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Sample records for actin-activated myosin atpase

  1. Force generation, but not myosin ATPase activity, declines with age in rat muscle fibers

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    . LOWE,1,2 DAVID D. THOMAS,1,2 AND LADORA V. THOMPSON2,3 1 Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology Lowe, Dawn A., David D. Thomas, and LaDora V. Thompson. Force generation, but not myosin ATPase activ- membranosus fibers from young (8­12 mo) and aged (32­37 mo) Fischer 344 Brown Norway male rats were analyzed

  2. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-07-28

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of /sup 32/P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca/sup 2 +/- and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation.

  3. Myocyte contractility can be maintained by storing cells with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3 butanedione monoxime

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Charles S; Mechas, Charles; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Isolated intact myocytes can be used to investigate contractile mechanisms and to screen new therapeutic compounds. These experiments typically require euthanizing an animal and isolating fresh cells each day or analyzing cultured myocytes, which quickly lose their rod-shaped morphology. Recent data suggest that the viability of canine myocytes can be prolonged using low temperature and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (an inhibitor of skeletal myosin ATPase). We performed similar studies in rat myocytes in order to test whether the cardiac myosin ATPase inhibitors 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) and blebbistatin help to maintain cell-level function over multiple days. Myocytes were isolated from rats and separated into batches that were stored at 4°C in a HEPES-buffered solution that contained 0.5 mmol L?1 Ca2+ and (1) no myosin ATPase inhibitors; (2) 10 mmol L?1 BDM; or (3) 3 ?mol L?1 blebbistatin. Functional viability of myocytes was assessed up to 3 days after the isolation by measuring calcium transients and unloaded shortening profiles induced by electrical stimuli in inhibitor-free Tyrode's solution. Cells stored without myosin ATPase inhibitors had altered morphology (fewer rod-shaped cells, shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths, and membrane blebbing) and were not viable for contractile assays after 24 h. Cells stored in BDM maintained morphology and contractile function for 48 h. Storage in blebbistatin maintained cell morphology for 72 h but inhibited contractility. These data show that storing cells with myosin ATPase inhibitors can extend the viability of myocytes that will be used for functional assays. This may help to refine and reduce the use of animals in experiments. PMID:26116551

  4. The Kinetic Mechanism of Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Cruz, Enrique M.; Wells, Amber L.; Rosenfeld, Steven S.; Ostap, E. Michael; Sweeney, H. Lee

    1999-11-01

    Myosin V is an unconventional myosin proposed to be processive on actin filaments, analogous to kinesin on a microtubule [Mehta, A. D., et al. (1999) Nature (London) 400, 590-593]. To ascertain the unique properties of myosin V that permit processivity, we undertook a detailed kinetic analysis of the myosin V motor. We expressed a truncated, single-headed myosin V construct that bound a single light chain to study its innate kinetics, free from constraints imposed by other regions of the molecule. The data demonstrate that unlike any previously characterized myosin a single-headed myosin V spends most of its kinetic cycle (>70%) strongly bound to actin in the presence of ATP. This kinetic tuning is accomplished by increasing several of the rates preceding strong binding to actin and concomitantly prolonging the duration of the strongly bound state by slowing the rate of ADP release. The net result is a myosin unlike any previously characterized, in that ADP release is the rate-limiting step for the actin-activated ATPase cycle. Thus, because of a number of kinetic adaptations, myosin V is tuned for processive movement on actin and will be capable of transporting cargo at lower motor densities than any other characterized myosin.

  5. Aberrant movement of ?-tropomyosin associated with congenital myopathy causes defective response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Avrova, Stanislava V; Rysev, Nikita A; Sirenko, Vladimir V; Simonyan, Armen O; Chernev, Aleksey A; Karpicheva, Olga E; Piers, Adam; Redwood, Charles S

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of the E41K, R91G, and E139del ?-tropomyosin (TM) mutations that cause congenital myopathy on the position of TM and orientation of actin monomers and myosin heads at different mimicked stages of the ATPase cycle in troponin-free ghost muscle fibers by polarized fluorimetry. A multi-step shifting of wild-type TM to the filament center accompanied by an increase in the amount of switched on actin monomers and the strongly bound myosin heads was observed during the ATPase cycle. The R91G mutation shifts TM further towards the inner and outer domains of actin at the strong- and weak-binding stages, respectively. The E139del mutation retains TM near the inner domains, while the E41K mutation captures it near the outer domains. The E41K and R91G mutations can induce the strong binding of myosin heads to actin, when TM is located near the outer domains. The E139del mutation inhibits the amount of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. PMID:25978979

  6. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  7. Measurements of Myosin-II Motor Activity During Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) represents the critical actin-based motor protein that drives actomyosin ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis. We detail three different methods to measure Myo2p motor function. Actin-activated ATPases provide a readout of actomyosin ATPase motor activity in a bulk assay; actin filament motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin-driven actin filament gliding (when motors are anchored); myosin-bead motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin ensembles traveling along actin filaments (when actin is anchored). Collectively, these methods allow us to combine the standard in vivo approaches common to fission yeast with in vitro biochemical methods to learn more about the mechanistic action of myosin-II during cytokinesis. PMID:26519311

  8. Does Interaction between the Motor and Regulatory Domains of the Myosin Head Occur during ATPase Cycle? Evidence from Thermal Unfolding Studies on Myosin Subfragment 1

    PubMed Central

    Logvinova, Daria S.; Markov, Denis I.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Ushakov, Dmitry S.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) consists of two major structural domains, the motor (or catalytic) domain and the regulatory domain. Functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor is believed to involve a rotation of the regulatory domain (lever arm) relative to the motor domain during the ATPase cycle. According to predictions, this rotation can be accompanied by an interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminus of the essential light chain (ELC) associated with the regulatory domain. To check this assumption, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with temperature dependences of fluorescence to study changes in thermal unfolding and the domain structure of S1, which occur upon formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx that mimic S1 ATPase intermediate states S1**-ADP-Pi and S1*-ATP, respectively. To identify the thermal transitions on the DSC profiles (i.e. to assign them to the structural domains of S1), we compared the DSC data with temperature-induced changes in fluorescence of either tryptophan residues, located only in the motor domain, or recombinant ELC mutants (light chain 1 isoform), which were first fluorescently labeled at different positions in their C-terminal half and then introduced into the S1 regulatory domain. We show that formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx significantly stabilizes not only the motor domain, but also the regulatory domain of the S1 molecule implying interdomain interaction via ELC. This is consistent with the previously proposed concepts and also adds some new interesting details to the molecular mechanism of the myosin ATPase cycle. PMID:26356744

  9. Simultaneous observation of individual ATPase and mechanical events by a single myosin molecule during interaction with actin.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, A; Kojima, H; Funatsu, T; Tokunaga, M; Higuchi, H; Tanaka, H; Yanagida, T

    1998-01-23

    We have developed a technique that allows mechanical and ligand-binding events in a single myosin molecule to be monitored simultaneously. We describe how steps in the ATPase reaction are temporally related to mechanical events at the single molecule level. The results show that the force generation does not always coincide with the release of bound nucleotide, presumably ADP. Instead the myosin head produces force several hundreds of milliseconds after bound nucleotide is released. This finding does not support the widely accepted view that force generation is directly coupled to the release of bound ligands. It suggests that myosin has a hysteresis or memory state, which stores chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis. PMID:9458041

  10. Redox-sensitive residue in the actin-binding interface of myosin

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Cornea, Sinziana; Oseid, Daniel E.; Binder, Benjamin P.; Klein, Jennifer C.; Thomas, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the chemical and functional reversibility of oxidative modification in myosin. Redox regulation has emerged as a crucial modulator of protein function, with particular relevance to aging. We previously identified a single methionine residue in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II (M394, near the myosin cardiomyopathy loop in the actin-binding interface) that is functionally sensitive to oxidation. We now show that oxidation of M394 is reversible by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), restoring actin-activated ATPase activity. Sequence alignment reveals that M394 of Dicty myosin II is a cysteine residue in all human isoforms of skeletal and cardiac myosin. Using Dicty myosin II as a model for site-specific redox sensitivity of this Cys residue, the M394C mutant can be glutathionylated in vitro, resulting in reversible inhibition of actin-activated ATPase activity, with effects similar to those of methionine oxidation at this site. This work illustrates the potential for myosin to function as a redox sensor in both non-muscle and muscle cells, modulating motility/contractility in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25264102

  11. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies demonstrate limited structural homology between myosin isozymes from Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We used a library of 31 monoclonal and six polyclonal antibodies to compare the structures of the two classes of cytoplasmic myosin isozymes isolated from Acanthamoeba: myosin-I, a 150,000-mol-wt, globular molecule; and myosin-II, a 400,000-mol-wt molecule with two heads and a 90-nm tail. This analysis confirms that myosin-I and -II are unique gene products and provides the first evidence that these isozymes have at least one structurally homologous region functionally important for myosin's role in contractility. Characterization of the 23 myosin-II monoclonal antibody binding sites by antibody staining of one-dimensional peptide maps and solid phase, competitive binding assays demonstrate that they bind to at least 15 unique sites on the myosin-II heavy chain. The antibodies can be grouped into six families, whose members bind close to one another. None of the monoclonal antibodies bind to myosin-II light chains and polyclonal antibodies against myosin-II light or heavy chain bind only to myosin-II light or heavy chains, respectively: no antibody binds both heavy and light chains. Six of eight monoclonal antibodies and one of two polyclonal sera that react with the myosin-I heavy chain also bind to determinants on the myosin-II heavy chain. The cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies bind to the region of myosin-II recognized by the largest family of myosin-II monoclonal antibodies. In the two papers that immediately follow, we show that this family of monoclonal antibodies to myosin-II binds to the myosin-II tail near the junction with the heads and inhibits both the actin-activated ATPase of myosin-II and contraction of gelled cytoplasmic extracts of Acanthamoeba cytoplasm. Further, this structurally homologous region may play a key role in energy transduction by cytoplasmic myosins. PMID:6206073

  13. Regulation of actomyosin ATPase activity by troponin-tropomyosin: effect of the binding of the myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) ATP complex

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, L.E.; Williams, D.L. Jr.; Eisenberg, E.

    1987-05-01

    In the authors' model of regulation, the observed lack of cooperativity in the binding of myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) with bound ATP to the troponin-tropomyosin-actin complex (regulated actin) is explained by S-1 ATP having about the same affinity for the conformation of the regulated actin that activates the myosin ATPase activity (turned-on form) and the conformation that does not activate the myosin ATPase activity (turned-off form). This predicts that, in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, S-1 ATP should not turn on the regulated actin filament. In the present study, they tested this prediction by using either unmodified S-1 or S-1 chemically modified with N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM S-1) so that functionally it acts like S-1 ATP, although it does not hydrolyze ATP. (/sup 14/C)pPDM and (/sup 32/P)ATP were used as tracers. They found that, in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, neither S-1 ATP nor pPDM S-1 ATP significantly turns on the ATPase activity of the regulated complex of actin and S-1 (acto S-1). In contrast, in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/, pPDM S-1 ATP binding almost completely turns on the regulated acto S-1 ATPase activity. These results can be explained by their original cooperativity model, with pPDM S-1 ATP binding only approx. = 2 fold more strongly to the turned-on form that to the turned-off form of regulated actin. However, the results are not consistent with our alternative model, which predicts that if pPDM S-1 ATP binds to actin in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ but does not turn on the ATPase activity, then it should also turn on the ATPase activity in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/.

  14. Analytical Comparison of Natural and Pharmaceutical Ventricular Myosin Activators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular myosin (?Mys) is the motor protein in cardiac muscle generating force using ATP hydrolysis free energy to translate actin. In the cardiac muscle sarcomere, myosin and actin filaments interact cyclically and undergo rapid relative translation facilitated by the low duty cycle motor. It contrasts with high duty cycle processive myosins for which persistent actin association is the priority. The only pharmaceutical ?Mys activator, omecamtive mecarbil (OM), upregulates cardiac contractility in vivo and is undergoing testing for heart failure therapy. In vitro ?Mys step-size, motility velocity, and actin-activated myosin ATPase were measured to determine duty cycle in the absence and presence of OM. A new parameter, the relative step-frequency, was introduced and measured to characterize ?Mys motility due to the involvement of its three unitary step-sizes. Step-size and relative step-frequency were measured using the Qdot assay. OM decreases motility velocity 10-fold without affecting step-size, indicating a large increase in duty cycle converting ?Mys to a near processive myosin. The OM conversion dramatically increases force and modestly increases power over the native ?Mys. Contrasting motility modification due to OM with that from the natural myosin activator, specific ?Mys phosphorylation, provides insight into their respective activation mechanisms and indicates the boilerplate screening characteristics desired for pharmaceutical ?Mys activators. New analytics introduced here for the fast and efficient Qdot motility assay create a promising method for high-throughput screening of motor proteins and their modulators. PMID:25068717

  15. Conformations of myosin subfragment 1 ATPase intermediates from neutron and X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, R A; Schneider, D K; Stone, D B

