1988. J. Musc. Res. Cell Motil. 9: 306-319). When injected into chicken fibroblasts, all antibodies induced breakdown of stress fibers. Concomitantly, a large proportion of the cells developed extensive lamellae which altered their morphology drastically. These cells showed also increased locomotory activity. All effects were concentration dependent and reversible. The most drastic alterations were observed with cells injected with antibody quantities exceeding the quantity of cellular myosin (molar ratios of antibody to myosin greater than 3:1). The finding that antibodies with different effects on myosin filament formation in vitro all induce similar intracellular processes suggests that it is the antibody-induced decrease in functional myosin that triggers an increase in plasma membrane dynamics and locomotory activity, rather than differences in myosin filament length or conformation. PMID:2461948

  13. Specific Evolution of F1-Like ATPases in Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Dautant, Alain; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Labroussaa, Fabien; Sköllermo, Anna; Persson, Anja; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    F1F0 ATPases have been identified in most bacteria, including mycoplasmas which have very small genomes associated with a host-dependent lifestyle. In addition to the typical operon of eight genes encoding genuine F1F0 ATPase (Type 1), we identified related clusters of seven genes in many mycoplasma species. Four of the encoded proteins have predicted structures similar to the ?, ?, ? and ? subunits of F1 ATPases and could form an F1-like ATPase. The other three proteins display no similarity to any other known proteins. Two of these proteins are probably located in the membrane, as they have three and twelve predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenomic studies identified two types of F1-like ATPase clusters, Type 2 and Type 3, characterized by a rapid evolution of sequences with the conservation of structural features. Clusters encoding Type 2 and Type 3 ATPases were assumed to originate from the Hominis group of mycoplasmas. We suggest that Type 3 ATPase clusters may spread to other phylogenetic groups by horizontal gene transfer between mycoplasmas in the same host, based on phylogeny and genomic context. Functional analyses in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides showed that the Type 3 cluster genes were organized into an operon. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that the seven encoded proteins were produced during growth in axenic media. Mutagenesis and complementation studies demonstrated an association of the Type 3 cluster with a major ATPase activity of membrane fractions. Thus, despite their tendency toward genome reduction, mycoplasmas have evolved and exchanged specific F1-like ATPases with no known equivalent in other bacteria. We propose a model, in which the F1-like structure is associated with a hypothetical X0 sector located in the membrane of mycoplasma cells. PMID:22685606

  14. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  15. Telokin (kinase-related protein) modulates the oligomeric state of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase and its interaction with myosin filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Nieznanski, K; Sobieszek, A

    1997-01-01

    Telokin, an abundant gizzard protein, inhibited phosphorylation of regulatory light chain when filamentous myosin was used as the substrate but no inhibition was observed with myosin subfragment 1. At physiological telokin-to-myosin molar ratio (1:1), the inhibition amounted to a 3.5-fold reduction in the initial phosphorylation rate whereas at high molar excess of telokin over myosin, we observed an up to 20-fold decrease in this rate. In agreement with previous observations [Shirinsky, Vorotnikow, Birukov, Nanaev, Collinge, Lukas, Sellers and Watterson (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 16578-16583], telokin did not inhibit phosphorylation of the isolated regulatory light chain of myosin and only moderately (35%) inhibited that of heavy meromyosin. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of this inhibition, we investigated the effects of telokin on the recently described [Babiychuk, Babiychuk and Sobieszek (1995) Biochemistry 34, 6366-6372] oligomeric properties of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). We showed, on the one hand, that telokin rapidly solubilized the large kinase oligomers formed at low ionic strength. With soluble kinase, on the other hand, telokin acted to increase the relative concentration of MLCK dimers and to decrease that of the hexamers and octamers. This, in turn, resulted in a reduction in the amount of MLCK bound to myosin because filamentous myosin appeared to exhibit a higher affinity for the hexamers than for the dimers. Telokin by itself was also shown to dimerize and oligomerize in solution and this oligomerization was greatly enhanced in the presence of MLCK. We suggest that telokin affects myosin phosphorylation by modulation of the oligomeric state of MLCK and its interaction with myosin filaments. PMID:9078244

  16. Myosin-II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation.

    PubMed

    Rozbicki, Emil; Chuai, Manli; Karjalainen, Antti I; Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2015-04-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large-scale highly coordinated flows of more than 100,000 cells in the epiblast. These large-scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combination of light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression, and asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localization and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of class specific myosin inhibitors and gene-specific knockdown shows that apical contraction and intercalation are myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for myosin I and myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  17. Nucleotide Activation of the Ca-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Autry, Joseph M.; Rubin, John E.; Svensson, Bengt; Li, Ji; Thomas, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We have used fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and limited proteolysis to examine structural dynamics of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA). The Ca-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from fast twitch muscle (SERCA1a isoform) was selectively labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a probe that specifically reacts with Lys-515 in the nucleotide-binding site. Conformation-specific proteolysis demonstrated that FITC labeling does not induce closure of the cytoplasmic headpiece, thereby assigning FITC-SERCA as a nucleotide-free enzyme. We used enzyme reverse mode to synthesize FITC monophosphate (FMP) on SERCA, producing a phosphorylated pseudosubstrate tethered to the nucleotide-binding site of a Ca2+-free enzyme (E2 state to prevent FMP hydrolysis). Conformation-specific proteolysis demonstrated that FMP formation induces SERCA headpiece closure similar to ATP binding, presumably due to the high energy phosphoryl group on the fluorescent probe (ATP·E2 analog). Subnanosecond-resolved detection of fluorescence lifetime, anisotropy, and quenching was used to characterize FMP-SERCA (ATP·E2 state) versus FITC-SERCA in Ca2+-free, Ca2+-bound, and actively cycling phosphoenzyme states (E2, E1, and EP). Time-resolved spectroscopy revealed that FMP-SERCA exhibits increased probe dynamics but decreased probe accessibility compared with FITC-SERCA, indicating that ATP exhibits enhanced dynamics within a closed cytoplasmic headpiece. Molecular modeling was used to calculate the solvent-accessible surface area of FITC and FMP bound to SERCA crystal structures, revealing a positive correlation of solvent-accessible surface area with quenching but not anisotropy. Thus, headpiece closure is coupled to substrate binding but not active site dynamics. We propose that dynamics in the nucleotide-binding site of SERCA is important for Ca2+ binding (distal allostery) and phosphoenzyme formation (direct activation). PMID:22977248

  18. Evolution and Classification of Myosins, a Paneukaryotic Whole-Genome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Myosins are key components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, providing motility for a broad diversity of cargoes. Therefore, understanding the origin and evolutionary history of myosin classes is crucial to address the evolution of eukaryote cell biology. Here, we revise the classification of myosins using an updated taxon sampling that includes newly or recently sequenced genomes and transcriptomes from key taxa. We performed a survey of eukaryotic genomes and phylogenetic analyses of the myosin gene family, reconstructing the myosin toolkit at different key nodes in the eukaryotic tree of life. We also identified the phylogenetic distribution of myosin diversity in terms of number of genes, associated protein domains and number of classes in each taxa. Our analyses show that new classes (i.e., paralogs) and domain architectures were continuously generated throughout eukaryote evolution, with a significant expansion of myosin abundance and domain architectural diversity at the stem of Holozoa, predating the origin of animal multicellularity. Indeed, single-celled holozoans have the most complex myosin complement among eukaryotes, with paralogs of most myosins previously considered animal specific. We recover a dynamic evolutionary history, with several lineage-specific expansions (e.g., the myosin III-like gene family diversification in choanoflagellates), convergence in protein domain architectures (e.g., fungal and animal chitin synthase myosins), and important secondary losses. Overall, our evolutionary scheme demonstrates that the ancestral eukaryote likely had a complex myosin repertoire that included six genes with different protein domain architectures. Finally, we provide an integrative and robust classification, useful for future genomic and functional studies on this crucial eukaryotic gene family. PMID:24443438

  19. 3D structure of relaxed fish muscle myosin filaments by single particle analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hind A. AL-Khayat; Edward P. Morris; Robert W. Kensler; John M. Squire

    2006-01-01

    To understand the structural changes involved in the force-producing myosin cross-bridge cycle in vertebrate muscle it is necessary to know the arrangement and conformation of the myosin heads at the start of the cycle (i.e. the relaxed state). Myosin filaments isolated from goldfish muscle under relaxing conditions and viewed in negative stain by electron microscopy (EM) were divided into segments

  20. Immunofluorescence Analysis of the Primordial Myosin Detectable in Embryonic Striated Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren J. Sweeney; William A. Clark; Patrick K. Umeda; Radovan Zak; Francis J. Manasek

    1984-01-01

    Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the earliest myosin detectable in both the embryonic chicken heart and somitic myotome, the precursor to skeletal muscle, was strongly reactive with two different monoclonal antibodies specific for the heavy chain of cardiac ventricular myosin, but it showed no reactivity with affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies specific for the heavy chains of either fast-twitch or slow-tonic skeletal myosins.

  1. Detection of a ventricular-specific myosin heavy chain in adult and developing chicken heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yatian Zhang; Saiyid A. Shafiq; David Bader

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a monoclonal anti- body (McAb), ALD19, generated against myosin of slow tonic muscle, was shown to react with the heavy chain of ventricular myosin in the adult chicken heart. With this antibody, it was possible to detect a ventricular-specific myosin during myocardial differ- entiation and to show that the epitope recognized by ALD19 was present from

  2. Visualization of caldesmon binding to synthetic filaments of smooth muscle myosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Kulikova; Zoya Podlubnaya; Robert Makuch; Renata D?browska

    2003-01-01

    We have used synthetic filaments of unphosphorylated chicken gizzard myosin with a compact, highly ordered structure under\\u000a relaxing conditions (in the absence of Ca2+ and in the presence of ATP) to visualize the mode of caldesmon binding to myosin filaments by negative staining and immunogold\\u000a electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the addition of caldesmon to preformed myosin filaments leads to

  3. The Na-K-ATPase and Calcium-Signaling Microdomains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jiang Tian (University of Toledo Health Science Campus Physiology and Pharmacology)

    2008-08-01

    The Na-K-ATPase is an energy-transducing ion pump that converts the free energy of ATP into transmembrane ion gradients. It also serves as a functional receptor for cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain and digoxin. Binding of ouabain to the Na-K-ATPase can activate calcium signaling in a cell-specific manner. The exquisite calcium modulation via the Na-K-ATPase is achieved by the ability of the pump to integrate signals from numerous protein and non-protein molecules, including ion transporters, channels, protein kinases/phosphatases, as well as cellular Na+. This review focuses on the unique properties of the Na-K-ATPase and its role in the formation of different calcium-signaling microdomains.

  4. Myosin regulation and calcium transients in fibroblast shape change, attachment, and patching.

    PubMed

    Rees, D A; Charlton, J; Ataliotis, P; Woods, A; Stones, A J; Bayley, S A

    1989-01-01

    Following our study in Balb/c 3T3 cells and other cultured fibroblasts of the changes in myosin light chain phosphorylation associated with alterations in cell shape, attachment, and receptor patching, we have now determined the corresponding changes in cytoskeletal myosin distribution, and in the cellular calcium concentration, since this might, in part, mediate such responses. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that myosin assembly into ordered forms such as actomyosin bundles and myosin sheath almost always correlated with previously shown high phosphorylation levels of myosin regulatory light chain, whereas diffuse distributions usually correlated with low or undetectable levels. An exception was observed in treatment to alter cellular cAMP levels when, in a biphasic response, assembly was correlated inversely with the phosphorylation states shown previously. Fluorescent indicators for intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca++]i, showed that myosin disassembly by trypsin or EGTA acting externally on the cells was preceded by a transient increase in [Ca++]i. For EGTA this was associated with transient recruitment of myosin into dorsal sheath structure as well as the transient enhancement of phosphorylation shown earlier. Blockage of EGTA-induced disassembly could be achieved by azide, which also caused an immediate increase in [Ca++]i and inhibited its subsequent decline. Trypsin-induced dephosphorylation did not appear to involve an eventual reduction of [Ca++]i. Therefore, in many but not all of the systems studied, correlated changes were observed in myosin assembly, [Ca++]i, and the myosin phosphorylation levels shown earlier. PMID:2548742

  5. Axon Extension in the Fast and Slow Lanes: Substratum-Dependent Engagement of Myosin II Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ketschek, Andrea R.; Jones, Steven L.; Gallo, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Axon extension involves the coordinated regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Actin filaments drive protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia while microtubules invade the growth cone, thereby providing structural support for the nascent axon. Furthermore, in order for axons to extend the growth cone must attach to the substratum. Previous work indicates that myosin II activity inhibits the advance of microtubules into the periphery of growth cones, and myosin II has also been implicated in mediating integrin-dependent cell attachment. However, it is not clear how the functions of myosin II in regulating substratum attachment and microtubule advance are integrated during axon extension. We report that inhibition of myosin II function decreases the rate of axon extension on laminin, but surprisingly promotes extension rate on polylysine. The differential effects of myosin II inhibition on axon extension rate are attributable to myosin II having the primary function of mediating substratum attachment on laminin, but not on polylysine. Conversely, on polylysine the primary function of myosin II is to inhibit microtubule advance into growth cones. Thus, the substratum determines the role of myosin II in axon extension by controlling the functions of myosin II that contribute to extension. PMID:17638383

  6. A quasi-elastic light scattering study of smooth muscle myosin in the presence of ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Blank, P S; Carlson, F D

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrodynamic properties of turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin in solution using quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS). The effects of ionic strength (0.05-0.5 M KCl) and light chain phosphorylation on the conformational transition of myosin were examined in the presence of ATP at 20 degrees C. Cumulant analysis and light scattering models were used to describe the myosin system in solution. A nonlinear least squares fitting procedure was used to determine the model that best fits the data. The conformational transition of the myosin monomer from a folded form to an extended form was clearly demonstrated in a salt concentration range of 0.15-0.3 M KCl. Light chain phosphorylation regulates the transition and promotes unfolding of the myosin. These results agree with the findings obtained using sedimentation velocity and electron microscopy (Onishi and Wakabayashi, 1982; Trybus et al., 1982; Trybus and Lowey, 1984). In addition, we present evidence for polymeric myosin coexisting with the two monomeric myosin species over a salt concentration range from 0.05 to 0.5 M KCl. The size of the polymeric myosin varied with salt concentration. This observation supports the hypothesis that, in solution, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the two conformations of myosin monomer and filaments. PMID:1420864

  7. Structural and molecular conformation of myosin in intact muscle fibers by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the use of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) for imaging biological samples has been explored with regard to intrinsic SHG in highly ordered biological samples. As shown by fractional extraction of proteins, myosin is the source of SHG signal in skeletal muscle. SHG is highly dependent on symmetries and provides selective information on the structural order and orientation of the emitting proteins and the dynamics of myosin molecules responsible for the mechano-chemical transduction during contraction. We characterise the polarization-dependence of SHG intensity in three different physiological states: resting, rigor and isometric tetanic contraction in a sarcomere length range between 2.0 ?m and 4.0 ?m. The orientation of motor domains of the myosin molecules is dependent on their physiological states and modulate the SHG signal. We can discriminate the orientation of the emitting dipoles in four different molecular conformations of myosin heads in intact fibers during isometric contraction, in resting and rigor. We estimate the contribution of the myosin motor domain to the total second order bulk susceptibility from its molecular structure and its functional conformation. We demonstrate that SHG is sensitive to the fraction of ordered myosin heads by disrupting the order of myosin heads in rigor with an ATP analog. We estimate the fraction of myosin motors generating the isometric force in the active muscle fiber from the dependence of the SHG modulation on the degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments during an isometric contraction.

  8. Myosin II isoform switching mediates invasiveness after TGF-?–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jordan R.; Hussey, George S.; Miller, Tyler E.; Chaudhury, Arindam; Patel, Purvi; Monslow, James; Zheng, Qiao; Keri, Ruth A.; Reizes, Ofer; Bresnick, Anne R.; Howe, Philip H.; Egelhoff, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite functional significance of nonmuscle myosin II in cell migration and invasion, its role in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) or TGF-? signaling is unknown. Analysis of normal mammary gland expression revealed that myosin IIC is expressed in luminal cells, whereas myosin IIB expression is up-regulated in myoepithelial cells that have more mesenchymal characteristics. Furthermore, TGF-? induction of EMT in nontransformed murine mammary gland epithelial cells results in an isoform switch from myosin IIC to myosin IIB and increased phosphorylation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIA on target sites known to regulate filament dynamics (S1916, S1943). These expression and phosphorylation changes are downstream of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-E1 (E1), an effector of TGF-? signaling. E1 knockdown drives cells into a migratory, invasive mesenchymal state and concomitantly up-regulates MHC IIB expression and MHC IIA phosphorylation. Abrogation of myosin IIB expression in the E1 knockdown cells has no effect on 2D migration but significantly reduced transmigration and macrophage-stimulated collagen invasion. These studies indicate that transition between myosin IIC/myosin IIB expression is a critical feature of EMT that contributes to increases in invasive behavior. PMID:22025714

  9. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Progress report, [July 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have evidence for at least nine myosin-like genes in Arbidopsis, six of which have been cloned by a PCR-based method from genomic DNA, two have been isolated by genomic DNA cloning, and four have been identified by cDNA cloning. Most of our attention has been focused on the four myosin genes for which we have cDNA clones, and these cDNAs have now been sequenced to completion. Each of these myosins is similar in overall structure, with each containing the characteristic myosin head (motor) domain, which possesses ATP- and actin-binding motifs, a series of IQ repeats, which may be involved in calmodulin binding, a domain with a high probability of forming an alpha-helical coiled-coil secondary structure, which may allow the polypeptides to form dimers, and a variable tail domain, which may serve to define the specific cellular component that each myosin interacts with. One of these myosin genes, called MYA1, displays structural similarity to class of myosins that includes the yeast MYO2, mouse Dilute, and chicken p190 proteins, and this group of myosins is thought to play a role in intracellular trafficking of organelles. Because MYA1 is similar to this interesting class of myosins, we have chosen to conduct detailed studies of MYA1.

  10. Microscopic model of the actin-myosin interaction in muscular contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, B.; Moreau, M.; Schuman, B.

    2004-01-01

    We define and study a detailed many body model for the muscular contraction taking into account the various myosin heads. The state of the system is defined by the position of the actin and by an internal coordinate of rotation for each myosin head. We write a system of Fokker-Planck equations and calculate the average for the position, the number of attached myosin heads, and the total force exerted on the actin. We also study the correlation between these quantities, in particular between the number of attached myosin heads and the force on the actin.

  11. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K. (IIT); (EMBL); (Scripps); (Duke); (Prince); (FSU); (MRC); (U. Florence)

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  12. A myosin inhibitor impairs auxin-induced cell division

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carola Holweg; Anne Honsel; Peter Nick

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The role of myosins for auxin-induced cell division was probed using the inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime in the tobacco cell line VBI-0, where cell elongation and division are axially aligned under the control of auxin. A morphometric analysis revealed that cell division is blocked in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cell expansion continued. In addition, the polarity of terminal cells was

  13. Apoptotic Membrane Blebbing Is Regulated by Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jason C.; Stone, Nicole L.; Erhardt, Joseph; Pittman, Randall N.

    1998-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved execution phase of apoptosis is defined by characteristic changes occurring during the final stages of death; specifically cell shrinkage, dynamic membrane blebbing, condensation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanisms underlying these hallmark features of apoptosis have previously been elusive, largely because the execution phase is a rapid event whose onset is asynchronous across a population of cells. In the present study, a model system is described for using the caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, to block apoptosis and generate a synchronous population of cells actively extruding and retracting membrane blebs. This model system allowed us to determine signaling mechanisms underlying this characteristic feature of apoptosis. A screen of kinase inhibitors performed on synchronized blebbing cells indicated that only myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors decreased blebbing. Immunoprecipitation of myosin II demonstrated that myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was increased in blebbing cells and that MLC phosphorylation was prevented by inhibitors of MLCK. MLC phosphorylation is also mediated by the small G protein, Rho. C3 transferase inhibited apoptotic membrane blebbing, supporting a role for a Rho family member in this process. Finally, blebbing was also inhibited by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Based on these results, a working model is proposed for how actin/myosin II interactions cause cell contraction and membrane blebbing. Our results provide the first evidence that MLC phosphorylation is critical for apoptotic membrane blebbing and also implicate Rho signaling in these active morphological changes. The model system described here should facilitate future studies of MLCK, Rho, and other signal transduction pathways activated during the execution phase of apoptosis. PMID:9456322

  14. Neutral Phospholipids Stimulate Na,K-ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haviv, Haim; Habeck, Michael; Kanai, Ryuta; Toyoshima, Chikashi; Karlish, Steven J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins interact with phospholipids either via an annular layer surrounding the transmembrane segments or by specific lipid-protein interactions. Although specifically bound phospholipids are observed in many crystal structures of membrane proteins, their roles are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase is highly dependent on acid phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine, and previous work on purified detergent-soluble recombinant Na,K-ATPase showed that phosphatidylserine stabilizes and specifically interacts with the protein. Most recently the phosphatidylserine binding site has been located between transmembrane segments of ?TM8–10 and the FXYD protein. This paper describes stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity of the purified human ?1?1 or ?1?1FXYD1 complexes by neutral phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylethanolamine. In the presence of phosphatidylserine, soy phosphatidylcholine increases the Na,K-ATPase turnover rate from 5483 ± 144 to 7552 ± 105 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of ?1?1FXYD1 complexes prepared with native or synthetic phospholipids shows that the stimulatory effect is structurally selective for neutral phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains, especially dilinoleoyl phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. By contrast to phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine destabilizes the Na,K-ATPase. Structural selectivity for stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and destabilization by neutral phospholipids distinguish these effects from the stabilizing effects of phosphatidylserine and imply that the phospholipids bind at distinct sites. A re-examination of electron densities of shark Na,K-ATPase is consistent with two bound phospholipids located between transmembrane segments ?TM8–10 and TMFXYD (site A) and between TM2, -4, -6, -and 9 (site B). Comparison of the phospholipid binding pockets in E2 and E1 conformations suggests a possible mechanism of stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity by the neutral phospholipid. PMID:23430748

  15. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER S. LUNDE; ISAO KUBO

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced de- crease in external pH at 3.13 mg\\/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial.

  16. Subunit C of the vacuolar H +ATPase of Hordeum vulgare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nastaran Tavakoli; Christoph Eckerskorn; Dortje Golldack; Karl-Josef Dietz

    1999-01-01

    The molecular cloning of the first subunit C of the plant vacuolar H+-ATPase is reported. Tonoplast vesicles were purified from barley leaves by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the tonoplast polypeptides were separated by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Using an anti-ATPase holoenzyme antibody, a polypeptide was recognized in the molecular mass range of 40 kDa with an isoelectric point of about

  17. Myosin light chain kinase in microvascular endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiang; Rigor, Robert R; Pivetti, Christopher D; Wu, Mack H; Yuan, Sarah Y

    2010-07-15

    Microvascular barrier dysfunction is implicated in the initiation and progression of inflammation, posttraumatic complications, sepsis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Under physiological conditions, a precise equilibrium between endothelial cell-cell adhesion and actin-myosin-based centripetal tension tightly controls the semi-permeability of microvascular barriers. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays an important role in maintaining the equilibrium by phosphorylating myosin light chain (MLC), thereby inducing actomyosin contractility and weakening endothelial cell-cell adhesion. MLCK is activated by numerous physiological factors and inflammatory or angiogenic mediators, causing vascular hyperpermeability. In this review, we discuss experimental evidence supporting the crucial role of MLCK in the hyperpermeability response to key cell signalling events during inflammation. At the cellular level, in vitro studies of cultured endothelial monolayers treated with MLCK inhibitors or transfected with specific inhibiting peptides have demonstrated that induction of endothelial MLCK activity is necessary for hyperpermeability. Ex vivo studies of live microvessels, enabled by development of the isolated, perfused venule method, support the importance of MLCK in endothelial permeability regulation in an environment that more closely resembles in vivo tissues. Finally, the role of MLCK in vascular hyperpermeability has been confirmed with in vivo studies of animal disease models and the use of transgenic MLCK210 knockout mice. These approaches provide a more complete view of the role of MLCK in vascular barrier dysfunction. PMID:20479130

  18. Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Libera; Chang, Fred; Martin, Sophie G

    2012-12-01

    Myosin V motors are believed to contribute to cell polarization by carrying cargoes along actin tracks. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Myosin Vs transport secretory vesicles along actin cables, which are dynamic actin bundles assembled by the formin For3 at cell poles. How these flexible structures are able to extend longitudinally in the cell through the dense cytoplasm is unknown. Here we show that in myosin V (myo52 myo51) null cells, actin cables are curled, bundled, and fail to extend into the cell interior. They also exhibit reduced retrograde flow, suggesting that formin-mediated actin assembly is impaired. Myo52 may contribute to actin cable organization by delivering actin regulators to cell poles, as myoV defects are partially suppressed by diverting cargoes toward cell tips onto microtubules with a kinesin 7-Myo52 tail chimera. In addition, Myo52 motor activity may pull on cables to provide the tension necessary for their extension and efficient assembly, as artificially tethering actin cables to the nuclear envelope via a Myo52 motor domain restores actin cable extension and retrograde flow in myoV mutants. Together these in vivo data reveal elements of a self-organizing system in which the motors shape their own tracks by transporting cargoes and exerting physical pulling forces. PMID:23051734

  19. Active multistage coarsening of actin networks driven by myosin motors

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina Soares e; Depken, Martin; Stuhrmann, Björn; Korsten, Marijn; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2011-01-01

    In cells, many vital processes involve myosin-driven motility that actively remodels the actin cytoskeleton and changes cell shape. Here we study how the collective action of myosin motors organizes actin filaments into contractile structures in a simplified model system devoid of biochemical regulation. We show that this self-organization occurs through an active multistage coarsening process. First, motors form dense foci by moving along the actin network structure followed by coalescence. Then the foci accumulate actin filaments in a shell around them. These actomyosin condensates eventually cluster due to motor-driven coalescence. We propose that the physical origin of this multistage aggregation is the highly asymmetric load response of actin filaments: they can support large tensions but buckle easily under piconewton compressive loads. Because the motor-generated forces well exceed this threshold, buckling is induced on the connected actin network that resists motor-driven filament sliding. We show how this buckling can give rise to the accumulation of actin shells around myosin foci and subsequent coalescence of foci into superaggregates. This new physical mechanism provides an explanation for the formation and contractile dynamics of disordered condensed actomyosin states observed in vivo. PMID:21593409

  20. Actin-Myosin Viscoelastic Flow in the Keratocyte Lamellipod

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Boris; Fournier, Maxime F.; Jacobson, Ken; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.; Mogilner, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The lamellipod, the locomotory region of migratory cells, is shaped by the balance of protrusion and contraction. The latter is the result of myosin-generated centripetal flow of the viscoelastic actin network. Recently, quantitative flow data was obtained, yet there is no detailed theory explaining the flow in a realistic geometry. We introduce models of viscoelastic actin mechanics and myosin transport and solve the model equations numerically for the flat, fan-shaped lamellipodial domain of keratocytes. The solutions demonstrate that in the rapidly crawling cell, myosin concentrates at the rear boundary and pulls the actin network inward, so the centripetal actin flow is very slow at the front, and faster at the rear and at the sides. The computed flow and respective traction forces compare well with the experimental data. We also calculate the graded protrusion at the cell boundary necessary to maintain the cell shape and make a number of other testable predictions. We discuss model implications for the cell shape, speed, and bi-stability. PMID:19804715

  1. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Christopher S.; Kubo, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 ?g/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. A pet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition. PMID:10858359

  2. Phosphorylation and reaction intermediates of the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Gambel, A M; Menick, D R

    1993-09-25

    A P-type Ca(2+)-ATPase activity has been identified previously in membranes of the Gram-negative bacteria Flavobacterium odoratum. The reaction mechanism of the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-ATPase was examined by isolation of reaction cycle intermediates formed during reversal of the normal cycle using inorganic P(i). The eukaryotic ATPase can be directly phosphorylated by P(i) only in the absence of calcium, and half-maximal inhibition is observed at 1-2 microM calcium. The F. odoratum Ca(2+)-ATPase is also phosphorylated by P(i) in the absence of calcium, but in contrast to the eukaryotic pump, a 30-35-fold increase in phosphoenzyme (E-P) formation is observed when the enzyme is preincubated in millimolar calcium. Furthermore, the half-maximal activation of E-P formation is observed at approximately 100 microM calcium, similar to the value for low-affinity calcium binding in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. The data suggest that the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-ATPase forward reaction is ordered and that the prokaryotic enzyme does not appear to bind calcium at the high-affinity site until ATP binds. Thus, calcium does not inhibit phosphoenzyme formation by P(i) because the high-affinity Ca2+ binding site is not exposed on the free enzyme (E1). PMID:8376412

  3. Maternal–neonatal erythrocyte membrane Na + , K + ATPase and Mg 2+ ATPase activities in relation to the mode of delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios G. Vlachos; Kleopatra H. Schulpis; Theodore Parthimos; Spyros Mesogitis; George D. Vlachos; Aris Antsaklis; Stylianos Tsakiris

    2008-01-01

    Free radical production and high catecholamine levels are implicated in the modulation of Na+, K+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the mode of delivery on the above-mentioned enzyme\\u000a activities in maternal–neonatal erythrocyte membrane. Women with normal pregnancy (N = 30) were divided into two groups: Group A (N = 16) with normal labor and vaginal

  4. Characterization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates an electrochemical gradient of H(+) across the plasma membrane that provides the driving force for solute transport and regulates pH homeostasis and membrane potential in plant cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in H(+)-ATPase and subsequent binding of a 14-3-3 protein is the major common activation mechanism for H(+)-ATPase in vascular plants. However, there is very little information on the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in nonvascular plant bryophytes. Here, we show that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which is the most basal lineage of extant land plants, expresses both the penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (pT H(+)-ATPase) and non-penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (non-pT H(+)-ATPase) as in the green algae and that pT H(+)-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine. A search in the expressed sequence tag database of M. polymorpha revealed eight H(+)-ATPase genes, designated MpHA (for M. polymorpha H(+)-ATPase). Four isoforms are the pT H(+)-ATPase; the remaining isoforms are non-pT H(+)-ATPase. An apparent 95-kD protein was recognized by anti-H(+)-ATPase antibodies against an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) isoform and was phosphorylated on the penultimate threonine in response to the fungal toxin fusicoccin in thalli, indicating that the 95-kD protein contains pT H(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, we found that the pT H(+)-ATPase in thalli is phosphorylated in response to light, sucrose, and osmotic shock and that light-induced phosphorylation depends on photosynthesis. Our results define physiological signals for the regulation of pT H(+)-ATPase in the liverwort M. polymorpha, which is one of the earliest plants to acquire pT H(+)-ATPase. PMID:22496511

  5. Activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in cochlear lateral wall after acoustic trauma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C J; Shau, W Y; Chen, Y S; Liu, T C; Lin-Shiau, S Y

    2000-04-01

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase are well known participants in the active transport of ions in the inner ear. These two enzymes play an important role in maintaining cochlear function. Although changes in these enzymes' activities in the cochlea have been implicated in noise-induced hearing loss, no evidence of quantitative alteration of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or Ca(2+)-ATPase activities has ever been shown. The present study was undertaken to determine the quantitative alterations of their activities by microcolorimetric assay in the cochlear lateral wall after acoustic trauma. Adult albino guinea pigs were exposed to white noise at 105+/-2 dB A for 10 min or 40 h. The age-matched control animals were not exposed to noise. Noise exposure resulted in a significant threshold shift of the auditory brainstem response (P<0.001). Significant decreases in activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase were found in the cochlear lateral wall after noise exposure (P<0.001). Statistical analysis indicated that a good correlation held not only between the decline of these enzyme activities and noise-induced hearing loss, but also between the gradual partial recovery of these parameters during the first 10-day recovery period. The present findings suggest that metabolic damage and ionic disturbance may contribute, at least partially, to noise-induced hearing threshold shift. PMID:10748339

  6. Archazolid and apicularen: Novel specific V-ATPase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Markus; Sasse, Florenz; Kunze, Brigitte; Jansen, Rolf; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Ingenhorst, Gudrun; Zeeck, Axel; Wieczorek, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Background V-ATPases constitute a ubiquitous family of heteromultimeric, proton translocating proteins. According to their localization in a multitude of eukaryotic membranes, they energize many different transport processes. Since their malfunction is correlated with various diseases in humans, the elucidation of the properties of this enzyme for the development of selective inhibitors and drugs is one of the challenges in V-ATPase research. Results Archazolid A and B, two recently discovered cytotoxic macrolactones produced by the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra, and apicularen A and B, two novel benzolactone enamides produced by different species of the myxobacterium Chondromyces, exerted a similar inhibitory efficacy on a wide range of mammalian cell lines as the well established plecomacrolidic type V-ATPase inhibitors concanamycin and bafilomycin. Like the plecomacrolides both new macrolides also prevented the lysosomal acidification in cells and inhibited the V-ATPase purified from the midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, with IC50 values of 20–60 nM. However, they did not influence the activity of mitochondrial F-ATPase or that of the Na+/K+-ATPase. To define the binding sites of these new inhibitors we used a semi-synthetic radioactively labelled derivative of concanamycin which exclusively binds to the membrane Vo subunit c. Whereas archazolid A prevented, like the plecomacrolides concanamycin A, bafilomycin A1 and B1, labelling of subunit c by the radioactive I-concanolide A, the benzolactone enamide apicularen A did not compete with the plecomacrolide derivative. Conclusion The myxobacterial antibiotics archazolid and apicularen are highly efficient and specific novel inhibitors of V-ATPases. While archazolid at least partly shares a common binding site with the plecomacrolides bafilomycin and concanamycin, apicularen adheres to an independent binding site. PMID:16080788

  7. Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Seiler; Orit Ben-David; Samuel Sidi; Oliver Hendrich; Alfons Rusch; Beth Burnside; Karen B. Avraham; Teresa Nicolsona

    2004-01-01

    Unconventional myosins have been associated with hearing loss in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mutations in myosin VI cause both recessive and dominant forms of nonsyndromic deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell stereocilia. Although myosin VI has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking and epithelial morphogenesis, the

  8. Organelle Targeting of Myosin XI Is Mediated by Two Globular Tail Subdomains with Separate Cargo

    E-print Network

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    on three lines of evidence. First, disruption of organelle movements in plant cells by anti-actin drug to peroxisomes in plant cells, identifying this domain as sufficient for cargo binding. Unlike myosin V, either). Plants from green algae to flowering plants encode only two classes, myosin VIII and XI (3). A num- ber

  9. Using Fluorescent Myosin to Directly Visualize Cooperative Activation of Thin Filaments*?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rama; Geeves, Michael A.; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Contraction of striated muscle is tightly regulated by the release and sequestration of calcium within myocytes. At the molecular level, calcium modulates myosin's access to the thin filament. Once bound, myosin is hypothesized to potentiate the binding of further myosins. Here, we directly image single molecules of myosin binding to and activating thin filaments. Using this approach, the cooperative binding of myosin along thin filaments has been quantified. We have found that two myosin heads are required to laterally activate a regulatory unit of thin filament. The regulatory unit is found to be capable of accommodating 11 additional myosins. Three thin filament activation states possessing differential myosin binding capacities are also visible. To describe this system, we have formulated a simple chemical kinetic model of cooperative activation that holds across a wide range of solution conditions. The stochastic nature of activation is strongly highlighted by data obtained in sub-optimal activation conditions where the generation of activation waves and their catastrophic collapse can be observed. This suggests that the thin filament has the potential to be turned fully on or off in a binary fashion. PMID:25429108

  10. Dynamics of Myosin-V Processivity Ganhui Lan* and Sean X. Sun*y

    E-print Network

    Sun, Sean

    Dynamics of Myosin-V Processivity Ganhui Lan* and Sean X. Sun*y *Department of Mechanical energy fuels the translational movement of myosin-V toward the plus end of actin. The processive motion. The forward movement is due to the enhancement of ADP release from the trailing head. Under an external load

  11. Protein Phosphatase 1 ? Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1?, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1?, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  12. Structure of the Actin-Myosin Complex and Its Implications for Muscle Contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Rayment; Hazel M. Holden; Michael Whittaker; Christopher B. Yohn; Michael Lorenz; Kenneth C. Holmes; Ronald A. Milligan

    1993-01-01

    Muscle contraction consists of a cyclical interaction between myosin and actin driven by the concomitant hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A model for the rigor complex of F actin and the myosin head was obtained by combining the molecular structures of the individual proteins with the low-resolution electron density maps of the complex derived by cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis.

  13. Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1 Juan S is an autoimmune disease induced by T. cruzi (6). In other words, T. cruzi infection induces autoimmune responses to acute myocarditis that is accompanied by autoimmunity to cardiac myosin in susceptible strains of mice

  14. Myosin XI Is Essential for Tip Growth in Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Vidali, Luis; Burkart, Graham M.; Augustine, Robert C.; Kerdavid, Erin; Tüzel, Erkan; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Class XI myosins are plant specific and responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. Because of the large number of myosin XI genes in angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role, particularly with respect to tip growth. The moss Physcomitrella patens provides an ideal system to study myosin XI function. P. patens has only two myosin XI genes, and these genes encode proteins that are 94% identical to each other. To determine their role in tip growth, we used RNA interference to specifically silence each myosin XI gene using 5? untranslated region sequences. We discovered that the two myosin XI genes are functionally redundant, since silencing of either gene does not affect growth or polarity. However, simultaneous silencing of both myosin XIs results in severely stunted plants composed of small rounded cells. Although similar to the phenotype resulting from silencing of other actin-associated proteins, we show that this phenotype is not due to altered actin dynamics. Consistent with a role in tip growth, we show that a functional, full-length fusion of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region of actively growing protonemal cells. PMID:20525854

  15. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain during capping of mouse T- lymphoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bourguignon; MADAN L. NAGPAL; YUE-CHANE HSING

    1981-01-01

    Colchicine induces the clustering of at least three different T-lymphoma surface antigens (T200, Thy-1, and gp 69\\/71) into a cap structure in the absence of any external ligand . In addition, colchicine induces the intracellular accumulation of actin and myosin directly beneath the surface cap structure . We have discovered that myosin molecules (both heavy and light chains) are closely

  16. Second-site noncomplementation identifies genomic regions required for Drosophila nonmuscle myosin function during morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Halsell, S R; Kiehart, D P

    1998-01-01

    Drosophila is an ideal metazoan model system for analyzing the role of nonmuscle myosin-II (henceforth, myosin) during development. In Drosophila, myosin function is required for cytokinesis and morphogenesis driven by cell migration and/or cell shape changes during oogenesis, embryogenesis, larval development and pupal metamorphosis. The mechanisms that regulate myosin function and the supramolecular structures into which myosin incorporates have not been systematically characterized. The genetic screens described here identify genomic regions that uncover loci that facilitate myosin function. The nonmuscle myosin heavy chain is encoded by a single locus, zipper. Contiguous chromosomal deficiencies that represent approximately 70% of the euchromatic genome were screened for genetic interactions with two recessive lethal alleles of zipper in a second-site noncomplementation assay for the malformed phenotype. Malformation in the adult leg reflects aberrations in cell shape changes driven by myosin-based contraction during leg morphogenesis. Of the 158 deficiencies tested, 47 behaved as second-site noncomplementors of zipper. Two of the deficiencies are strong interactors, 17 are intermediate and 28 are weak. Finer genetic mapping reveals that mutations in cytoplasmic tropomyosin and viking (collagen IV) behave as second-site noncomplementors of zipper during leg morphogenesis and that zipper function requires a previously uncharacterized locus, E3.10/J3.8, for leg morphogenesis and viability. PMID:9560399

  17. JournalofCellScience Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal

    E-print Network

    Endow, Sharyn

    JournalofCellScience Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal motor proteins F. Jon Kull Ltd doi: 10.1242/jcs.103911 Summary Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss

  18. SUBMILLISECOND ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS OF SPIN-LABELED MYOSIN HEADS IN MYOFIBRILS

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    . To obtain direct information about this molecular motion, we have performed saturation transfer EPRSUBMILLISECOND ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS OF SPIN-LABELED MYOSIN HEADS IN MYOFIBRILS DAVID D. THOMAS, SHIN myosin heads bind to actin, is an essential element of most molecular models of muscle contraction

  19. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM LEHMAN; ANDREW G. SZENT-GYORGYI

    1975-01-01

    The control systems regulating muscle contraction in approximately I00 organisms have been categorized. Both myosin control and actin control operate simultaneously in the majority of invertebrates tested. These include insects, chelicerates, most crustaceans, annelids, priapulids, nematodes, and some sipunculids. Single myosin control is present in the muscles of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, echiuroids, and nemertine worms. Single actin control was found

  20. Role of the lever arm in the processive stepping of myosin V

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    Role of the lever arm in the processive stepping of myosin V Thomas J. Purcell*, Carl Morris motor that binds six light chains per heavy chain, which creates unusually long lever arms. This motor-headed myosin V tightly binds to actin and swings its long lever arm through a large angle, providing a stroke

  1. Myosin VI Steps via a Hand-over-Hand Mechanism with Its Lever

    E-print Network

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    Myosin VI Steps via a Hand-over- Hand Mechanism with Its Lever Arm Undergoing Fluctuations when or on the distal of two calmodulins (CaMs) located on its putative lever arm. Using a tech- nique called FIONA,whereas the motor domain probe did not. This supports a model of myosin VI motility in which the lever arm is either

  2. Using fluorescent myosin to directly visualize cooperative activation of thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rama; Geeves, Michael A; Kad, Neil M

    2015-01-23

    Contraction of striated muscle is tightly regulated by the release and sequestration of calcium within myocytes. At the molecular level, calcium modulates myosin's access to the thin filament. Once bound, myosin is hypothesized to potentiate the binding of further myosins. Here, we directly image single molecules of myosin binding to and activating thin filaments. Using this approach, the cooperative binding of myosin along thin filaments has been quantified. We have found that two myosin heads are required to laterally activate a regulatory unit of thin filament. The regulatory unit is found to be capable of accommodating 11 additional myosins. Three thin filament activation states possessing differential myosin binding capacities are also visible. To describe this system, we have formulated a simple chemical kinetic model of cooperative activation that holds across a wide range of solution conditions. The stochastic nature of activation is strongly highlighted by data obtained in sub-optimal activation conditions where the generation of activation waves and their catastrophic collapse can be observed. This suggests that the thin filament has the potential to be turned fully on or off in a binary fashion. PMID:25429108

  3. Structure of the S100A4/myosin-IIA complex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background S100A4, a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, modulates the motility of both non-transformed and cancer cells by regulating the localization and stability of cellular protrusions. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that S100A4 binds to the C-terminal end of the myosin-IIA heavy chain coiled-coil and disassembles myosin-IIA filaments; however, the mechanism by which S100A4 mediates myosin-IIA depolymerization is not well understood. Results We determined the X-ray crystal structure of the S100A4?8C/MIIA1908-1923 peptide complex, which showed an asymmetric binding mode for the myosin-IIA peptide across the S100A4 dimer interface. This asymmetric binding mode was confirmed in NMR studies using a spin-labeled myosin-IIA peptide. In addition, our NMR data indicate that S100A4?8C binds the MIIA1908-1923 peptide in an orientation very similar to that observed for wild-type S100A4. Studies of complex formation using a longer, dimeric myosin-IIA construct demonstrated that S100A4 binding dissociates the two myosin-IIA polypeptide chains to form a complex composed of one S100A4 dimer and a single myosin-IIA polypeptide chain. This interaction is mediated, in part, by the instability of the region of the myosin-IIA coiled-coil encompassing the S100A4 binding site. Conclusion The structure of the S100A4/MIIA1908-1923 peptide complex has revealed the overall architecture of this assembly and the detailed atomic interactions that mediate S100A4 binding to the myosin-IIA heavy chain. These structural studies support the idea that residues 1908–1923 of the myosin-IIA heavy chain represent a core sequence for the S100A4/myosin-IIA complex. In addition, biophysical studies suggest that structural fluctuations within the myosin-IIA coiled-coil may facilitate S100A4 docking onto a single myosin-IIA polypeptide chain. PMID:24252706

  4. ?-Catenin and IQGAP Regulate Myosin Localization to Control Epithelial Tube Morphogenesis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Daniel J.; Robinson, Douglas N.; Nelson, W. James; Weis, William I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Apical actomyosin activity in animal epithelial cells influences tissue morphology, and drives morphogenetic movements during development. The molecular mechanisms leading to myosin II accumulation at the apical membrane and its exclusion from other membranes are poorly understood. We show that in the non-metazoan Dictyostelium discoideum, myosin II localizes apically in tip epithelial cells that surround the stalk, and constriction of this epithelial tube is required for proper morphogenesis. IQGAP1 and its binding partner cortexillin I function downstream of ?- and ?-catenin to exclude myosin II from the basolateral cortex and promote apical accumulation of myosin II. Deletion of IQGAP1 or cortexillin compromises epithelial morphogenesis without affecting cell polarity. These results reveal that apical localization of myosin II is a conserved morphogenetic mechanism from non-metazoans to vertebrates, and identify a hierarchy of proteins that regulate the polarity and organization of an epithelial tube in a simple model organism. PMID:22902739

  5. Evolutionary history and higher order classification of AAA+ ATPases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Leipe, Detlef D; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2004-01-01

    The AAA+ ATPases are enzymes containing a P-loop NTPase domain, and function as molecular chaperones, ATPase subunits of proteases, helicases or nucleic-acid-stimulated ATPases. All available sequences and structures of AAA+ protein domains were compared with the aim of identifying the definitive sequence and structure features of these domains and inferring the principal events in their evolution. An evolutionary classification of the AAA+ class was developed using standard phylogenetic methods, analysis of shared sequence and structural signatures, and similarity-based clustering. This analysis resulted in the identification of 26 major families within the AAA+ ATPase class. We also describe the position of the AAA+ ATPases with respect to the RecA/F1, helicase superfamilies I/II, PilT, and ABC classes of P-loop NTPases. The AAA+ class appears to have undergone an early radiation into the clamp-loader, DnaA/Orc/Cdc6, classic AAA, and "pre-sensor 1 beta-hairpin" (PS1BH) clades. Within the PS1BH clade, chelatases, MoxR, YifB, McrB, Dynein-midasin, NtrC, and MCMs form a monophyletic assembly defined by a distinct insert in helix-2 of the conserved ATPase core, and additional helical segment between the core ATPase domain and the C-terminal alpha-helical bundle. At least 6 distinct AAA+ proteins, which represent the different major clades, are traceable to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of extant cellular life. Additionally, superfamily III helicases, which belong to the PS1BH assemblage, were probably present at this stage in virus-like "selfish" replicons. The next major radiation, at the base of the two prokaryotic kingdoms, bacteria and archaea, gave rise to several distinct chaperones, ATPase subunits of proteases, DNA helicases, and transcription factors. The third major radiation, at the outset of eukaryotic evolution, contributed to the origin of several eukaryote-specific adaptations related to nuclear and cytoskeletal functions. The new relationships and previously undetected domains reported here might provide new leads for investigating the biology of AAA+ ATPases. PMID:15037234

  6. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  7. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the ?-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  8. Ouabain Binding Site in a Functioning Na+/K+ ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Sandtner, Walter; Egwolf, Bernhard; Khalili-Araghi, Fatemeh; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jorge E.; Roux, Benoit; Bezanilla, Francisco; Holmgren, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The Na+/K+ ATPase is an almost ubiquitous integral membrane protein within the animal kingdom. It is also the selective target for cardiotonic derivatives, widely prescribed inhibitors for patients with heart failure. Functional studies revealed that ouabain-sensitive residues distributed widely throughout the primary sequence of the protein. Recently, structural work has brought some consensus to the functional observations. Here, we use a spectroscopic approach to estimate distances between a fluorescent ouabain and a lanthanide binding tag (LBT), which was introduced at five different positions in the Na+/K+ ATPase sequence. These five normally functional LBT-Na+/K+ ATPase constructs were expressed in the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, operating under physiological internal and external ion conditions. The spectroscopic data suggest two mutually exclusive distances between the LBT and the fluorescent ouabain. From the estimated distances and using homology models of the LBT-Na+/K+ ATPase constructs, approximate ouabain positions could be determined. Our results suggest that ouabain binds at two sites along the ion permeation pathway of the Na+/K+ ATPase. The external site (low apparent affinity) occupies the same region as previous structural findings. The high apparent affinity site is, however, slightly deeper toward the intracellular end of the protein. Interestingly, in both cases the lactone ring faces outward. We propose a sequential ouabain binding mechanism that is consistent with all functional and structural studies. PMID:21911500

  9. Thermodynamic efficiency and mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a nanosized biological energy transducer working as part of FoF1-ATP synthase. Its rotary machinery transduces energy between chemical free energy and mechanical work and plays a central role in the cellular energy transduction by synthesizing most ATP in virtually all organisms. However, information about its energetics is limited compared to that of the reaction scheme. Actually, fundamental questions such as how efficiently F1-ATPase transduces free energy remain unanswered. Here, we demonstrated reversible rotations of isolated F1-ATPase in discrete 120° steps by precisely controlling both the external torque and the chemical potential of ATP hydrolysis as a model system of FoF1-ATP synthase. We found that the maximum work performed by F1-ATPase per 120° step is nearly equal to the thermodynamical maximum work that can be extracted from a single ATP hydrolysis under a broad range of conditions. Our results suggested a 100% free-energy transduction efficiency and a tight mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase. PMID:21997211

  10. The 2?-O- and 3?-O-Cy3-EDA-ATP(ADP) Complexes with Myosin Subfragment-1 are Spectroscopically Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Jameson, David M.; Croney, John C.; Davis, Colin T.; Eccleston, John F.; Anson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Ribose-modified highly-fluorescent sulfoindocyanine ATP and ADP analogs, 2?(3?)-O-Cy3-EDA-AT(D)P, with kinetics similar to AT(D)P, enable myosin and actomyosin ATPase enzymology with single substrate molecules. Stopped-flow studies recording both fluorescence and anisotropy during binding to skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 (S1) and subsequent single-turnover decay of steady-state intermediates showed that on complex formation, 2?-O- isomer fluorescence quenched by 5%, anisotropy increased from 0.208 to 0.357, and then decayed with turnover rate kcat 0.07 s?1; however, 3?-O- isomer fluorescence increased 77%, and anisotropy from 0.202 to 0.389, but kcat was 0.03 s?1. Cy3-EDA-ADP·S1 complexes with vanadate (Vi) were studied kinetically and by time-resolved fluorometry as stable analogs of the steady-state intermediates. Upon formation of the 3?-O-Cy3-EDA-ADP·S1·Vi complex fluorescence doubled and anisotropy increased to 0.372; for the 2?-O- isomer, anisotropy increased to 0.343 but fluorescence only 6%. Average fluorescent lifetimes of 2?-O- and 3?-O-Cy3-EDA-ADP·S1·Vi complexes, 0.9 and 1.85 ns, compare with ?0.7 ns for free analogs. Dynamic polarization shows rotational correlation times higher than 100 ns for both Cy3-EDA-ADP·S1·Vi complexes, but the 2?-O-isomer only has also a 0.2-ns component. Thus, when bound, 3?-O-Cy3-EDA-ADP's fluorescence is twofold brighter with motion more restricted and turnover slower than the 2?-O-isomer; these data are relevant for applications of these analogs in single molecule studies. PMID:12524316

  11. Class VIII Myosins Are Required for Plasmodesmatal Localization of a Closterovirus Hsp70 Homolog?

    PubMed Central

    Avisar, Dror; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2008-01-01

    The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants. PMID:18199648

  12. Apical myosin XI anticipates F-actin during polarized growth of Physcomitrella patens cells.

    PubMed

    Furt, Fabienne; Liu, Yen-Chun; Bibeau, Jeffrey P; Tüzel, Erkan; Vidali, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Tip growth is essential for land colonization by bryophytes, plant sexual reproduction and water and nutrient uptake. Because this specialized form of polarized cell growth requires both a dynamic actin cytoskeleton and active secretion, it has been proposed that the F-actin-associated motor myosin XI is essential for this process. Nevertheless, a spatial and temporal relationship between myosin XI and F-actin during tip growth is not known in any plant cell. Here, we use the highly polarized cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens to show that myosin XI and F-actin localize, in vivo, at the same apical domain and that both signals fluctuate. Surprisingly, phase analysis shows that increase in myosin XI anticipates that of F-actin; in contrast, myosin XI levels at the tip fluctuate in identical phase with a vesicle marker. Pharmacological analysis using a low concentration of the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin B showed that the F-actin at the tip can be significantly diminished while myosin XI remains elevated in this region, suggesting that a mechanism exists to cluster myosin XI-associated structures at the cell's apex. In addition, this approach uncovered a mechanism for actin polymerization-dependent motility in the moss cytoplasm, where myosin XI-associated structures seem to anticipate and organize the actin polymerization machinery. From our results, we inferred a model where the interaction between myosin XI-associated vesicular structures and F-actin polymerization-driven motility function at the cell's apex to maintain polarized cell growth. We hypothesize this is a general mechanism for the participation of myosin XI and F-actin in tip growing cells. PMID:23020796

  13. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Hofmann, Wilma A., E-mail: whofmann@buffalo.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ? Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ? Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ? First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  14. Crystal structure of yeast V-ATPase subunit C reveals its stator function.

    PubMed

    Drory, Omri; Frolow, Felix; Nelson, Nathan

    2004-12-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) has a crucial role in the vacuolar system of eukaryotic cells. It provides most of the energy required for transport systems that utilize the proton-motive force that is generated by ATP hydrolysis. Some, but not all, of the V-ATPase subunits are homologous to those of F-ATPase and the nonhomologous subunits determine the unique features of V-ATPase. We determined the crystal structure of V-ATPase subunit C (Vma5p), which does not show any homology with F-ATPase subunits, at 1.75 A resolution. The structural features suggest that subunit C functions as a flexible stator that holds together the catalytic and membrane sectors of the enzyme. A second crystal form that was solved at 2.9 A resolution supports the flexible nature of subunit C. These structures provide a framework for exploring the unique mechanistic features of V-ATPases. PMID:15540116

  15. Increased Expression of Myosin Light Chain Kinase mRNA Is Related to Metastasis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Minamiya; Taku Nakagawa; Hajime Saito; Ikuo Matsuzaki; Kousei Taguchi; Manabu Ito; Jun-ichi Ogawa

    2005-01-01

    Background: The invasiveness of tumor cells depends in large part on their motility, which in turn depends on cytoskeletal function. A major cytoskeletal component involved in cell motility is myosin II, the classical form of myosin first identified in muscle but also expressed in nonmuscle cells. Myosin II is activated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), which phosphorylates it on

  16. Chaperones of F[subscript 1]-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, Anthony; Brunzelle, Joseph; Pribyl, Thomas; Xu, Xingjue; Gatti, Domenico L.; Ackerman, Sharon H.; (WSU-MED); (NWU)

    2009-09-25

    Mitochondrial F{sub 1}-ATPase contains a hexamer of alternating {alpha} and {beta} subunits. The assembly of this structure requires two specialized chaperones, Atp11p and Atp12p, that bind transiently to {beta} and {alpha}. In the absence of Atp11p and Atp12p, the hexamer is not formed, and {alpha} and {beta} precipitate as large insoluble aggregates. An early model for the mechanism of chaperone-mediated F{sub 1} assembly (Wang, Z. G., Sheluho, D., Gatti, D. L., and Ackerman, S. H. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 1486--1493) hypothesized that the chaperones themselves look very much like the {alpha} and {beta} subunits, and proposed an exchange of Atp11p for {alpha} and of Atp12p for {beta}; the driving force for the exchange was expected to be a higher affinity of {alpha} and {beta} for each other than for the respective chaperone partners. One important feature of this model was the prediction that as long as Atp11p is bound to {beta} and Atp12p is bound to {alpha}, the two F{sub 1} subunits cannot interact at either the catalytic site or the noncatalytic site interface. Here we present the structures of Atp11p from Candida glabrata and Atp12p from Paracoccus denitrificans, and we show that some features of the Wang model are correct, namely that binding of the chaperones to {alpha} and {beta} prevents further interactions between these F1 subunits. However, Atp11p and Atp12p do not resemble {alpha} or {beta}, and it is instead the F{sub 1} {gamma} subunit that initiates the release of the chaperones from {alpha} and {beta} and their further assembly into the mature complex.