    1996-02-16

    In order to elucidate the structural changes that occur during the hydrolysis of ATP by myosin, low-angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to investigate the shape of the myosin head (S1) with various bound nucleotides and nucleotide analogs. It was found that the radius of gyration (Rg) of S1.MgADP.AlF4 and of S1MgADP.Vi were similar and significantly smaller (approximately 3%) than the similar Rg values of nucleotide-free S1, S1.MgADP and S1.MgADP.BeFx. In addition, S1 in the presence of MgATP, which is predominantly in the S1.MgADP.Pi state under the experimental conditions employed, showed a change in Rg comparable with that of S1.MgADP.AlF4 and S1.MgADP.Vi. The results obtained here with BeFx and AlF4 are in close harmony with crystallographic results on truncated S1 bearing MgADP.BeFx and MgADP.AlF4. A. Fisher and co-workers have postulated that these two systems, which exhibit some structural differences, represent the pre-hydrolysis state and the transition state of ATP hydrolysis, respectively. It was postulated that this structural difference might alter the orientation of the light-chain-binding domain (tail) of intact S1 relative to the remainder of the molecule. Since this orientation is the major determinant of the Rg of S1, the current data support the hypothesis that a unitary large-scale conformational cocking of S1 for subsequent force production occurs just before or during ATP hydrolysis. Modeling changes in Rg by rigid-body rotations indicates that the longitudinal component of the force-producing throw is likely to be less than 6 nm. PMID:8609603

  16. A Failure to Communicate: MYOSIN RESIDUES INVOLVED IN HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY AFFECT INTER-DOMAIN INTERACTION.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2015-12-01

    Our molecular modeling studies suggest a charge-dependent interaction between residues Glu-497 in the relay domain and Arg-712 in the converter domain of human ?-cardiac myosin. To test the significance of this putative interaction, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing indirect flight muscle myosin with charge reversal mutations in the relay (E496R) or converter (R713E). Each mutation yielded dramatic reductions in myosin Ca-ATPase activity (?80%) as well as in basal (?67%) and actin-activated (?84%) Mg-ATPase activity. E496R myosin-induced in vitro actin-sliding velocity was reduced by 71% and R713E myosin permitted no actin motility. Indirect flight muscles of late pupae from each mutant displayed disrupted myofibril assembly, with adults having severely abnormal myofibrils and no flight ability. To understand the molecular basis of these defects, we constructed a putative compensatory mutant that expresses myosin with both E496R and R713E. Intriguingly, ATPase values were restored to ?73% of wild-type and actin-sliding velocity increased to 40%. The double mutation suppresses myofibril assembly defects in pupal indirect flight muscles and dramatically reduces myofibril disruption in young adults. Although sarcomere organization is not sustained in older flies and flight ability is not restored in homozygotes, young heterozygotes fly well. Our results indicate that this charge-dependent interaction between the myosin relay and converter domains is essential to the mechanochemical cycle and sarcomere assembly. Furthermore, the same inter-domain interaction is disrupted when modeling human ?-cardiac myosin heavy chain cardiomyopathy mutations E497D or R712L, implying that abolishing this salt bridge is one cause of the human disease. PMID:26446785

  17. Velocities of unloaded muscle filaments are not limited by drag forces imposed by myosin cross-bridges

    PubMed Central

    Brizendine, Richard K.; Alcala, Diego B.; Carter, Michael S.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known which kinetic step in the acto-myosin ATPase cycle limits contraction speed in unloaded muscles (V0). Huxley’s 1957 model [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318] predicts that V0 is limited by the rate that myosin detaches from actin. However, this does not explain why, as observed by Bárány [Bárány M (1967) J Gen Physiol 50(6, Suppl):197–218], V0 is linearly correlated with the maximal actin-activated ATPase rate (vmax), which is limited by the rate that myosin attaches strongly to actin. We have observed smooth muscle myosin filaments of different length and head number (N) moving over surface-attached F-actin in vitro. Fitting filament velocities (V) vs. N to a detachment-limited model using the myosin step size d = 8 nm gave an ADP release rate 8.5-fold faster and ton (myosin’s attached time) and r (duty ratio) ?10-fold lower than previously reported. In contrast, these data were accurately fit to an attachment-limited model, V = N·v·d, over the range of N found in all muscle types. At nonphysiologically high N, V = L/ton rather than d/ton, where L is related to the length of myosin’s subfragment 2. The attachment-limited model also fit well to the [ATP] dependence of V for myosin-rod cofilaments at three fixed N. Previously published V0 vs. vmax values for 24 different muscles were accurately fit to the attachment-limited model using widely accepted values for r and N, giving d = 11.1 nm. Therefore, in contrast with Huxley’s model, we conclude that V0 is limited by the actin–myosin attachment rate. PMID:26294254

  18. Myosin heavy chain kinase inactivated by Ca2+/calmodulin from aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Maruta, H; Baltes, W; Dieter, P; Marmé, D; Gerisch, G

    1983-01-01

    Soluble myosin heavy chain kinases (MHC kinases) were partially purified from growth phase and aggregation-competent cells of Dictyostelium discoideum. In the aggregation-competent cells, two MHC kinases were distinguishable. One of these enzymes, called MHC kinase II, was inactivated by Ca2+ and calmodulin in a highly temperature-dependent reaction. A MHC kinase found in growth phase cells did not have these regulatory properties. Substrate specificities were analysed for MHC kinase II and for the MHC kinase from growth phase cells. Both enzymes phosphorylated threonine residues of the myosin heavy chains of D. discoideum and Physarum polycephalum. Phosphopeptide mapping of D. discoideum myosin and determination of the stoichiometry of its phosphorylation suggested the presence of two phosphorylation sites per heavy chain. Both sites were contained within a 38-kd chymotryptic fragment. The inactivation of MHC kinase II by Ca2+ plus calmodulin suggests this enzyme has a role in the regulation of myosin functions during the chemotactic response of a cell. The phosphorylated myosin had about one third the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of the non-phosphorylated myosin. Previous findings indicated that stimulation of D. discoideum cells with the chemo-attractant cAMP increases the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Under these conditions MHC kinase II might be inhibited and the dephosphorylated, more active form of myosin would accumulate. PMID:6313344

  19. Myosin heavy chain kinase inactivated by Ca2+/calmodulin from aggregating cells of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, H; Baltes, W; Dieter, P; Marmé, D; Gerisch, G

    1983-01-01

    Soluble myosin heavy chain kinases (MHC kinases) were partially purified from growth phase and aggregation-competent cells of Dictyostelium discoideum. In the aggregation-competent cells, two MHC kinases were distinguishable. One of these enzymes, called MHC kinase II, was inactivated by Ca2+ and calmodulin in a highly temperature-dependent reaction. A MHC kinase found in growth phase cells did not have these regulatory properties. Substrate specificities were analysed for MHC kinase II and for the MHC kinase from growth phase cells. Both enzymes phosphorylated threonine residues of the myosin heavy chains of D. discoideum and Physarum polycephalum. Phosphopeptide mapping of D. discoideum myosin and determination of the stoichiometry of its phosphorylation suggested the presence of two phosphorylation sites per heavy chain. Both sites were contained within a 38-kd chymotryptic fragment. The inactivation of MHC kinase II by Ca2+ plus calmodulin suggests this enzyme has a role in the regulation of myosin functions during the chemotactic response of a cell. The phosphorylated myosin had about one third the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of the non-phosphorylated myosin. Previous findings indicated that stimulation of D. discoideum cells with the chemo-attractant cAMP increases the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Under these conditions MHC kinase II might be inhibited and the dephosphorylated, more active form of myosin would accumulate. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6313344

  20. Velocities of unloaded muscle filaments are not limited by drag forces imposed by myosin cross-bridges.

    PubMed

    Brizendine, Richard K; Alcala, Diego B; Carter, Michael S; Haldeman, Brian D; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-09-01

    It is not known which kinetic step in the acto-myosin ATPase cycle limits contraction speed in unloaded muscles (V0). Huxley's 1957 model [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318] predicts that V0 is limited by the rate that myosin detaches from actin. However, this does not explain why, as observed by Bárány [Bárány M (1967) J Gen Physiol 50(6, Suppl):197-218], V0 is linearly correlated with the maximal actin-activated ATPase rate (vmax), which is limited by the rate that myosin attaches strongly to actin. We have observed smooth muscle myosin filaments of different length and head number (N) moving over surface-attached F-actin in vitro. Fitting filament velocities (V) vs. N to a detachment-limited model using the myosin step size d=8 nm gave an ADP release rate 8.5-fold faster and ton (myosin's attached time) and r (duty ratio) ?10-fold lower than previously reported. In contrast, these data were accurately fit to an attachment-limited model, V=N·v·d, over the range of N found in all muscle types. At nonphysiologically high N, V=L/ton rather than d/ton, where L is related to the length of myosin's subfragment 2. The attachment-limited model also fit well to the [ATP] dependence of V for myosin-rod cofilaments at three fixed N. Previously published V0 vs. vmax values for 24 different muscles were accurately fit to the attachment-limited model using widely accepted values for r and N, giving d=11.1 nm. Therefore, in contrast with Huxley's model, we conclude that V0 is limited by the actin-myosin attachment rate. PMID:26294254

  1. Kinetic characterization of a monomeric unconventional myosin V construct.

    PubMed

    Trybus, K M; Krementsova, E; Freyzon, Y

    1999-09-24

    An expressed, monomeric murine myosin V construct composed of the motor domain and two calmodulin-binding IQ motifs (MD(2IQ)) was used to assess the regulatory and kinetic properties of this unconventional myosin. In EGTA, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MD(2IQ) was 7.4 +/- 1.6 s(-1) with a K(app) of approximately 1 microM (37 degrees C), and the velocity of actin movement was approximately 0.3 micrometer/s (30 degrees C). Calcium inhibited both of these activities, but the addition of calmodulin restored the values to approximately 70% of control, indicating that calmodulin dissociation caused inhibition. In contrast to myosin II, MD(2IQ) is highly associated with actin at physiological ionic strength in the presence of ATP, but the motor is in a weakly bound conformation based on the pyrene-actin signal. The rate of dissociation of acto-MD(2IQ) by ATP is fast (>850 s(-1)), and ATP hydrolysis occurs at approximately 200 s(-1). The affinity of acto-MD(2IQ) for ADP is somewhat higher than that of smooth S1, and ADP dissociates more slowly. Actin does not cause a large increase in the rate of ADP release, nor does the presence of ADP appreciably alter the affinity of MD(2IQ) for actin. These kinetic data suggest that monomeric myosin V is not processive. PMID:10488077

  2. The Kinetics Underlying the Velocity of Smooth Muscle Myosin Filament Sliding on Actin Filaments in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Brian D.; Brizendine, Richard K.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ?0.63 ?m long and contain ?176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment-limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment-limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation. PMID:24907276

  3. Drosophila melanogaster Myosin-18 Represents a Highly Divergent Motor with Actin Tethering Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Nagy, Attila; Takagi, Yasuharu; Houdusse, Anne; Sellers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding Drosophila myosin-18 is complex and can potentially yield six alternatively spliced mRNAs. One of the major features of this myosin is an N-terminal PDZ domain that is included in some of the predicted alternatively spliced products. To explore the biochemical properties of this protein, we engineered two minimal motor domain (MMD)-like constructs, one that contains the N-terminal PDZ (myosin-18 M-PDZ) domain and one that does not (myosin-18 M-?PDZ). These two constructs were expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 system. The results suggest that Drosophila myosin-18 is highly divergent from most other myosins in the superfamily. Neither of the MMD constructs had an actin-activated MgATPase activity, nor did they even bind ATP. Both myosin-18 M-PDZ and M-?PDZ proteins bound to actin with Kd values of 2.61 and 1.04 ?m, respectively, but only about 50–75% of the protein bound to actin even at high actin concentrations. Unbound proteins from these actin binding assays reiterated the 60% saturation maximum, suggesting an equilibrium between actin-binding and non-actin-binding conformations of Drosophila myosin-18 in vitro. Neither the binding affinity nor the substoichiometric binding was significantly affected by ATP. Optical trapping of single molecules in three-bead assays showed short lived interactions of the myosin-18 motors with actin filaments. Combined, these data suggest that this highly divergent motor may function as an actin tethering protein. PMID:21498886

  4. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Department of Judo Therapy, Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA) of the replaced amino acid molecule. Because 1/K{sub app} reflects the affinity of F-actin for the myosin–ADP-phosphate intermediate (M.ADP.Pi) through the weak binding, these data suggest that the bulkiness or the aromatic nature of the tyrosin-143 is important for the initial binding of the M.ADP.Pi intermediate with F-actin but not for later processes such as the phosphate release.

  5. Kinetic Characterization of Myosin Head Fragments with Long-Lived Myosin,ATP States

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Kinetic Characterization of Myosin Head Fragments with Long-Lived Myosin,ATP States A. L. Friedman to characterize the ATPase cycles of the mutant proteins. While the mutations cause some changes in mantATP [2(3)-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP] and mantADP binding, the most dramatic effect is on the hydrolysis

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  7. Ventricular Myosin Modifies In Vitro Step-Size When Phosphorylated

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle myosins have the central role in contraction transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin has a motor domain containing ATP and actin binding sites and a lever-arm that undergoes rotation impelling bound actin. The lever-arm converts torque generated in the motor into the linear displacement known as step-size. The myosin lever-arm is stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains (ELC and RLC). RLC phosphorylation at S15 is linked to modified lever-arm mechanical characteristics contributing to myosin filament based contraction regulation and to the response of the muscle to disease. Myosin step-size was measured using a novel quantum dot (Qdot) assay that previously confirmed a 5 nm step-size for fast skeletal myosin and multiple unitary steps, most frequently 5 and 8 nm, and a rare 3 nm displacement for ? cardiac myosin (?Mys). S15 phosphorylation in ?Mys is now shown to change step-size distribution by advancing the 8 nm step frequency. After phosphorylation, the 8 nm step is the dominant myosin step-size resulting in significant gain in the average step-size. An increase in myosin step-size will increase the amount of work produced per ATPase cycle. The results indicate that RLC phosphorylation modulates work production per ATPase cycle suggesting the mechanism for contraction regulation by the myosin filament. PMID:24726887

  8. Oridonin suppress cell migration via regulation of nonmuscle myosin IIA.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Chao; Sun, Mo-Ran; Zhao, Yi-Hong; Fu, Xian-Zu; Xu, Hai-Wei; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2014-10-01

    Oridonin, which is isolated from Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, has been implicated in regulation of tumor cell migration and invasion. In this study, treatment with oridonin enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) that regulates the ATPase activity of myosin IIA. Meanwhile, stress fibers were significantly more prominent after oridonin incubation, which impaired cell migration in transwell migration assays. All of these effects may be caused by the decreased interaction between myosin IIA and myosin phosphatase complex, but not kinases. Our data provide clear evidence of this novel pharmacological function for oridonin in treating cancer cell migration. PMID:25297007

  9. Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, G.

    1986-05-01

    Proteolysis of phosphorylated and /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N/sub 2/ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N/sub 2/ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N/sub 2/ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin.

  10. Structural mechanism of the recovery stroke in the Myosin molecular motor

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Stefan; Windshügel, Björn; Horak, Daniel; Holmes, Kenneth C.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2005-01-01

    The power stroke pulling myosin along actin filaments during muscle contraction is achieved by a large rotation (?60°) of the myosin lever arm after ATP hydrolysis. Upon binding the next ATP, myosin dissociates from actin, but its ATPase site is still partially open and catalytically off. Myosin must then close and activate its ATPase site while returning the lever arm for the next power stroke. A mechanism for this coupling between the ATPase site and the distant lever arm is determined here by generating a continuous series of optimized intermediates between the crystallographic end-states of the recovery stroke. This yields a detailed structural model for communication between the catalytic and the force-generating regions that is consistent with experimental observations. The coupling is achieved by an amplifying cascade of conformational changes along the relay helix lying between the ATPase and the domain carrying the lever arm. PMID:15863618

  11. Heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of actomyosin and myosin from yellowcheek carp during setting.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuqin; Liu, Ru; Rong, Jianhua; Xiong, Shanbai

    2014-04-15

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Ca²?-ATPase, changes in turbidity and rheological properties of actomyosin and myosin from yellowcheek carp during setting at different temperatures were investigated. Actomyosin and myosin setting at 40-45 °C exhibited greater extent and more rapid Ca²?-ATPase inactivation compared to at 25-30 °C. Formation of protein aggregates and three-dimensional network structures of actomyosin and myosin at 25-30 °C was far less than those at 40-45 °C. Thermal stability of actomyosin was higher than that of myosin as revealed by its higher activation energy for the inactivation of Ca²?-ATPase. Actomyosin and myosin also exhibited different dynamic rheological properties, especially when the setting temperatures were 40 and 45 °C. PMID:24295702

  12. Muscular tissues of the squid Doryteuthis pealeii express identical myosin heavy chain isoforms: an alternative mechanism for tuning contractile speed

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Justin F.; Kier, William M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The speed of muscle contraction is largely controlled at the sarcomere level by the ATPase activity of the motor protein myosin. Differences in amino acid sequence in catalytically important regions of myosin yield different myosin isoforms with varying ATPase activities and resulting differences in cross-bridge cycling rates and interfilamentary sliding velocities. Modulation of whole-muscle performance by changes in myosin isoform ATPase activity is regarded as a universal mechanism to tune contractile properties, especially in vertebrate muscles. Invertebrates such as squid, however, may exhibit an alternative mechanism to tune contractile properties that is based on differences in muscle ultrastructure, including variable myofilament and sarcomere lengths. To determine definitively whether contractile properties of squid muscles are regulated via different myosin isoforms (i.e. different ATPase activities), the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the myosin heavy chain from the squid Doryteuthis pealeii were determined from the mantle, arm, tentacle, fin and funnel retractor musculature. We identified three myosin heavy chain isoforms in squid muscular tissues, with differences arising at surface loop 1 and the carboxy terminus. All three isoforms were detected in all five tissues studied. These results suggest that the muscular tissues of D. pealeii express identical myosin isoforms, and it is likely that differences in muscle ultrastructure, not myosin ATPase activity, represent the most important mechanism for tuning contractile speeds. PMID:22189767

  13. The Tail of Myosin Reduces Actin Filament Velocity in the In Vitro Motility Assay

    E-print Network

    Guilford, William

    The Tail of Myosin Reduces Actin Filament Velocity in the In Vitro Motility Assay Bin Guo been observed that heavy meromyosin (HMM) propels actin filaments to higher velocities than native filament velocities, becoming equivalent to native myosin at a ratio of 3 LMM/HMM. NH4 -ATPase assays

  14. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  15. Pi Release From Myosin: A Simulation Analysis of Possible Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Marco; Alexeev, Yuri; Karplus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The release of phosphate (Pi) is an important element in actomyosin function and has been shown to be accelerated by the binding of myosin to actin. To provide information about the structural elements important for Pi release, possible escape pathways from various isolated myosin II structures have been determined by molecular dynamics simulations designed for studying such slow processes. The residues forming the pathways were identified and their role evaluated by mutant simulations. Pi release is slow in the pre-powerstroke structure, an important element in preventing the powerstroke prior to actin binding, and is much more rapid for Pi modeled into the post-rigor and rigor-like structures. The backdoor route suggested by Yount et al. is dominant in the pre-powerstroke and post-rigor states, while a different path is most important in the rigor-like state. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the actin-activated acceleration of Pi release. PMID:20399183

  16. Temperature induced denaturation of myosin: evidence of structural alterations of myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2014-10-01

    Denaturation of myofibrillar proteins in porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle was investigated after pre-rigor temperature incubation at 20, 30 and 40°C. At 24h myofibrils were isolated and myosin was further cleaved by chymotrypsin. High temperature pre-rigor induced release of myosin S1 (subfragment-1), less (P < 0.05) Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and structural alterations of the region of the myosin molecule that harbors S1. Surface hydrophobicity of myofibrils from the 40°C group increased (P<0.001), suggesting a temperature-induced structural rearrangement exposing hydrophobic groups on the surface of myofibrils which in turn may explain the reduced water-holding of PSE meat. PMID:24927048

  17. Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step size Ronald S. Rock*, Sarah E. Rice*, Amber L. Wells

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step size Ronald S. Rock*, Sarah E. Rice*, Amber L, is processive, undergoing multiple cata- lytic cycles and mechanical advances before it releases from actin that myosin VI is a high-duty- ratio motor, meaning that it spends much of its ATPase cycle strongly bound

  18. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  19. Direct real-time detection of the structural and biochemical events in the myosin power stroke.

    PubMed

    Muretta, Joseph M; Rohde, John A; Johnsrud, Daniel O; Cornea, Sinziana; Thomas, David D

    2015-11-17

    A principal goal of molecular biophysics is to show how protein structural transitions explain physiology. We have developed a strategic tool, transient time-resolved FRET [(TR)(2)FRET], for this purpose and use it here to measure directly, with millisecond resolution, the structural and biochemical kinetics of muscle myosin and to determine directly how myosin's power stroke is coupled to the thermodynamic drive for force generation, actin-activated phosphate release, and the weak-to-strong actin-binding transition. We find that actin initiates the power stroke before phosphate dissociation and not after, as many models propose. This result supports a model for muscle contraction in which power output and efficiency are tuned by the distribution of myosin structural states. This technology should have wide application to other systems in which questions about the temporal coupling of allosteric structural and biochemical transitions remain unanswered. PMID:26578772

  20. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  1. Hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosins reconstituted with actin, myosin and tropomyosin from skeletal and catch muscles.

    PubMed

    Shelud'ko, Nikolay S; Vyatchin, Ilya G; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Shevchenko, Ulyana V

    2015-08-21

    In this study, we investigated hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosin models including key contractile proteins: actin, myosin, and tropomyosin. These proteins were isolated from the rabbit skeletal muscle and the catch muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Our results confirmed literature data on an unusual ability of bivalve's tropomyosin to inhibit Mg-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle actomyosin. We have shown that the degree of inhibition depends on the environmental conditions and may vary within a wide range. The inhibitory effect of mussel tropomyosin was not detected in non-hybrid model (mussel myosin + mussel actin + mussel tropomyosin). This effect was revealed only in hybrid models containing mussel tropomyosin + rabbit (or mussel) actin + rabbit myosin. We assume that mussel and rabbit myosins have mismatched binding sites for actin. In addition, mussel tropomyosin interacting with actin is able to close the binding sites of rabbit myosin with actin, which leads to inhibition of Mg-ATPase activity. PMID:26166820

  2. Contractility parameters of human ?-cardiac myosin with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation R403Q show loss of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Sommese, Ruth F.; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Combs, Ariana; Langer, Stephen; Sutton, Shirley; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Geeves, Michael A.; Ruppel, Kathleen M.; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding the force-generating machinery of the cardiac sarcomere, including human ?-cardiac myosin. We present a detailed characterization of the most debated HCM-causing mutation in human ?-cardiac myosin, R403Q. Despite numerous studies, most performed with nonhuman or noncardiac myosin, there is no consensus about the mechanism of action of this mutation on the function of the enzyme. We use recombinant human ?-cardiac myosin and new methodologies to characterize in vitro contractility parameters of the R403Q myosin compared to wild type. We extend our studies beyond pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin. We find that, with pure actin, the intrinsic force generated by R403Q is ~15% lower than that generated by wild type. The unloaded velocity is, however, ~10% higher for R403Q myosin, resulting in a load-dependent velocity curve that has the characteristics of lower contractility at higher external loads compared to wild type. With regulated actin filaments, there is no increase in the unloaded velocity and the contractility of the R403Q myosin is lower than that of wild type at all loads. Unlike that with pure actin, the actin-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity for R403Q myosin with Ca2+-regulated actin filaments is ~30% lower than that for wild type, predicting a lower unloaded duty ratio of the motor. Overall, the contractility parameters studied fit with a loss of human ?-cardiac myosin contractility as a result of the R403Q mutation. PMID:26601291

  3. Myosin VI deafness mutation prevents the initiation of processive runs on actin

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Song, Lin; Shima, Ai; Yang, Zhaohui; Houdusse, Anne M.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the reverse-direction myosin, myosin VI, are associated with deafness in humans and mice. A myosin VI deafness mutation, D179Y, which is in the transducer of the motor, uncoupled the release of the ATP hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate (Pi), from dependency on actin binding and destroyed the ability of single dimeric molecules to move processively on actin filaments. We observed that processive movement is rescued if ATP is added to the mutant dimer following binding of both heads to actin in the absence of ATP, demonstrating that the mutation selectively destroys the initiation of processive runs at physiological ATP levels. A drug (omecamtiv) that accelerates the actin-activated activity of cardiac myosin was able to rescue processivity of the D179Y mutant dimers at physiological ATP concentrations by slowing the actin-independent release of Pi. Thus, it may be possible to create myosin VI-specific drugs that rescue the function of deafness-causing mutations. PMID:25751888

  4. Myosin-II Negatively Regulates Minor Process Extension and the Temporal Development of Neuronal Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, K.M.; Hu, J.; Bridgman, P.C.; Huang, Yue-Quiao; Gallo, G.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest stage in the development of neuronal polarity is characterized by extension of undifferentiated “minor processes” (MPs), which subsequently differentiate into the axon and dendrites. We investigated the role of the myosin II motor protein in MP extension using forebrain and hippocampal neuron cultures. Chronic treatment of neurons with the myosin II ATPase inhibitor blebbistatin increased MP length, which was also seen in myosin IIB knockouts. Through live-cell imaging we demonstrate that myosin II inhibition triggers rapid minor process extension to a maximum length range. Myosin II activity is determined by phosphorylation of its regulatory light chains (rMLC), mediated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or RhoA-kinase (ROCK). Pharmacological inhibition of MLCK or ROCK increased MP length moderately, with combined inhibition of these kinases resulting in an additive increase in MP length similar to the effect of direct inhibition of myosin II. Selective inhibition of RhoA signaling upstream of ROCK, with cell-permeable C3 transferase, increased both the length and number of MPs. To determine whether myosin II affected development of neuronal polarity, MP differentiation was examined in cultures treated with direct or indirect myosin II inhibitors. Significantly, inhibition of myosin II, MLCK, or ROCK accelerated the development of neuronal polarity. Increased myosin II activity, through constitutively active MLCK or RhoA, decreased both the length and number of MPs and, consequently, delayed or abolished the development of neuronal polarity. Together, these data indicate that myosin II negatively regulates MP extension, and the developmental time course for axonogenesis. PMID:19224562

  5. Ultraslow Myosin Molecular Motors of Placental Contractile Stem Villi in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lecarpentier, Yves; Claes, Victor; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Guerin, Catherine; Hébert, Jean-Louis; Arsalane, Abdelilah; Moumen, Abdelouahab; Krokidis, Xénophon; Michel, Francine; Timbely, Oumar

    2014-01-01

    Human placental stem villi (PSV) present contractile properties. In vitro mechanics were investigated in 40 human PSV. Contraction of PSV was induced by both KCl exposure (n?=?20) and electrical tetanic stimulation (n?=?20). Isotonic contractions were registered at several load levels ranging from zero-load up to isometric load. The tension-velocity relationship was found to be hyperbolic. This made it possible to apply the A. Huxley formalism for determining the rate constants for myosin cross-bridge (CB) attachment and detachment, CB single force, catalytic constant, myosin content, and maximum myosin ATPase activity. These molecular characteristics of myosin CBs did not differ under either KCl exposure or tetanus. A comparative approach was established from studies previously published in the literature and driven by mean of a similar method. As compared to that described in mammalian striated muscles, we showed that in human PSV, myosin CB rate constants for attachment and detachment were about 103 times lower whereas myosin ATPase activity was 105 times lower. Up to now, CB kinetics of contractile cells arranged along the long axis of the placental sheath appeared to be the slowest ever observed in any mammalian contractile tissue. PMID:25268142