  17. Two-dimensional crystallization and analysis of projection images of intact Thermus thermophilus V-ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Gerle; Kazutoshi Tani; Ken Yokoyama; Masatada Tamakoshi; Masasuke Yoshida; Yoshinori Fujiyoshi; Kaoru Mitsuoka

    2006-01-01

    H+-ATPase\\/synthases are membrane-bound rotary nanomotors that are essential for energy conversion in nearly all life forms. A member of the family of the vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) from Thermus thermophilus, sometimes also termed A-type ATPase, was purified to homogeneity and subjected to two-dimensional (2D) crystallization trials. A novel approach to the 2D crystallization of unstable complexes yielded densely packed sheets of

  18. F- and V-type ATPases in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshii Iida; Ken-ichi Inatomi; Yoichi Kamagata; Tadashi Maruyama

    2002-01-01

    Two gene clusters encoding F- or V-type ATPases were found in genomic DNA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. The subunit genes of each ATPase formed an operon. While the gene arrangement in the operon of the F-type ATPase resembled those in eukaryotic organelles and bacteria, that of the V-type ATPase was different from those reported for archaea, bacteria, or

  19. In vitro inhibition of Ca+2 ATPase by methylparathion in prawn: a kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M S; Rao, K V

    1990-12-01

    After in vitro addition of IC50 concentration of methylparathion on Ca+2 ATPase in nervous and hepato-pancreatic tissues of prawn were studied. The inhibitory pattern of Ca+2 ATPase elucidate the interaction of methylparathion with ATPase system. The significant decrease in maximal velocity (Vmax) without appreciable change in apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) suggests that the impact of methylparathion on Ca+2 ATPase is independent of substrate and is of a classical non-competitive type. PMID:2151019

  20. Interaction of the mitochondrial ATPase complex with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, C; Bisson, R; Dabbeni-Sala, F; Pitotti, A; Gutweniger, H

    1980-11-10

    The interaction of bovine heart mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (Serrano, R., Kranner, B. L., and Racker, E. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 2453-2461) with phospholipids has been examined by labeling the subunits exposed to lipids with photoreactive radioactive phospholipids. A subunit of Mr = 29,000 and some polypeptides in the range of 6,000 to 13,000 daltons were labeled. F1-ATPase subunits did not interact with the photoactive probes. This result is compared with the different pattern of labeling obtained with another mitochondrial ATPase preparation (Galante, Y.M., Wong, S. Y., and Hatefi, Y. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 12372-12378), which is devoid of the 29,000 component. PMID:6448844

  1. Roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wu, Miin-Feng; Cui, Sujuan; Wagner, Doris

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling ATPases and their associated complexes can alter the accessibility of the genome in the context of chromatin by using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to change the positioning, occupancy and composition of nucleosomes. In animals and plants, these remodelers have been implicated in diverse processes ranging from stem cell maintenance and differentiation to developmental phase transitions and stress responses. Detailed investigation of their roles in individual processes has suggested a higher level of selectivity of chromatin remodeling ATPase activity than previously anticipated, and diverse mechanisms have been uncovered that can contribute to the selectivity. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants. PMID:25977075

  2. Human nongastric H -K -ATPase: transport properties of ATP1al1 assembled with different -subunits

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Human nongastric H -K -ATPase: transport properties of ATP1al1 assembled with different -subunits March 2002 Crambert, Gilles, Jean-Daniel Horisberger, Nikolai N. Modyanov, and Ka¨thi Geering. Human of human nongastric H -K -ATPase, ATP1al1 (AL1), and of the Na -K -ATPase 1-subunit ( 1) expressed

  3. Allosteric Communication between Signal Peptides and the SecA Protein DEAD Motor ATPase Domain*

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    Allosteric Communication between Signal Peptides and the SecA Protein DEAD Motor ATPase Domain translocase ATPase is built of an amino-terminal DEAD helicase motor domain bound to a regulatory C-terminal 263 residues of the ATPase sub- domain of the DEAD motor are necessary and sufficient for high

  4. Enzymatic characterization of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli type III secretion ATPase EscN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Andrade; Juan Pablo Pardo; Norma Espinosa; Gerardo Pérez-Hernández; Bertha González-Pedrajo

    2007-01-01

    Type III secretion is a transport mechanism by which bacteria secrete proteins across their cell envelope. This protein export pathway is used by two different bacterial nanomachines: the flagellum and the injectisome. An indispensable component of these secretion systems is an ATPase similar to the F1-ATPase ? subunit. Here we characterize EscN, an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli type III ATPase. A

  5. Discrete subcellular localization of membrane-bound ATPase activity in marine angiosperms and marine algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Pak; T. Fukuhara; T. Nitta

    1995-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of membrane-bound ATPases was compared among terrestrial plants, seagrasses and marine algae by cytochemical techniques. High ATPase activity was detected in the copiously invaginated plasma membrane that was characteristic of transfer cells but not in the tonoplast of epidermal cells in mature leaves of seagrasses. Magnesium- or Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity was induced together with the characteristics of

  6. Independent Evolution of Heavy Metal-Associated Domains in Copper Chaperones and Copper-Transporting ATPases

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    Independent Evolution of Heavy Metal-Associated Domains in Copper Chaperones and Copper and structure to the Cu- binding heavy metal-associated (HMA) domains of Cu- transporting ATPases (Cu to the Cu-binding heavy metal-associated (HMA) domains of Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu- ATPases) whose genes

  7. SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPases overcome polycomb repression and control floral organ identity

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPases overcome polycomb repression and control floral organ that the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin-remodeling ATPases SPLAYED (SYD) and BRAHMA (BRM) are redundantly required for flower patterning and for the activation of AP3 and AG. The SWI2/SNF2 ATPases are recruited

  8. Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length

    PubMed Central

    Suggs, Jennifer A.; Cammarato, Anthony; Kronert, William A.; Nikkhoy, Massoud; Dambacher, Corey M.; Megighian, Aram; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) rod domains intertwine to form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers; these subsequently multimerize into thick filaments via electrostatic interactions. The subfragment 2/light meromyosin “hinge” region of the MHC rod, located in the C-terminal third of heavy meromyosin, may form a less stable coiled-coil than flanking regions. Partial “melting” of this region has been proposed to result in a helix to random-coil transition. A portion of the Drosophila melanogaster MHC hinge is encoded by mutually exclusive alternative exons 15a and 15b, the use of which correlates with fast (hinge A) or slow (hinge B) muscle physiological properties. To test the functional significance of alternative hinge regions, we constructed transgenic fly lines in which fast muscle isovariant hinge A was switched for slow muscle hinge B in the MHC isoforms of indirect flight and jump muscles. Substitution of the slow muscle hinge B impaired flight ability, increased sarcomere lengths by approximately 13% and resulted in minor disruption to indirect flight muscle sarcomeric structure compared with a transgenic control. With age, residual flight ability decreased rapidly and myofibrils developed peripheral defects. Computational analysis indicates that hinge B has a greater coiled-coil propensity and thus reduced flexibility compared to hinge A. Intriguingly, the MHC rod with hinge B was ~5 nm longer than myosin with hinge A, consistent with the more rigid coiled-coil conformation predicted for hinge B. Our study demonstrates that hinge B cannot functionally substitute for hinge A in fast muscle types, likely as a result of differences in the molecular structure of the rod, subtle changes in myofibril structure and decreased ability to maintain sarcomere structure in indirect flight muscle myofibrils. Thus alternative hinges are important in dictating the distinct functional properties of myosin isoforms and the muscles in which they are expressed. PMID:17316684

  9. Salt-stress alters proton transport by the tonoplast ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, F.; Morrissey, P. (U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction was obtained from roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv CM72) seedlings grown in half-strength nutrient solution with or without 100 mM NaCl. Proton transport by the tonoplast ATPase was measured using acridine orange, quinacrine or uptake of ({sup 14}C)-methylamine. The Vmax for proton transport was 2 to 4-fold higher for the ATPase from salt-grown compared to control roots. However, the rate of ATP hydrolysis was not significantly different for the two treatments. The percent inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by DCCD, DIDS and KNO{sub 3} was similar for the two treatments, as was the percent stimulation by Cl. The pH optimum for proton transport was more alkaline for the ATPase from salt-grown roots. No difference was observed between membranes from control and salt-grown roots when oxonol fluorescence was used to measure formation of a membrane potential by the ATPase. Immunoblots of SDS gels were reacted with the antibody to the 68-kD subunit from red beet to assess the relative amount of the 68-kD subunit of the tonoplast ATPase from control or salt-grown roots. The relative amount of the 16-kD DCCD-binding subunit was compared by binding of ({sup 14}C)-DCCD. The amounts of the two subunits were not significantly different in membranes from control or salt-grown roots. The increase in rate of formation of the pH gradient was not accounted for by an increase in the amount of the ATPase.

  10. In vitro motility assays and single molecule analyses reveal functional structural transitions in the molecular motor myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudich, James

    2010-03-01

    The molecular basis of how myosin motors work has been significantly advanced by laser trap and other single molecule studies of myosins V and VI. Myosin V moves processively by stepping arm-over-arm, walking along the 36-nm pseudo-repeat of an actin filament by swinging its long lever arms through an angle of ˜70 ^o, and hydrolyzing one ATP per step. Compared to the laser trap, we have improved time resolution to submilliseconds by tracking single gold nanoparticle-myosin V conjugates using darkfield imaging, and have directly observed the behavior of the unbound head as the motor translocates. We have also developed a technique called single-molecule high resolution co-localization (SHREC), which allows simultaneous co-localization of two chromatically differing fluorophores only 10 nm apart. We used SHREC to directly observe myosin V molecules walking hand-over-hand. Myosin VI, a considerably different myosin family member, has been the biggest challenge to the lever arm hypothesis of myosin movement. It has a very short light chain binding domain (the conventional lever arm). Nevertheless, the molecule surprisingly steps processively 36 nm along an actin filament. Furthermore, myosin VI moves in the opposite direction to that of myosin II and myosin V. We now understand how this marvelous molecular motor achieves these feats.

  11. Orthologous myosin isoforms and scaling of shortening velocity with body size in mouse, rat, rabbit and human muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, M A; Canepari, M; Rossi, R; D'Antona, G; Reggiani, C; Bottinelli, R

    2003-01-01

    Maximum shortening velocity (V0) was determined in single fibres dissected from hind limb skeletal muscles of rabbit and mouse and classified according to their myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition. The values for rabbit and mouse V0 were compared with the values previously obtained in man and rat under identical experimental conditions. Significant differences in V0 were found between fibres containing corresponding myosin isoforms in different species: as a general rule for each isoform V0 decreased with body mass. Myosin isoform distributions of soleus and tibialis anterior were analysed in mouse, rat, rabbit and man: the proportion of slow myosin generally increased with increasing body size. The diversity between V0 of corresponding myosin isoforms and the different myosin isoform composition of corresponding muscles determine the scaling of shortening velocity of whole muscles with body size, which is essential for optimisation of locomotion. The speed of actin translocation (Vf) in in vitro motility assay was determined with myosins extracted from single muscle fibres of all four species: significant differences were found between myosin isoforms in each species and between corresponding myosin isoforms in different species. The values of V0 and Vf determined for each myosin isoform were significantly correlated, strongly supporting the view that the myosin isoform expressed is the major determinant of maximum shortening velocity in muscle fibres. PMID:12562996

  12. Evolution of expression of cardiac phenotypes over a 4-year period in the ?-myosin heavy chain-Q403 transgenic rabbit model of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nagueh, Sherif F.; Chen, Suetnee; Patel, Rajnikant; Tsybouleva, Natalia; Lutucuta, Silvia; Kopelen, Helen A.; Zoghbi, William A.; Quiñones, Miguel A.; Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young, is characterized by a diverse array of cardiac phenotypes evolving over several decades. We have developed transgenic rabbits that fully recapitulate the phenotype of human HCM and provide for the opportunity to delineate the sequence of evolution of cardiac phenotypes, and thus, the pathogenesis of HCM. We determined evolution of biochemical, molecular, histological, structural and functional phenotypes at 4 age-periods in 47 ?-myosin heavy chain-glutamine (MyHC-Q)-403 transgenic rabbits. Ca+2 sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity was reduced very early and in the absence of other discernible phenotypes. Myocyte disarray also occurred early, prior to, and independent of hypertrophy and fibrosis. The latter phenotypes evolved predominantly during puberty in conjunction with activation of stress-related signaling kinases. Myocardial contraction and relaxation velocities were decreased early despite normal global cardiac function and in the absence of histological phenotype. Global cardiac function declined with aging, while left atrial size was increased along with Doppler indices of left ventricular filling pressure. Thus, Ca+2 sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity is a primary phenotype expressed early and independent of the ensuing phenotypes. Pathogenesis of myocyte disarray, which exhibits age-independent penetrance, differs from those of hypertrophy and fibrosis, which show age-dependent expression. Myocardial dysfunction is an early marker that predicts subsequent development of hypertrophy. These findings in an animal model that recapitulates the phenotype of human HCM, implicate involvement of multiple independent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiac phenotypes in HCM. PMID:15135661

  13. FoF1-ATPase, rotary motor and biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yao-Gen; Yue, Jia-Chang; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2010-08-01

    FoF1-ATPase is an amazing molecular rotary motor at the nanoscale. Single molecule technologies have contributed much to the understanding of the motor. For example, fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy revealed the physical rotation of isolated F1 and Fo, or FoF1 holoenzyme. Magnetic tweezers were employed to manipulate the ATP synthesis/hydrolysis in F1, and proton translation in Fo. Here, we briefly review our recent works including a systematic kinetics study of the holoenzyme, the mechanochemical coupling mechanism, reconstituting the ?-free FoF1-ATPase, direct observation of Fo rotation at single molecule level and activity regulation through external links on the stator.

  14. Mutations in Myosin Light Chain Kinase Cause Familial Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Guo, Dong-chuan; Cao, Jiumei; Gong, Limin; Kamm, Kristine E.; Regalado, Ellen; Li, Li; Shete, Sanjay; He, Wei-Qi; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Offermanns, Stephan; Gilchrist, Dawna; Elefteriades, John; Stull, James T.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoforms of ?-actin and ?-myosin heavy chain, two major components of the SMC contractile unit, cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (FTAAD). To investigate whether mutations in the kinase that controls SMC contractile function (myosin light chain kinase [MYLK]) cause FTAAD, we sequenced MYLK by using DNA from 193 affected probands from unrelated FTAAD families. One nonsense and four missense variants were identified in MYLK and were not present in matched controls. Two variants, p.R1480X (c.4438C>T) and p.S1759P (c.5275T>C), segregated with aortic dissections in two families with a maximum LOD score of 2.1, providing evidence of linkage of these rare variants to the disease (p = 0.0009). Both families demonstrated a similar phenotype characterized by presentation with an acute aortic dissection with little to no enlargement of the aorta. The p.R1480X mutation leads to a truncated protein lacking the kinase and calmodulin binding domains, and p.S1759P alters amino acids in the ?-helix of the calmodulin binding sequence, which disrupts kinase binding to calmodulin and reduces kinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, mice with SMC-specific knockdown of Mylk demonstrate altered gene expression and pathology consistent with medial degeneration of the aorta. Thus, genetic and functional studies support the conclusion that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYLK are associated with aortic dissections. PMID:21055718

  15. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Signaling in Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rigor, Robert R.; Shen, Qiang; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Wu, Mack H.; Yuan, Sarah Y.

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular barrier dysfunction is a serious problem that occurs in many inflammatory conditions, including sepsis, trauma, ischemia–reperfusion injury, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Barrier dysfunction permits extravasation of serum components into the surrounding tissue, leading to edema formation and organ failure. The basis for microvascular barrier dysfunction is hyperpermeability at endothelial cell–cell junctions. Endothelial hyperpermeability is increased by actomyosin contractile activity in response to phosphorylation of myosin light chain by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK-dependent endothelial hyperpermeability occurs in response to inflammatory mediators (e.g., activated neutrophils, thrombin, histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, etc.), through multiple cell signaling pathways and signaling molecules (e.g., Ca++, protein kinase C, Src kinase, nitric oxide synthase, etc.). Other signaling molecules protect against MLCK-dependent hyperpermeability (e.g., sphingosine-1-phosphate or cAMP). In addition, individual MLCK isoforms play specific roles in endothelial barrier dysfunction, suggesting that isoform-specific inhibitors could be useful for treating inflammatory disorders and preventing multiple organ failure. Because endothelial barrier dysfunction depends upon signaling through MLCK in many instances, MLCK-dependent signaling comprises multiple potential therapeutic targets for preventing edema formation and multiple organ failure. The following review is a discussion of MLCK-dependent mechanisms and cell signaling events that mediate endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:22886693

  16. Design principles governing the motility of myosin V

    E-print Network

    Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2013-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin V exhibits a wide repertoire of pathways during the stepping process, which is intimately connected to its biological function. The best understood of these is hand-over-hand stepping by a swinging lever arm movement toward the plus-end of actin filaments, essential to its role as a cellular transporter. However, single-molecule experiments have also shown that the motor "foot stomps", with one hand detaching and rebinding to the same site, and backsteps under sufficient load. Explaining the complete taxonomy of myosin V's load-dependent stepping pathways, and the extent to which these are constrained by motor structure and mechanochemistry, are still open questions. Starting from a polymer model, we develop an analytical theory to understand the minimal physical properties that govern motor dynamics. In particular, we solve the first-passage problem of the head reaching the target binding site, investigating the competing effects of load pulling back at the motor, strain in the lea...

  17. Characterization and expression of a myosin heavy-chain isoform in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, R S; Esbaugh, A J; Wang, Y S; Tufts, B L

    2009-10-01

    In this study, myosin, the major component of myofibrillar protein in the skeletal muscle, was characterized and its expression was monitored during growth in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus. First, the coding region of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from the fast skeletal muscle of walleye was amplified by long-distance PCR using a full-length cDNA. Phylogenetic analysis was used to determine the evolutionary relationship of this S. vitreus myosin sequence to other vertebrate myosin sequences. Next, it was established that the myosin isoform was most prevalent in the white muscle, compared with the red and cardiac muscle. Myosin expression was monitored over a series of experiments designed to influence growth. Specifically, change in MyHC mRNA was monitored after acute changes in feeding. Fish exposed to a one-week fasting period showed significant decreases in MyHC mRNA levels by the end of the fast. The effect of feeding was also examined more closely over a 24 h period after feeding, but results showed no significant change in myosin expression levels through this time period. Finally, fish with higher growth rates had higher MyHC mRNA and protein expression levels. This study indicates that MyHC mRNA expression is sensitive to the factors that may influence growth in juvenile S. vitreus. PMID:20738597

  18. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects.

    PubMed

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B; Krenc, Agata K; Meyers, David J; Rock, Ronald S; Anders, Robert A; Freel Meyers, Caren L; Robinson, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  19. High-resolution helix orientation in actin-bound myosin determined with a bifunctional spin label.

    PubMed

    Binder, Benjamin P; Cornea, Sinziana; Thompson, Andrew R; Moen, Rebecca J; Thomas, David D

    2015-06-30

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a bifunctional spin label (BSL) bound stereospecifically to Dictyostelium myosin II, we determined with high resolution the orientation of individual structural elements in the catalytic domain while myosin is in complex with actin. BSL was attached to a pair of engineered cysteine side chains four residues apart on known ?-helical segments, within a construct of the myosin catalytic domain that lacks other reactive cysteines. EPR spectra of BSL-myosin bound to actin in oriented muscle fibers showed sharp three-line spectra, indicating a well-defined orientation relative to the actin filament axis. Spectral analysis indicated that orientation of the spin label can be determined within <2.1° accuracy, and comparison with existing structural data in the absence of nucleotide indicates that helix orientation can also be determined with <4.2° accuracy. We used this approach to examine the crucial ADP release step in myosin's catalytic cycle and detected reversible rotations of two helices in actin-bound myosin in response to ADP binding and dissociation. One of these rotations has not been observed in myosin-only crystal structures. PMID:26056276

  20. Myosins Are Differentially Expressed under Oxidative Stress in Chronic Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Calábria, Luciana Karen; Vieira da Costa, Alice; da Silva Oliveira, Renato José; Ramos Deconte, Simone; de Carvalho, Washington João; de Oliveira, Vanessa Neves; Rezende Alves de Oliveira, Luciana; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, which may lead to brain tissue damage due to oxidative stress and also contributes to neuronal death and changes in synaptic transmission. This study evaluated the effect of oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants supplementation on myosins expression levels in the brains of chronic diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, and myosins-IIB and -Va expressions at transcriptional and translational levels were examined after 90 days induction. The chronic effect of the diabetes led to the upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and the downregulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but there was no statistically significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. These alterations were accompanied by high myosin-IIB and low myosin-Va expressions. Although the antioxidant supplementation did not interfere on MDA levels, the oxidative stress caused by chronic hyperglycemia was reduced by increasing SOD and restoring CAT and GPx activities. Interestingly, after supplementation, diabetic rats recovered only myosin-Va protein levels, without interfering on myosins mRNA levels expressed in diabetic rat brains. Our results suggest that antioxidant supplementation reduces oxidative stress and also regulates the myosins protein expression, which should be beneficial to individuals with diabetes/chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:24982856

  1. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  2. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  3. Electrophysiological characterization of ATPases in native synaptic vesicles and synaptic plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Obrdlik, Petr; Diekert, Kerstin; Watzke, Natalie; Keipert, Christine; Pehl, Ulrich; Brosch, Catrin; Boehm, Nicole; Bick, Inga; Ruitenberg, Maarten; Volknandt, Walter; Kelety, Bela

    2010-04-01

    Vesicular V-ATPase (V-type H+-ATPase) and the plasma membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase are essential for the cycling of neurotransmitters at the synapse, but direct functional studies on their action in native surroundings are limited due to the poor accessibility via standard electrophysiological equipment. We performed SSM (solid supported membrane)-based electrophysiological analyses of synaptic vesicles and plasma membranes prepared from rat brains by sucrose-gradient fractionation. Acidification experiments revealed V-ATPase activity in fractions containing the vesicles but not in the plasma membrane fractions. For the SSM-based electrical measurements, the ATPases were activated by ATP concentration jumps. In vesicles, ATP-induced currents were inhibited by the V-ATPase-specific inhibitor BafA1 (bafilomycin A1) and by DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate). In plasma membranes, the currents were inhibited by the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor digitoxigenin. The distribution of the V-ATPase- and Na+/K+-ATPase-specific currents correlated with the distribution of vesicles and plasma membranes in the sucrose gradient. V-ATPase-specific currents depended on ATP with a K0.5 of 51+/-7 microM and were inhibited by ADP in a negatively co-operative manner with an IC50 of 1.2+/-0.6 microM. Activation of V-ATPase had stimulating effects on the chloride conductance in the vesicles. Low micromolar concentrations of DIDS fully inhibited the V-ATPase activity, whereas the chloride conductance was only partially affected. In contrast, NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] inhibited the chloride conductance but not the V-ATPase. The results presented describe electrical characteristics of synaptic V-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in their native surroundings, and demonstrate the feasibility of the method for electrophysiological studies of transport proteins in native intracellular compartments and plasma membranes. PMID:20100168

  4. Force-generating capacity of human myosin isoforms extracted from single muscle fibre segments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meishan; Larsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the ?-actinin concentration. The force-generating capacity of the ?/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P < 0.05) than the fast myosin isoform (type II), but the force-generating capacity of the different human fast myosin isoforms types IIa and IIx or a combination of both (IIax) were indistinguishable. A single fibre in vitro motility assay for both speed and force of specific myosin isoforms is described and used to measure the difference in force-generating capacity between fast and slow human myosin isoforms. The assay is proposed as a useful tool for clinical studies on the effects on muscle function of specific mutations or post-translational modifications of myosin. PMID:20974679

  5. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D. A.; Bourdieu, L.; Kinose, F.; Libchaber, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  6. Motility assays using myosin attached to surfaces through specific binding to monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-04-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. These monoclonal antibodies were used to provide increasing flexibility in the mode of attachment. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these monoclonal antibodies and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable, myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform movement of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM monoclonal antibodies yielded a maximum velocity of 10 microns/s at 30 degrees C, whereas attachment through anti-LC2 produced a lower velocity of 4-5 microns/s. Each antibody showed a characteristic minimum myosin density below which sliding movement was no longer supported and an exponential dependence of actin filament velocity on myosin surface density below Vmax. Maximum sliding velocity was achieved over a range of myosin surface densities. Thus, the specific mode of attachment can influence the characteristic velocity of actin filament movement and the surface density needed to support movement. These data are being used to analyze the dynamics of sliding filament assays and evaluate estimates of the average number of motor molecules per unit length of actin required to support movement. PMID:7787107

  7. ATPaseTb2, a Unique Membrane-bound FoF1-ATPase Component, Is Essential in Bloodstream and Dyskinetoplastic Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    In the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei, an important parasite of humans and livestock, the mitochondrial (mt) membrane potential (??m) is uniquely maintained by the ATP hydrolytic activity and subsequent proton pumping of the essential FoF1-ATPase. Intriguingly, this multiprotein complex contains several trypanosome-specific subunits of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that one of the largest novel subunits, ATPaseTb2, is membrane-bound and localizes with monomeric and multimeric assemblies of the FoF1-ATPase. Moreover, RNAi silencing of ATPaseTb2 quickly leads to a significant decrease of the ??m that manifests as a decreased growth phenotype, indicating that the FoF1-ATPase is impaired. To further explore the function of this protein, we employed a trypanosoma strain that lacks mtDNA (dyskinetoplastic, Dk) and thus subunit a, an essential component of the proton pore in the membrane Fo-moiety. These Dk cells generate the ??m by combining the hydrolytic activity of the matrix-facing F1-ATPase and the electrogenic exchange of ATP4- for ADP3- by the ATP/ADP carrier (AAC). Surprisingly, in addition to the expected presence of F1-ATPase, the monomeric and multimeric FoF1-ATPase complexes were identified. In fact, the immunoprecipitation of a F1-ATPase subunit demonstrated that ATPaseTb2 was a component of these complexes. Furthermore, RNAi studies established that the membrane-bound ATPaseTb2 subunit is essential for maintaining normal growth and the ??m of Dk cells. Thus, even in the absence of subunit a, a portion of the FoF1-ATPase is assembled in Dk cells. PMID:25714685

  8. Molecular genetic dissection of mouse unconventional myosin-VA: tail region mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J D; Mermall, V; Strobel, M C; Russell, L B; Mooseker, M S; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A

    1998-01-01

    We used an RT-PCR-based sequencing approach to identify the mutations responsible for 17 viable dilute alleles, a mouse-coat-color locus encoding unconventional myosin-VA. Ten of the mutations mapped to the MyoVA tail and are reported here. These mutations represent the first extensive collection of tail mutations reported for any unconventional mammalian myosin. They identify sequences important for tail function and identify domains potentially involved in cargo binding and/or proper folding of the MyoVA tail. Our results also provide support for the notion that different myosin tail isoforms produced by alternative splicing encode important cell-type-specific functions. PMID:9560409

  9. Solution NMR assignment of the heavy chain complex of the human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Rostkova, Elena; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory light chain (RLC) of striated and cardiac muscle myosin plays a complex role in muscle function and regulation. Together with the essential light chain it provides stability to the lever arm, which is essential for force generation. Furthermore, phosphorylation and interaction with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) suggest an additional role in the regulation of muscle contraction. The former is of particular importance in the heart, where RLC phosphorylation appears to be correlated to the wringing motion of heart contraction. To address these questions and because of a lack of mammalian RLC structures, we initiated an NMR study of the human cardiac regulatory myosin light chain. PMID:24414277

  10. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, V N; Boyer, P D

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F1,F0-ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F1,F0-ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and Pi as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the Pi formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F1,F0-ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an even more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F1-type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F1,F0-ATPases. PMID:2530585

  11. Sodium ions as substitutes for protons in the gastric H,K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Polvani, C.; Sachs, G.; Blostein, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-10-25

    In view of the striking homology among various ion-translocating ATPases including Na,K-ATPase, Ca-ATPase, and H,K-ATPase, and the recent evidence that protons can replace cytoplasmic sodium as well as potassium in the reaction mechanism of the Na,K-ATPase (Polvani, C., and Blostein, R. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 16757-16763), we studied the role of sodium as a substitute for protons in the H,K-ATPase reaction. Using hog gastric H,K-ATPase-rich inside-out membrane vesicles we observed 22Na+ influx which was stimulated by intravesicular potassium ions (K+i) at pH 8.5 but not at pH 7.1. This sodium influx was observed in medium containing ATP and was inhibited by vanadate and SCH28080, a selective inhibitor of the gastric H,K-ATPase. At least 2-fold accumulation of sodium was observed at pH 8.5. Experiments aimed to determine the sidedness of the alkaline pH requirement for K+i-dependent sodium influx showed that K+i-activated sodium influx depends on pHout and is unaffected by changes in pHin. These results support the conclusion that sodium ions substitute for protons in the H,K-ATPase reaction mechanism and provide evidence for a similarity in ion selectivity and/or binding domains of the Na,K-ATPase and the gastric H,K-ATPase enzymes.

  12. Selective delipidation of the plasma membrane by surfactants: Enrichment of sterols and activation of ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P.; Cleland, R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA) Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The influence of plasma membrane lipid components on the activity of the H{sup +}-ATPase has been studied by determining the effect of surfactants on membrane lipids and ATPase activity of oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membrane vesicles purified by a two-phase partitioning procedure. Triton X-100, at 25 to 1 (weight/weight) Triton to plasma membrane protein, an amount that causes maximal activation of the ATPase in the ATPase assay, extracted 59% of the membrane protein but did not solubilize the bulk of the ATPase. The Triton-insoluble proteins had associated with them, on a micromole per milligram protein basis, only 14% as much phospholipid, but 38% of the glycolipids and sterols, as compared with the native membranes. The Triton insoluble ATPase could still be activated by Triton X-100. When solubilized by lysolecithin, there were still sterols associated with the ATPase fraction. Free sterols were found associated with the ATPase in the same relative proportions, whether treated with surfactants or not. We suggest that surfactants activate the ATPase by altering the hydrophobic environment around the enzyme. We propose that sterols, through their interaction with the ATPase, may be essential for ATPase activity.

  13. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB -type Cu(+)-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu(+) across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu(+)-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu(+) recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu(+)-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu(+) is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  14. The histochemical demonstration of myofibrillar ATPase in elasmobranch muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Bone; A. D. Chubb

    1978-01-01

    Synopsis  A modification of the histochemical method of Guth & Samaha (1970) is presented, which gives good results with dogfish material. The routine involves pre-incubation in diethanolamine buffers, and the addition of urea to the preincubation and incubating media. The results obtained accord with the view that contraction speed is related to myofibrillar ATPase activity.

  15. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  16. Specific Inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase and Kinetic Analysis Demonstrate Interaction between D1 and D2 ATPase domains

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute for Therapeutics Discovery and Development, College of Pharmacy-2836(14)00272-1 DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2014.05.022 Reference: YJMBI 64466 To appear in: Journal of Molecular Biology Demonstrate Interaction between D1 and D2 ATPase domains, Journal of Molecular Biology (2014), doi: 10.1016/j

  17. Lamellipodial actin mechanically links myosin activity with adhesion-site formation.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Grégory; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin J; Rossier, Olivier; Cai, Yunfei; Chaga, Oleg; Jiang, Guoying; Beaver, William; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Freund, Yoav; Borisy, Gary; Sheetz, Michael P

    2007-02-01

    Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion, and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. We find that myosin II pulls the rear of the lamellipodial actin network, causing upward bending, edge retraction, and initiation of new adhesion sites. The network then separates from the edge and condenses over the myosin. Protrusion resumes as lamellipodial actin regenerates from the front and extends rearward until it reaches newly assembled myosin, initiating the next cycle. Upward bending, observed by evanescence and electron microscopy, results in ruffle formation when adhesion strength is low. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy shows that the regenerating lamellipodium forms a cohesive, separable layer of actin above the lamellum. Thus, actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process. PMID:17289574

  18. Differential regulation of myosin heavy chains defines new muscle domains in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Hanna; Burguiere, Anne-Cecile; Muck, Joscha; Nord, Christoffer; Ahlgren, Ulf; von Hofsten, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous muscle lineages are formed during myogenesis within both slow- and fast-specific cell groups. In this study, we show that six fast muscle–specific myosin heavy chain genes have unique expression patterns in the zebrafish embryo. The expression of tail-specific myosin heavy chain (fmyhc2.1) requires wnt signaling and is essential for fast muscle organization within the tail. Retinoic acid treatment results in reduced wnt signaling, which leads to loss of the fmyhc2.1 domain. Retinoic acid treatment also results in a shift of muscle identity within two trunk domains defined by expression of fmyhc1.2 and fmyhc1.3 in favor of the anteriormost myosin isoform, fmyhc1.2. In summary, we identify new muscle domains along the anteroposterior axis in the zebrafish that are defined by individual nonoverlapping, differentially regulated expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms. PMID:24523292

  19. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  20. Proteomics approach to study the functions of Drosophila myosin VI through identification

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    Proteomics approach to study the functions of Drosophila myosin VI through identification chromatography and mass spectro- metry to discover interacting proteins, which we tested for direct binding has been made in recent years toward understanding their mechanical properties (2, 3

  1. Dynamic myosin phosphorylation regulates contractile pulses and tissue integrity during epithelial morphogenesis

    E-print Network

    Vasquez, Claudia G.

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes epithelial bending. Activation of nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) by kinases such as Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is important to generate contractile force during apical ...

  2. Assembly of Acanthamoeba Myosin-II Minifilaments. Definition of C-terminal Residues Required to Form

    E-print Network

    concentrations of divalent cations or at acid pH, minifilaments associate laterally to form thick filaments. BothAssembly of Acanthamoeba Myosin-II Minifilaments. Definition of C-terminal Residues Required

  3. Instructions for use Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms

    E-print Network

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Instructions for use #12;1 Functional Characterization of Vertebrate Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Isoforms), is expressed specifically in the central nervous system of vertebrates. To examine the role of the B2 insert of vertebrates (9, 10). Th

  4. Effect of adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate on myosin head domain movements.

    PubMed

    Hartvig, Nóra; Lõrinczy, Dénes; Farkas, Nelli; Belagyi, Joseph

    2002-04-01

    Conventional and saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR and ST EPR) was used to study the orientation of probe molecules in muscle fibers in different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis cycle. A separate procedure was used to obtain ST EPR spectra with precise phase settings even in the case of samples with low spectral intensity. Fibers prepared from rabbit psoas muscle were labeled with isothiocyanate spin labels at the reactive thiol sites of the catalytic domain of myosin. In comparison with rigor, a significant difference was detected in the orientation-dependence of spin labels in the ADP and adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (AdoPP[CH2]P) states, indicating changes in the internal dynamics and domain orientation of myosin. In the AdoPP[CH2]P state, approximately half of the myosin heads reflected the motional state of ADP-myosin, and the other half showed a different dynamic state with greater mobility. PMID:11985595

  5. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  6. Simulation model for combined motion of myosin cross-bridges agrees with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Marandos, Peter; Midde, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The motivation for this work was to derive a theoretical model for the combined motion of a sample of muscle tissue with a small number (approximately 12) of myosin molecules. This was then compared to data collected at the University of North Texas Health Science center. A theoretical model of the motion of the myosin cross-bridges has been derived. The solution is a combination of solutions from the classical harmonic oscillator, Brownian motion, and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The model illustrates the myosin behavior as a function of the number of myosin molecules, the temperature of the sample, and the spring constant. The results show that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data. PMID:24896359

  7. On Myosin II dynamics in the presence of external loads

    E-print Network

    A. Buonocore; L. Caputo; Y. Ishii; E. Pirozzi; T. Yanagida; L. M. Ricciardi

    2005-04-18

    We address the controversial hot question concerning the validity of the loose coupling versus the lever-arm theories in the actomyosin dynamics by re-interpreting and extending the phenomenological washboard potential model proposed by some of us in a previous paper. In this new model a Brownian motion harnessing thermal energy is assumed to co-exist with the deterministic swing of the lever-arm, to yield an excellent fit of the set of data obtained by some of us on the sliding of Myosin II heads on immobilized actin filaments under various load conditions. Our theoretical arguments are complemented by accurate numerical simulations, and the robustness of the model is tested via different choices of parameters and potential profiles.

  8. Drosophila Myosin II, Zipper, is Essential for Ommatidial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Fiehler, Ryan W.; Wolff, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    The adult Drosophila retina is a highly polarized epithelium derived from a precursor tissue that is initially symmetric across its dorsoventral axis. Specialized 90° rotational movements of subsets of cells, the ommatidial precursors, establish mirror symmetry in the retinal epithelium. Myosin II, or Zipper (Zip), a motor protein, regulates the rate at which ommatidia rotate: in zip mutants, the rate of rotation is significantly slowed. Zip is concentrated in the cells that we show to be at the likely interface between rotating and non-rotating cells: the boundary between differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Zip is also robust in newly added ommatidial cells, consistent with our model that the machinery that drives rotation should shift to newly recruited cells as they are added to the growing ommatidium. Finally, cell death genes and canonical Wnt signaling pathway members genetically modify the zip phenotype . PMID:17826761

  9. Myosin V orientates the mitotic spindle in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Pruyne, D; Huffaker, T C; Bretscher, A

    2000-08-31

    Coordination of spindle orientation with the axis of cell division is an essential process in all eukaryotes. In addition to ensuring accurate chromosomal segregation, proper spindle orientation also establishes differential cell fates and proper morphogenesis. In both animal and yeast cells, this process is dependent on cytoplasmic microtubules interacting with the cortical actin-based cytoskeleton, although the motive force was unknown. Here we show that yeast Myo2, a myosin V that translocates along polarized actin cables into the bud, orientates the spindle early in the cell cycle by binding and polarizing the microtubule-associated protein Kar9 (refs 7-9). The tail domain of Myo2 that binds Kar9 also interacts with secretory vesicles and vacuolar elements, making it a pivotal component of yeast cell polarization. PMID:10984058

  10. Protein kinase C-? interaction with F0F1-ATPase promotes F0F1-ATPase activity and reduces energy deficits in injured renal cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Gra?yna; Bakajsova, Diana

    2015-03-13

    We showed previously that active PKC-? maintains F0F1-ATPase activity, whereas inactive PKC-? mutant (dnPKC-?) blocks recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity after injury in renal proximal tubules (RPTC). This study tested whether mitochondrial PKC-? interacts with and phosphorylates F0F1-ATPase. Wild-type PKC-? (wtPKC-?) and dnPKC-? were overexpressed in RPTC to increase their mitochondrial levels, and RPTC were exposed to oxidant or hypoxia. Mitochondrial levels of the ?-subunit, but not the ?- and ?-subunits, were decreased by injury, an event associated with 54% inhibition of F0F1-ATPase activity. Overexpressing wtPKC-? blocked decreases in ?-subunit levels, maintained F0F1-ATPase activity, and improved ATP levels after injury. Deletion of PKC-? decreased levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-subunits, decreased F0F1-ATPase activity, and hindered the recovery of ATP content after RPTC injury. Mitochondrial PKC-? co-immunoprecipitated with ?-, ?-, and ?-subunits of F0F1-ATPase. The association of PKC-? with these subunits decreased in injured RPTC overexpressing dnPKC-?. Immunocapture of F0F1-ATPase and immunoblotting with phospho(Ser) PKC substrate antibody identified phosphorylation of serine in the PKC consensus site on the ?- or ?- and ?-subunits. Overexpressing wtPKC-? increased phosphorylation and protein levels, whereas deletion of PKC-? decreased protein levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-subunits of F0F1-ATPase in RPTC. Phosphoproteomics revealed phosphorylation of Ser(146) on the ? subunit in response to wtPKC-? overexpression. We concluded that active PKC-? 1) prevents injury-induced decreases in levels of ? subunit of F0F1-ATPase, 2) interacts with ?-, ?-, and ?-subunits leading to increases in their phosphorylation, and 3) promotes the recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity and ATP content after injury in RPTC. PMID:25627689

  11. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, G.E.; Ontell, M.; Cox, R.; Sassoon, D.; Buckingham, M. (Pasteur Institute, Paris (France))

    1990-10-01

    Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated the temporal sequence of myosin gene expression in the developing skeletal muscle masses of mouse embryos. The probes used were isoform-specific, 35S-labeled antisense cRNAs to the known sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and myosin alkali light chain gene transcripts. Results showed that both cardiac and skeletal myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain mRNAs were first detected between 9 and 10 d post coitum (p.c.) in the myotomes of the most rostral somites. Myosin transcripts appeared in more caudal somites at later stages in a developmental gradient. The earliest myosin heavy chain transcripts detected code for the embryonic skeletal (MHCemb) and beta-cardiac (MHC beta) isoforms. Perinatal myosin heavy chain (MHCpn) transcripts begin to accumulate at 10.5 d p.c., which is much earlier than previously reported. At this stage, MHCemb is the major MHC transcript. By 12.5 d p.c., MHCpn and MHCemb mRNAs are present to an equal extent, and by 15.5 d p.c. the MHCpn transcript is the major MHC mRNA detected. Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 d p.c., which marks the beginning of the fetal stage of muscle development. This is the first stage at which we can detect differences in expression of myosin genes between developing muscle fibers. We conclude that, during the development of the myotome and body wall muscles, different myosin genes follow independent patterns of activation and acculumation.

  12. Sarcomere Lattice Geometry Influences Cooperative Myosin Binding in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Bertrand C. W; Daniel, Thomas L; Regnier, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In muscle, force emerges from myosin binding with actin (forming a cross-bridge). This actomyosin binding depends upon myofilament geometry, kinetics of thin-filament Ca2+ activation, and kinetics of cross-bridge cycling. Binding occurs within a compliant network of protein filaments where there is mechanical coupling between myosins along the thick-filament backbone and between actin monomers along the thin filament. Such mechanical coupling precludes using ordinary differential equation models when examining the effects of lattice geometry, kinetics, or compliance on force production. This study uses two stochastically driven, spatially explicit models to predict levels of cross-bridge binding, force, thin-filament Ca2+ activation, and ATP utilization. One model incorporates the 2-to-1 ratio of thin to thick filaments of vertebrate striated muscle (multi-filament model), while the other comprises only one thick and one thin filament (two-filament model). Simulations comparing these models show that the multi-filament predictions of force, fractional cross-bridge binding, and cross-bridge turnover are more consistent with published experimental values. Furthermore, the values predicted by the multi-filament model are greater than those values predicted by the two-filament model. These increases are larger than the relative increase of potential inter-filament interactions in the multi-filament model versus the two-filament model. This amplification of coordinated cross-bridge binding and cycling indicates a mechanism of cooperativity that depends on sarcomere lattice geometry, specifically the ratio and arrangement of myofilaments. PMID:17630823

  13. Myosin X is a downstream effector of PI(3)K during phagocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne Cox; Jonathan S. Berg; Michael Cammer; John O. Chinegwundoh; Benjamin M. Dale; Richard E. Cheney; Steven Greenberg

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase (PI(3)K)-dependent process in macrophages. We identified Myo10 (Myosin-X), an unconventional myosin with pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, as a potential downstream target of PI(3)K. Myo10 was recruited to phagocytic cups in a wortmannin-sensitive manner. Expression of a truncation construct of Myo10 (Myo10 tail) in a macrophage cell line or cytosolic loading of anti-Myo10 antibodies in bovine alveolar

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin, actin, and myosin in axonemes of ciliated cells from quail oviduct.

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, D; Gounon, P; Karsenti, E; Sauron, M E

    1982-01-01

    Tubulin, actin, and myosin have been localized in isolated demembranated ciliated cells from quail oviduct by immunocytochemistry in both light and electron microscopy by using purified antibodies. The peripheral doublets and the central tubules are stained by the antitubulin whereas the kinetosomes are poorly stained. Actin antibodies clearly stain the axonemes, but only on the proximal-half portion, whereas myosin antibodies stain a small area of the axonemes just above the ciliary neck region. Images PMID:7048302

  15. Specific Localization of Serine 19 Phosphorylated Myosin II during Cell Locomotion and Mitosis of Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Fumio; Ono, Shoichiro; Yamakita, Yoshihiko; Totsukawa, Go; Yamashiro, Shigeko

    1998-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (RMLC) at Serine 19 by a specific enzyme, MLC kinase, is believed to control the contractility of actomyosin in smooth muscle and vertebrate nonmuscle cells. To examine how such phosphorylation is regulated in space and time within cells during coordinated cell movements, including cell locomotion and cell division, we generated a phosphorylation-specific antibody. Motile fibroblasts with a polarized cell shape exhibit a bimodal distribution of phosphorylated myosin along the direction of cell movement. The level of myosin phosphorylation is high in an anterior region near membrane ruffles, as well as in a posterior region containing the nucleus, suggesting that the contractility of both ends is involved in cell locomotion. Phosphorylated myosin is also concentrated in cortical microfilament bundles, indicating that cortical filaments are under tension. The enrichment of phosphorylated myosin in the moving edge is shared with an epithelial cell sheet; peripheral microfilament bundles at the leading edge contain a higher level of phosphorylated myosin. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level of circumferential microfilament bundles in cell–cell contacts is low. These observations suggest that peripheral microfilaments at the edge are involved in force production to drive the cell margin forward while microfilaments in cell–cell contacts play a structural role. During cell division, both fibroblastic and epithelial cells exhibit an increased level of myosin phosphorylation upon cytokinesis, which is consistent with our previous biochemical study (Yamakita, Y., S. Yamashiro, and F. Matsumura. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 124:129–137). In the case of the NRK epithelial cells, phosphorylated myosin first appears in the midzones of the separating chromosomes during late anaphase, but apparently before the formation of cleavage furrows, suggesting that phosphorylation of RMLC is an initial signal for cytokinesis. PMID:9425160

  16. Novel Polymorphisms in the Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene Confer Risk for Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Gao; Audrey Grant; Indrani Halder; Roy Brower; Jonathan Sevransky; James P. Maloney; Marc Moss; Carl Shanholtz; Charles R. Yates; Umberto Meduri; Mark D. Shriver; Roxann Ingersoll; Alan F. Scott; Terri H. Beaty; Jaideep Moitra; Shwu Fan Ma; Shui Q. Ye; Kathleen C. Barnes; Joe G. N. Garcia

    The genetic basis of acute lung injury (ALI) is poorly understood. The myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) gene encodes the nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase isoform, a multifunctional protein in- volved in the inflammatory response (apoptosis, vascular perme- ability,leukocytediapedesis).Toexamine MYLKasanovelcandidate gene in sepsis-associated ALI, we sequenced exons, exon-intron boundaries, and 2 kb of 5 UTR of the MYLK, which revealed

  17. Functional and structural differences in skeletal and cardiac myosins. A molecular dynamic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D L?rinczy; J Belagyi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional and saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the internal dynamics and stability of cardiac myosin.Intact and LC 2-deficient myosin isolated from bovine heart were spin-labelled with maleimide and iodoacetamide probe molecules at the SH1 sites. It was found that the probe molecules rotate with an effective rotational correlation time of 42ns,

  18. Embryonic chicken skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles express a common embryo-specific myosin light chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROMI TAKANO-OHMURO; TAKASHI OBINATA; MAHO KAWASHIMA; TOMOH MASAKI; TAKESHI TANAKA

    1985-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that embryonic chicken gizzard smooth muscle contains a unique embryonic myosin light chain of 23,000 mol wt, called L23 (Katoh, N., and S. Kubo, 1978, Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 535:401-411; Takano-Ohmuro, H., T. Obinata, T. Mikawa, and T. Masaki, 1983, J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 93:903-908). When we examined myosins in developing chicken ventric- ular and pectoralis muscles by

  19. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 PMID:7544167

  20. Flexibility of myosin attachment to surfaces influences F-actin motion.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, D A; Bourdieu, L; Ott, A; Kinose, F; Libchaber, A

    1995-06-01

    We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two react with sites in the rod domain, one in the S2 region near the S2-LMM hinge, and the other at the C terminus of the myosin rod. This method of attachment provides a means of controlling the flexibility and density of myosin on the surface. Fast skeletal muscle myosin monomers were bound to the surfaces through the specific interaction with these mAbs, and the sliding movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments was analyzed by video microscopy. Each of these antibodies produced stable myosin-coated surfaces that supported uniform motion of actin over the course of several hours. Attachment of myosin through the anti-S2 and anti-LMM mAbs yielded significantly higher velocities (10 microns/s at 30 degrees C) than attachment through anti-LC2 (4-5 microns/s at 30 degrees C). For each antibody, we observed a characteristic value of the myosin density for the onset of F-actin motion and a second critical density for velocity saturation. The specific mode of attachment influences the velocity of actin filaments and the characteristic surface density needed to support movement. PMID:7544167

  1. Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

  2. Sequence of an unusually large protein implicated in regulation of myosin activity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Benian, G M; Kiff, J E; Neckelmann, N; Moerman, D G; Waterston, R H

    1989-11-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-22 encodes a very large muscle protein, called twitchin, which consists of a protein kinase domain and several copies of two short motifs. The sequence of twitchin has unexpected similarities to the sequences of proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily, cell adhesion molecules and vertebrate muscle proteins, including myosin light-chain kinase. These homologies, together with results from earlier genetic and molecular analyses, indicate that twitchin is involved in a novel mechanism of myosin regulation. PMID:2812002

  3. Distinct roles of the Drosophila ninaC kinase and myosin domains revealed by systematic mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The Drosophila ninaC locus encodes a rhabdomere specific protein (p174) with linked protein kinase and myosin domains, required for a wild-type ERG and to prevent retinal degeneration. To investigate the role for linked kinase and myosin domains, we analyzed mutants generated by site- directed mutagenesis. Mutation of the kinase domain resulted in an ERG phenotype but no retinal degeneration. Deletion of the myosin domain caused a change in the subcellular distribution of p174 and resulted in both ERG and retinal degeneration phenotypes. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the myosin domain resulted in retinal degeneration, but no ERG phenotype. These results indicated that the ERG and retinal degeneration phenotypes were not strictly coupled suggesting that the myosin domain has multiple functions. We propose that the role of the kinase domain is to regulate other rhabdomeric proteins important in phototransduction and that the myosin domain has at least two roles: to traffic the kinase into the rhabdomeres and to maintain the rhabdomeres. PMID:8335687

  4. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-14

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor's oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  5. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor’s oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  6. New insight into role of myosin motors for activation of RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sarshad, Aishe A; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, actin and myosin are emerging as essential regulators of nuclear function. At gene level, they regulate chromatin and modulate RNA polymerase transcription, and at the RNA level, they are involved in the metabolism of ribonucleoprotein complexes. Furthermore, actin and myosin are involved in maintaining the structure of cell nucleus by mediating chromatin movement and by interacting with components of the nuclear lamina. This plethora of functions is now supported by evidence that nuclear actin polymerizes just like the cytoplasmic actin fraction. Based on these considerations, we now hypothesize that the nuclear myosin forms function as actin-based motors. In this chapter, our goal is to start from the knowledge acquired in the cytoplasmic field to explore how nuclear myosin functions in gene transcription. One of the pressing issues discussed here is whether nuclear myosin produces local tension or functions as transporters. Based on two current models reported in the literature, we discuss the topology of the actin-based nuclear myosin 1 motor and how it is believed to facilitate propulsion of the RNA polymerase machinery while maintaining chromatin that is compatible with transcription. These mechanisms will be placed in the context of cell cycle progression. PMID:24952918

  7. Novel myosin mutations for hereditary hearing loss revealed by targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Zippora; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Karfunkel-Doron, Daphne; Sirigu, Serena; Davidov, Bella; Shohat, Mordechai; Frydman, Moshe; Houdusse, Anne; Kanaan, Moien; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous, with a large number of genes and mutations contributing to this sensory, often monogenic, disease. This number, as well as large size, precludes comprehensive genetic diagnosis of all known deafness genes. A combination of targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also referred to as next-generation sequencing, was applied to determine the deafness-causing genes in hearing-impaired individuals from Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arab families. Among the mutations detected, we identified nine novel mutations in the genes encoding myosin VI, myosin VIIA and myosin XVA, doubling the number of myosin mutations in the Middle East. Myosin VI mutations were identified in this population for the first time. Modeling of the mutations provided predicted mechanisms for the damage they inflict in the molecular motors, leading to impaired function and thus deafness. The myosin mutations span all regions of these molecular motors, leading to a wide range of hearing phenotypes, reinforcing the key role of this family of proteins in auditory function. This study demonstrates that multiple mutations responsible for hearing loss can be identified in a relatively straightforward manner by targeted-gene MPS technology and concludes that this is the optimal genetic diagnostic approach for identification of mutations responsible for hearing loss. PMID:24105371

  8. Novel myosin mutations for hereditary hearing loss revealed by targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, Zippora; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Karfunkel-Doron, Daphne; Sirigu, Serena; Davidov, Bella; Shohat, Mordechai; Frydman, Moshe; Houdusse, Anne; Kanaan, Moien; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous, with a large number of genes and mutations contributing to this sensory, often monogenic, disease. This number, as well as large size, precludes comprehensive genetic diagnosis of all known deafness genes. A combination of targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also referred to as next-generation sequencing, was applied to determine the deafness-causing genes in hearing-impaired individuals from Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arab families. Among the mutations detected, we identified nine novel mutations in the genes encoding myosin VI, myosin VIIA and myosin XVA, doubling the number of myosin mutations in the Middle East. Myosin VI mutations were identified in this population for the first time. Modeling of the mutations provided predicted mechanisms for the damage they inflict in the molecular motors, leading to impaired function and thus deafness. The myosin mutations span all regions of these molecular motors, leading to a wide range of hearing phenotypes, reinforcing the key role of this family of proteins in auditory function. This study demonstrates that multiple mutations responsible for hearing loss can be identified in a relatively straightforward manner by targeted-gene MPS technology and concludes that this is the optimal genetic diagnostic approach for identification of mutations responsible for hearing loss. PMID:24105371

  9. Supervillin binding to myosin II and synergism with anillin are required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Fridy, Peter C.; Li, Yinyin; Basil, Shruti; Arjun, Sneha; Friesen, Ryan M.; Leszyk, John; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the process by which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking, and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II–binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831–1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1–170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form of myosin light-chain kinase. MHC binding is required to rescue supervillin deficiency, and mutagenesis of this site creates a dominant-negative phenotype. Supervillin concentrates activated and total myosin II at the furrow, and simultaneous knockdown of supervillin and anillin additively increases cell division failure. Knockdown of either protein causes mislocalization of the other, and endogenous anillin increases upon supervillin knockdown. Proteomic identification of interaction partners recovered using a high-affinity green fluorescent protein nanobody suggests that supervillin and anillin regulate the myosin II and actin cortical cytoskeletons through separate pathways. We conclude that supervillin and anillin play complementary roles during vertebrate cytokinesis. PMID:24088567

  10. Myosin-Va Mediates RNA Distribution in Primary Fibroblasts From Multiple Organs

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Verônica P.; Calliari, Aldo; William Provance, D.; Sotelo-Silveira, José R.; Sotelo, José R.; Mercer, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin-Va has been shown to have multiple functions in a variety of cell types, including a role in RNA transport in neurons. Using primary cultures of cells from organs of young dilute-lethal (Myo5ad-l/Myo5ad-l) null mutant mice and wild-type controls, we show that in some, but not all, tissues, RNA distribution is dramatically different in the homozygous null mutant cells. The dependence of RNA localization on myosin-Va correlates with the relative abundance of the brain-specific splicing pattern of the myosin-Va tail. We also show that myosin-Va is involved in RNA localization soon after synthesis, because the effects of its absence are diminished for RNAs that are more than 30 min old. Finally, we show that localization of ?-actin mRNA is significantly changed by the absence of myosin-Va. These results suggest that myosin-Va is involved in a transient transport or tethering function in the perinuclear region. Cell Motil. PMID:18357619

  11. Calcium-dependent phosphorylation alters class XIVa myosin function in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Andenmatten, Nicole; Hortua Triana, Miryam A; Deng, Bin; Meissner, Markus; Moreno, Silvia N J; Ballif, Bryan A; Ward, Gary E

    2014-09-01

    Class XIVa myosins comprise a unique group of myosin motor proteins found in apicomplexan parasites, including those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. The founding member of the class XIVa family, Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA), is a monomeric unconventional myosin that functions at the parasite periphery to control gliding motility, host cell invasion, and host cell egress. How the motor activity of TgMyoA is regulated during these critical steps in the parasite's lytic cycle is unknown. We show here that a small-molecule enhancer of T. gondii motility and invasion (compound 130038) causes an increase in parasite intracellular calcium levels, leading to a calcium-dependent increase in TgMyoA phosphorylation. Mutation of the major sites of phosphorylation altered parasite motile behavior upon compound 130038 treatment, and parasites expressing a nonphosphorylatable mutant myosin egressed from host cells more slowly in response to treatment with calcium ionophore. These data demonstrate that TgMyoA undergoes calcium-dependent phosphorylation, which modulates myosin-driven processes in this important human pathogen. PMID:24989796

  12. Dynamics of the coiled-coil unfolding transition of myosin rod probed by dissipation force spectrum.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukinori; Khatri, Bhavin S; Brockwell, David J; Paci, Emanuele; Kawakami, Masaru

    2010-07-01

    The motor protein myosin II plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. The mechanical properties of its coiled-coil region, the myosin rod, are important for effective force transduction during muscle function. Previous studies have investigated the static elastic response of the myosin rod. However, analogous to the study of macroscopic complex fluids, how myosin will respond to physiological time-dependent loads can only be understood from its viscoelastic response. Here, we apply atomic force microscopy using a magnetically driven oscillating cantilever to measure the dissipative properties of single myosin rods that provide unique dynamical information about the coiled-coil structure as a function of force. We find that the friction constant of the single myosin rod has a highly nontrivial variation with force; in particular, the single-molecule friction constant is reduced dramatically and increases again as it passes through the coiled-uncoiled transition. This is a direct indication of a large free-energy barrier to uncoiling, which may be related to a fine-tuned dynamic mechanosignaling response to large and unexpected physiological loads. Further, from the critical force at which the minimum in friction occurs we determine the asymmetry of the bistable landscape that controls uncoiling of the coiled coil. This work highlights the sensitivity of the dissipative signal in force unfolding to dynamic molecular structure that is hidden to the elastic signal. PMID:20655854

  13. Role of myosin Va in neuritogenesis of chick dorsal root ganglia nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Tatiane Y N; Espreafico, Enilza M; Yan, Chao Yun Irene

    2014-03-01

    Myosin-Va, widely distributed throughout the developing nervous system, is involved in the transport of vesicles and other intracellular components with its globular tail domain (GTD) implicated in cargo recognition/interaction. Inactivation of myosin-Va in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of chick embryos, in vitro, decreases the rate of filopodial extension. MYO5A mutant mice have severe neurological defects. We have found that the overexpression of GTD in DRG cultures reduces the number of neurons with long neurites (above fourfold cell body length) and increased the number of neurons with short or no neurites. However, if transfection occurred after the onset of neuritogenesis, this was not seen. In embryo, we characterized the expression pattern of myosin-Va during neuritogenesis of TrkA-positive cells at different stages of chick DRG development. Myosin-Va expression was detected starting from HH25. At this stage, it was present in cells both with and without neurites. The presence of myosin-Va in DRG neurites persisted throughout the last stage analysed (HH34). The data suggest that Myosin Va can participate in embryonic DRG neuritogenesis. PMID:24302658

  14. Calcium-dependent phosphorylation alters class XIVa myosin function in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing; Andenmatten, Nicole; Hortua Triana, Miryam A.; Deng, Bin; Meissner, Markus; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Class XIVa myosins comprise a unique group of myosin motor proteins found in apicomplexan parasites, including those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. The founding member of the class XIVa family, Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA), is a monomeric unconventional myosin that functions at the parasite periphery to control gliding motility, host cell invasion, and host cell egress. How the motor activity of TgMyoA is regulated during these critical steps in the parasite's lytic cycle is unknown. We show here that a small-molecule enhancer of T. gondii motility and invasion (compound 130038) causes an increase in parasite intracellular calcium levels, leading to a calcium-dependent increase in TgMyoA phosphorylation. Mutation of the major sites of phosphorylation altered parasite motile behavior upon compound 130038 treatment, and parasites expressing a nonphosphorylatable mutant myosin egressed from host cells more slowly in response to treatment with calcium ionophore. These data demonstrate that TgMyoA undergoes calcium-dependent phosphorylation, which modulates myosin-driven processes in this important human pathogen. PMID:24989796

  15. Calcium-induced Mechanical Change in the Neck Domain Alters the Activity of Plant Myosin XI*

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Yokota, Etsuo; Nakamori, Rinna; Anson, Michael; Shimmen, Teruo; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Plant myosin XI functions as a motor that generates cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. Although cytoplasmic streaming is known to be regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the molecular mechanism underlying this control is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulation of myosin XI by Ca2+ at the molecular level. Actin filaments were easily detached from myosin XI in an in vitro motility assay at high Ca2+ concentration (pCa 4) concomitant with the detachment of calmodulin light chains from the neck domains. Electron microscopic observations showed that myosin XI at pCa 4 shortened the neck domain by 30%. Single-molecule analysis revealed that the step size of myosin XI at pCa 4 was shortened to 27 nm under low load and to 22 nm under high load compared with 35 nm independent of the load for intact myosin XI. These results indicate that modulation of the mechanical properties of the neck domain is a key factor for achieving the Ca2+-induced regulation of cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:22740687

  16. How myosin motors power cellular functions : an exciting journey from structure to function

    PubMed Central

    Llinas, Paola; Pylypenko, Olena; Isabet, Tatiana; Mukherjea, Monalisa; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular motors such as myosins are allosteric enzymes that power essential motility functions in the cell and structural biology is an important tool to decipher how these motors work. Force is produced by myosins upon the actin-driven conformational changes that control the sequential release of the hydrolysis products of ATP (Pi followed by ADP). These conformational changes are amplified by a “lever arm” that includes the region of the motor known as the converter and the adjacent elongated light chain binding region. Analysis of four structural states of the motor provides a detailed understanding of the rearrangements and pathways of communication in the motor necessary for detachment from the actin track and repriming of the motor. However, the important part of the cycle in which force is produced remains enigmatic and awaits new high resolution structures. The value of a structural approach is particularly evident from the clues that have been provided from the structural states of the reverse myosin VI motor. Crystallographic structures have revealed that rearrangements within the converter subdomain occur which explains why this myosin can produce a large stroke in the opposite direction of all other myosins despite a very short lever arm. By providing detailed understanding of the motor rearrangements, structural biology will continue to reveal essential information to solve current enigma such as how actin promotes force production, how motors are tuned for specific cellular roles, or how motor/cargo interactions regulate myosin function in the cell. PMID:22171985

  17. The Myosin Step Size: Measurement of the Unit Displacement Per ATP Hydrolyzed in an in vitro Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Yoko Y.; Kron, Stephen J.; Spudich, James A.