  6. Mechanochemical tuning of myosin-I by the N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael J; Lin, Tianming; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E Michael

    2015-06-30

    Myosins are molecular motors that generate force to power a wide array of motile cellular functions. Myosins have the inherent ability to change their ATPase kinetics and force-generating properties when they encounter mechanical loads; however, little is known about the structural elements in myosin responsible for force sensing. Recent structural and biophysical studies have shown that myosin-I isoforms, Myosin-Ib (Myo1b) and Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), have similar unloaded kinetics and sequences but substantially different responses to forces that resist their working strokes. Myo1b has the properties of a tension-sensing anchor, slowing its actin-detachment kinetics by two orders of magnitude with just 1 pN of resisting force, whereas Myo1c has the properties of a slow transporter, generating power without slowing under 1-pN loads that would stall Myo1b. To examine the structural elements that lead to differences in force sensing, we used single-molecule and ensemble kinetic techniques to show that the myosin-I N-terminal region (NTR) plays a critical role in tuning myosin-I mechanochemistry. We found that replacing the Myo1c NTR with the Myo1b NTR changes the identity of the primary force-sensitive transition of Myo1c, resulting in sensitivity to forces of <2 pN. Additionally, we found that the NTR plays an important role in stabilizing the post-power-stroke conformation. These results identify the NTR as an important structural element in myosin force sensing and suggest a mechanism for generating diversity of function among myosin isoforms. PMID:26056287

  7. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The control systems regulating muscle contraction in approximately 100 organisms have been categorized. Both myosin control and actin control operate simultaneously in the majority of invertebrates tested. These include insects, chelicerates, most crustaceans, annelids, priapulids, nematodes, and some sipunculids. Single myosin control is present in the muscles of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, echiuroids, and nemertine worms. Single actin control was found in the fast muscles of decapods, in mysidacea, in a single sipunculid species, and in vertebrate striated muscles. Classification is based on functional tests that include measurements of the calcium dependence of the actomyosin ATPase activity in the presence and the absence of purified rabbit actin and myosin. In addition, isolated thin filaments and myosins were also analyzed. Molluscs lack actin control since troponin is not present in sufficient quantities. Even though the functional tests indicate the complete lack of myosin control in vertebrate striated muscle, it is difficult to exclude unambiguously the in vivo existence of this regulation. Both control systems have been found in animals from phyla which evolved early. We cannot ascribe any simple correlation between ATPase activity, muscle structure, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:125778

  8. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  9. UCS Protein Rng3p Is Essential for Myosin-II Motor Activity during Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Benjamin C.; James, Michael L.; Pollard, Luther W.; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function) showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead works to ensure the activity of intrinsically unstable myosin-II motors. Rng3p is specific to conventional myosin-II and the actomyosin ring, and is not required for unconventional myosin motor function at other actin structures. However, artificial destabilization of myosin-I motors at endocytic actin patches (using a myo1-E1 mutant) led to recruitment of Rng3p to patches. Thus, while Rng3p is specific to myosin-II, UCS proteins are adaptable and can respond to changes in the stability of other myosin motors. PMID:24244528

  10. A subdomain interaction at the base of the lever allosterically tunes the mechanochemical mechanism of myosin 5a.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nikolett T; Chakraborty, Saikat; Harami, Gábor M; Sellers, James R; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kovács, Mihály

    2013-01-01

    The motor domain of myosin is the core element performing mechanochemical energy transduction. This domain contains the actin and ATP binding sites and the base of the force-transducing lever. Coordinated subdomain movements within the motor are essential in linking the ATPase chemical cycle to translocation along actin filaments. A dynamic subdomain interface located at the base of the lever was previously shown to exert an allosteric influence on ATP hydrolysis in the non-processive myosin 2 motor. By solution kinetic, spectroscopic and ensemble and single-molecule motility experiments, we determined the role of a class-specific adaptation of this interface in the mechanochemical mechanism of myosin 5a, a processive intracellular transporter. We found that the introduction of a myosin 2-specific repulsive interaction into myosin 5a via the I67K mutation perturbs the strong-binding interaction of myosin 5a with actin, influences the mechanism of ATP binding and facilitates ATP hydrolysis. At the same time, the mutation abolishes the actin-induced activation of ADP release and, in turn, slows down processive motility, especially when myosin experiences mechanical drag exerted by the action of multiple motor molecules bound to the same actin filament. The results highlight that subtle structural adaptations of the common structural scaffold of the myosin motor enable specific allosteric tuning of motor activity shaped by widely differing physiological demands. PMID:23650521

  11. A Subdomain Interaction at the Base of the Lever Allosterically Tunes the Mechanochemical Mechanism of Myosin 5a

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Nikolett T.; Chakraborty, Saikat; Harami, Gábor M.; Sellers, James R.; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kovács, Mihály

    2013-01-01

    The motor domain of myosin is the core element performing mechanochemical energy transduction. This domain contains the actin and ATP binding sites and the base of the force-transducing lever. Coordinated subdomain movements within the motor are essential in linking the ATPase chemical cycle to translocation along actin filaments. A dynamic subdomain interface located at the base of the lever was previously shown to exert an allosteric influence on ATP hydrolysis in the non-processive myosin 2 motor. By solution kinetic, spectroscopic and ensemble and single-molecule motility experiments, we determined the role of a class-specific adaptation of this interface in the mechanochemical mechanism of myosin 5a, a processive intracellular transporter. We found that the introduction of a myosin 2-specific repulsive interaction into myosin 5a via the I67K mutation perturbs the strong-binding interaction of myosin 5a with actin, influences the mechanism of ATP binding and facilitates ATP hydrolysis. At the same time, the mutation abolishes the actin-induced activation of ADP release and, in turn, slows down processive motility, especially when myosin experiences mechanical drag exerted by the action of multiple motor molecules bound to the same actin filament. The results highlight that subtle structural adaptations of the common structural scaffold of the myosin motor enable specific allosteric tuning of motor activity shaped by widely differing physiological demands. PMID:23650521

  12. The post-rigor structure of myosin VI and implications for the recovery stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ménétrey, Julie; Llinas, Paola; Cicolari, Jérome; Squires, Gaëlle; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Anna; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Myosin VI has an unexpectedly large swing of its lever arm (powerstroke) that optimizes its unique reverse direction movement. The basis for this is an unprecedented rearrangement of the subdomain to which the lever arm is attached, referred to as the converter. It is unclear at what point(s) in the myosin VI ATPase cycle rearrangements in the converter occur, and how this would effect lever arm position. We solved the structure of myosin VI with an ATP analogue (ADP.BeF3) bound in its nucleotide-binding pocket. The structure reveals that no rearrangement in the converter occur upon ATP binding. Based on previously solved myosin structures, our structure suggests that no reversal of the powerstroke occurs during detachment of myosin VI from actin. The structure also reveals novel features of the myosin VI motor that may be important in maintaining the converter conformation during detachment from actin, and other features that may promote rapid rearrangements in the structure following actin detachment that enable hydrolysis of ATP. PMID:18046460

  13. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K; Carter, Michael S; Alcala, Diego B; Brown, Avery E; Chattin, Amy M; Haldeman, Brian D; Walsh, Michael P; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. PMID:26415568

  14. A comparison of rat myosin from fast and slow skeletal muscle and the effect of disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unsworth, B. R.; Witzmann, F. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Certain enzymatic and structural features of myosin, purified from rat skeletal muscles representative of the fast twitch glycolytic (type IIb), the fast twitch oxidative (type IIa), and the slow twitch oxidative (type I) fiber, were determined and the results were compared with the measured contractile properties. Good correlation was found between the shortening velocities and Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity for each fiber type. Short term hind limb immobilization caused prolongation of contraction time and one-half relaxation time in the fast twitch muscles and a reduction of these contractile properties in slow twitch soleus. Furthermore, the increased maximum shortening velocity in the immobilized soleus could be correlated with increased Ca(2+)-ATPase, but no change was observed in the enzymatic activity of the fast twitch muscles. No alteration in light chain distribution with disuse was observed in any of the fiber types. The myosin from slow twitch soleus could be distinguished from fast twitch myosins on the basis of the pattern of peptides generated by proteolysis of the heavy chains. Six weeks of hind limb immobilization resulted in both an increased ATPase activity and an altered heavy chain primary structure in the slow twitch soleus muscle.

  15. Mapping Interactions between Myosin Relay and Converter Domains That Power Muscle Function*

    PubMed Central

    Kronert, William A.; Melkani, Girish C.; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2014-01-01

    Intramolecular communication within myosin is essential for its function as motor, but the specific amino acid residue interactions required are unexplored within muscle cells. Using Drosophila melanogaster skeletal muscle myosin, we performed a novel in vivo molecular suppression analysis to define the importance of three relay loop amino acid residues (Ile508, Asn509, and Asp511) in communicating with converter domain residue Arg759. We found that the N509K relay mutation suppressed defects in myosin ATPase, in vitro motility, myofibril stability, and muscle function associated with the R759E converter mutation. Through molecular modeling, we define a mechanism for this interaction and suggest why the I508K and D511K relay mutations fail to suppress R759E. Interestingly, I508K disabled motor function and myofibril assembly, suggesting that productive relay-converter interaction is essential for both processes. We conclude that the putative relay-converter interaction mediated by myosin residues 509 and 759 is critical for the biochemical and biophysical function of skeletal muscle myosin and the normal ultrastructural and mechanical properties of muscle. PMID:24627474

  16. K-252a, a novel microbial product, inhibits smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, S.; Yamada, K.; Kase, H.; Nakamura, S.; Nonomura, Y.

    1988-05-05

    Effects of K-252a, purified from the culture broth of Nocardiopsis sp., on the activity of myosin (light chain kinase were investigated. 1) K-252a affected three characteristic properties of chicken gizzard myosin-B, natural actomyosin, to a similar degree: the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent activity of ATPase, superprecipitation, and the phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. 2) K-252a inhibited the activities of the purified myosin light chain kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent form of the enzyme which was constructed by cross-linking of myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin using glutaraldehyde. The degrees of inhibition by 3 x 10/sup -6/ M K-252a were 69 and 48% of the control activities with the purified enzyme and the cross-linked complex, respectively. Chlorpromazine (3 x 10/sup -4/ M), a calmodulin antagonist, inhibited the native enzyme, but not the cross-linked one. These results suggested that K-252a inhibited myosin light chain kinase by direct interaction with the enzyme, whereas chlorpromazine suppressed the enzyme activation by interacting with calmodulin. 3) The inhibition by K-252a of the cross-linked kinase was affected by the concentration of ATP, a phosphate donor. The concentration causing 50% inhibition was two orders magnitude lowere in the presence of 100 ..mu..M ATP than in the presence of 2 mM ATP. 4) Kinetic analyses using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP indicated that the inhibitory mode of K-252a was competitive with respect to ATP. These results suggest that K-252a interacts at the ATP-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase.

  17. Role of the essential light chain in the activation of smooth muscle myosin by regulatory light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kenneth A; Feig, Michael; Brooks, Charles L; Fagnant, Patricia M; Lowey, Susan; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2014-03-01

    The activity of smooth and non-muscle myosin II is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) at serine 19. The dephosphorylated state of full-length monomeric myosin is characterized by an asymmetric intramolecular head-head interaction that completely inhibits the ATPase activity, accompanied by a hairpin fold of the tail, which prevents filament assembly. Phosphorylation of serine 19 disrupts these head-head interactions by an unknown mechanism. Computational modeling (Tama et al., 2005. J. Mol. Biol. 345, 837-854) suggested that formation of the inhibited state is characterized by both torsional and bending motions about the myosin heavy chain (HC) at a location between the RLC and the essential light chain (ELC). Therefore, altering relative motions between the ELC and the RLC at this locus might disrupt the inhibited state. Based on this hypothesis we have derived an atomic model for the phosphorylated state of the smooth muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This model predicts a set of specific interactions between the N-terminal residues of the RLC with both the myosin HC and the ELC. Site directed mutagenesis was used to show that interactions between the phosphorylated N-terminus of the RLC and helix-A of the ELC are required for phosphorylation to activate smooth muscle myosin. PMID:24361582

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the major component of the thick filament in muscle cell structures called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres, which are made up ... cardiac ; cell ; contraction ; gait ; gene ; inclusion body ; inherited ; muscle cell ; mutation ; myosin ; myosin heavy chain ; prevalence ; protein ; skeletal ...