    1990-09-01

    Chemomechanical coupling in muscle contraction may be due to "swinging crossbridges," such that a change in the angle at which the myosin head binds to the actin filament is tightly coupled to release of products of ATP hydrolysis. This model would limit the step size, the unit displacement of actin produced by a single ATP hydrolysis, to less than twice the chord length of the myosin head. Recent measurements have found the step size to be significantly larger than this geometric limit, bringing into question any direct correspondence between the crossbridge and ATP-hydrolysis cycles. We have measured the rate of ATP hydrolysis due to actin sliding movement in an in vitro motility assay consisting of purified actin and purified myosin. We have calculated an apparent myosin step size well within the geometric limit set by the size of the myosin head. These data are consistent with tight coupling between myosin crossbridge movement and ATP hydrolysis.

  18. Role of ENA ATPase in Na(+) efflux at high pH in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Benito, Begoña

    2009-12-01

    Potassium or Na(+) efflux ATPases, ENA ATPases, are present in all fungi and play a central role in Na(+) efflux and Na(+) tolerance. Flowering plants lack ENA ATPases but two ENA ATPases have been identified in the moss Physcomitrella patens, PpENA1 and PpENA2. PpENA1 mediates Na(+) efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To propose a general function of ENA ATPases in bryophytes it was necessary to demonstrate that these ATPases mediate Na(+) efflux in planta and that they exist in more bryophytes than P. patens. For these demonstrations (1) we cloned a third ATPase from P. patens, PpENA3, and studied the expression pattern of the three PpENA genes; (2) we constructed and studied the single and double Deltappena1 and Deltappena2 mutants; and (3) we cloned two ENA ATPases from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, MpENA1 and MpENA2, and expressed them in S. cerevisiae. The results from the first two approaches revealed that the expression of ENA ATPases was greatly enhanced at high pH and that Na(+) efflux at high pH depended on PpENA1. The ENA1 ATPase of M. polymorpha suppressed the defective growth of a S. cerevisiae mutant at high K(+) or Na(+) concentrations, especially at high K(+). PMID:19757095

  19. Anesthetics alter the physical and functional properties of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Karon, B S; Geddis, L M; Kutchai, H; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the local anesthetic lidocaine, and the general anesthetic halothane, on the function and oligomeric state of the CA-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Oligomeric changes were detected by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA). Lidocaine inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Micromolar calcium or 0.5 M lithium chloride protected against lidocaine-induced inhibition, indicating that electrostatic interactions are essential to lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase. The phospholamban (PLB) antibody 2D12, which mimics PLB phosphorylation, had no effect on lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR occurred at lower concentrations of lidocaine than necessary to inhibit and aggregate the Ca-ATPase in skeletal SR, suggesting that the cardiac isoform of the enzyme has a higher affinity for lidocaine. Halothane inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Both inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase by halothane were much greater in the presence of PLB antibody or when PLB was phosphorylated, indicating a protective effect of PLB on halothane-induced inhibition and aggregation. The effects of halothane on cardiac SR are opposite from the effects of halothane observed in skeletal SR, where halothane activates and dissociates the Ca-ATPase. These results underscore the crucial role of protein-protein interactions on Ca-ATPase regulation and anesthetic perturbation of cardiac SR. PMID:7756557

  20. Association with ?-COP Regulates the Trafficking of the Newly Synthesized Na,K-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Michael J.; Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Capendeguy, Oihana; Horisberger, Jean-Daniel; Caplan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma membrane expression of the Na,K-ATPase requires assembly of its ?- and ?-subunits. Using a novel labeling technique to identify Na,K-ATPase partner proteins, we detected an interaction between the Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit and the coat protein, ?-COP, a component of the COP-I complex. When expressed in the absence of the Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit, the Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit interacts with ?-COP, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and is targeted for degradation. In the presence of the Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit, the ?-subunit does not interact with ?-COP and traffics to the plasma membrane. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that in cells expressing both the Na,K-ATPase ?- and ?-subunits, newly synthesized ?-subunit associates with ?-COP immediately after its synthesis but that this interaction does not constitute an obligate intermediate in the assembly of the ?- and ?-subunits to form the pump holoenzyme. The interaction with ?-COP was reduced by mutating a dibasic motif at Lys54 in the Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit. This mutant ?-subunit is not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and reaches the plasma membrane, even in the absence of Na,K-ATPase ?-subunit expression. Although the Lys54 ?-subunit reaches the cell surface without need for ?-subunit assembly, it is only functional as an ion-transporting ATPase in the presence of the ?-subunit. PMID:20801885

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuolar H+-ATPase Regulation by Disassembly and Reassembly: One Structure and Multiple Signals

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved ATP-driven proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments. V-ATPase proton transport energizes secondary transport systems and is essential for lysosomal/vacuolar and endosomal functions. These dynamic molecular motors are composed of multiple subunits regulated in part by reversible disassembly, which reversibly inactivates them. Reversible disassembly is intertwined with glycolysis, the RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and phosphoinositides, but the mechanisms involved are elusive. The atomic- and pseudo-atomic-resolution structures of the V-ATPases are shedding light on the molecular dynamics that regulate V-ATPase assembly. Although all eukaryotic V-ATPases may be built with an inherent capacity to reversibly disassemble, not all do so. V-ATPase subunit isoforms and their interactions with membrane lipids and a V-ATPase-exclusive chaperone influence V-ATPase assembly. This minireview reports on the mechanisms governing reversible disassembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, keeping in perspective our present understanding of the V-ATPase architecture and its alignment with the cellular processes and signals involved. PMID:24706019

  2. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics. PMID:25956244

  3. Functional analysis of chimerical plasma membrane H+-ATPases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Morsomme, P; Sempoux-Thinès, D; Supply, P; Goffeau, A; Ghislain, M

    1997-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not support growth of H+-ATPase-depleted cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even after deletion of the enzyme's carboxy terminus. Functional chimerical H+-ATPase proteins in which appropriate regions of the S. pombe enzyme were replaced with their S. cerevisiae counterparts were generated by in vivo gene recombination. Site-directed mutagenesis of the H+-ATPase chimeras showed that a single amino acid replacement, tyrosine residue 596 by alanine, resulted in functional expression of the S. pombe H+-ATPase. The reverse Ala-598-->Tyr substitution was introduced into the S. cerevisiae enzyme to better understand the role of this alanine residue. However, no obvious effect on ATPase activity could be detected. The S. cerevisiae cells expressing the S. pombe H+-ATPase substituted with alanine were enlarged and grew more slowly than wild-type cells. ATPase activity showed a more alkaline pH optimum, lower K(m) values for MgATP and decreased Vmax compared with wild-type S. cerevisiae activity. None of these kinetic parameters was found to be modified in glucose-starved cells, indicating that the S. pombe H+-ATPase remained fully active. Interestingly, regulation of ATPase activity by glucose was restored to a chimera in which the S. cerevisiae sequence spans most of the catalytic site. PMID:9282738

  4. Comparative study on acid-induced gelation of myosin from Atlantic cod ( Gardus morhua) and burbot ( Lota lota)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Riebroy; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Ulf Erikson; Turid Rustad

    2008-01-01

    Physicochemical and rheological properties of myosin from Atlantic cod and burbot during acid-induced gelation at room temperature (22–23°C) by d-gluconic acid-?-lactone (GDL) were monitored. Turbidity and particle size of both myosins increased and salt soluble content decreased when pH decreased, suggesting the formation of protein aggregates caused by acidification. The formation of disulphide bonds in myosin gelation was induced by

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XIK is involved in root hair as well as trichome morphogenesis on stems and leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-L. Ojangu; K. Järve; H. Paves; E. Truve

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Myosins form a large superfamily of molecular motors that move along actin filaments. The functions of myosins in plant cells\\u000a are thought to be related to various processes: cell division, movement of mitochondria and chloroplasts, cytoplasmic streaming,\\u000a rearrangement of transvacuolar strands, and statolith positioning. Class VIII and XI myosins are represented in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome by 4 and 13

  6. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 (United States); Patel, Yashomati M. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 (United States)], E-mail: ympatel@uncg.edu

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

  7. Non-weight bearing-induced muscle weakness: the role of myosin quantity and quality in MHC type II fibers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that non-weight bearing-induced muscle weakness (i.e., specific force) results from decreases in myosin protein quantity (i.e., myosin content per half-sarcomere and the ratio of myosin to actin) and quality (i.e., force per half-sarcomere and population of myosin heads in the strong-binding state during muscle contraction) in single myosin heavy chain (MHC) type II fibers. Fisher-344 rats were assigned to weight-bearing control (Con) or non-weight bearing (NWB). The NWB rats were hindlimb unloaded for 2 wk. Diameter, force, and MHC content were determined in permeabilized single fibers from the semimembranosus muscle. MHC isoform and the ratio of MHC to actin in each fiber were determined by gel electrophoresis and silver staining techniques. The structural distribution of myosin from spin-labeled fiber bundles during maximal isometric contraction was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific force (peak force per cross-sectional area) in MHC type IIB and IIXB fibers from NWB was significantly reduced by 38% and 18%, respectively. MHC content per half-sarcomere was significantly reduced by 21%. Two weeks of hindlimb unloading resulted in a reduced force per half-sarcomere of 52% and fraction of myosin strong-binding during contraction of 34%. The results suggest that reduced myosin and actin content (quantity) and myosin quality concomitantly contribute to non-weight bearing-related muscle weakness. PMID:24829495

  8. Linked domain architectures allow for specialization of function in the FtsK/SpoIIIE ATPases of ESX secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, Talia L; Huppert, Laura A; Sysoeva, Tatyana A; Fortune, Sarah M; Burton, Briana M

    2015-03-13

    Among protein secretion systems, there are specialized ATPases that serve different functions such as substrate recognition, substrate unfolding, and assembly of the secretory machinery. ESX (early secretory antigen target 6 kDa secretion) protein secretion systems require FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPases but the specific function of these ATPases is poorly understood. The ATPases of ESX secretion systems have a unique domain architecture among proteins of the FtsK/SpoIIIE family. All well-studied FtsK family ATPases to date have one ATPase domain and oligomerize to form a functional molecular machine, most commonly a hexameric ring. In contrast, the ESX ATPases have three ATPase domains, encoded either by a single gene or by two operonic genes. It is currently unknown which of the ATPase domains is catalytically functional and whether each domain plays the same or a different function. Here we focus on the ATPases of two ESX systems, the ESX-1 system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the yuk system of Bacillus subtilis. We show that ATP hydrolysis by the ESX ATPase is required for secretion, suggesting that this enzyme at least partly fuels protein translocation. We further show that individual ATPase domains play distinct roles in substrate translocation and complex formation. Comparing the single-chain and split ESX ATPases, we reveal differences in the requirements of these unique secretory ATPases. PMID:24979678

  9. Nonequilibrium energetics of a single F1-ATPase molecule

    E-print Network

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Taketani, Hiroshi; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors drive mechanical motions utilizing the free energy liberated from chemical reactions such as ATP hydrolysis. Although it is essential to know the efficiency of this free energy transduction, it has been a challenge due to the system's microscopic scale. Here, we evaluate the single-molecule energetics of a rotary molecular motor, F1-ATPase, by applying a recently derived nonequilibrium equality together with an electrorotation method. We show that the sum of the heat flow through the probe's rotational degree of freedom and the work against external load is almost equal to the free energy change per a single ATP hydrolysis under various conditions. This implies that F1-ATPase works at an efficiency of nearly 100% in a thermally fluctuating environment.

  10. Nonequilibrium energetics of a single F1-ATPase molecule.

    PubMed

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Taketani, Hiroshi; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2010-05-14

    Molecular motors drive mechanical motions utilizing the free energy liberated from chemical reactions such as ATP hydrolysis. Although it is essential to know the efficiency of this free energy transduction, it has been a challenge due to the system's microscopic scale. Here, we evaluate the single-molecule energetics of a rotary molecular motor, F1-ATPase, by applying a recently derived nonequilibrium equality together with an electrorotation method. We show that the sum of the heat flow through the probe's rotational degree of freedom and the work against an external load is almost equal to the free energy change per a single ATP hydrolysis under various conditions. This implies that F1-ATPase works at an efficiency of nearly 100% in a thermally fluctuating environment. PMID:20867002

  11. New ATPase regulators—p97 goes to the PUB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Madsen; Michael Seeger; Colin A. Semple; Rasmus Hartmann-Petersen

    2009-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic AAA-type ATPase complex, known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, is involved in a number of cellular pathways, including fusion of homotypic membranes, protein degradation, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. Most likely, p97 is directed to this broad spectrum of cellular functions through its binding to specific cofactors. More than 20 different

  12. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  13. Proteasomes and their associated ATPases: a destructive combination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David M; Benaroudj, Nadia; Goldberg, Alfred

    2006-10-01

    Protein degradation by 20S proteasomes in vivo requires ATP hydrolysis by associated hexameric AAA ATPase complexes such as PAN in archaea and the homologous ATPases in the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. This review discusses recent insights into their multistep mechanisms and the roles of ATP. We have focused on the PAN complex, which offers many advantages for mechanistic and structural studies over the more complex 26S proteasome. By single-particle EM, PAN resembles a "top-hat" capping the ends of the 20S proteasome and resembles densities in the base of the 19S regulatory complex. The binding of ATP promotes formation of the PAN-20S complex, which induces opening of a gate for substrate entry into the 20S. PAN's C-termini, containing a conserved motif, docks into pockets in the 20S's alpha ring and causes gate opening. Surprisingly, once substrates are unfolded, their translocation into the 20S requires ATP-binding but not hydrolysis and can occur by facilitated diffusion through the ATPase in its ATP-bound form. ATP therefore serves multiple functions in proteolysis and the only step that absolutely requires ATP hydrolysis is the unfolding of globular proteins. The 26S proteasome appears to function by similar mechanisms. PMID:16919475

  14. [Electrostatic interactions in catalytic centers of F1-ATPase].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, A N; Pogrebnaia, A F; Romanovski?, Iu M

    2003-01-01

    The first part of this paper is a brief review of works concerned with the mechanisms of functioning of F0F1-ATP synthases. F0F1-ATP syntheses operate as rotating molecular machines that provide the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria at the expense of the energy of electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions generated across energy-transducing mitochondrial, chloroplast or, bacterial membranes. A distinguishing feature of these enzymes is that they operate as rotary molecular motors. In the second part of the work, we calculated the contribution of electrostatic interactions between charged groups of a substrate (MgATP), reaction products (MgADP and Pi), and charged amino acid residues of the F1-ATPase molecule to energy changes associated with the binding of ATP and its chemical transformations in the catalytic centers located at the interface of the alpha- and beta-subunits of the enzyme (oligomer complex alpha 3 beta 3 gamma of bovine mitochondrial ATPase). The catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis considered in the work includes conformational changes of alpha- and beta-subunits caused by unidirectional rotations of the central gamma-subunit. The results of our calculations are consistent with the idea that the energetically favorable process of ATP binding to the "open" catalytic center of F1-ATPase initiates the rotation of the gamma-subunit followed by ATP hydrolysis in another ("closed") catalytic center of the enzyme. PMID:14714522

  15. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A/sup -1/, additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A/sup -1/ was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2/sup 0/ when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured.

  16. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.perut@ior.it [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Hosogi, Shigekuni [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Baldini, Nicola [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  17. Hierarchy of mechanisms involved in generating Na\\/K-ATPase polarity in MDCK epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Mays; Kathleen A. Siemers; Benjamin A. Fritz; Anson W. Lowe; Gerrit van Meer

    1995-01-01

    We have studied mechanisms involved in generating a polarized distribution of Na\\/K-ATPase in the basal-lateral membrane of two clones of MDCK II cells. Both clones exhibit polarized distributions of marker proteins of the apical and basal-lateral mem- branes, including Na\\/K-ATPase, at steady state. Newly synthesized Na\\/K-ATPase, however, is delivered from the Golgi complex to both apical and basal-lateral membranes of

  18. Effects of Membrane Thickness on the Molecular Dynamics and Enzymic Activity of Reconstituted Ca-ATPase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Razvan L. Cornea; David D. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effect of phospholipid chain length on the activity and molecular dynamics of reconstituted Ca-ATPase from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). We used reconstituted Ca-ATPase in exogenous phosphatidylcholines with monounsaturated chains 14-24 carbons long, to determine their effects on the physical properties of the Ca-ATPase and to correlate

  19. Abscisic acid suppresses hypocotyl elongation by dephosphorylating plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-04-01

    Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is thought to mediate hypocotyl elongation, which is induced by the phytohormone auxin through the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase. However, regulation of the H(+)-ATPase during hypocotyl elongation by other signals has not been elucidated. Hypocotyl elongation in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitors vanadate and erythrosine B, and was significantly reduced in aha2-5, which is a knockout mutant of the major H(+)-ATPase isoform in etiolated seedlings. Application of the phytohormone ABA to etiolated seedlings suppressed hypocotyl elongation within 30 min at the half-inhibitory concentration (4.2 µM), and induced dephosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase without affecting the amount of H(+)-ATPase. Interestingly, an ABA-insensitive mutant, abi1-1, did not show ABA inhibition of hypocotyl elongation or ABA-induced dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase. This indicates that ABI1, which is an early ABA signaling component through the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCARs (pyrabactin resistance/pyrabactin resistance 1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor), is involved in these responses. In addition, we found that the fungal toxin fusiccocin (FC), an H(+)-ATPase activator, induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase, and that FC-induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed by ABA. Taken together, these results indicate that ABA has an antagonistic effect on hypocotyl elongation through, at least in part, dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase in etiolated seedlings. PMID:24492258

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation for the reversed power stroke motion of a myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    Myosins are typical molecular motor proteins that convert the chemical energy from the ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. The fundamental mechanism of this energy conversion is still unknown. To explain the experimental results already obtained, Masuda has proposed a hypothesis called the "Driven by Detachment" theory for the working principle of the myosins. This theory insists that the energy used during the power stroke of the myosins does not directly originate from the chemical energy of ATP, but is converted from the elastic energy within the molecule at the joint between the head and neck domains. One method for demonstrating the validity of this theory is a computational simulation using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The MD software used was GROMACS. The target of the MD simulations was myosin subfragment-1 (S1), for which the initial structure was obtained from the Protein Data Bank entry 1M8Q. The AFM pull code of GROMACS was used to apply an external force of 17 pN at the end of the neck domain in the direction opposite to the power stroke to observe whether the myosin S1 takes the pre-power stroke conformation. The residues assumed to be engaged in the docking with an actin filament were fixed to the space. Starting from exactly the same initial position, 10 simulations were repeated by varying the random seeds for generating the initial velocities of the atoms. After 64ns of calculations, the myosin S1 took the conformation of the pre-power stroke state in which the neck domain was bent around the joint between the head and the neck domains. This result agrees with the prediction expected by the DbD theory, the validity of which may be established by conducting similar simulations for the other steps of the myosin working processes. PMID:25864376

  1. Cloning of the genes encoding two murine and human cochlear unconventional type I myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Crozet, F.; El Amraoui, Z.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others] [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others

    1997-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for unconventional myosins in the function of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear. We report here the characterization of the cDNAs encoding two unconventional type I myosins from a mouse cochlear cDNA library. The first cDNA encodes a putative protein named Myo1c, which is likely to be the murine orthologue of the bullfrog myosin I{beta} and which may be involved in the gating of the mechanotransduction channel of the sensory hair cells. This myosin belongs to the group of short-tailed myosins I, with its tail ending shortly after a polybasic, TH-1-like domain. The second cDNA encodes a novel type I myosin Myo1f which displays three regions: a head domain with the conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, a neck domain with a single IQ motif, and a tail domain with the tripartite structure initially described in protozoan myosins I. The tail of Myo1f includes (1) a TH-1 region rich in basic residues, which may interact with anionic membrane phospholipids; (2) a TH-2 proline-rich region, expected to contain an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site; and (3) an SH-3 domain found in a variety of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding Myo1c and Myo1f display a widespread tissue expression in the adult mouse. Myo1c and Myo1f were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomal regions 11D-11E and 17B-17C, respectively. The human orthologuous genes MYO1C and MYO1F were also characterized, and mapped to the human chromosomal regions 17p13 and 19p13.2- 19p1.3.3, respectively. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953

  3. Single Myosin Lever-Arm Orientation in a Muscle Fiber Detected with Photoactivatable GFP†

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Li, Jinhui; Ajtai, Katalin

    2009-01-01

    Myosin 2 is the molecular motor in muscle. It binds actin and executes a power stroke by rotating its lever arm through an angle of ~70° to translate actin against resistive force. Myosin 2 has evolved to function optimally under crowded conditions where rates and equilibria of macromolecular reactions undergo major shifts relative to those measured in dilute solution. Hence an important research objective is to detect in situ the lever arm orientation. Single molecule measurements are preferred because they clarify ambiguities unavoidable with ensemble measurements, however, detecting single molecules in the condensed tissue medium where myosin concentration exceeds 100 µM is challenging. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) tagged myosin light chain (MLC) was constructed. The recombinant MLC physically and functionally replaced native MLC on the myosin lever arm in a permeabilized skeletal muscle fiber. Probe illumination volume was minimized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and PAGFP was sparsely photoactivated such that polarized fluorescence identified single probe orientation. Several physiological states of the muscle fiber were characterized revealing two distinct orientation populations in all states called straight and bent conformations. Conformation occupancy probability varies among fiber states with rigor and isometric contraction at extremes where straight or bent conformations predominate, respectively. Comparison to previous work on single rigor cross-bridges at the A-band periphery where myosin concentration is low suggests molecular crowding in the A-band promotes occupancy of the straight myosin conformation (Burghardt et al., 2007, Biophys. J. 93, 2226). The latter may have a role in contraction because it provides additional free energy favoring completion of the cross-bridge power stroke. PMID:19127992

  4. Regional Myosin Heavy Chains Distribution in Selected Paraspinal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Regev, Gilad J.; Kim, Choll W.; Thacker, Bryan E.; Tomiya, Akihito; Garfin, Steven R.; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with repeated measures design. Objective To compare the myosin heavy chain isoform distribution within and between paraspinal muscles and to test the theory that fiber type gradients exist as a function of paraspinal muscle depth. Summary of Background Data There is still uncertainty regarding the fiber type distributions within different paraspinal muscles. It has been previously proposed that deep fibers of the multifidus muscle may contain a higher ratio of type I to type II fibers, because, unlike superficial fibers, they primarily stabilize the spine, and may therefore have relatively higher endurance. Using a minimally invasive surgical approach, utilizing tubular retractors that are placed within anatomic inter-muscular planes, it was feasible to obtain biopsies from the multifidus, longissimus, iliocostalis and psoas muscles at specific predefined depths. Methods Under an IRB approved protocol, muscle biopsies were obtained from 15 patients who underwent minimally invasive spinal surgery, using the posterior paramedian (Wiltse) approach or the minimally invasive lateral approach. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform distribution was analyzed using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Since multiple biopsies were obtained from each patient, MyHC distribution was compared using both within- and between-muscle repeated measures analyses. Results The fiber type distribution was similar among the posterior paraspinal muscles and was composed of relatively high percentage of type I (63%), compared to type IIA (19%) and type IIX (18%) fibers. In contrast, the psoas muscle was found to contain a lower percentage of type I fibers (42%) and a higher percentage of type IIA (33%) and IIX fibers (26%; P<0.05). No significant difference was found for fiber type distribution among three different depths of the multifidus and psoas muscles. Conclusion Fiber type distribution between the posterior paraspinal muscles is consistent and is composed of relatively high percentage of type I fibers, consistent with a postural function. The psoas muscle, on the other hand, is composed of a higher percentage of type II fibers such as in the appendicular muscles. Our data do not support the idea of a fiber type gradient as a function of depth for any muscle studied. PMID:20461040

  5. The variable coupling between force and myosin light chain phosphorylation in Triton-skinned chicken gizzard fibre bundles: role of myosin light chain phosphatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike S. Schmidt; Monika Troschka; Gabriele Pfitzer

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the regulation of smooth muscle tone at low levels of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation is still poorly understood. According to one model, so-called latchbridges, which contribute to force maintenance at low levels of MLC phosphorylation, are generated by dephosphorylation of attached and phosphorylated crossbridges. The model predicts that the force generated for a given level

  6. Active Plasma Membrane P-type H+-ATPase Reconstituted into Nanodiscs Is a Monomer*

    PubMed Central

    Justesen, Bo Højen; Hansen, Randi Westh; Martens, Helle Juel; Theorin, Lisa; Palmgren, Michael G.; Martinez, Karen L.; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane H+-ATPases form a subfamily of P-type ATPases responsible for pumping protons out of cells and are essential for establishing and maintaining the crucial transmembrane proton gradient in plants and fungi. Here, we report the reconstitution of the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform 2 into soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers, also termed nanodiscs. Based on native gel analysis and cross-linking studies, the pump inserts into nanodiscs as a functional monomer. Insertion of the H+-ATPase into nanodiscs has the potential to enable structural and functional characterization using techniques normally applicable only for soluble proteins. PMID:23836891

  7. Nigericin-stimulated ATPase activity in microsomal vesicles of tobacco callus

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Heven

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ionophores on K+-stimulated adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase; ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) activity of microsomal vesicles from tobacco callus was investigated. A nigericin-stimulated K+-ATPase activity was enriched in a purified microsomal fraction, which was obtained from the interphase of a dextran density gradient between 1.03 and 1.06 g/ml. The purified microsomal fraction was free of mitochondrial membranes and was composed partly of tightly sealed vesicles as indicated by the low K+ permeability coefficient. The K+-dependent ATPase of this fraction was stimulated slightly by either carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (29%) or valinomycin (31%) alone; this ATPase was significantly stimulated by a combination of CCCP and valinomycin (73%) or by nigericin alone (80%). The K+-ATPase activity was stimulated by nigericin at pH 6.5 but not at pH 8.5. At pH 6.5, the K+-ATPase was inhibited by N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not by oligomycin. Nigericin stimulated the ATPase activity in the absence of initial KCl or pH gradients across the vesicle membrane. These results suggest that nigericin stimulates the ATPase activity by dissipating the H+ or K+ gradient or both, and support the hypothesis that the K+-ATPase mediates a H+/K+ transport. PMID:16592894

  8. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways, enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na+, K+-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  9. Targeting of the yeast plasma membrane [H+]ATPase: a novel gene AST1 prevents mislocalization of mutant ATPase to the vacuole

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a class of mutations in PMA1, (encoding plasma membrane ATPase) that is ideal for the analysis of membrane targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This class of pma1 mutants undergoes growth arrest at the restrictive temperature because newly synthesized ATPase fails to be targeted to the cell surface. Instead, mutant ATPase is delivered to the vacuole, where it is degraded. Delivery to the vacuole occurs without previous arrival at the plasma membrane because degradation of mutant ATPase is not prevented when internalization from the cell surface is blocked. Disruption of PEP4, encoding vacuolar proteinase A, blocks ATPase degradation, but fails to restore growth because the ATPase is still improperly targeted. One of these pma1 mutants was used to select multicopy suppressors that would permit growth at the nonpermissive temperature. A novel gene, AST1, identified by this selection, suppresses several pma1 alleles defective for targeting. The basis for suppression is that multicopy AST1 causes rerouting of mutant ATPase from the vacuole to the cell surface. pma1 mutants deleted for AST1 have a synthetic growth defect at the permissive temperature, providing genetic evidence for interaction between AST1 and PMA1. Ast1 is a cytoplasmic protein that associates with membranes, and is localized to multiple compartments, including the plasma membrane. The identification of AST1 homologues suggests that Ast1 belongs to a novel family of proteins that participates in membrane traffic. PMID:7822420

  10. Congenital heart disease linked to maternal autoimmunity against cardiac myosin

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Charles R.; Yutzey, Katherine E.; Brar, Anoop K.; Goessling, Lisa S.; VanVickle-Chavez, Sarah J.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2014-01-01

    Structural congenital heart disease (CHD) has not previously been linked to autoimmunity. In our study, we developed an autoimmune model of structural CHD that resembles hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a life-threatening CHD primarily affecting the left ventricle. Because cardiac myosin (CM) is a dominant autoantigen in autoimmune heart disease, we hypothesized that immunization with CM might lead to transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies and a prenatal HLHS phenotype in exposed fetuses. Elevated anti-CM autoantibodies in maternal and fetal sera, and IgG reactivity in fetal myocardium were correlated with structural CHD that included diminished left ventricular cavity dimensions in the affected progeny. Further, fetuses that developed a marked HLHS phenotype had elevated serum titers of anti-? adrenergic receptor antibodies as well as increased protein kinase A activity, suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed pathological changes. Our maternal-fetal model presents a new concept linking autoimmunity against CM and cardiomyocyte proliferation with cardinal features of HLHS. This report shows the first evidence to support a novel immune-mediated mechanism for pathogenesis of structural CHD that may have implications in its future diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24670798

  11. Nonmuscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Regulates Murine Asthmatic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Zhou, Tong; Shimizu, Yuka; Sammani, Saad; Epshtein, Yulia; Watterson, D. Martin; Dudek, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK; gene code, MYLK) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in isoform-specific nonmuscle (nm) and smooth muscle contraction, inflammation, and vascular permeability, processes directly relevant to asthma pathobiology. In this report, we highlight the contribution of the nm isoform (nmMLCK) to asthma susceptibility and severity, supported by studies in two lines of transgenic mice with knocking out nmMLCK or selectively overexpressing nmMLCK in endothelium. These mice were sensitized to exhibit ovalbumin-mediated allergic inflammation. Genetically engineered mice with targeted nmMLCK deletion (nmMLCK?/?) exhibited significant reductions in lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Conversely, mice with overexpressed nmMLCK in endothelium (nmMLCKec/ec) exhibited elevated susceptibility and severity in asthmatic inflammation. In addition, reduction of nmMLCK expression in pulmonary endothelium by small interfering RNA results in reduced asthmatic inflammation in wild-type mice. These pathophysiological assessments demonstrate the positive contribution of nmMLCK to asthmatic inflammation, and a clear correlation of the level of nmMLCK with the degree of experimental allergic inflammation. This study confirms MYLK as an asthma candidate gene, and verifies nmMLCK as a novel molecular target in asthmatic pathobiology. PMID:24428690

  12. Modelling the effect of myosin X motors on filopodia growth

    E-print Network

    Katrin Wolff; Conrad Barrett-Freeman; Martin R. Evans; Andrew B. Goryachev; Davide Marenduzzo

    2013-12-16

    We present a numerical simulation study of the dynamics of filopodial growth in the presence of active transport by myosin X motors. We employ both a microscopic agent-based model, which captures the stochasticity of the growth process, and a continuum mean-field theory which neglects fluctuations. We show that in the absence of motors, filopodia growth is overestimated by the continuum mean-field theory. Thus fluctuations slow down the growth, especially when the protrusions are driven by a small number (10 or less) of F-actin fibres, and when the force opposing growth (coming from membrane elasticity) is large enough. We also show that, with typical parameter values for eukaryotic cells, motors are unlikely to provide an actin transport mechanism which enhances filopodial size significantly, unless the G-actin concentration within the filopodium greatly exceeds that of the cytosol bulk. We explain these observations in terms of order-of-magnitude estimates of diffusion-induced and advection-induced growth of a bundle of Brownian ratchets.

  13. Skip residues modulate the structural properties of the myosin rod and guide thick filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Keenan C; Buvoli, Massimo; Korkmaz, Elif Nihal; Buvoli, Ada; Zheng, Yuqing; Heinze, Nathan T; Cui, Qiang; Leinwand, Leslie A; Rayment, Ivan

    2015-07-21

    The rod of sarcomeric myosins directs thick filament assembly and is characterized by the insertion of four skip residues that introduce discontinuities in the coiled-coil heptad repeats. We report here that the regions surrounding the first three skip residues share high structural similarity despite their low sequence homology. Near each of these skip residues, the coiled-coil transitions to a nonclose-packed structure inducing local relaxation of the superhelical pitch. Moreover, molecular dynamics suggest that these distorted regions can assume different conformationally stable states. In contrast, the last skip residue region constitutes a true molecular hinge, providing C-terminal rod flexibility. Assembly of myosin with mutated skip residues in cardiomyocytes shows that the functional importance of each skip residue is associated with rod position and reveals the unique role of the molecular hinge in promoting myosin antiparallel packing. By defining the biophysical properties of the rod, the structures and molecular dynamic calculations presented here provide insight into thick filament formation, and highlight the structural differences occurring between the coiled-coils of myosin and the stereotypical tropomyosin. In addition to extending our knowledge into the conformational and biological properties of coiled-coil discontinuities, the molecular characterization of the four myosin skip residues also provides a guide to modeling the effects of rod mutations causing cardiac and skeletal myopathies. PMID:26150528

  14. Myosin-dependent endoplasmic reticulum motility and F-actin organization in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruko; Yokota, Etsuo; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Shimmen, Teruo; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Dolja, Valerian V; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2010-04-13

    Plants exhibit an ultimate case of the intracellular motility involving rapid organelle trafficking and continuous streaming of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although it was long assumed that the ER dynamics is actomyosin-driven, the responsible myosins were not identified, and the ER streaming was not characterized quantitatively. Here we developed software to generate a detailed velocity-distribution map for the GFP-labeled ER. This map revealed that the ER in the most peripheral plane was relatively static, whereas the ER in the inner plane was rapidly streaming with the velocities of up to approximately 3.5 microm/sec. Similar patterns were observed when the cytosolic GFP was used to evaluate the cytoplasmic streaming. Using gene knockouts, we demonstrate that the ER dynamics is driven primarily by the ER-associated myosin XI-K, a member of a plant-specific myosin class XI. Furthermore, we show that the myosin XI deficiency affects organization of the ER network and orientation of the actin filament bundles. Collectively, our findings suggest a model whereby dynamic three-way interactions between ER, F-actin, and myosins determine the architecture and movement patterns of the ER strands, and cause cytosol hauling traditionally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:20351265

  15. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  16. A proteomic study of myosin II motor proteins during tumor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Betapudi, Venkaiah; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Chance, Mark R.; Egelhoff, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin II motor proteins play important roles in cell migration. Although myosin II filament assembly plays a key role in stabilization of focal contacts at the leading edge of migrating cells, the mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating localized assembly of lamellipodial myosin II filaments are poorly understood. We performed proteomic analysis of myosin IIA heavy chain (MHC) phosphorylation sites in MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells to identify MHC phosphorylation sites activated during integrin engagement and lamellar extension on fibronectin. Fibronectin-activated MHC phosphorylation was identified on novel and previously recognized consensus sites for phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Casein Kinase II (CK II). S1943, a CK-II consensus site, was highly phosphorylated in response to matrix engagement, and phosphoantibody staining revealed phosphorylation on myosin II assembled into leading edge lamellae. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological nor siRNA reduction in CKII activity reduced this stimulated S1943 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that S1943 phosphorylation is upregulated during lamellar protrusion, and that CKII does not appear to be the kinase responsible for this matrix-induced phosphorylation event. PMID:21316371

  17. Identification and Characterization of an Unusual Class I Myosin Involved in Vesicle Traffic in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Spitznagel, Diana; O'Rourke, John F.; Leddy, Neal; Hanrahan, Orla; Nolan, Derek P.

    2010-01-01

    Myosins are a multimember family of motor proteins with diverse functions in eukaryotic cells. African trypanosomes possess only two candidate myosins and thus represent a useful system for functional analysis of these motors. One of these candidates is an unusual class I myosin (TbMyo1) that is expressed at similar levels but organized differently during the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei. This myosin localizes to the polarized endocytic pathway in bloodstream forms of the parasite. This organization is actin dependent. Knock down of TbMyo1 results in a significant reduction in endocytic activity, a cessation in cell division and eventually cell death. A striking morphological feature in these cells is an enlargement of the flagellar pocket, which is consistent with an imbalance in traffic to and from the surface. In contrast TbMyo1 is distributed throughout procyclic forms of the tsetse vector and a loss of ?90% of the protein has no obvious effects on growth or morphology. These results reveal a life cycle stage specific requirement for this myosin in essential endocytic traffic and represent the first description of the involvement of a motor protein in vesicle traffic in these parasites. PMID:20808867

  18. An embryonic myosin converter domain influences Drosophila indirect flight muscle stretch activation, power generation and flight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Newhard, Christopher S.; Ramanath, Seemanti; Sheppard, Debra; Swank, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Stretch activation (SA) is critical to the flight ability of insects powered by asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFMs). An essential muscle protein component for SA and power generation is myosin. Which structural domains of myosin are significant for setting SA properties and power generation levels is poorly understood. We made use of the transgenic techniques and unique single muscle myosin heavy chain gene of Drosophila to test the influence of the myosin converter domain on IFM SA and power generation. Replacing the endogenous converter with an embryonic version decreased SA tension and the rate of SA tension generation. The alterations in SA properties and myosin kinetics from the converter exchange caused power generation to drop to 10% of control fiber power when the optimal conditions for control fibers – 1% muscle length (ML) amplitude and 150 Hz oscillation frequency – were applied to fibers expressing the embryonic converter (IFI-EC). Optimizing conditions for IFI-EC fiber power production, by doubling ML amplitude and decreasing oscillation frequency by 60%, improved power output to 60% of optimized control fiber power. IFI-EC flies altered their aerodynamic flight characteristics to better match optimal fiber power generation conditions as wing beat frequency decreased and wing stroke amplitude increased. This enabled flight in spite of the drastic changes to fiber mechanical performance. PMID:24115062

  19. Cloning and molecular characterization of a myosin light chain gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Na; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Qiu-Ling; Chang, Qing; Zhuang, Hua; Liu, Jia; Li, Man; Yu, Dan; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    The fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete. Many studies have found that myosins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. However, there are few reports on the myosins of Pst. In this study, we cloned and obtained the myosin light chain gene PsMLC1 from Pst and characterized its expression. Furthermore, the function of PsMLC1 was identified by mutant complementation. As a result, we found that expression of PsMLC1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mostly complemented the defects of the cdc4 mutant, indicating that PsMLC1 belongs to the myosin light chain family member. Expression studies showed that the transcript levels of PsMLC1 little changed before 24 h post inoculation then was suddenly down-regulated during Pst infection of wheat. By using ML-7, we observed that inactivity of PsMLC1 greatly reduced the germination rate of urediniospores. These results suggest that PsMLC1 is essential for the early stages of Pst infection of wheat but unnecessary for the later stages of infection. This work elucidates the function of the myosins in Pst and may provide some theoretical basis for controlling strip rust. PMID:24046204

  20. Method for the determination of myosin head orientation from EPR spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Fajer, P G

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the iodoacetamide spin label orientation in myosin heads (Fajer, 1994) allows us for the first time to determine directly protein orientation from EPR spectra. Computational simulations have been used to determine the sensitivity of EPR to both torsional and tilting motions of myosin heads. For rigor heads (no nucleotide), we can detect 0.2 degree changes in the tilt angle and 4 degrees in the torsion of the head. Sensitivity decreases with increasing head disorder, but even in the presence of +/- 30 degrees disorder as expected for detached heads, 10 degree changes in the center of the orientational distribution can be detected. We have combined these numerical simulations with a Simplex optimization to compare the orientation of intrinsic heads, with the orientation of labeled extrinsic heads that have been infused into unlabeled muscle fibers. The near identity (within 2 degrees) of the orientational distribution in the two instances can be attributed to myosin elasticity taking up the mechanical strain induced by the mismatch of myosin and actin filament periodicity. A similar analysis of the spectra of fibers with ADP bound to myosin revealed a small (approximately 5 degrees-10 degrees) torsional reorientation, without a substantial change of the tilt angle (< 2 degrees). PMID:8075337

  1. Myosin VI and VIIa distribution among inner ear epithelia in diverse fishes

    PubMed Central

    COFFIN, ALLISON B.; DABDOUB, ALAIN; KELLEY, MATTHEW W.; POPPER, ARTHUR N.

    2007-01-01

    Unconventional myosins are critical motor proteins in the vertebrate inner ear. Mutations in any one of at least six different myosins can lead to human hereditary deafness, but the precise functions of these proteins in the ear are unknown. This study uses a comparative approach to better understand the role of myosins VI and VIIa in vertebrate ears by examining protein distribution for these two myosins in the ears of evolutionarily diverse fishes and the aquatic clawed toad Xenopus laevis. Both myosins are expressed in the inner ears of all species examined in this study. Myo7a localizes to hair cells, particularly the actin-rich hair bundle, in all species studied. Myo6 also localizes to hair cells, but its distribution differs between species and end organs. Myo6 is found in hair bundles of most fish and frog epithelia examined here but not in anterior and posterior utricular hair bundles of American shad. These results show that myo7a distribution is highly conserved in diverse vertebrates and suggest functional conservation as well. The finding of myo6 in fish and Xenopus hair bundles, however, suggests a novel role for this protein in anamniotic hair cells. The lack of myo6 in specific American shad utricular hair bundles indicates a unique quality of these cells among fishes, perhaps relating to ultrasound detection capability that is found in this species. PMID:17204383

  2. Movement of Scallop Myosin on Nitella Actin Filaments: Regulation by Calcium Ronald D. Vale, Andrew G. Szent-Gyorgyi, and Michael P. Sheetz

    E-print Network

    Vale, Ronald D.

    to determine if Ca2' regulates scal- lop myosin movement on actin, we have measured motility of scallop myosin examined, muscle contraction is tight- ly coupled to concentrations of intracellular Ca2+. However, Ca2 on the cytoplasmic face of a Nitella internod- al cell. In the absence of Ca2+, scallop myosin-coated beads exhibit

  3. Osmotic Stress and Viscous Retardation of the Na,K-ATPase Ion Pump

    PubMed Central

    Esmann, Mikael; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Marsh, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The transport function of the Na pump (Na,K-ATPase) in cellular ion homeostasis involves both nucleotide binding reactions in the cytoplasm and alternating aqueous exposure of inward- and outward-facing ion binding sites. An osmotically active, nonpenetrating polymer (poly(ethyleneglycol); PEG) and a modifier of the aqueous viscosity (glycerol) were used to probe the overall and partial enzymatic reactions of membranous Na,K-ATPase from shark salt glands. Both inhibit the steady-state Na,K-ATPase as well as Na-ATPase activity, whereas the K+-dependent phosphatase activity is little affected by up to 50% of either. Both Na,K-ATPase and Na-ATPase activities are inversely proportional to the viscosity of glycerol solutions in which the membranes are suspended, in accordance with Kramers' theory for strong coupling of fluctuations at the active site to solvent mobility in the aqueous environment. PEG decreases the affinity for Tl+ (a congener for K+), whereas glycerol increases that for the nucleotides ATP and ADP in the presence of NaCl but has little effect on the affinity for Tl+. From the dependence on osmotic stress induced by PEG, the aqueous activation volume for the Na,K-ATPase reaction is estimated to be ?5–6 nm3 (i.e., ?180 water molecules), approximately half this for Na-ATPase, and essentially zero for p-nitrophenol phosphatase. The change in aqueous hydrated volume associated with the binding of Tl+ is in the region of 9 nm3. Analysis of 15 crystal structures of the homologous Ca-ATPase reveals an increase in PEG-inaccessible water space of ?22 nm3 between the E1-nucleotide bound forms and the E2-thapsigargin forms, showing that the experimental activation volumes for Na,K-ATPase are of a magnitude comparable to the overall change in hydration between the major E1 and E2 conformations of the Ca-ATPase. PMID:18055532

  4. Two types of ATPases from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Wei-Na; Liu, Yuan; Cai, Dan-Xia; Li, Jie-Zhen; Wang, An-Li

    2012-06-01

    V-H ATPase and NaK ATPase are important classes of ATP-driven proton pumps that are present in the intracellular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells and play diverse roles in both normal and abnormal cellular processes. Among the subunits of the V-H ATPase complex, subunit a is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays crucial roles in metabolism, growth, survival and cellular immunity. NaK ATPase subunit beta is thought to participate in the proper folding and movement of the NaK ATPase enzyme and may also aid cation transport. In this study, we analyzed the functions of V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase subunit beta from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNAs of the genes corresponding to V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase subunit beta were obtained, which were 2654 and 2055 bp long, with open reading frames encoding 830 and 313 amino acids, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that mRNA transcripts were strongly (but differentially) expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas, and at lower levels in other shrimp tissues. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase beta of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that both of the two genes are sensitive and involved in all different stress responses and are more sensitive to salinity than other stresses. And they may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp. PMID:22311011

  5. Studies on lipids and the activity of Na,K-ATPase in lens fibre cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, W L; Delamere, N A; Borchman, D; Moseley, A E; Ahuja, R P

    1996-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase was studied in the two cell types that make up the lens of the eye. Membrane material was isolated from lens fibre cells, which make up the bulk of the lens cell mass, and also from lens epithelial cells, which are present only as a monolayer on the anterior lens surface. Judged by immunoblotting, greater amounts of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides were found in fibre cell membrane material than in epithelial cell membrane material. However, the NA,K-ATPase activity in epithelial cell membrane material was 20 times that measured in fibre cell membrane material. In 86Rb uptake experiments with intact lenses, ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake was observed for lens epithelium but not for lens fibres. These findings are consistent with a low Na,K-ATPase activity in lens fibre cells even though these cells express a considerable amount of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides. The lipid composition of lens fibre cell membranes causes them to be more ordered than epithelial cell membranes; this was confirmed by measurements of the infrared CH2 symmetric stretching band frequency. Because lipid composition can influence Na,K-ATPase activity, experiments were conducted to determine whether the activity of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 beta1 is inhibited by lens fibre lipid. However, no significant difference in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected when Na,K-ATPase alpha1 beta1 was purified from rabbit kidney and then reconstituted with lipid that had been isolated from either lens epithelium or lens fibre cells. These studies indicate that lens fibre cells contain both Na,K-ATPase alpha1 and beta1 polypeptides but have low Na,K-ATPase activity. However, the results do not support the notion that this is due to the lipid composition of lens fibre cell membranes. PMID:8615795

  6. Thrombin-induced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Satpathy; P. Gallagher; M. Lizotte-Waniewski; S. P. Srinivas

    2004-01-01

    PurposePhosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (referred to as myosin light chain or MLC) leads to a loss of barrier integrity in cellular monolayers by an increase in the contractility of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. This effect has been examined in corneal endothelial (CE) cells.

  7. Visualization of Melanosome Dynamics within Wild-Type and Dilute Melanocytes Suggests a Paradigm for Myosin V Function In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xufeng Wu; Blair Bowers; Kang Rao; Qin Wei; John A. Hammer

    1998-01-01

    Unlike wild-type mouse melanocytes, where melanosomes are concentrated in dendrites and den- dritic tips, melanosomes in dilute (myosin Va 2 ) me- lanocytes are concentrated in the cell center. Here we sought to define the role that myosin Va plays in me- lanosome transport and distribution. Actin filaments that comprise a cortical shell running the length of the dendrite were

  8. Smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle myosin force and motion generation assessed by cross-bridge mechanical interactions in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Harris; S. S. Work; R. K. Wright; N. R. Alpert; D. M. Warshaw

    1994-01-01

    Differences in the mechanical properties of mammalian smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle have led to the proposal that the myosin isozymes expressed by these tissues may differ in their molecular mechanics. To test this hypothesis, mixtures of fast skeletal, V1 cardiac, V3 cardiac and smooth muscle (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) myosin were studied in an in vitro motility assay in which

  9. Dissecting the Domain Structure of Cdc4p, a Myosin Essential Light Chain Involved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cytokinesis

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    Dissecting the Domain Structure of Cdc4p, a Myosin Essential Light Chain Involved is the contractile ring myosin, which consists of two heavy chains (Myo2p), two essential light chains (Cdc4p), and two regulatory light chains (Rlc1p). Cdc4p is a dumbbell-shaped EF-hand protein composed of N- and C

  10. 8960 Biochemistry 1995,34, 8960-8972 X-ray Structures of the Myosin Motor Domain of Dictyostelium discoideum

    E-print Network

    Scholey, Jonathan

    8960 Biochemistry 1995,34, 8960-8972 X-ray Structures of the Myosin Motor Domain of Dictyostelium, University of Tokyo,Komba, Tokyo 153, Japan Received March 15, 1995; Revised Manuscript Received May 3, 1995 with the nucleotide binding pocket but rather occurs in the COOH-terminal segment of the myosin motor domain

  11. Characterization of a Myosin Heavy Conductive System of the Adult and Chicken Heart Chain in the Developing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARLENE GONZ; DAVID BADER

    A monoclonal antibody (anterior latissimus dorsi 58 (ALD58); antimyosin heavy chain, MHC) directed against myosin from slow tonic muscle was found to react specifically with the striated muscle cells of the conductive system in the adult chicken heart. This monoclonal antibody was used to study the expression of myosin in the conductive system of the adult and developing heart. Using

  12. Cell, Vol. 116, 737749, March 5, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press The Mechanism of Myosin VI Translocation

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    cycle. An especially usefulStanford University approach has been to apply a load to an active motor in the chemomechanical cycle (Block et al.,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 2003; Wang et al., 1998).3 Department Myosin VI, also a processive motor (Rock et al., 2001),optical trapping, we observed myosin VI stepping

  13. The Effect of Heavy Chain Phosphorylation and Solution Conditions on the Assembly ofAcanthamoeba Myosin-II

    E-print Network

    heads at one end of an alpha-heli- cal coiled-coil tail. These myosins were discoveredin muscle it to generate force between two an- tiparallel actin filaments. In skeletal muscle the myosin-II is assembled of two major types of filaments: synthetic illa- ments and minifilaments, the latter also being synthetic

  14. Origin of concurrent ATPase activities in skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ebus, J P; Stienen, G J

    1996-01-01

    1. To determine the rate of ATP turnover by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle, and to assess the contributions of other ATPase activities to the overall ATP turnover rate, ATPase activity and isometric force production were studied in saponin-skinned trabeculae from rat. ATP hydrolysis was enzymatically coupled to the oxidation of NADH; the concentration of NADH was monitored photometrically. All measurements were performed at 20 +/- 1 degrees C and pH 7.0. Resting sarcomere length was adjusted to 2.1 microns. All solutions contained 5 mM caffeine to ensure continuous release of Ca2+ from the SR. 2. The Ca(2+)-independent ATPase activity, determined in relaxing solution (pCa 9), amounted to 130 +/- 13 microM s-1 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 7) at the beginning of an experiment. During subsequent measurements in relaxing solution, a decrease in ATPase activity was observed, indicative of loss of membrane-bound ATPase activity. The steady-state Ca(2+)-independent (basal) ATPase activity was 83 +/- 5 microM s-1 (n = 66). 3. Treatment of saponin-skinned preparations with Triton X-100 abolished 50 microM s-1 (60%) of the basal ATPase activity. Addition of ouabain (1 mM) suppressed 14 +/- 5% of the basal activity, whereas 8 +/- 3% was suppressed by 20 microM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). It is argued that 31 microM s-1 of the basal ATPase activity may be associated with MgATPase from the transverse tubular system. 4. The maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity, i.e. the total ATPase activity (determined in activating solution, pCa 4.3) corrected for basal ATPase activity, was found to be 409 +/- 15 microM s-1 (n = 66). Experiments with CPA indicated that at least 9 +/- 6% of the maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity originates from the sarcoplasmic Ca2+ pump. These experiments indicate that the rate of ATP consumption by the SR Ca2+ transporting ATPase amounts to at least 37 microM s-1. 5. Treatment of preparations with Triton X-100 abolished 15 +/- 3% of the maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity, indicating that 15 +/- 3% of the maximal Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity is membrane bound. 6. Variation of free [Ca2+] indicated that apart from the actomyosin ATPase activity a second Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity contributed to the overall ATP turnover rate. This activity was half-maximal at pCa 6.21, and probably reflects the SR Ca2+ transporting ATPase. It constituted 18 +/- 3% of the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity, yielding an upper limit for the SR Ca2+ transporting ATPase activity of 74 microM s-1. PMID:8734981

  15. Is 2,3-butanedione monoxime an effective inhibitor of myosin-based activities in plant cells?

    PubMed

    McCurdy, D W

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) as an inhibitor of plant myosins has been investigated. Three myosin-dependent motility phenomena in plants, namely cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina, light-dependent chloroplast repositioning in Elodea sp., and brefeldin A(BFA)-induced Golgi membrane dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kite) root-tip cells were investigated. All three processes were inhibited by the sulfhydryl-modifying agent N-ethylmalemide (NEM), indicating the probable involvement of myosin as the motor protein in each case. However, none of these myosin-dependent processes were inhibited by BDM at concentrations as high as 20 mM in some instances. These results therefore question the general usefulness of BDM as an inhibitor of myosin-based activities in plant cells. PMID:18987800

  16. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  17. Trafficking activity of myosin XXI is required in assembly of Leishmania flagellum.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Tammana, Trinadh V Satish; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Bajpai, Virendra K; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2010-06-15

    Actin-based myosin motors have a pivotal role in intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells. The parasitic protozoan organism Leishmania expresses a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI (Myo21), which is preferentially localized at the proximal region of the flagellum. However, its function in this organism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Myo21 interacts with actin, and its expression is dependent of the growth stage. We further reveal that depletion of Myo21 levels results in impairment of the flagellar assembly and intracellular trafficking. These defects are, however, reversed by episomal complementation. Additionally, it is shown that deletion of the Myo21 gene leads to generation of ploidy, suggesting an essential role of Myo21 in survival of Leishmania cells. Together, these results indicate that actin-dependent trafficking activity of Myo21 is essentially required during assembly of the Leishmania flagellum. PMID:20501700

  18. Structural change and nucleotide dissociation of Myosin motor domain: dual go model simulation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Fumiko; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the structural relaxation of myosin motor domain from the pre-power stroke state to the near-rigor state using molecular dynamics simulation of a coarse-grained protein model. To describe the spontaneous structural change, we propose a dual G?-model-a variant of the G?-like model that has two reference structures. The nucleotide dissociation process is also studied by introducing a coarse-grained nucleotide in the simulation. We found that the myosin structural relaxation toward the near-rigor conformation cannot be completed before the nucleotide dissociation. Moreover, the relaxation and the dissociation occurred cooperatively when the nucleotide was tightly bound to the myosin head. The result suggested that the primary role of the nucleotide is to suppress the structural relaxation. PMID:17704146

  19. Noncentrosomal microtubules and type II myosins potentiate epidermal cell adhesion and barrier formation

    PubMed Central

    Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Foote, Henry P.