  19. Direct measurements of the coordination of lever arm swing and the catalytic cycle in myosin V.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; Muretta, Joseph M; Swenson, Anja M; Davis, Jonathon P; Thomas, David D; Yengo, Christopher M

    2015-11-24

    Myosins use a conserved structural mechanism to convert the energy from ATP hydrolysis into a large swing of the force-generating lever arm. The precise timing of the lever arm movement with respect to the steps in the actomyosin ATPase cycle has not been determined. We have developed a FRET system in myosin V that uses three donor-acceptor pairs to examine the kinetics of lever arm swing during the recovery and power stroke phases of the ATPase cycle. During the recovery stroke the lever arm swing is tightly coupled to priming the active site for ATP hydrolysis. The lever arm swing during the power stroke occurs in two steps, a fast step that occurs before phosphate release and a slow step that occurs before ADP release. Time-resolved FRET demonstrates a 20-Å change in distance between the pre- and postpower stroke states and shows that the lever arm is more dynamic in the postpower stroke state. Our results suggest myosin binding to actin in the ADP.Pi complex triggers a rapid power stroke that gates the release of phosphate, whereas a second slower power stroke may be important for mediating strain sensitivity. PMID:26553992

  20. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  1. Inhibitory Regulation of Higher-Plant Myosin by Ca2+ Ions1

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Muto, Shoshi; Shimmen, Teruo

    1999-01-01

    Myosin isolated from the pollen tubes of lily (Lilium longiflorum) is composed of a 170-kD heavy chain (E. Yokota and T. Shimmen [1994] Protoplasma 177: 153–162). Both the motile activity in vitro and the F-actin-stimulated ATPase activity of this myosin were inhibited by Ca2+ at concentrations higher than 10?6 m. In the Ca2+ range between 10?6 and 10?5 m, inhibition of the motile activity was reversible. In contrast, inhibition by more than 10?5 m Ca2+ was not reversible upon Ca2+ removal. An 18-kD polypeptide that showed the same mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as that of spinach calmodulin (CaM) was present in this myosin fraction. This polypeptide showed a mobility shift in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, this polypeptide was recognized by antiserum against spinach CaM. By immunoprecipitation using antiserum against the 170-kD heavy chain, the 18-kD polypeptide was coprecipitated with the 170-kD heavy chain, provided that the Ca2+ concentration was low, indicating that this 18-kD polypeptide is bound to the 170-kD myosin heavy chain. However, the 18-kD polypeptide was dissociated from the 170-kD heavy chain at high Ca2+ concentrations, which irreversibly inhibited the motile activity of this myosin. From these results, it is suggested that the 18-kD polypeptide, which is likely to be CaM, is associated with the 170-kD heavy chain as a light chain. It is also suggested that this polypeptide is involved in the regulation of this myosin by Ca2+. This is the first biochemical basis, to our knowledge, for Ca2+ regulation of cytoplasmic streaming in higher plants. PMID:9880365

  2. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very different from strong binding attachments.

  3. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M.; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  4. Small-molecule inhibitors of myosin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M; Tumbarello, David A; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2014-01-01

    Advances in screening and computational methods have enhanced recent efforts to discover/design small-molecule protein inhibitors. One attractive target for inhibition is the myosin family of motor proteins. Myosins function in a wide variety of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility, and are implicated in several human diseases (e.g., cancer, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness and many neurological disorders). Potent and selective myosin inhibitors are, therefore, not only a tool for understanding myosin function, but are also a resource for developing treatments for diseases involving myosin dysfunction or overactivity. This review will provide a brief overview of the characteristics and scientific/therapeutic applications of the presently identified small-molecule myosin inhibitors before discussing the future of myosin inhibitor and activator design. PMID:23256812

  5. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by {approx}60 degrees. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin's ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a see-saw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston/seesaw motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery stroke by using Principal Component Analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions.

  6. Antimony-Phosphomolybdate ATPase Assay.

    PubMed

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolytic activity is an important functional parameter of enzymes like adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases). It is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. Here, we describe a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate and may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes as well as in high-throughput drug screening. This method has been successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases. PMID:26695027

  7. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3?nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5?nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4?nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed. PMID:26498981

  8. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3?nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5?nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4?nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed. PMID:26498981

  9. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  10. F1-ATPase from different submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Bruni, A; Pitotti, A; Palatini, P; Dabbeni-Sala, F; Bigon, E

    1979-03-15

    1. F1-ATPase has been extracted by the diphosphatidylglycerol procedure from mitochondrial ATPase complexes that differ in ATPase activity, cold stability, ATPase inhibitor and magnesium content. 2. The ATPase activity of the isolated enzymes was dependent upon the activity of the original particles. In this respect, F1-ATPase extracted from submitochondrial particles prepared in ammonia (pH 9.2) and filtered through Sephadex G-50 was comparable to the enzyme purified by conventional procedures (Horstman, L.L. and Racker, E. (1970) J. Biol. Chem. 245, 1336--1344), whereas F1-ATPase extracted from submitochondrial particles prepared in the presence of magnesium and ATP at neutral pH was similar to factor A (Andreoli, T.E., Lam, K.W. and Sanadi, D.R. (1965) J. Biol. Chem. 240, 2644--2653). 3. No systematic relationship has been found in these F1-ATPase preparations between their ATPase inhibitor content and ATPase activity. Rather, a relationship has been observed between this activity and the efficiency of the ATPase inhibitor-F1-ATPase association within the membrane. 4. It is concluded that the ATPase activity of isolated F1-ATPase reflects the properties of original ATPase complex provided a rapid and not denaturing procedure of isolation is employed. PMID:154927

  11. Dynamics of myosin replacement in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Koichi; Ichimura, Emi; Yasukawa, Yuya; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-11-15

    Highly organized thick filaments in skeletal muscle cells are formed from ?300 myosin molecules. Each thick-filament-associated myosin molecule is thought to be constantly exchanged. However, the mechanism of myosin replacement remains unclear, as does the source of myosin for substitution. Here, we investigated the dynamics of myosin exchange in the myofibrils of cultured myotubes by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching and found that myofibrillar myosin is actively replaced with an exchange half-life of ?3 h. Myosin replacement was not disrupted by the absence of the microtubule system or by actomyosin interactions, suggesting that known cytoskeletal systems are dispensable for myosin substitution. Intriguingly, myosin replacement was independent of myosin binding protein C, which links myosin molecules together to form thick filaments. This implies that an individual myosin molecule rather than a thick filament functions as an exchange unit. Furthermore, the myosin substitution rate was decreased by the inhibition of protein synthesis, suggesting that newly synthesized myosin, as well as preexisting cytosolic myosin, contributes to myosin replacement in myofibrils. Notably, incorporation and release of myosin occurred simultaneously in myofibrils, but rapid myosin release from myofibrils was observed without protein synthesis. Collectively, our results indicate that myosin shuttles between myofibrils and the nonmyofibrillar cytosol to maintain a dynamic equilibrium in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:26377314

  12. Oxidation-initiated myosin subfragment cross-linking and structural instability differences between white and red muscle fiber types.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changqi; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-02-01

    Both white and red muscles are commonly used in meat processing, and protein cross-linking, which may be affected by oxidants, is a key factor affecting the product quality. In this study, myofibrillar proteins (MPs) extracted from postrigor chicken Pectoralis major (PM, predominantly white) and Gastrocnemius (GN, predominantly red) muscles were subjected to a •OH-oxidizing system (10 ?M FeCl3 , 0.1 mM ascorbic acid, with 0, 5, 10, or 20 mM H2 O2 ) at pH 6.2, 4 °C for 18 h. The solubility of nonoxidized (control) PM MPs (63%) was higher than that of control GN MPs (41%). After oxidation with •OH generated at 5 mM H2 O2 , protein solubility decreased by 46% and 21% for PM and GN, respectively, due to aggregation. Chemical and electrophoretic analyses indicated H2 O2 -dose-dependent losses of sulfhydryls and the concomitant formation of disulfides which were more pronounced in PM protein samples. Oxidation favored cross-linking of myosin rod or tail in PM MPs compared to an equal susceptibility of myosin subfragment-1 (s-1) and rod to •OH in GN MPs. Both Ca- and K-ATPase activities in GN myosin were more sensitive to •OH than their PM counterparts, indicating a less stable s-1 region of GN myosin to oxidation. The uncoiling of rods from PM myosin was more rapid than that in GN myosin during heating. Oxidation induced cross-linking via disulfide bonds hindered the unfolding of rod, particularly in PM myosin. These data revealed the molecular events that underscore the necessity of meat processing and formulation control based on muscle fiber types. PMID:25604073

  13. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  14. Rotational dynamics of actin-bound myosin heads in active myofibrils.

    PubMed

    Berger, C L; Thomas, D D

    1993-04-13

    We have used saturation-transfer electron paramagnetic resonance (ST-EPR) to measure the submillisecond rotational motions of actin-bound myosin heads in active myofibrils. The cross-bridges were spin-labeled with a maleimide nitroxide derivative (MSL) that has previously been shown to undergo microsecond rotational motions on actin-bound myosin heads in solution during steady-state ATPase activity at low ionic strength [Berger, C. L., Svensson, E. C., & Thomas, D. D. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 8573]. To determine whether this is also true for cross-bridges in the myofibrillar lattice under physiological buffer conditions, we have performed ST-EPR experiments during the brief steady state following photolysis of caged ATP in a suspension of spin-labeled myofibrils. The myofibrils were partially cross-linked with EDC [1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide] to prevent their shortening upon activation. The fraction of actin-attached myosin heads was determined biochemically at physiological ionic strength in the active myofibrils, using the proteolytic rates acto-myosin binding assay [Duong, A. M., & Reisler, E. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 3502]. These data were then used to correct the ST-EPR spectra of active myofibrils for the presence of unattached myosin heads, which were assumed to undergo the same motions as in relaxation. At physiological ionic strength (mu = 165 mM), actin-bound myosin heads were found to have considerable microsecond rotational motion (tau r = 3.5 +/- 1.1 microseconds) in the active myofibrils. Similar results (tau r = 3.2 +/- 0.8 microseconds) were obtained with active myofibrils at low ionic strength (mu = 45 mM), confirming the work done in solution. Thus, under physiological conditions and even within the constraints of the myofibrillar lattice, actively cycling actin-attached myosin heads are rotationally mobile on the microsecond time scale. Since partially EDC-fixed myofibrils are an excellent analog of isometrically contracting muscle fibers in solution, it is likely that these microsecond rotational motions are directly related to the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction in vivo. PMID:8385491

  15. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  17. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  18. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  19. Gly126Arg substitution causes anomalous behaviour of ?-skeletal and ?-smooth tropomyosins during the ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Rysev, Nikita A; Nevzorov, Ilya A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Redwood, Charles S; Levitsky, Dmitrii I; Borovikov, Yurii S

    2014-02-01

    To investigate how TM stabilization induced by the Gly126Arg mutation in skeletal ?-TM or in smooth muscle ?-TM affects the flexibility of TMs and their position on troponin-free thin filaments, we labelled the recombinant wild type and mutant TMs with 5-IAF and F-actin with FITC-phalloidin, incorporated them into ghost muscle fibres and studied polarized fluorescence at different stages of the ATPase cycle. It has been shown that in the myosin- and troponin-free filaments the Gly126Arg mutation causes a shift of TM strands towards the outer domain of actin, reduces the number of switched on actin monomers and decreases the rigidity of the C-terminus of ?-TM and increases the rigidity of the N-terminus of ?-TMs. The binding of myosin subfragment-1 to the filaments shifted the wild type TMs towards the inner domain of actin, decreased the flexibility of both terminal parts of TMs, and increased the number of switched on actin monomers. Multistep alterations in the position of ?- and ?-TMs and actin monomers in the filaments and in the flexibility of TMs and F-actin during the ATPase cycle were observed. The Gly126Arg mutation uncouples a correlation between the position of TM and the number of the switched on actin monomers in the filaments. PMID:24374033

  20. Relationship of the Membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to Vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Bowman, Emma J.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan in- hibited the hatobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide- protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggested that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuotar and the F-type ATPases.

  1. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-03-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by 60{sup o}. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a seesaw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston-like motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery-stroke by using principal component analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large-amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the seesaw motion of the relay helix dominates in the dynamics of the pre-recovery stroke structure, but not in the dynamics of the post-recovery stroke structure, and vice versa for the piston motion of the SH1 helix. This is consistent with the order of the proposed two-phase model for the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke. Molecular movies of these principal motions are available at http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/biocomp/fischer.

  2. Progress in Cardiology myosin binding protein C (cMBPC),6 ventricular myosin

    E-print Network

    Lee, Won-Ha

    Progress in Cardiology myosin binding protein C (cMBPC),6 ventricular myosin essential light chain actin, -tropomyosin,4 cardiac troponin T (cTnT),4 cardiac troponin I,5 cardiac From the aCardiology, Kurume, and the dDepartment of Cardiology, Research Institute of Environmen- tal Medicine, Nagoya

  3. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  4. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac ?-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an ?-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac ?-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  5. Biological motors: Conventional and Unconventional Myosins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Yale E.

    2006-03-01

    Molecular motors are smart, soft machines that regulate their dynamics and energy consumption for efficient tuning to their cell-biological role and mechanics of their cargo. The efficiency is derived partly from harnessing the chaotic thermal fluctuations nano-scale machines experience, rather than struggle against them. Reciprocal coupling between the enzymatic chemistry, structural changes, and mechanical steps is expected from the thermodynamics of an energy-transducing nano-machine. Strong evidence for this bidirectional coupling exists for muscle (conventional) myosin and unconventional myosins. The structural dynamics of myosin leading to translocation along actin are detectable by Optical Trap Mechanical Nanometry (OTNM), Single-Molecule Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy (SMFPM), Fluorescence Imaging at One Nanometer Accuracy (FIONA) and various combinations of these methods. We are in an Acronym Rich Environment (ARE). Progress and puzzles make this a lively research area.

  6. Purification of native myosin filaments from muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, C; Padrón, R; Horowitz, R; Zhao, F Q; Craig, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the structure and function of native thick (myosin-containing) filaments of muscle has been hampered in the past by the difficulty of obtaining a pure preparation. We have developed a simple method for purifying native myosin filaments from muscle filament suspensions. The method involves severing thin (actin-containing) filaments into short segments using a Ca(2+)-insensitive fragment of gelsolin, followed by differential centrifugation to purify the thick filaments. By gel electrophoresis, the purified thick filaments show myosin heavy and light chains together with nonmyosin thick filament components. Contamination with actin is below 3.5%. Electron microscopy demonstrates intact thick filaments, with helical cross-bridge order preserved, and essentially complete removal of thin filaments. The method has been developed for striated muscles but can also be used in a modified form to remove contaminating thin filaments from native smooth muscle myofibrils. Such preparations should be useful for thick filament structural and biochemical studies. PMID:11606293

  7. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.

  8. The Functions of Myosin II and Myosin V Homologs in Tip Growth and Septation in Aspergillus nidulans

    E-print Network

    Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Xiong, Yi; Oakley, Berl R.

    2012-02-16

    of Aspergillus nidulans and found that there are two previously unstudied myosin genes, a myosin II homolog, myoB (product = MyoB) and a myosin V homolog, myoE (product = MyoE). Deletions of either cause significant growth defects. MyoB localizes in strings...

  9. Perturbations of functional interactions with myosin induce long-range allosteric and cooperative structural changes in actin.

    PubMed

    Prochniewicz, E; Thomas, D D

    1997-10-21

    The role of the rotational dynamics of actin filaments in their interaction with myosin was studied by comparing the effect of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) with two other structural perturbations, which have substantial inhibitory effects on activation of myosin ATPase and in vitro motility of F-actin: (1) binding of the antibody fragment Fab(1-7) against the first seven N-terminal residues and (2) copolymerization with monomers treated with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC), referred to as EDC-actin. The rotational motion of actin was measured by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) of erythrosin iodoacetamide (ErIA) attached to Cys 374 on actin. The binding of S1 in a rigor complex (no nucleotide) induced intramonomer (allosteric) and intermonomer (cooperative) structural changes that increased the residual anisotropy of labeled F-actin, indicating a conformational change in the region of the C terminus. Similar allosteric and cooperative changes were induced by binding of Fab(1-7) and by copolymerization of the ErIA-labeled actin monomers with EDC-actin. This suggests that the functional perturbations transform actin to a form resembling the rigor actomyosin complex. The correlation of the perturbation-induced changes in TPA of actin with the functional effects suggests that the actomyosin interaction can be inhibited by stabilization of actin in one of its structural intermediates. PMID:9335542

  10. Indirect myosin immunocytochemistry for the identification of fibre types in equine skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rose, R. J.; Pozgaj, I.; Hoh, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The histochemical ATPase method for muscle fibre typing was first described by Brooke and Kaiser in 1970. However, problems have been found with the subdivision of type II fibres using this technique. To determine whether indirect myosin immunocytochemistry using anti-slow (5-4D), anti-fast (1A10) and anti-fast red (5-2B) monoclonal antibodies with cross reactivity for type I, II and IIa fibres, respectively, in a number of species, could identify three fibre types in equine skeletal muscle, data on fibre type composition and fibre size obtained using the two different techniques were compared. Results indicate that different myosin heavy chains can coexist in single equine muscle fibres. Type I and type II fibres were identified by immunocytochemistry, but subdivision of type II fibres was not possible. Although the percentage of type I and type II fibres was not significantly different for the two techniques, a few fibres reacted with both the 1A10 and 5-4D antibodies.

  11. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  12. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  13. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times within bilaterian evolution. PMID:24498429

  14. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic ?-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11?mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:26471000

  15. Mechanical output of myosin II motors is regulated by myosin filament size and actin network mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Munro, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of bipolar myosin II filaments with actin arrays are a predominate means of generating forces in numerous physiological processes including muscle contraction and cell migration. However, how the spatiotemporal regulation of these forces depends on motor mechanochemistry, bipolar filament size, and local actin mechanics is unknown. Here, we simulate myosin II motors with an agent-based model in which the motors have been benchmarked against experimental measurements. Force generation occurs in two distinct regimes characterized either by stable tension maintenance or by stochastic buildup and release; transitions between these regimes occur by changes to duty ratio and myosin filament size. The time required for building force to stall scales inversely with the stiffness of a network and the actin gliding speed of a motor. Finally, myosin motors are predicted to contract a network toward stiffer regions, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our representation of myosin motors can be used to understand how their mechanical and biochemical properties influence their observed behavior in a variety of in vitro and in vivo contexts.

  16. Localization of Unconventional Myosins V and VI in Neuronal Growth Cones

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chi-Hung

    and subcellular localization of chicken brain myosin V and myosin VI is examined. Both myosins are expressed in mediating actin- based contractile phenomena in muscle and non- muscle cells, a wide range of functions have

  17. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration. PMID:20409454

  18. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  19. Denaturation and aggregation of myosin from two bovine muscle types.

    PubMed

    Vega-Warner, V; Smith, D M

    2001-02-01

    The thermal behaviors of myosin from bovine vastus intermedius (VI, predominantly red muscle) and semimembranosus (SM, predominantly white muscle) at pH 6.05 (ultimate pH of VI muscle) and 5.50 (ultimate pH of SM muscle) were compared. Differential scanning microcalorimetry and turbidity measurements were used to monitor changes in myosin during heating from 25 to 80 degrees C at 1 degrees C/min. VI and SM myosin heavy chain isoforms were identified on gradient SDS-PAGE. Endotherms of VI myosin at pH 6.05 had three transition temperatures (T(m)) of 45, 53, and 57 degrees C, whereas at pH 5.50 two transitions were observed at 42 and 59 degrees C. SM myosin had two T(m) values of 46 and 58 degrees C at pH 6.05 and T(m) values of 43 and 62 degrees C at pH 5.5. SM myosin at its ultimate pH was less heat stable than VI myosin at its ultimate pH; however, when SM and VI myosin were compared at the same pH, VI myosin was less stable. PMID:11262048

  20. Location of the head-tail junction of myosin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The tails of double-headed myosin molecules consist of an alpha- helical/coiled-coil structure composed of two identical polypeptides with a heptad repeat of hydrophobic amino acids that starts immediately after a conserved proline near position 847. Both muscle and nonmuscle myosins have this heptad repeat and it has been assumed that proline 847 is physically located at the head-tail junction. We present two lines of evidence that this assumption is incorrect. First, we localized the binding sites of several monoclonal antibodies on Acanthamoeba myosin-II both physically, by electron microscopy, and chemically, with a series of truncated myosin-II peptides produced in bacteria. These data indicate that the head-tail junction is located near residue 900. Second, we compared the lengths of two truncated recombinant myosin-II tails with native myosin-II. The distances from the NH2 termini to the tips of these short tails confirms the rise per residue (0.148 nm/residue) and establishes that the 86-nm tail of myosin-II must start near residue 900. We propose that the first 53 residues of heptad repeat of Acanthamoeba myosin-II and other myosins are located in the heads and the proteolytic separation of S-1 from rod occurs within the heads. PMID:2715178

  1. Myosin-X induces filopodia by multiple elongation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Tokuo, Hiroshi; Gonda, Kohsuke; Higuchi, Hideo; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2010-06-18

    Filopodia are actin-rich finger-like cytoplasmic projections extending from the leading edge of cells. Unconventional myosin-X is involved in the protrusion of filopodia. However, the underlying mechanism of myosin-X-induced filopodia formation is obscure. Here, we studied the movements of myosin-X during filopodia protrusion using a total internal reflection microscope to clarify the mechanism of myosin-X-induced filopodia formation. Myosin-X was recruited to the discrete site at the leading edge where it assembles with exponential kinetics before the filopodia extension. The myosin-X-induced filopodia showed repeated extension-retraction cycles with each extension of 2.4 microm, which was critical to produce long filopodia. Myosin-X, lacking the FERM domain, could move to the tip as does the wild type. However, it was transported toward the cell body during filopodia retraction, did not undergo multiple extension-retraction cycles, and failed to produce long filopodia. During the filopodia protrusion, the single molecules of full-length myosin-X moved within filopodia. The majority of the fluorescence spots showed two-step photobleaching, suggesting that the moving myosin-X is a dimer. Deletion of the FERM domain did not change the movement at the single molecule level with the same velocity of approximately 600 nm/s as wild-type, suggesting that the myosin-X in filopodia moves without interaction with the attached membrane via the FERM domain. Based upon these results, we have proposed a model of myosin-X-induced filopodia protrusion. PMID:20392702

  2. Biosynthesis of the tonoplast H sup + -ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.K. ); Sze, H. )

    1989-04-01

    To determine whether the tonoplast H{sup +}-ATPase was differentially synthesized in oat seedlings, sections were labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and ATPase subunits were immunoprecipitated. Subunits were detected in all portions of the seedling with the exception of the seed. The intracellular site of synthesis for two peripheral ATPase subunits was investigated. RNA encoding the 72 kDa (catalytic) subunit was found in membrane-bound polysomes. In contrast, message for the 60 kDa subunit was found on free polysomes. Polypeptides synthesized in vivo or obtained from RNA translated in vitro exhibited no apparent size differences, suggesting the absence of cleaved precursors for the 72 or 60 kDa subunits.

  3. ATPase Activity Measurements Using Radiolabeled ATP.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Herman G P; Koenderink, Jan B

    2016-01-01

    ATP provides the energy that is essential for all P-type ATPases to actively transport their substrates against an existing gradient. This ATP hydrolysis can be measured using different methods. Here, we describe a method that uses radiolabeled [?-(32)P]ATP, which is hydrolyzed by P-type ATPases to ADP and (32)Pi. Activated charcoal is used to bind the excess of [?-(32)P]ATP, which can be separated from the unbound (32)Pi by centrifugation. With this method, a wide range (0.1 ?M-10 mM) of ATP can be used. In addition, we also describe in detail how ATP hydrolysis is translated into ATPase activity. PMID:26695028

  4. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Day, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. RESULTS: Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.

  5. Temporal changes in intestinal Na+ -ATPase activity and in vitro

    E-print Network

    Young, Graham

    Temporal changes in intestinal Na+ , K+ -ATPase activity and in vitro responsiveness to cortisol+ , K+ -ATPase activity were measured in pyloric ceca and posterior intestine of juvenile chinook salmon pronounced increases in endogenous Na+ , K+ -ATPase activity in summer for both intestinal regions

  6. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical treatments. Digitalization has been shown to affect both parameters. Furthermore, in experimental animals, potassium loading and depletion are found to significantly affect Ke handling. The effects of potassium depletion are of special interest because this condition often occurs in patients treated with diuretics. In human congenital long QT syndrome caused by mutations in genes coding for potassium channels, exercise and potassium depletion are well known for their potential to elicit arrhythmias and sudden death. There is a need for further evaluation of the dynamic aspects of potassium handling in the heart, as well as in the periphery. It is recommended that resting plasma potassium be maintained at around 4 mmol/L. PMID:19641704

  7. Myosin filament 3D structure in mammalian cardiac muscle?

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Morris, Edward P.; Kensler, Robert W.; Squire, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of cardiac myopathies (e.g. familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy) are linked to mutations in cardiac muscle myosin filament proteins, including myosin and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). To understand the myopathies it is necessary to know the normal 3D structure of these filaments. We have carried out 3D single particle analysis of electron micrograph images of negatively stained isolated myosin filaments from rabbit cardiac muscle. Single filament images were aligned and divided into segments about 2 × 430 Å long, each of which was treated as an independent ‘particle’. The resulting 40 Å resolution 3D reconstruction showed both axial and azimuthal (no radial) myosin head perturbations within the 430 Å repeat, with successive crown rotations of approximately 60°, 60° and 0°, rather than the regular 40° for an unperturbed helix. However, it is shown that the projecting density peaks appear to start at low radius from origins closer to those expected for an unperturbed helical filament, and that the azimuthal perturbation especially increases with radius. The head arrangements in rabbit cardiac myosin filaments are very similar to those in fish skeletal muscle myosin filaments, suggesting a possible general structural theme for myosin filaments in all vertebrate striated muscles (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:18472277

  8. Coordination of the two heads of myosin during muscle contraction

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Coordination of the two heads of myosin during muscle contraction Diane S. Lidke* and David D of the heads with both thick and thin filaments and to detect structural changes during muscle contraction. Paramagnetic probes of myosin in contracting muscle have shown that force generation is correlated

  9. Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments

    E-print Network

    Prehoda, Ken

    Multiple tail domain interactions stabilize nonmuscle myosin II bipolar filaments Derek Ricketson derives from its assembly into bipolar filaments. The coiled-coil tail domain of the myosin II heavy chain mediates filament assembly, although the mechanism is poorly understood. Tail domains contain

  10. Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. PMID:23152195

  11. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  12. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ?20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  13. On the kinetics that moves Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; O'Kelly de Galway, Winny

    2015-10-01

    Molecular motor proteins such as Myosin V, Dynein or Kinesin are no ratchets, at least not with a flashing asymmetric potential; the crucial asymmetry is in the dynamical activity. We make that explicit in terms of a simple Markov model, emphasizing the kinetic (and non-thermodynamic) aspects of stochastic transport. The analysis shows the presence of a fluctuation symmetry in that part of the dynamical activity which is antisymmetric under reversal of trailing and leading head of the motor. The direction of the motor motion is determined by it.

  14. Neuromuscular Development and Regulation of Myosin Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, Sue

    1997-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine whether the absence of gravity during embryogenesis influences the postnatal development of the neuromuscular system. Further, we examined the effects of reduced gravity on hindlimb muscles of the pregnant rats. Microgravity may have short and long-term effects on the development of muscle fiber type differentiation and force producing capabilities. Microgravity will reduce muscle fiber size and cause a shift in myosin heavy chain expression from slow to fast in hindlimb muscles of the adult pregnant rats.