    2012-01-01

    During differentiation, many cells reorganize their microtubule cytoskeleton into noncentrosomal arrays. Although these microtubules are likely organized to meet the physiological roles of their tissues, their functions in most cell types remain unexplored. In the epidermis, differentiation induces the reorganization of microtubules to cell–cell junctions in a desmosome-dependent manner. Here, we recapitulate the reorganization of microtubules in cultured epidermal cells. Using this reorganization assay, we show that cortical microtubules recruit myosin II to the cell cortex in order to engage adherens junctions, resulting in an increase in mechanical integrity of the cell sheets. Cortical microtubules and engaged adherens junctions, in turn, increase tight junction function. In vivo, disruption of microtubules or loss of myosin IIA and B resulted in loss of tight junction–mediated barrier activity. We propose that noncentrosomal microtubules act through myosin II recruitment to potentiate cell adhesion in the differentiating epidermis, thus forming a robust mechanical and chemical barrier against the external environment. PMID:23091070

  20. Cold and Ouabain-resistance of Renal Na,K-ATPase in Coldexposed and Hibernating Jerboas ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Bennis; L Cheval; B Buffin-Meyer; M Younes-Ibrahim; C Barlet-Bas; S Marsy; A Doucet

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence and the ouabain sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase was examined in the nephron of normal, cold-exposed, and hibernating jerboas. The transport and hydrolytic activity of renal Na,K-ATPase displayed similar temperature dependence in rats and normal jerboas. Cold-resistance of Na,K-ATPase appeared in cold-exposed jerboas and further increased during hibernation. Three subpopulations of Na,K-ATPase displaying very high (Ki ? 10?13 M),

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Parmar, Amanda; Roux, Emmanuelle; Balbis, Alejandro; Dumas, Victor; Chevalier, Stephanie; Posner, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Using proteomics and immunofluorescence, we demonstrated epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced recruitment of extrinsic V1 subunits of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) to rat liver endosomes. This was accompanied by reduced vacuolar pH. Bafilomycin, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation as indicated by a decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and kinase activity. There was no corresponding inhibition of EGF-induced Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Chloroquine, a neutralizer of vacuolar pH, mimicked bafilomycin effects. Bafilomycin did not inhibit the association of mTORC1 with Raptor nor did it affect AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Rather, the intracellular concentrations of essential but not non-essential amino acids were decreased by bafilomycin in EGF-treated primary rat hepatocytes. Cycloheximide, a translation elongation inhibitor known to augment intracellular amino acid levels, prevented the effect of bafilomycin on amino acids levels and completely reversed its inhibition of EGF-induced mTORC1 activation. In vivo administration of EGF stimulated the recruitment of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to endosomes and lysosomes. This was inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Our results suggest a role for vacuolar acidification in EGF signaling to mTORC1. PMID:22689575

  2. Kinetic mechanism of myosinV-S1 using a new fluorescent ATP analogue.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Eva; Cartwright, Suzanne; Kovács, Mihály; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sellers, James R; Corrie, John E T; Webb, Martin R; White, Howard D

    2006-10-31

    We have used a new fluorescent ATP analogue, 3'-(7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonylamino)-3'-deoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate (deac-aminoATP), to study the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of the single headed myosinV-S1. Our study demonstrates that deac-aminoATP is an excellent substrate for these studies. Although the deac-amino nucleotides have a low quantum yield in free solution, there is a very large increase in fluorescence emission ( approximately 20-fold) upon binding to the myosinV active site. The fluorescence emission intensity is independent of the hydrolysis state of the nucleotide bound to myosinV-S1. The very good signal-to-noise ratio that is obtained with deac-amino nucleotides makes them excellent substrates for studying expressed proteins that can only be isolated in small quantities. The combination of the fast rate of binding and the favorable signal-to-noise ratio also allows deac-nucleotides to be used in chase experiments to determine the kinetics of ADP and Pi dissociation from actomyosin-ADP-Pi. Although phosphate dissociation from actomyosinV-ADP-Pi does not itself produce a fluorescence signal, it produces a lag in the signal for deac-aminoADP dissociation. The lag provides direct evidence that the principal pathway of product dissociation from actomyosinV-ADP-Pi is an ordered mechanism in which phosphate precedes ADP. Although the mechanism of hydrolysis of deac-aminoATP by (acto)myosinV-S1 is qualitatively similar to the ATP hydrolysis mechanism, there are significant differences in some of the rate constants. Deac-aminoATP binds 3-fold faster to myosinV-S1, and the rate of deac-aminoADP dissociation from actomyosinV-S1 is 20-fold slower. Deac-aminoATP supports motility by myosinV-HMM on actin at a rate consistent with the slower rate of deac-aminoADP dissociation. PMID:17059220

  3. Defects in optineurin- and myosin VI-mediated cellular trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Walker, Adam K; Tan, Vanessa; Fifita, Jennifer A; Mccann, Emily P; Williams, Kelly L; Blair, Ian P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting motor neurons. Mutations in optineurin cause a small proportion of familial ALS cases, and wild-type (WT) optineurin is misfolded and forms inclusions in sporadic ALS patient motor neurons. However, it is unknown how optineurin mutation or misfolding leads to ALS. Optineurin acts an adaptor protein connecting the molecular motor myosin VI to secretory vesicles and autophagosomes. Here, we demonstrate that ALS-linked mutations p.Q398X and p.E478G disrupt the association of optineurin with myosin VI, leading to an abnormal diffuse cytoplasmic distribution, inhibition of secretory protein trafficking, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Golgi fragmentation in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells. We also provide further insight into the role of optineurin as an autophagy receptor. WT optineurin associated with lysosomes and promoted autophagosome fusion to lysosomes in neuronal cells, implying that it mediates trafficking of lysosomes during autophagy in association with myosin VI. However, either expression of ALS mutant optineurin or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous optineurin blocked lysosome fusion to autophagosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation. Together these results indicate that ALS-linked mutations in optineurin disrupt myosin VI-mediated intracellular trafficking processes. In addition, in control human patient tissues, optineurin displayed its normal vesicular localization, but in sporadic ALS patient tissues, vesicles were present in a significantly decreased proportion of motor neurons. Optineurin binding to myosin VI was also decreased in tissue lysates from sporadic ALS spinal cords. This study therefore links several previously described pathological mechanisms in ALS, including defects in autophagy, fragmentation of the Golgi and induction of ER stress, to disruption of optineurin function. These findings also indicate that optineurin-myosin VI dysfunction is a common feature of both sporadic and familial ALS. PMID:25859013

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Alpha Subunit of H+ATPase in Lactobacillus casei Zhang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei YANG; Zhihong SUN; Wenjun LIU; Tiansong SUN

    Chen X., Yang M., Sun Z., Liu W., Sun T., Meng H., Zhang H. (2009): Molecular cloning and characterisation of alpha subunit of H +-ATPase in Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Czech J. Food Sci., 27: 49-54. Lactic acid bacteria as potential probiotics . H+-ATPase is considered a key gene in several bacteria with the ability of acid tolerance . We cloned

  5. Transport and Pharmacological Properties of Nine Different Human Na,K-ATPase Isozymes*

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Transport and Pharmacological Properties of Nine Different Human Na,K-ATPase Isozymes* (Received and is the pharmacological receptor for digitalis in man. Nine different human Na,K-ATPase isozymes, composed of 3 and isoforms, were expressed in Xe- nopus oocytes and were analyzed for their transport and pharmacological

  6. Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Karen

    Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings Howard Lin, Sandra S environ- ments. Sensitivityto high levels of salt in plants is associated with an inability to effectively+ -pumping ATPases may provide the driving force for Na+ transport via Na+ -H+ exchangers. In a salt

  7. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon; Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H+ ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1? dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1? or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1?/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1? and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1?/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1?/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:25981168

  8. Binding of Src to Na+/K+-ATPase Forms a Functional Signaling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiang; Cai, Ting; Yuan, Zhaokan; Wang, Haojie; Liu, Lijun; Haas, Michael; Maksimova, Elena; Huang, Xin-Yun; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that ouabain activates Src, resulting in subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple effectors. Here, we tested if the Na+/K+-ATPase and Src can form a functional signaling complex. In LLC-PK1 cells the Na+/K+-ATPase and Src colocalized in the plasma membrane. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis indicated that both proteins were in close proximity, suggesting a direct interaction. GST pulldown assay showed a direct, ouabain-regulated, and multifocal interaction between the ?1 subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase and Src. Although the interaction between the Src kinase domain and the third cytosolic domain (CD3) of ?1 is regulated by ouabain, the Src SH3SH2 domain binds to the second cytosolic domain constitutively. Functionally, binding of Src to either the Na+/K+-ATPase or GST-CD3 inhibited Src activity. Addition of ouabain, but not vanadate, to the purified Na+/K+-ATPase/Src complex freed the kinase domain and restored the Src activity. Consistently, exposure of intact cells to ouabain apparently increased the distance between the Na+/K+-ATPase and Src. Concomitantly, it also stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins that are associated with the Na+/K+-ATPase. These new findings illustrate a novel molecular mechanism of signal transduction involving the interaction of a P-type ATPase and a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase. PMID:16267270

  9. Unique Ca(2+)-activated ATPase in the nervous ganglia of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rosane Souza; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Bogo, Maurício Reis; da Graça Fauth, Maria; Fin, Cyntia Alencar; Thomé, José Willibaldo; Bonan, Carla Denise; Dutra Dias, Renato

    2002-01-01

    Nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the regulation of intracellular and extracellular nucleotide levels. We studied ATPase activity in the nervous ganglia of Phyllocaulis soleiformis, a terrestrial slug. The ATPase was divalent cation-dependent, with a maximal rate for ATP hydrolysis at pH 6.0 and 7.2 in the presence of Ca(2+) (5 mM). Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was only 26% of the activity observed in the presence of Ca(2+) (5 mM). ZnCl2 (10 mM) produced a significant inhibition of 70%. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was insensitive to the classical ATPase inhibitors ouabain, N-ethylmaleimide, orthovanadate and sodium azide. Levamisole, an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, was ineffective. Among nucleotides, ATP was the best substrate. The apparent K(m) ((ATP)) for Ca(2+)-ATPase was 348+/-84 microM ATP and the V(max) was 829+/-114 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The P. soleiformis ganglial ATPase does not appear to fit clearly into any of the previously described types of Ca(2+)-ATPases. PMID:11742758

  10. E31-K352, the minimal cation binding moiety of Na+,K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Schuurmans Stekhoven, F M

    1998-04-17

    Upon limited tryptic fragmentation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase a 35 kDa fragment (E31-K352) was formed that bound 204Tl+ on blot. Further fragmentation led to loss of binding, pointing to the conclusion that E31-K352 is the minimal cation binding unit in Na+,K(+)-ATPase. PMID:9571156

  11. Mammary gland involution is associated with rapid down regulation of major mammary Ca**2+-ATPases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty percent of calcium in milk is transported across the mammary cells apical membrane by the plasma membrane Ca**2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2). The effect of abrupt cessation of milk production on the Ca**2+-ATPases and mammary calcium transport is unknown. We found that 24 hours after stopping milk prod...

  12. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  13. Developmental changes in erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit abundance and enzyme activity in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Vasarhelyi, B.; Tulassay, T.; Ver, A.; Dobos, M.; Kocsis, I.; Seri, I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study the relation between erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoform composition, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and cation pump function in preterm and term neonates.?DESIGN—Erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoform abundance, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and cation pump function were studied in blood samples obtained from 56 preterm neonates of 28-32 weeks gestation (group 1), 58 preterm neonates of 33-36 weeks gestation (group 2), and 122 term neonates (group 3) during the first two postnatal days.?RESULTS—?1 isoform abundance was higher and ?2 isoform abundance was lower in group 1 than in group 3 (p = 0.0002). ?2 and ?1 isoform abundance did not change with maturation and there was no evidence for the presence of the ?3 isoform. Gestational age was inversely related to Na+,K+-ATPase activity (p = 0.0001) and directly related to intracellular Na+ concentration (p = 0.0025).?CONCLUSIONS—Expression of the ?1 and ?2 Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoforms is developmentally regulated. The increased abundance of ?1 isoforms of immature neonates translates to increased ATPase activity. The lower intracellular Na+ concentration of immature neonates suggests that their erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase cation pump function may also be increased.?? PMID:10952709

  14. Suramin Inhibits Hsp104 ATPase and Disaggregase Mariana P. Torrente1

    E-print Network

    Shorter, James

    Suramin Inhibits Hsp104 ATPase and Disaggregase Activity Mariana P. Torrente1 , Laura M. Castellano. Citation: Torrente MP, Castellano LM, Shorter J (2014) Suramin Inhibits Hsp104 ATPase and Disaggregase; Published October 9, 2014 Copyright: ß 2014 Torrente et al. This is an open-access article distributed under

  15. Calmodulin effect on purified rat cortical plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in different phosphorylation states.

    PubMed

    Gromadzinska, E; Lachowicz, L; Walkowiak, B; Zylinska, L

    2001-09-10

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in neuronal tissue plays an important role in fine tuning of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The enzyme exhibits a high degree of tissue specificity and is regulated by several mechanisms. Here we analysed the relationship between separate modes of Ca(2+)-ATPase regulation, i.e., reversible phosphorylation processes mediated by protein kinases A and C, protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and stimulation by calmodulin. The activity of PKA- or PKC-phosphorylated Ca(2+)-ATPase was influenced by the further addition of calmodulin, and this effect was more pronounced for PKC-phosphorylated calcium pump. In both cases the fluorescence study revealed the increased calmodulin binding, and for PKA-mediated phosphorylation it was correlated with a higher affinity of calcium pump for calmodulin. The incubation of Ca(2+)-ATPase with CaM prior to protein kinases action revealed that CaM presence counteracts the stimulatory effect of PKA and PKC. Under the in vitro assay cortical Ca(2+)-ATPase was a substrate for PP1 and PP2A. Protein phosphatases decreased both the basal activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase and its affinity for calmodulin. Fluorescence analysis confirmed the lowered ability of dephosphorylated Ca(2+)-ATPase for calmodulin binding. These results may suggest that interaction of CaM with calcium pump and its stimulatory action could be a partly separate phenomenon that is dependent on the phosphorylation state of Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:11566365

  16. The Evolution of the Conserved ATPase Domain (CAD): Reconstructing the History of an Ancient Protein Module

    E-print Network

    Purugganan, Michael D.

    The Evolution of the Conserved ATPase Domain (CAD): Reconstructing the History of an Ancient to as the Conserved ATPase Domain or CAD. Phylogenetic analysis of 133 CAD se- quences from 38 species reveal that AAA CADs are organized into discrete groups that are related not only in structure but in cellular function

  17. Inhibitory effects of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Manakit, Srinual; Pornpakakul, Surachai; Petsom, Amorn

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain. PMID:16860494

  18. The Gastric H,K ATPase as a Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, George; Shin, Jai Moo; Vagin, Olga; Lambrecht, Nils; Yakubov, Iskandar; Munson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in therapy if acid disease has relied heavily on the performance of drugs targeted against the H,K ATPase of the stomach and the H2 receptor antagonists. It has become apparent in the last decade that the proton pump is the target that has the likelihood of being the most sustainable area of therapeutic application in the regulation of acid suppression. The process of activation of acid secretion requires a change in location of the ATPase from cytoplasmic tubules into the microvilli of the secretory canaliculus of the parietal cell. Stimulation of the resting parietal cell, with involvement of F-actin and ezrin does not use significant numbers of SNARE proteins, because their message is depleted in the pure parietal cell transcriptome. The cell morphology and gene expression suggest a tubule fusion-eversion event. As the active H,K ATPase requires efflux of KCl for activity we have, using the transcriptome derived from 99% pure parietal cells and immunocytochemistry, provided evidence that the KCl pathway is mediated by a KCQ1/KCNE2 complex for supplying K+ and CLIC6 for supplying the accompanying Cl?. The pump has been modeled on the basis of the structures of different conformations of the sr Ca ATPase related to the catalytic cycle. These models use the effects of site directed mutations and identification of the binding domain of the K competitive acid pump antagonists or the defined site of binding for the covalent class of proton pump inhibitors. The pump undergoes conformational changes associated with phosphorylation to allow the ion binding site to change exposure from cytoplasmic to luminal exposure. We have been able to postulate that the very low gastric pH is achieved by lysine 791 motion extruding the hydronium ion bound to carboxylates in the middle of the membrane domain. These models also allow description of the K+ entry to form the K+ liganded form of the enzyme and the reformation of the ion site inward conformation thus relating the catalytic cycle of the pump to conformational models. The mechanism of action of the proton pump inhibitor class of drug is discussed along with the cysteines covalently bound with these inhibitors. The review concludes with a discussion of the mechanism of action and binding regions of a possible new class of drug for acid control, the K+ competitive acid pump antagonists. PMID:17575528

  19. Design principles governing the motility of myosin V.

    PubMed

    Hinczewski, Michael; Tehver, Riina; Thirumalai, D

    2013-10-22

    The molecular motor myosin V (MyoV) exhibits a wide repertoire of pathways during the stepping process, which is intimately connected to its biological function. The best understood of these is the hand-over-hand stepping by a swinging lever arm movement toward the plus end of actin filaments. Single-molecule experiments have also shown that the motor "foot stomps," with one hand detaching and rebinding to the same site, and back-steps under sufficient load. The complete taxonomy of MyoV's load-dependent stepping pathways, and the extent to which these are constrained by motor structure and mechanochemistry, are not understood. Using a polymer model, we develop an analytical theory to describe the minimal physical properties that govern motor dynamics. We solve the first-passage problem of the head reaching the target-binding site, investigating the competing effects of backward load, strain in the leading head biasing the diffusion in the direction of the target, and the possibility of preferential binding to the forward site due to the recovery stroke. The theory reproduces a variety of experimental data, including the power stroke and slow diffusive search regimes in the mean trajectory of the detached head, and the force dependence of the forward-to-backward step ratio, run length, and velocity. We derive a stall force formula, determined by lever arm compliance and chemical cycle rates. By exploring the MyoV design space, we predict that it is a robust motor whose dynamical behavior is not compromised by reasonable perturbations to the reaction cycle and changes in the architecture of the lever arm. PMID:24101499

  20. Specific activity and sensitivity to strophanthin of the Na + + K + -activated ATPase in rats and guinea-pigs with hypoadrenalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Borsch-Galetke; H. Dransfeld; K. Greeff

    1972-01-01

    Summary In adrenalectomised rats and in guinea-pigs pretreated with metyrapone the specific activity of the Na+ + K+-stimulated ATPase of heart and kidney is significantly diminished, whereas the activity of the Mg++-ATPase remains unchanged. The specific activity of the Na+ + K+-stimulated ATPase from brain tissue is not influenced by either adrenalectomy or by treatment with metyrapone.

  1. Differential Effects of General Anesthetics on the Quaternary Structure of the Ca-ATPases of Cardiac and Skeletal Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    of SR in which Ca-ATPase was covalently labeled with erythrosin isothiocyanate (ERITC) or with erythrosin iodoacetamide (ERIA). In contrast to the similar responses of Ca-ATPase activity, there were-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) decay of erythrosin isothiocyanate (ERITC) covalently bound to Ca-ATPase (3

  2. Recombinant Globular Tail Fragment of Myosin-V Blocks Vesicle Transport in Squid Nerve Cell Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah R. Brown; Kyle R. Simonetta; Leslie A. Sandberg; Phillip Stafford; George M. Langford

    Figure 1. (A) Western blot analyses of immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments using the GST-MyoV-tail. Clarified squid optic lobe homogenate was Triton X-100 extracted, incubated with the recombinant tail fragment fo r2ha t4°C, and recovered usinga-GST. (Lane 1) Squid myosin-V enriched fraction (S5B) probed with a-P196, a polyclonal squid myosin-V antibody (* denotes band of interest). (Lane 2) IP-GST-MyoV-tail probed with a-P196.

  3. Mutations in the mitochondrial ATPase6 gene are frequent in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xue-Guang; Liu, Chang-Ting; Dai, Huanzi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    To explore the polymorphisms and mutations of mitochondrial ATPase6 gene in Chinese patients with osteosarcoma and their possible association with carcinogenesis, direct DNA sequencing method was used to detect the variants of the mitochondrial ATPase6 gene in 39 patients with osteosarcoma. We found mutations of the mitochondrial ATPase6 gene in 24/39 (61.5%) of the tested osteosarcoma samples, and identified 27 variant sites in ATPase6 coding regions. We did not detect any new polymorphisms in osteosarcoma, nor was there any association between variants and the three histopathological subtypes. These data demonstrated that mtDNA mutations within the ATPase6 gene are a frequent event in Chinese patients with osteosarcoma. PMID:22542792

  4. The N Termini of a-Subunit Isoforms Are Involved in Signaling between Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and Cytohesin-2*

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Dip, Phat Vinh; Merkulova, Maria; Bakulina, Anastasia; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Khatri, Ashok; Jian, Xiaoying; Keating, Shawn M.; Bueler, Stephanie A.; Rubinstein, John L.; Randazzo, Paul A.; Ausiello, Dennis A.; Grüber, Gerhard; Marshansky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported an acidification-dependent interaction of the endosomal vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with cytohesin-2, a GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF), suggesting that it functions as a pH-sensing receptor. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism of signaling between the V-ATPase, cytohesin-2, and Arf GTP-binding proteins. We found that part of the N-terminal cytosolic tail of the V-ATPase a2-subunit (a2N), corresponding to its first 17 amino acids (a2N(1–17)), potently modulates the enzymatic GDP/GTP exchange activity of cytohesin-2. Moreover, this peptide strongly inhibits GEF activity via direct interaction with the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-2. The structure of a2N(1–17) and its amino acids Phe5, Met10, and Gln14 involved in interaction with Sec7 domain were determined by NMR spectroscopy analysis. In silico docking experiments revealed that part of the V-ATPase formed by its a2N(1–17) epitope competes with the switch 2 region of Arf1 and Arf6 for binding to the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-2. The amino acid sequence alignment and GEF activity studies also uncovered the conserved character of signaling between all four (a1–a4) a-subunit isoforms of mammalian V-ATPase and cytohesin-2. Moreover, the conserved character of this phenomenon was also confirmed in experiments showing binding of mammalian cytohesin-2 to the intact yeast V-ATPase holo-complex. Thus, here we have uncovered an evolutionarily conserved function of the V-ATPase as a novel cytohesin-signaling receptor. PMID:23288846

  5. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, ?-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory. PMID:22492846

  6. Higher plant Ca(2+)-ATPase: primary structure and regulation of mRNA abundance by salt.

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, L E; Ewing, N N; Bennett, A B

    1992-01-01

    Calcium-dependent regulatory mechanisms participate in diverse developmentally, hormonally, and environmentally regulated processes, with the precise control of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration being critical to such mechanisms. In plant cells, P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases localized in the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum are thought to play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity has been identified in isolated plant cell membranes, but the protein has not been characterized at the molecular level. We have isolated a partial-length cDNA (LCA1) and a complete genomic clone (gLCA13) encoding a putative endoplasmic reticulum-localized Ca(2+)-ATPase in tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a protein (Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase) of 1048 amino acids with a molecular mass of 116 kDa, eight probable transmembrane domains, and all of the highly conserved functional domains common to P-type cation-translocating ATPases. In addition, the protein shares approximately 50% amino acid sequence identify with animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases but less than 30% identity with other P-type ATPases. Genomic DNA blot hybridization analysis indicates that the Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase is encoded by a single gene. RNA blot hybridization analysis indicates the presence of three transcript sizes in root tissue and a single, much less abundant, transcript in leaves. Lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase mRNA levels increase dramatically upon a 1-day exposure to 50 mM NaCl. Thus this report describes the primary structure of a higher-plant Ca(2+)-ATPase and the regulation of its mRNA abundance by salt stress. Images PMID:1384045

  7. Specific inhibition of p97/VCP ATPase and kinetic analysis demonstrate interaction between D1 and D2 ATPase domains.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Bulfer, Stacie L; Weihl, Conrad C; Li, Kelin; Lis, Lev G; Walters, Michael A; Schoenen, Frank J; Lin, Henry J; Deshaies, Raymond J; Arkin, Michelle R

    2014-07-29

    The p97 AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities), also called VCP (valosin-containing protein), is an important therapeutic target for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. p97 forms a hexamer composed of two AAA domains (D1 and D2) that form two stacked rings and an N-terminal domain that binds numerous cofactor proteins. The interplay between the three domains in p97 is complex, and a deeper biochemical understanding is needed in order to design selective p97 inhibitors as therapeutic agents. It is clear that the D2 ATPase domain hydrolyzes ATP in vitro, but whether D1 contributes to ATPase activity is controversial. Here, we use Walker A and B mutants to demonstrate that D1 is capable of hydrolyzing ATP and show for the first time that nucleotide binding in the D2 domain increases the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of D1 ATP hydrolysis 280-fold, by increasing kcat 7-fold and decreasing Km about 40-fold. We further show that an ND1 construct lacking D2 but including the linker between D1 and D2 is catalytically active, resolving a conflict in the literature. Applying enzymatic observations to small-molecule inhibitors, we show that four p97 inhibitors (DBeQ, ML240, ML241, and NMS-873) have differential responses to Walker A and B mutations, to disease-causing IBMPFD mutations, and to the presence of the N domain binding cofactor protein p47. These differential effects provide the first evidence that p97 cofactors and disease mutations can alter p97 inhibitor potency and suggest the possibility of developing context-dependent inhibitors of p97. PMID:24878061

  8. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Govek, Eve-Ellen [Rockefeller University, The; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Hatten, Mary E [Rockefeller University, The

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  9. The role of myosin light chain kinase-dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain in phorbol ester-induced contraction of rabbit aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madoka Miura; Takahiro Iwanaga; Kaoru M. Ito; Minoru Seto; Yasuharu Sasaki

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the role of 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation in contractions following protein kinase C\\u000a (PKC) activation by 12-deoxyphorbol-13-isobutyrate (DPB) in rabbit aortae. DPB induced a sustained contraction and phosphorylation\\u000a of MLC20 independent of a change in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Phosphorylation on Ser19 of MLC20, which is a target site of MLC kinase (MLCK), was 9.2 ±

  10. GpMyoF, a WD40 repeat-containing myosin associated with the myonemes of Gregarina polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Matthew B; Mateer, Marcus J

    2008-02-01

    This study presents the first characterization of a WD40 repeat-containing myosin identified in the apicomplexan parasite Gregarina polymorpha. This 222.7 kDa myosin, GpMyoF, contains a canonical myosin motor domain, a neck domain with 6 IQ motifs, a tail domain containing short regions of predicted coiled-coil structure, and, most notably, multiple WD40 repeats at the C-terminus. In other proteins such repeats assemble into a beta-propeller structure implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. Confocal microscopy suggests that GpMyoF is localized to the annular myonemes that gird the parasite cortex. Extraction studies indicate that this myosin shows an unusually tight association with the cytoskeletal fraction and can be solubilized only by treatment with high pH (11.5) or the anionic detergent sarkosyl. This novel myosin and its homologs, which have been identified in several related genera, appear to be unique to the Apicomplexa and represent the only myosins known to contain the WD40 domain. The function of this myosin in G. polymorpha or any of the other apicomplexan parasites remains uncertain. PMID:18372636

  11. Nonmuscle myosin II is required for cell proliferation, cell sheet adhesion and wing hair morphology during wing morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Josef D.; Montague, Ruth A.; Kiehart, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan development involves a myriad of dynamic cellular processes that require cytoskeletal function. Nonmuscle myosin II plays essential roles in embryonic development; however, knowledge of its role in post-embryonic development, even in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, is only recently being revealed. In this study, truncation alleles were generated and enable the conditional perturbation, in a graded fashion, of nonmuscle myosin II function. During wing development they demonstrate novel roles for nonmuscle myosin II, including in adhesion between the dorsal and ventral wing epithelial sheets; in the formation of a single actin-based wing hair from the distal vertex of each cell; in forming unbranched wing hairs; and in the correct positioning of veins and crossveins. Many of these phenotypes overlap with those observed when clonal mosaic analysis was performed in the wing using loss of function alleles. Additional requirements for nonmuscle myosin II are in the correct formation of other actin-based cellular protrusions (microchaetae and macrochaetae). We confirm and extend genetic interaction studies to show that nonmuscle myosin II and an unconventional myosin, encoded by crinkled (ck/MyoVIIA), act antagonistically in multiple processes necessary for wing development. Lastly, we demonstrate that truncation alleles can perturb nonmuscle myosin II function via two distinct mechanisms – by titrating light chains away from endogenous heavy chains or by recruiting endogenous heavy chains into intracellular aggregates. By allowing myosin II function to be perturbed in a controlled manner, these novel tools enable the elucidation of post-embryonic roles for nonmuscle myosin II during targeted stages of fly development. PMID:20599890

  12. ORIENTATION OF SPIN-LABELED MYOSIN HEADS IN GLYCERINATED MUSCLE FIBERS

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    ORIENTATION OF SPIN-LABELED MYOSIN HEADS IN GLYCERINATED MUSCLE FIBERS DAVID D. THOMAS, Department determines the position of the EPR absorption line, spectra from labeled fibers oriented parallel to the magnetic field yielded directly the distribution of spin label orientations relative to the fiber axis. Two

  13. A new model for myosin dimeric motors incorporating Brownian ratchet and powerstroke mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Kawai, Ryoichi

    on the current state of the nucleotide bound to the motor domain.1­6 These conformational changes generate small experimental data suggest that the motor proteins utilize the thermal fluctuations instead of fighting againstA new model for myosin dimeric motors incorporating Brownian ratchet and powerstroke mechanisms

  14. Heterogeneous activation of a slow myosin gene in proliferating myoblasts and differentiated single myofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Wang, Qiao-Jing; Wang, Chao; Reinholt, Brad; Grant, Alan L; Gerrard, David E; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-06-01

    Each skeletal muscle contains a fixed ratio of fast and slow myofibers that are distributed in a stereotyped pattern to achieve a specific motor function. How myofibers are specified during development and regeneration is poorly understood. Here we address this question using transgenic reporter mice that indelibly mark the myofiber lineages based on activation of fast or slow myosin. Lineage tracing indicates that during development all muscles have activated the fast myosin gene Myl1, but not the slow myosin gene Myh7, which is activated in all slow but a subset of fast myofibers. Similarly, most nascent myofibers do not activate Myh7 during fast muscle regeneration, but the ratio and pattern of fast and slow myofibers are restored at the completion of regeneration. At the single myofiber level, most mature fast myofibers are heterogeneous in nuclear composition, manifested by mosaic activation of Myh7. Strikingly, Myh7 is activated in a subpopulation of proliferating myoblasts that co-express the myogenic progenitor marker Pax7. When induced to differentiate, the Myh7-activated myoblasts differentiate more readily than the non-activated myoblasts, and have a higher tendency, but not restricted, to become slow myotubes. Together, our data reveal significant nuclear heterogeneity within a single myofiber, and challenge the conventional view that myosin genes are only expressed after myogenic differentiation. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of muscle fiber type specification. PMID:25794679

  15. Myosin IIA Modulates T Cell Receptor Transport and CasL Phosphorylation during Early Immunological Synapse

    E-print Network

    Yu, Yan

    Myosin IIA Modulates T Cell Receptor Transport and CasL Phosphorylation during Early Immunological at the immunological synapse, the junction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC). The directed movement, transiently drives TCR transport during the first one to two minutes of immunological synapse formation

  16. Load and Pi Control Flux through the Branched Kinetic Cycle of Myosin V*S?

    PubMed Central

    Kad, Neil M.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Warshaw, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin V is a processive actin-based motor protein that takes multiple 36-nm steps to deliver intracellular cargo to its destination. In the laser trap, applied load slows myosin V heavy meromyosin stepping and increases the probability of backsteps. In the presence of 40 mm phosphate (Pi), both forward and backward steps become less load-dependent. From these data, we infer that Pi release commits myosin V to undergo a highly load-dependent transition from a state in which ADP is bound to both heads and its lead head trapped in a pre-powerstroke conformation. Increasing the residence time in this state by applying load increases the probability of backstepping or detachment. The kinetics of detachment indicate that myosin V can detach from actin at two distinct points in the cycle, one of which is turned off by the presence of Pi. We propose a branched kinetic model to explain these data. Our model includes Pi release prior to the most load-dependent step in the cycle, implying that Pi release and load both act as checkpoints that control the flux through two parallel pathways. PMID:18441369

  17. Functional heterogeneity of mammalian single muscle fibres: do myosin isoforms tell the whole story?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Bottinelli

    2001-01-01

    The large amount of data published in the last 10-15 years indicate that myosin isoforms are the major determinant of the large functional heterogeneity of the key contractile and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle fibres, including velocity of shortening, ATP consumption and power. Recent evidences are difficult to reconcile with such an idea and suggest that the properties of muscle

  18. Myocardial infarct imaging of antibodies to canine cardiac myosin with indium-111-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Khaw; J. T. Fallon; H. W. Strauss; E. Haber

    1980-01-01

    Antibodies, by virtue of marked selectivity and affinity, may lend themselves to identification of structures of unique antigenic specificity in vivo. In experimental myocardial infarction in dogs. F(ab')â fragments of antibodies to cardiac myosin that had been labeled with iodine-131 were shown to localize within the lesion. Because the energy characteristics of iodine isotopes are not ideal for imaging with

  19. Myosin concentration underlies cell size–dependent scalability of actomyosin ring constriction

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Graham D.; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Chen, Yinxiao; Jedd, Gregory; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, cytokinesis is accomplished by an actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos larger cells divide at a faster rate than smaller cells, it remains unknown whether a similar mode of scalability operates in other cells. We investigated cytokinesis in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, which exhibits a wide range of hyphal circumferences. We found that N. crassa cells divide using an actomyosin ring and larger rings constricted faster than smaller rings. However, unlike in C. elegans, the total amount of myosin remained constant throughout constriction, and there was a size-dependent increase in the starting concentration of myosin in the ring. We predict that the increased number of ring-associated myosin motors in larger rings leads to the increased constriction rate. Accordingly, reduction or inhibition of ring-associated myosin slows down the rate of constriction. Because the mechanical characteristics of contractile rings are conserved, we predict that these findings will be relevant to actomyosin ring constriction in other cell types. PMID:22123864

  20. Model of myosin recruitment to the cell equator for cytokinesis: feedback mechanisms and dynamical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Alexander; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    The formation and constriction of the contractile ring during cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, depends on the recruitment of motor protein myosin to the cell's equatorial region. During animal cell cytokinesis, cortical myosin filaments (MF) disassemble at the flanking regions and concentrate in the equator. This recruitment depends on myosin motor activity and the Rho proteins that regulate MF assembly and disassembly. Central spindle and astral microtubules help establish a spatial pattern of differential Rho activity. We propose a reaction-diffusion model for the dynamics of MF recruitment to the equatorial region. In the model, the central spindle and mechanical stress promote self-reinforcing MF assembly. Negative feedback is introduced by MF-induced recruitment of inhibitor myosin phosphatase. Our model yields various dynamical regimes and explains both the recruitment of MF to the cleavage furrow and the observed damped MF oscillations in the flanking regions, as well as steady MF assembly. Space and time parameters of MF oscillations are calculated. We predict oscillatory relaxation of cortical MF upon removal of locally-applied external stress.