  15. Identification and Localization of Myosin Superfamily Members in Fish Retina and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Sohlberg, Lorraine; Dosé, Andréa; Breckler, Jennifer; Hillman, David W.; Burnside, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Myosins are cytoskeletal motors critical for generating the forces necessary for establishing cell structure and mediating actin-dependent cell motility. In each cell type a multitude of myosins are expressed, each myosin contributing to aspects of morphogenesis, transport, or motility occurring in that cell type. To examine the roles of myosins in individual retinal cell types, we first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to identify myosins expressed in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), followed by immunohistochemistry to examine the cellular and subcellular localizations of seven of these expressed myosins. In the myosin PCR screen of cDNA from striped bass retina and striped bass RPE, we amplified 17 distinct myosins from eight myosin classes from retinal cDNA and 11 distinct myosins from seven myosin classes from RPE cDNA. By using antibodies specific for myosins IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, VI, VIIA, and IXB, we examined the localization patterns of these myosins in retinas and RPE of fish, and in isolated inner/outer segment fragments of green sunfish photoreceptors. Each of the myosins exhibited unique expression patterns in fish retina. Individual cell types expressed multiple myosin family members, some of which colocalized within a particular cell type. Because much is known about the functions and properties of these myosins from studies in other systems, their cellular and subcellular localization patterns in the retina help us understand which roles they might play in the vertebrate retina and RPE. PMID:19137585

  16. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  17. Phenolic antioxidant scavenging of myosin radicals generated by hypervalent myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne N; Østdal, Henrik; Skibsted, Leif H

    2012-12-01

    The scavenging activity of extracts of green tea (GTE), white grape (WGE), and rosemary (RE), all plant material with high phenolic content, and of the phenolic compounds 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), (+)-catechin, and carnosic acid toward long-lived myosin radicals generated by reaction with H2O2-activated myoglobin at room temperature (pH 7.5, I=1.0) was investigated by freeze-quench ESR spectroscopy. Myosin radicals were generated by incubating 16 ?M myosin, 800 ?M metmyoglobin, and 800 ?M H2O2 for 10 min, and the phenolic extracts were subsequently added (1% (w/w) phenolic compounds relative to myosin). GTE was able to scavenge myosin radicals and reduce the radical intensity by 65%. Furthermore, a low concentration of 4-MC (33 ?M) was found to increase the radical concentration when added to the myosin radicals, whereas a higher concentration of 4-MC and catechin (330 ?M) was found to scavenge myosin radicals and reduce the overall radical concentration by ?65%. PMID:23163579

  18. Functional vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pumps traffic to the enterocyte brush border membrane and require CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Collaco, Anne M.; Geibel, Peter; Lee, Beth S.; Geibel, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved proton pumps that regulate organelle pH. Epithelial luminal pH is also regulated by cAMP-dependent traffic of specific subunits of the V-ATPase complex from endosomes into the apical membrane. In the intestine, cAMP-dependent traffic of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE3) in the brush border regulate luminal pH. V-ATPase was found to colocalize with CFTR in intestinal CFTR high expresser (CHE) cells recently. Moreover, apical traffic of V-ATPase and CFTR in rat Brunner's glands was shown to be dependent on cAMP/PKA. These observations support a functional relationship between V-ATPase and CFTR in the intestine. The current study examined V-ATPase and CFTR distribution in intestines from wild-type, CFTR?/? mice and polarized intestinal CaCo-2BBe cells following cAMP stimulation and inhibition of CFTR/V-ATPase function. Coimmunoprecipitation studies examined V-ATPase interaction with CFTR. The pH-sensitive dye BCECF determined proton efflux and its dependence on V-ATPase/CFTR in intestinal cells. cAMP increased V-ATPase/CFTR colocalization in the apical domain of intestinal cells and redistributed the V-ATPase Voa1 and Voa2 trafficking subunits from the basolateral membrane to the brush border membrane. Voa1 and Voa2 subunits were localized to endosomes beneath the terminal web in untreated CFTR?/? intestine but redistributed to the subapical cytoplasm following cAMP treatment. Inhibition of CFTR or V-ATPase significantly decreased pHi in cells, confirming their functional interdependence. These data establish that V-ATPase traffics into the brush border membrane to regulate proton efflux and this activity is dependent on CFTR in the intestine. PMID:23986201

  19. Unloaded shortening velocities of rabbit masseter muscle fibres expressing skeletal or alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chains.

    PubMed Central

    Sciote, J J; Kentish, J C

    1996-01-01

    1. Some rabbit masseter fibres express the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC). To compare the biochemical and physiological properties of these fibres with other skeletal fibre types, we examined the histochemical and immunohistochemical staining characteristics, maximum velocity of shortening (V(zero)) and MHC isoform content of fibres from rabbit masseter and soleus muscles. 2. The fibre-type composition of muscle sections was determined with MHC antibodies and myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry. Fibres we designated 'type alpha-cardiac' were different from type I and type II fibres in that they stained positively with the alpha-cardiac MHC antibody and they maintained. ATPase reactivity after acid and alkali pre-incubations. Samples of superficial masseter contained a few type I fibres, with the majority of fibres classified as either type IIA or type alpha-cardiac. Soleus samples contained type I, IIA and IIC fibres. 3. The V(zero) of chemically skinned fibres was determined by the slack-test method. Each fibre was subsequently characterized as type I, IIA, IIC or alpha-cardiac from MHC identification using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In masseter fibres the V(zero) values were (in muscle lengths s-1): type I, 0.54 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- S.D., n = 3); type IIA, 1.23 +/- 0.34 (n = 27); type alpha-cardiac, 0.78 +/- 0.08 (n = 9). In soleus fibres V(zero) values were: type I, 0.55 +/- 0.06 (n = 14); type IIA, 0.89 +/- 0.04 (n = 8); type IIC, 0.73 (n = 2). 4. We conclude that the rabbit masseter muscle contains an 'alpha-cardiac' fibre type that is distinct from other skeletal fibres. This fibre type expresses only the alpha-cardiac MHC, has unusual myofibrillar ATPase reactivity and has a V(zero) intermediate between type I and type II fibres. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8734979

  20. Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicola; Hamilton, Graham; Wilkes, Jonathan M; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Barrett, Michael P; Horn, David

    2015-07-21

    Kinetoplastid parasites cause lethal diseases in humans and animals. The kinetoplast itself contains the mitochondrial genome, comprising a huge, complex DNA network that is also an important drug target. Isometamidium, for example, is a key veterinary drug that accumulates in the kinetoplast in African trypanosomes. Kinetoplast independence and isometamidium resistance are observed where certain mutations in the F1-?-subunit of the two-sector F1Fo-ATP synthase allow for Fo-independent generation of a mitochondrial membrane potential. To further explore kinetoplast biology and drug resistance, we screened a genome-scale RNA interference library in African trypanosomes for isometamidium resistance mechanisms. Our screen identified 14 V-ATPase subunits and all 4 adaptin-3 subunits, implicating acidic compartment defects in resistance; V-ATPase acidifies lysosomes and related organelles, whereas adaptin-3 is responsible for trafficking among these organelles. Independent strains with depleted V-ATPase or adaptin-3 subunits were isometamidium resistant, and chemical inhibition of the V-ATPase phenocopied this effect. While drug accumulation in the kinetoplast continued after V-ATPase subunit depletion, acriflavine-induced kinetoplast loss was specifically tolerated in these cells and in cells depleted for adaptin-3 or endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunits, also identified in our screen. Consistent with kinetoplast dispensability, V-ATPase defective cells were oligomycin resistant, suggesting ATP synthase uncoupling and bypass of the normal Fo-A6-subunit requirement; this subunit is the only kinetoplast-encoded product ultimately required for viability in bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Thus, we describe 30 genes and 3 protein complexes associated with kinetoplast-dependent growth. Mutations affecting these genes could explain natural cases of dyskinetoplasty and multidrug resistance. Our results also reveal potentially conserved communication between the compartmentalized two-sector rotary ATPases. PMID:26150481

  1. Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicola; Hamilton, Graham; Wilkes, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Barrett, Michael P.; Horn, David

    2015-01-01

    Kinetoplastid parasites cause lethal diseases in humans and animals. The kinetoplast itself contains the mitochondrial genome, comprising a huge, complex DNA network that is also an important drug target. Isometamidium, for example, is a key veterinary drug that accumulates in the kinetoplast in African trypanosomes. Kinetoplast independence and isometamidium resistance are observed where certain mutations in the F1-?-subunit of the two-sector F1Fo-ATP synthase allow for Fo-independent generation of a mitochondrial membrane potential. To further explore kinetoplast biology and drug resistance, we screened a genome-scale RNA interference library in African trypanosomes for isometamidium resistance mechanisms. Our screen identified 14 V-ATPase subunits and all 4 adaptin-3 subunits, implicating acidic compartment defects in resistance; V-ATPase acidifies lysosomes and related organelles, whereas adaptin-3 is responsible for trafficking among these organelles. Independent strains with depleted V-ATPase or adaptin-3 subunits were isometamidium resistant, and chemical inhibition of the V-ATPase phenocopied this effect. While drug accumulation in the kinetoplast continued after V-ATPase subunit depletion, acriflavine-induced kinetoplast loss was specifically tolerated in these cells and in cells depleted for adaptin-3 or endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunits, also identified in our screen. Consistent with kinetoplast dispensability, V-ATPase defective cells were oligomycin resistant, suggesting ATP synthase uncoupling and bypass of the normal Fo-A6-subunit requirement; this subunit is the only kinetoplast-encoded product ultimately required for viability in bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Thus, we describe 30 genes and 3 protein complexes associated with kinetoplast-dependent growth. Mutations affecting these genes could explain natural cases of dyskinetoplasty and multidrug resistance. Our results also reveal potentially conserved communication between the compartmentalized two-sector rotary ATPases. PMID:26150481

  2. Amino Acid Availability Modulates Vacuolar H+-ATPase Assembly.

    PubMed

    Stransky, Laura A; Forgac, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump composed of a peripheral ATPase domain (V1) and a membrane-integral proton-translocating domain (V0) and is involved in many normal and disease processes. An important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity is reversible assembly of the V1 and V0 domains. Increased assembly in mammalian cells occurs under various conditions and has been shown to involve PI3K. The V-ATPase is necessary for amino acid-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is important in controlling cell growth in response to nutrient availability and growth signals. The V-ATPase undergoes amino acid-dependent interactions with the Ragulator complex, which is involved in recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane during amino acid sensing. We hypothesized that changes in the V-ATPase/Ragulator interaction might involve amino acid-dependent changes in V-ATPase assembly. To test this, we measured V-ATPase assembly by cell fractionation in HEK293T cells treated with and without amino acids. V-ATPase assembly increases upon amino acid starvation, and this effect is reversed upon readdition of amino acids. Lysosomes from amino acid-starved cells possess greater V-ATPase-dependent proton transport, indicating that assembled pumps are catalytically active. Amino acid-dependent changes in both V-ATPase assembly and activity are independent of PI3K and mTORC1 activity, indicating the involvement of signaling pathways distinct from those implicated previously in controlling assembly. By contrast, lysosomal neutralization blocks the amino acid-dependent change in assembly and reactivation of mTORC1 after amino acid starvation. These results identify an important new stimulus for controlling V-ATPase assembly. PMID:26378229

  3. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 ; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  4. UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) Protein Forms Elongated Dimer and Joins Two Myosin Heads Near Their Actin Binding Region

    SciTech Connect

    H Shi; G Blobel

    2011-12-31

    UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. We found that 16 helical repeats are organized into an L-shaped superhelix with an amphipathic N-terminal helix dangling off the short arm of the L-shaped molecule. In the crystal, She4p forms a 193-{angstrom}-long, zigzag-shaped dimer through three distinct and evolutionary conserved interfaces. We have identified She4p's C-terminal region as a ligand for a 27-residue-long epitope on the myosin motor domain. Remarkably, this region consists of two adjacent, but distinct, binding epitopes localized at the nucleotide-responsive cleft between the nucleotide- and actin-filament-binding sites. One epitope is situated inside the cleft, the other outside the cleft. After ATP hydrolysis and Pi ejection, the cleft narrows at its base from 20 to 12 {angstrom} thereby occluding the inside the cleft epitope, while leaving the adjacent, outside the cleft binding epitope accessible to UCS binding. Hence, one cycle of higher and lower binding affinity would accompany one ATP hydrolysis cycle and a single step in the walk on an actin filament rope. We propose that a UCS dimer links two myosins at their motor domains and thereby functions as one of the determinants for step size of myosin on actin filaments.