  1. Effects of thyroid hormone on cardiac size and myosin content of the heterotopically transplanted rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, I; Hong, C

    1986-01-01

    Infrarenal heterotopic cardiac isografts maintain structural and functional integrity. We have used this transplantation model to further explore the mechanisms of thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Thyroid hormone administration, 1-thyroxine (T4) 10 micrograms/animal per d, led to a significant 30% increase in total heart weight and a 40% increase in the myosin content of the in situ heart when compared with control. In contrast, T4 treatment was without effect on the heart weight, protein content, rate of protein synthesis, or calculated myosin content of the heterotopic, nonworking heart. Heterotopic hearts demonstrated a significant decrease in the percentage of the V1 myosin isoenzyme from 95% to 61%. This shift occurred in euthyroid animals but was prevented by T4 treatment. These results suggest that thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated indirectly via changes in cardiac work. Myosin isoenzyme expression can be altered by changes in work load but is still responsive to increased levels of thyroid hormone. PMID:2939104

  2. A common MYBPC3 (cardiac myosin binding protein C) variant associated with cardiomyopathies in South Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perundurai S Dhandapany; Sakthivel Sadayappan; Yali Xue; Gareth T Powell; Deepa Selvi Rani; Prathiba Nallari; Taranjit Singh Rai; Madhu Khullar; Pedro Soares; Ajay Bahl; Jagan Mohan Tharkan; Pradeep Vaideeswar; Andiappan Rathinavel; Calambur Narasimhan; Dharma Rakshak Ayapati; Qasim Ayub; S Qasim Mehdi; Stephen Oppenheimer; Martin B Richards; Alkes L Price; Nick Patterson; David Reich; Lalji Singh; Chris Tyler-Smith; Kumarasamy Thangaraj

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality in South Asians. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unknown1. Cardiomyopathies due to sarcomeric mutations are a major monogenic cause for heart failure (MIM600958). Here, we describe a deletion of 25 bp in the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) that is associated with heritable cardiomyopathies and an increased risk

  3. Fluorescent probes of the orientation of myosin regulatory light chains in relaxed, rigor, and contracting muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, N; Shrimpton, C; Sleep, J; Kendrick-Jones, J; Irving, M

    1996-01-01

    The orientation of the light-chain region of myosin heads in relaxed, rigor, and isometrically contracting fibers from rabbit psoas muscle was studied by fluorescence polarization. Cysteine 108 of chicken gizzard myosin regulatory light chain (cgRLC) was covalently modified with iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine (iodo-ATR). Native RLC of single glycerinated muscle fibers was exchanged for labeled cgRLC in a low [Mg2+] rigor solution at 30 degrees C. Troponin and troponin C removed in this procedure were replaced. RLC exchange had little effect on active force production. X-ray diffraction showed normal structure in rigor after RLC exchange, but loss of axial and helical order in relaxation. In isolated myofibrils labeled cgRLC was confined to the regions of the sarcomere containing myosin heads. The ATR dipoles showed a preference for orientations perpendicular to the fiber axis, combined with limited nanosecond rotational motion, in all conditions studied. The perpendicular orientation preference was more marked in rigor than in either relaxation or active contraction. Stretching relaxed fibers to sarcomere length 4 microns to eliminate overlap between actin- and myosin-containing filaments had little effect on the orientation preference. There was no change in orientation preference when fibers were put into rigor at sarcomere length 4.0 microns. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with ATR-labeled rabbit skeletal RLC. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8785344

  4. Localization of a 170 kDa myosin heavy chain in plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yokota; A. R. McDonald; B. Liu; T. Shimmen; B. A. Palevitz

    1995-01-01

    Summary A polyclonal antibody directed against a 170 kDa myosin heavy chain from lily pollen tubes was employed to (a) assess the cellular distribution of the polypeptide using immunofluorescence methods, and (b) ascertain if similar polypeptides are present in pollen tubes and somatic cells of other species. Fluorescence is associated with particles of various size as well as an amorphous

  5. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  6. Relation between cell activity and the distribution of cytoplasmic actin and myosin.

    PubMed

    Herman, I M; Crisona, N J; Pollard, T D

    1981-07-01

    We documented the activity of cultured cells on time-lapse videotapes and then stained these identified cells with antibodies to actin and myosin. This experimental approach enabled us to directly correlate cellular activity with the distribution of cytoplasmic actin and myosin. When trypsinized HeLa cells spread onto a glass surface, the cortical cytoplasm was the most actively motile and random, bleb-like extensions (0.5-4.0 micrometer wide, 2-5 micrometer long) occurred over the entire surface until the cells started to spread. During spreading, ruffling membranes were found at the cell perimeter. The actin staining was found alone in the surface blebs and ruffles and together with myosin staining in the cortical cytoplasm at the bases of the blebs and ruffles. In well-spread, stationary HeLa cells most of the actin and myosin was found in stress fibers but there was also diffuse antiactin fluorescence in areas of motile cytoplasm such as leading lamellae and ruffling membranes. Similarly, all 22 of the rapidly translocating embryonic chick cells had only diffuse actin staining. Between these extremes were slow-moving HeLa cells, which had combinations of diffuse and fibrous antiactin and antimyosin staining. These results suggest that large actomyosin filament bundles are associated with nonmotile cytoplasm and that actively motile cytoplasm has a more diffuse distribution of these proteins. PMID:7019223

  7. Endothelial Rho and Rho kinase regulate neutrophil migration via endothelial myosin light chain phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Saito; Yoshihiro Minamiya; Satoshi Saito; Jun-ichi Ogawa

    The transendothelial migration of neu- trophils is a critical step in acute inflammation, which we previously showed to be regulated by endothelial myosin light chain (MLC) kinase. Re- cent studies suggest that Rho and Rho kinase are also key mediators of MLC phosphorylation, but their roles in neutrophil migration have not been investigated. In the present study, a transwell chamber

  8. Myosin Heads Contribute to the Maintenance of Filament Order in Relaxed Rabbit Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bershitsky, Sergey Y.; Koubassova, Natalia A.; Bennett, Pauline M.; Ferenczi, Michael A.; Shestakov, Dmitry A.; Tsaturyan, Andrey K.

    2010-01-01

    Raising the temperature of rabbit skeletal muscle from ?0°C to ?20°C has been shown to enhance the helical organization of the myosin heads and to change the intensities of the 10 and 11 equatorial reflections. We show here by time-resolved x-ray diffraction combined with temperature jump that the movement of the heads to enhance the organized myosin helix occurs at the same fast rate as the change in the intensities of the equatorial reflections. However, model calculations indicate that the change in the equatorials cannot be explained simply in terms of the movement of myosin heads. Analysis of electron micrographs of transverse sections of relaxed muscle fibers cryofixed at ?5°C and ?35°C shows that in addition to the reorganization of the heads the thin and thick filaments are less constrained to their positions in the hexagonal filament lattice in the warm muscle than in the cold. Incorporating the changes in filament order in model calculations reconciles these with the observed changes in equatorial reflections. We suggest the thin filaments in the cold muscle are boxed into their positions by the thermal movement of the disordered myosin heads. In the warmer muscle, the packed-down heads leave the thin filaments more room to diffuse laterally. PMID:20858427

  9. Invertebrate and vertebrate class III myosins interact with MORN repeat-containing adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Kirk L; Freed, Stephanie A; Raval, Manmeet; Quintero, Omar A; Yengo, Christopher M; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP). Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A). In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior. PMID:25822849

  10. Specialized Conservation of Surface Loops of Myosin: Evidence that Loops are Involved in Determining

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    of Biochemistry and Developmental Biology Stanford Medical School Stanford, CA 94305-5307, USA The molecular motor moves actin. Two regions that have been implicated in determining these parameters are the ``loop of the myosin motor domain sequence (Figure 1), leading to the suggestion that the sequences of these loops

  11. Actin Turnover Is Required for Myosin-Dependent Mitochondrial Movements in Arabidopsis Root Hairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maozhong Zheng; Martina Beck; Jens Müller; Tong Chen; Xiaohua Wang; Feng Wang; Qinli Wang; Yuqing Wang; František Baluška; David C. Logan; Jozef Šamaj; Jinxing Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that plant mitochondrial movements are myosin-based along actin filaments, which undergo continuous turnover by the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. Although earlier studies revealed that actin filament dynamics are essential for many functions of the actin cytoskeleton, there are little data connecting actin dynamics and mitochondrial movements. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: We addressed the role

  12. Regulation of actin-myosin interaction by conserved periodic sites of tropomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Bipasha; Winkelmann, Donald A.; White, Howard D.; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative activation of actin-myosin interaction by tropomyosin (Tm) is central to regulation of contraction in muscle cells and cellular and intracellular movements in nonmuscle cells. The steric blocking model of muscle regulation proposed 40 y ago has been substantiated at both the kinetic and structural levels. Even with atomic resolution structures of the major players, how Tm binds and is designed for regulatory function has remained a mystery. Here we show that a set of periodically distributed evolutionarily conserved surface residues of Tm is required for cooperative regulation of actomyosin. Based on our results, we propose a model of Tm on a structure of actin-Tm-myosin in the “open” (on) state showing potential electrostatic interactions of the residues with both actin and myosin. The sites alternate with a second set of conserved surface residues that are important for actin binding in the inhibitory state in the absence of myosin. The transition from the closed to open states requires the sites identified here, even when troponin + Ca2+ is present. The evolutionarily conserved residues are important for actomyosin regulation, a universal function of Tm that has a common structural basis and mechanism. PMID:23091026

  13. Prolactin Opens the Sensitive Period for Androgen Regulation of a Larynx-Specific Myosin

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Darcy B.

    Prolactin Opens the Sensitive Period for Androgen Regulation of a Larynx-Specific Myosin Heavy March 1999; accepted 7 May 1999 ABSTRACT: The larynx of Xenopus laevis is a sex- ually differentiated for androgen-induced LM expression in the larynx and controls the ability of male sex hormones to masculinize

  14. Kinesin and Myosin-driven Steps of Vesicle Recruitment for Ca 2 1 -regulated Exocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Qiang Bi; Robert L. Morris; Guochun Liao; Janet M. Alderton; Jonathan M. Scholey; Richard A. Steinhardt

    Kinesin and myosin have been proposed to transport intracellular organelles and vesicles to the cell periphery in several cell systems. However, there has been little direct observation of the role of these motor proteins in the delivery of vesicles during regulated exo- cytosis in intact cells. Using a confocal microscope, we triggered local bursts of Ca 2 1 -regulated exocytosis

  15. Bidirectional cooperative motion of myosin-II motors on actin tracks with randomly alternating polarities

    E-print Network

    Farago, Oded

    motors was transformed into bidirectional motion by the application of an external stalling electric the forces generated by the motors. Electric field was also used to bias the direction of motion in kinesinBidirectional cooperative motion of myosin-II motors on actin tracks with randomly alternating

  16. Myosin II Motor Activity in the Lateral Amygdala Is Required for Fear Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Young, Erica; Miller, Courtney; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Learning induces dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton that are required to support memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics during learning and memory are poorly understood. Myosin II motors are highly expressed in actin-rich growth structures including dendritic spines, and we have…

  17. Microsecond rotational motion of spin-labeled myosin heads during isometric muscle contraction

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    in the mobile state. These results are consistent with previous ST- EPR studies on contracting myofibrils saturation transfer electron paramagnetic reso- nance (ST-EPR) to detect the micro- second rotational motions-regenerating system. Conditions were identical to those we have used in previous studies of myosin head orientation

  18. Structural dynamics of the myosin relay helix by time-resolved EPR and FRET

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Structural dynamics of the myosin relay helix by time-resolved EPR and FRET Roman V. Agafonova electron­electron resonance DEER molecular dynamics simulation recovery stroke disorder-to-order transition,1 , and Yuri E. Nesmelova,1 Departments of aBiochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and c

  19. Myosin mRNA accumulation and myofibrillogenesis at the myotendinous junction of stretched muscle fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Dix; Brenda R. Eisenberg

    1990-01-01

    Myofiber growth and myofibril assembly at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of stretch- hypertrophied rabbit skeletal muscle was studied by in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. In situ hybridization identified higher lev- els of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA at the MTJ of fibers stretched for 4 d. Electron microscopy at the MTJ of these lengthening fbers revealed a large

  20. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sunny S; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Theriot, Julie A

    2015-04-27

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  1. Myosin Synthesis Increased by Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Brevet; Elaine Pinto; John Peacock; Frank E. Stockdale

    1976-01-01

    When cultures of skeletal muscle cells of the chick embryo are subjected to repetitive, electrical stimulation, the contractions increase the amount of protein produced by these cells. The increase is greater for contractile proteins such as myosin heavy chain than for total cellular protein. This demonstrates that in a culture system of skeletal muscle cells that have differentiated in the

  2. Fluorescence Polarization Transients from Rhodamine Isomers on the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain in Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    E-print Network

    Croquette, Vincent

    in Skeletal Muscle Fibers Seth C. Hopkins,* Cibele Sabido-David,# John E.T. Corrie,§ Malcolm Irving,# and Yale to examine orientation changes of two rhodamine probes bound to myosin heads in skeletal muscle fibers of the cross-bridge cycle in muscle contraction (Whittaker et al., 1995; Irving et al., 1995; Gollub et al

  3. Dynamics of Myosin-Driven Skeletal Muscle Contraction: I. Steady-State Force Generation

    E-print Network

    Sun, Sean

    Dynamics of Myosin-Driven Skeletal Muscle Contraction: I. Steady-State Force Generation Ganhui Lan Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle contraction is a canonical of skeletal muscle fiber contraction has been a topic of investigation since antiquity. The major force

  4. The organization of myosin and actin in rapid frozen nerve growth cones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Bridgman; M. E. Dailey

    1989-01-01

    Rapid freezing and freeze substitution were used in conjunction with immunofluorescence, whole mount EM, and immunoelectron microscopy to study the organization of myosin and actin in growth cones of cultured rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The general cytoplasmic organization was determined by whole mount EM; tight microfilament bundles formed the core of filopodia while a dense meshwork formed the underlying

  5. Three-dimensional structural dynamics of myosin V by single-molecule fluorescence polarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph N. Forkey; Margot E. Quinlan; M. Alexander Shaw; John E. T. Corrie; Yale E. Goldman

    2003-01-01

    The structural change that generates force and motion in actomyosin motility has been proposed to be tilting of the myosin light chain domain, which serves as a lever arm. Several experimental approaches have provided support for the lever arm hypothesis; however, the extent and timing of tilting motions are not well defined in the motor protein complex of functioning actomyosin.

  6. Shaping organs by a wingless-int/Notch/nonmuscle myosin module which orients feather bud elongation

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Shaping organs by a wingless-int/Notch/nonmuscle myosin module which orients feather bud elongation. To address this question, we used the repetitive, periodic pattern of feather morphogenesis on chicken skin as a model. Avian feathers within a single tract extend from dome-shaped primordia to thin conical structures

  7. Myosin rods are a source of second harmonic generation signals in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, Sebastian; Weber, Cornelia; Fink, Rainer H. A.; Vogel, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Intrinsic second harmonic generation (SHG) signals can be used to visualize the three-dimensional structure of cardiac and skeletal muscle with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence labeling of complementary sarcomeric proteins, e.g. actin, indicates that the observed SHG signals arise from the myosin filaments. Recently, the myosin rod domain or LMM - light meromyosin - has been reported to be the dominant source of this SHG signal. However, to date, mostly negative and indirect evidence has been presented to support this assumption. Here, we show, to our knowledge, the first direct evidences that strong SHG signals can be obtained from synthetic paracrystals. These rod shaped filaments are formed from purified LMM. SDS-PAGE protein analysis confirmed that the LMM crystals lack myosin head domains. Some regions of the LMM paracrystals produce a strong SHG signal whereas others did not. The SHG signals were recorded with a laser-scanning microscope (Leica SP2). A ps laser tuned to 880 nm was used to excite the sample through an 63x objective of 1.2 NA. In order to visualize the synthetic filaments - in addition to SHG imaging -, the LMM was labeled with the fluorescent marker 5-IAF. We were able to observe filaments of 1 to 50 ?m in length and of up to 5 ?m in diameter. In conclusion, we can show that the myosin rod domain (LMM) is a dominant source for intrinsic SHG signals. There seems, however, a signal dependence on the paracrystals' morphology. This dependence is being investigated.

  8. Myosin filaments isolated from skinned amphibian smooth muscle cells are side-polar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Cooke; Fredric S. Fay; Roger Craig

    1989-01-01

    Summary The structure of myosin filaments isolated from skinned toad stomach smooth muscle cells has been examined by electron microscopy as a step toward identifying thein vivo structure. When negatively stained following exposure to relaxing conditions, the filaments exhibited a continuous 14-nm axial repeat of crossbridge projections with no central bare zone. The filaments thus differed from the bipolar filaments

  9. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O'Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  10. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  11. Alternative transcription and two modes of splicing result in two myosin light chains from one gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ichi Nabeshima; Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama; Masami Muramatsu; Kikuo Ogata

    1984-01-01

    Chicken skeletal muscle myosin alkali light chains are encoded by a single gene of size 18 kilobases (kb). This gene has two transcription initiation sites from which 17.5- and 8-kb precursor RNAs are transcribed. These RNAs are processed by different modes of splicing to form mRNAs encoding distinct light-chain (LC1 and LC3) proteins.

  12. Structure and function of the cytoskeleton of a Dictyostelium myosin- defective mutant

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    To study the role of conventional myosin in nonmuscle cells, we determined the cytoskeletal organization and physiological responses of a Dictyostelium myosin-defective mutant. Dictyostelium hmm cells were created by insertional mutagenesis of the myosin heavy chain gene (De Lozanne, A., and J. A. Spudich. 1987. Science (Wash. DC). 236: 1086- 1091). Western blot analysis using different mAbs confirms that hmm cells express a truncated myosin fragment of 140 kD (HMM-140 protein) instead of the normal 243-kD myosin heavy chain (MHC). Spontaneous revertants appear at a frequency less than 4 x 10(-5), which synthesize normal myosin and are capable of forming thick filaments. In hmm cells, the HMM-140 protein is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, indicating that it cannot assemble into thick filaments. The actin distribution in these mutant cells appears similar to that of wild-type cells. However, there is a significant abnormality in the organization of cytoplasmic microtubules, which penetrate into lamellipodial regions. The microtubule networks consist of approximately 13 microtubules on average and their pattern is abnormal. Although hmm cells can form mitotic spindles, mitosis is not coordinated with normal furrow formation. The hmm cells are clearly defective in the contractile events that lead to normal cytokinesis. The retraction of different regions of the cell can result in the occasional pinching off of part of the cell. This process is not coupled with formation of mitotic spindles. There is no specific accumulation of HMM-140 in such constrictions, whereas 73% of such cells show actin concentrated in these regions. The mutant hmm cells are also deficient in capping of Con-A-bound surface receptors, but instead internalize this complex into the cytoplasm. The hmm cells display active phagocytosis of bacteria. Whereas actin is concentrated in the phagocytic cups, HMM-140 protein is not localized in these regions. cAMP, a chemoattractant that induces drastic rounding up and formation of surface blebs in wild type cells, does not induce rounding up in the hmm cells. A Triton- permeabilized cell model of the wild-type amebae contracts on reactivation with Mg-ATP, whereas a model of the hmm cell shows no detectable contraction. Our data demonstrate that the conventional myosin participates in the significant cortical motile activities of Dictyostelium cells, which include rounding up, constriction of cleavage furrows, capping surface receptors, and establishing cell polarity. PMID:2404992

  13. Copper-transporting P-type ATPases use a unique ion-release pathway

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg; Nielsen, Anna Marie; White, Stephen H.; Nissen, Poul; Gourdon, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in cells are typically regulated by PIB-type ATPases such as the copper transporting Cu+-ATPases. The first crystal structure of a Cu+-ATPase (LpCopA) was trapped in a transition state of dephosphorylation (E2.Pi) and inferred to be occluded. The structure revealed a PIB-specific topology and suggested a copper transport pathway across the membrane. Here we show by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that extracellular water solvates the transmembrane (TM) domain, indicative of a pathway for Cu+ release. Furthermore, a new LpCopA crystal structure determined at 2.8 Å resolution, trapped in the E2P state (which is associated with extracellular exchange in PII-type ATPases), delineates the same conduit as also further supported by site-directed mutagenesis. The E2P and E2.Pi states therefore appear equivalent and open to the extracellular side, in contrast to PII-type ATPases where the E2.Pi state is occluded. This indicates that Cu+-ATPases couple dephosphorylation differently to the conformational changes associated with ion extrusion. The ion pathway may explain why Menkes’ and Wilson’s disease mutations at the extracellular side impair protein function, and points to an accessible site for novel inhibitors targeting Cu+-ATPases of pathogens. PMID:24317491

  14. Purification and Characterization of Tonoplast ATPase from Etiolated Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, May Yun; Lin, Ya Hui; Chou, Wing Ming; Chung, Tsuey Ping; Pan, Rong Long

    1989-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase from etiolated seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) was isolated using a two-step detergent solubilization modified from Mandala and Taiz (S Mandala, L Taiz [1985] Plant Physiol 78: 327-333). After ultracentrifugation on 10 to 28% sucrose gradient, the ATPase showed a 31.6-fold purification over the initial specific activity of the starting tonoplast-enriched membranes. The purified ATPase used Mg2+-ATP as the preferred substrate. The tonoplast ATPase was isolated in a form with characteristics similar to that on its native membrane environment. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed two prominent bands with molecular weights of 78,000 (? subunit) and 64,000 (? subunit). The intensity of Coomassie blue staining showed a 1:1 stoichiometry for ? and ? subunits. The amino acid composition of ? and ? subunits also confirmed the suggested stoichiometry of the subunit composition of the tonoplast ATPase. Moreover, radiation inactivation analysis yielded a functional size of 414 ± 24 and 405 ± 25 kilodaltons for soluble and membrane bound tonoplast ATPases, respectively. It is possible that the functioning tonoplast ATPase may be in a form of ??-heteromultimer. Images Figure 3 PMID:16666796

  15. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings. PMID:25087500

  16. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  17. Inhibition of tonoplast ATPase from etiolated mung bean seedlings by fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, C M; Hsu, L H; Pan, R L

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to modify the lysine residue in the active site of tonoplast H(+)-ATPase from etiolated mung-bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings. FITC caused marked inactivation of the enzyme activities of both membrane-bound and soluble ATPase and its associated H+ translocation. The SDS/PAGE pattern revealed that the FITC-binding site was in the large (A) subunit of ATPase. Inhibition could be substantially prevented by its physiological substrate ATP, pyrophosphate and nucleotides in the decreasing order: ATP greater than pyrophosphate greater than ADP greater than AMP greater than GTP greater than CTP greater than UTP. The mode of inhibition by FITC was competitive with respect to ATP. Loss of ATPase activity followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with a Ki of 0.33 mM, a minimum inactivation half-time of 110 s, and a first-order rate constant of 0.244 s-1. A double-logarithmic plot of apparent rate constant versus FITC concentration gave a slope of 0.913, indicating that inactivation results from reaction of at least one lysine residue at the catalytic site of the large subunit. Labelling studies indicated that the incorporation of approx. 1 mol of FITC/mol of ATPase is sufficient to inhibit ATPase completely. The enhancement and blue shift of emission maxima of FITC after modification of ATPase indicated that the labelled lysine residue was located in a relatively hydrophobic domain. PMID:1386733

  18. Characterization and Effect of Light on the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase of Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Linnemeyer, Paul A.; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth; Cleland, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Proton excretion from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf cells is increased by bright white light. To test whether this could be due, at least in part, to an increase in plasma membrane (PM) ATPase activity, PM vesicles were isolated from primary leaves by phase partitioning and used to characterize PM ATPase activity and changes in response to light. ATPase activity was characterized as magnesium ion dependent, vanadate sensitive, and slightly stimulated by potassium chloride. The pH optimum was 6.5, the Km was approximately 0.30 millimolar ATP, and the activity was about 60% latent. PM vesicles were prepared from leaves of plants grown for 11 days in dim red light (growing slowly) or grown for 10 days in dim red light and then transferred to bright white-light for 1 day (growing rapidly). For both light treatments, ATPase specific activity was approximately 600 to 700 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, and the latency, Km, and sensitivity to potassium chloride were also similar. PM vesicles from plants grown in complete darkness, however, exhibited a twofold greater specific activity. We conclude that the promotion of leaf growth and proton excretion by bright white light is not due to an increase in ATPase specific activity. Light does influence ATPase activity, however; both dim red light and bright white light decreased the ATPase specific activity by nearly 50% as compared with dark-grown leaves. PMID:11537474

  19. Long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase pump during T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Karitskaya, Inna; Aksenov, Nikolay; Vassilieva, Irina; Zenin, Valerii; Marakhova, Irina

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the proliferation-related regulation of Na,K-ATPase pump. Our data demonstrate that in mitogen-stimulated human blood lymphocytes, enhanced ouabain-sensitive Rb(K) fluxes in the middle/late stage of G(0)/G(1)/S transit are associated with the increased number of Na,K-ATPase pumps expressed at the cell surface (as determined by the [(3)H]ouabain binding). Analysis of total RNA (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blotting) showed a threefold increase in the level of Na,K-ATPase alpha1-subunit and beta1-subunit mRNAs and significant increase in the Na,K-ATPase alpha1-subunit protein during the first day of mitogen-induced proliferation. The elevated K transport as well as the increased expression of Na,K-ATPase is closely associated with the IL-2-dependent stage of T-cell response. The pharmacological inhibition of IL-2-induced MEK/ERK or JAK/STAT cascades suppressed the IL-2-induced proliferation and reduced the functional and protein expressions of Na,K-ATPase. It is concluded that during the lymphocyte transition from resting stage to proliferation, (1) long-term activation of Na,K-ATPase pump is due to the enhanced expression of Na,K-ATPase protein and mRNA, and (2) the cytokine signaling via the IL-2 receptor is necessary for the cell cycle-associated upregulation of Na,K-ATPase. PMID:20461527

  20. A comparative study of myosins and prekeratin in epithelial cells of methacarn-fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Puchtler, H; Barton, B P; Waldrop, F S; Meloan, S N; Hobbs, J L

    1985-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, tonofibrils and contractile myofibrils were observed within the same cells. These findings have been largely forgotten. To clarify the topical relations of these proteins in epithelial cells, duplicate sections of methacarn-fixed human and canine tissues were treated with the tannic acid-phosphomolybdic acid (TP)-Levanol Fast Cyanine 5RN reaction for myosins and the PAP technic for prekeratin, respectively. In bronchi, lingual and sweat glands, liver and pancreas, myosin was confined to the terminal bar-terminal web system, including pericanalicular layers. Prekeratin occurred throughout the epithelium of bronchi and ducts; secretory cells showed little or no reaction. Observations on myosin in kidney confirmed data by Harper et al. (1970). The PAP technic colored transitional epithelium and collecting tubules intensely; convoluted tubules did not react. Staining of segments of Henle's loops varied from case to case. Both reactions colored thymic epithelial cells. In myoid cells of Hassall's corpuscles myosin was gradually replaced by prekeratin and keratin. Basal cells of epididymis reacted strongly with the PAP technic, but did not contain myosin. Prekeratin is apparently identical with epidermin, whose composition and structure were well known in the 1950's. Epidermin undergoes chemical changes as cells move from the stratum basale to the stratum corneum. According to DAKO, the antibodies used in this study were prepared with prekeratin extracted from stratum corneum. Data in the literature and observations in this investigation indicate that some samples of antibodies do not react with all tonofilaments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2411695