  5. Myosin light chain kinase-regulated endothelial cell contraction: the relationship between isometric tension, actin polymerization, and myosin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to be essential and sufficient for initiation of endothelial cell retraction in saponin permeabilized monolayers (Wysolmerski, R. B. and D. Lagunoff. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:16-20). We now report the effects of thrombin stimulation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) actin, myosin II and the functional correlate of the activated actomyosin based contractile system, isometric tension development. Using a newly designed isometric tension apparatus, we recorded quantitative changes in isometric tension from paired monolayers. Thrombin stimulation results in a rapid sustained isometric contraction that increases 2- to 2.5-fold within 5 min and remains elevated for at least 60 min. The phosphorylatable myosin light chains from HUVE were found to exist as two isoforms, differing in their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Resting isometric tension is associated with a basal phosphorylation of 0.54 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain. After thrombin treatment, phosphorylation rapidly increases to 1.61 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain within 60 s and remains elevated for the duration of the experiment. Myosin light chain phosphorylation precedes the development of isometric tension and maximal phosphorylation is maintained during the sustained phase of isometric contraction. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps from both control and thrombin-stimulated cultures resolve both monophosphorylated Ser-19 and diphosphorylated Ser-19/Thr-18 peptides indicative of MLCK activation. Changes in the polymerization of actin and association of myosin II correlate temporally with the phosphorylation of myosin II and development of isometric tension. Activation results in a 57% increase in F-actin content within 90 s and 90% of the soluble myosin II associates with the reorganizing F-actin. Furthermore, the disposition of actin and myosin II undergoes striking reorganization. F- actin initially forms a fine network of filaments that fills the cytoplasm and then reorganizes into prominent stress fibers. Myosin II rapidly forms discrete aggregates associated with the actin network and by 2.5 min assumes a distinct periodic distribution along the stress fibers. PMID:7622562

  6. Fujita-Becker et al. N-terminal region of myosin-2 Functional Characterization of the Amino-Terminal Region of Myosin-2

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Fujita-Becker et al. N-terminal region of myosin-2 1 Functional Characterization of the Amino experiments with myosin-2 null cells, this construct rescued myosin-2-dependent processes such as cytokinesis superfamily of actin- based motors act in a variety of cellular functions such as muscle contraction, cell

  7. Melanophilin Stimulates Myosin-5a Motor Function by Allosterically Inhibiting the Interaction between the Head and Tail of Myosin-5a

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Cao, Qing-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Yang; Li, Xiang-dong

    2015-01-01

    The tail-inhibition model is generally accepted for the regulation of myosin-5a motor function. Inhibited myosin-5a is in a folded conformation in which its globular tail domain (GTD) interacts with its head and inhibits its motor function, and high Ca2+ or cargo binding may reduce the interaction between the GTD and the head of myosin-5a, thus activating motor activity. Although it is well established that myosin-5a motor function is regulated by Ca2+, little is known about the effects of cargo binding. We previously reported that melanophilin (Mlph), a myosin-5a cargo-binding protein, is capable of activating myosin-5a motor function. Here, we report that Mlph-GTBDP, a 26 amino-acid-long peptide of Mlph, is sufficient for activating myosin-5a motor function. We demonstrate that Mlph-GTBDP abolishes the interaction between the head and GTD of myosin-5a, thereby inducing a folded-to-extended conformation transition for myosin-5a and activating its motor function. Mutagenesis of the GTD shows that the GTD uses two distinct, non-overlapping regions to interact with Mlph-GTBDP and the head of myosin-5a. We propose that the GTD is an allosteric protein and that Mlph allosterically inhibits the interaction between the GTD and head of myosin-5a, thereby activating myosin-5a motor function. PMID:26039755

  8. Emergent systems energy laws for predicting myosin ensemble processivity.

    PubMed

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  9. Synaptic plasticity in the MyosinVa mutant mouse

    E-print Network

    Tunca, Cansu, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    The trafficking of essential proteins into spines is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity. MyosinVa, an actin-based motor protein, has been implicated in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during LTP [1]. However an ...

  10. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  11. Glutamate transporter coupling to Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Rose, Erin M; Koo, Joseph C P; Antflick, Jordan E; Ahmed, Syed M; Angers, Stephane; Hampson, David R

    2009-06-24

    Deactivation of glutamatergic signaling in the brain is mediated by glutamate uptake into glia and neurons by glutamate transporters. Glutamate transporters are sodium-dependent proteins that putatively rely indirectly on Na,K-ATPases to generate ion gradients that drive transmitter uptake. Based on anatomical colocalization, mutual sodium dependency, and the inhibitory effects of the Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain on glutamate transporter activity, we postulated that glutamate transporters are directly coupled to Na,K-ATPase and that Na,K-ATPase is an essential modulator of glutamate uptake. Na,K-ATPase was purified from rat cerebellum by tandem anion exchange and ouabain affinity chromatography, and the cohort of associated proteins was characterized by mass spectrometry. The alpha1-alpha 3 subunits of Na,K-ATPase were detected, as were the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, demonstrating that glutamate transporters copurify with Na,K-ATPases. The link between glutamate transporters and Na,K-ATPase was further established by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization. Analysis of the regulation of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities was assessed using [(3)H]D-aspartate, [(3)H]L-glutamate, and rubidium-86 uptake into synaptosomes and cultured astrocytes. In synaptosomes, ouabain produced a dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities, whereas in astrocytes, ouabain showed a bimodal effect whereby glutamate transporter activity was stimulated at 1 microm ouabain and inhibited at higher concentrations. The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [(3)H]D-aspartate uptake indicated the selective involvement of Src kinases, which are probably a component of the Na,K-ATPase/glutamate transporter complex. These findings demonstrate that glutamate transporters and Na,K-ATPases are part of the same macromolecular complexes and operate as a functional unit to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:19553454

  12. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  13. Contribution of myosin II activity to cell spreading dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nisenholz, Noam; Paknikar, Aishwarya; Köster, Sarah; Zemel, Assaf

    2016-01-14

    Myosin II activity and actin polymerization at the leading edge of the cell are known to be essential sources of cellular stress. However, a quantitative account of their separate contributions is still lacking; so is the influence of the coupling between the two phenomena on cell spreading dynamics. We present a simple analytic elastic theory of cell spreading dynamics that quantitatively demonstrates how actin polymerization and myosin activity cooperate in the generation of cellular stress during spreading. Consistent with experiments, myosin activity is assumed to polarize in response to the stresses generated during spreading. The characteristic response time and the overall spreading time are predicted to determine different evolution profiles of cell spreading dynamics. These include, a (regular) monotonic increase of cell projected area with time, a non-monotonic (overshooting) profile with a maximum, and damped oscillatory modes. In addition, two populations of myosin II motors are distinguished based on their location in the lamella; those located above the major adhesion zone at the cell periphery are shown to facilitate spreading whereas those in deeper regions of the lamella are shown to oppose spreading. We demonstrate that the attenuation of myosin activity in the two regions may result in reciprocal effects on spreading. These findings provide important new insight into the function of myosin II motors in the course of spreading. PMID:26481613

  14. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic ?-subunit, the ?-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  15. Expression of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase Isoforms with the Baculovirus Expression System.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan B; Swarts, Herman G P

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases can be expressed in several cell systems. The baculovirus expressions system uses an insect virus to enter and express proteins in Sf9 insect cells. This expression system is a lytic system in which the cells will die a few days after viral infection. Subsequently, the expressed proteins can be isolated. Insect cells are a perfect system to study P-type ATPases as they have little or no endogenous Na,K-ATPase activity and other ATPase activities can be inhibited easily. Here we describe in detail the expression and isolation of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase isoforms with the baculovirus expression system. PMID:26695023

  16. Continued Expression of Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain in Adult Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandman, Everett

    1985-02-01

    The expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was examined in normal and dystrophic chicken muscle with a monoclonal antibody specific for neonatal myosin. Adult dystrophic muscle continued to contain neonatal myosin long after it disappeared from adult normal muscle. A new technique involving western blotting and peptide mapping demonstrated that the immunoreactive myosin in adult dystrophic muscle was identical to that found in neonatal normal muscle. Immunocytochemistry revealed that all fibers in the dystrophic muscle failed to repress neonatal myosin heavy chain. These studies suggest that muscular dystrophy inhibits the myosin gene switching that normally occurs during muscle maturation.

  17. A putative H -K -ATPase in the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina: primary sequence and expression in gills

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    , which actively transport charged substrates across membranes (33). Other P-ATPases include sarcoplasmic of the transporter. The -subunit belongs to the large P-type ATPase (P-ATPase) superfamily of membrane proteins reticulum Ca -ATPases (SERCA), plasma membrane Ca -ATPases, and Na -K - ATPases (21). A highly homologous

  18. Gelation of chicken pectoralis major myosin and heat-denatured beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Vittayanont, Manee; Steffe, James F; Flegler, Stanley L; Smith, Denise M

    2003-01-29

    Thermal, rheological, and microstructural properties of myosin (1 and 2% protein) were compared to mixtures of 1% myosin and 1% heat-denatured beta-lactoglobulin aggregates (myosin/HDLG) and 1% myosin and 1% native beta-lactoglobulin (myosin/beta-LG) in 0.6 M NaCl and 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0 during heating to 71 degrees C. Thermal denaturation patterns of myosin and myosin/HDLG were similar except for the appearance of an endothermic peak at 54-56 degrees C in the mixed system. At pH 7.0, 2% myosin began to gel at 48 degrees C and had a storage modulus (G') of 500 Pa upon cooling. Myosin/HDLG (2% total protein) had a gel point of 48 degrees C and a G' of 650 Pa, whereas myosin/beta-LG had a gel point of 49 degrees C but the G' was lower (180 Pa). As the pH was decreased, the gel points of myosin and myosin/HDLG decreased and the G' after cooling increased. The HDLG was incorporated within the myosin gel network, whereas beta-LG remained soluble. PMID:12537454

  19. Regulation and isoform function of the V-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Toei, Masashi; Saum, Regina; Forgac, Michael

    2010-06-15

    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPases are ATP-dependent proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some cases, transport protons across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Intracellular V-ATPases play an important role in normal physiological processes such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular membrane trafficking, pro-hormone processing, protein degradation, and the coupled uptake of small molecules, such as neurotransmitters. They also function in the entry of various pathogenic agents, including many envelope viruses, like influenza virus, and toxins, like anthrax toxin. Plasma membrane V-ATPases function in renal pH homeostasis, bone resorption and sperm maturation, and various disease processes, including renal tubular acidosis, osteopetrosis, and tumor metastasis. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain containing eight different subunits that is responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral V(0) domain containing six different subunits that translocates protons. In mammalian cells, most of the V-ATPase subunits exist in multiple isoforms which are often expressed in a tissue specific manner. Isoforms of one of the V(0) subunits (subunit a) have been shown to possess information that targets the V-ATPase to distinct cellular destinations. Mutations in isoforms of subunit a lead to the human diseases osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis. A number of mechanisms are employed to regulate V-ATPase activity in vivo, including reversible dissociation of the V(1) and V(0) domains, control of the tightness of coupling of proton transport and ATP hydrolysis, and selective targeting of V-ATPases to distinct cellular membranes. Isoforms of subunit a are involved in regulation both via the control of coupling and via selective targeting. This review will begin with a brief introduction to the function, structure, and mechanism of the V-ATPases followed by a discussion of the role of V-ATPase subunit isoforms and the mechanisms involved in regulation of V-ATPase activity. PMID:20450191

  20. Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks

    E-print Network

    Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

    2014-07-08

    Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.

  1. Torsins: not your typical AAA+ ATPases.

    PubMed

    Rose, April E; Brown, Rebecca S H; Schlieker, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Torsin ATPases (Torsins) belong to the widespread AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of ATPases, which share structural similarity but have diverse cellular functions. Torsins are outliers in this family because they lack many characteristics of typical AAA+ proteins, and they are the only members of the AAA+ family located in the endoplasmic reticulum and contiguous perinuclear space. While it is clear that Torsins have essential roles in many, if not all metazoans, their precise cellular functions remain elusive. Studying Torsins has significant medical relevance since mutations in Torsins or Torsin-associated proteins result in a variety of congenital human disorders, the most frequent of which is early-onset torsion (DYT1) dystonia, a severe movement disorder. A better understanding of the Torsin system is needed to define the molecular etiology of these diseases, potentially enabling corrective therapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the Torsin system in metazoans, discuss functional clues obtained from various model systems and organisms and provide a phylogenetic and structural analysis of Torsins and their regulatory cofactors in relation to disease-causative mutations. Moreover, we review recent data that have led to a dramatically improved understanding of these machines at a molecular level, providing a foundation for investigating the molecular defects underlying the associated movement disorders. Lastly, we discuss our ideas on how recent progress may be utilized to inform future studies aimed at determining the cellular role(s) of these atypical molecular machines and their implications for dystonia treatment options. PMID:26592310

  2. Stiffness of ? subunit of F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a molecular motor in which the ? subunit rotates inside the ?(3)?(3) ring upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Recent works on single-molecule manipulation of F(1)-ATPase have shown that kinetic parameters such as the on-rate of ATP and the off-rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) strongly depend on the rotary angle of the ? subunit (Hirono-Hara et al. 2005; Iko et al. 2009). These findings provide important insight into how individual reaction steps release energy to power F(1) and also have implications regarding ATP synthesis and how reaction steps are reversed upon reverse rotation. An important issue regarding the angular dependence of kinetic parameters is that the angular position of a magnetic bead rotation probe could be larger than the actual position of the ? subunit due to the torsional elasticity of the system. In the present study, we assessed the stiffness of two different portions of F(1) from thermophilic Bacillus PS3: the internal part of the ? subunit embedded in the ?(3)?(3) ring, and the complex of the external part of the ? subunit and the ?(3)?(3) ring (and streptavidin and magnetic bead), by comparing rotational fluctuations before and after crosslinkage between the rotor and stator. The torsional stiffnesses of the internal and remaining parts were determined to be around 223 and 73 pNnm/radian, respectively. Based on these values, it was estimated that the actual angular position of the internal part of the ? subunit is one-fourth of the magnetic bead position upon stalling using an external magnetic field. The estimated elasticity also partially explains the accommodation of the intrinsic step size mismatch between F(o) and F(1)-ATPase. PMID:20549499

  3. Intersubunit rotation in active F-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbert, D.; Engelbrecht, S.; Junge, W.

    1996-06-01

    THE enzyme ATP synthase, or F-ATPase, is present in the membranes of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Its structure is bipartite, with a proton-conducting, integral membrane portion, F0, and a peripheral portion, F1. Solubilized F1 is composed of five different subunits, (??)3???, and is active as an ATPase1,2. The function of F-ATPase is to couple proton translocation through F0 with ATP synthesis in F1 (ref. 3). Several lines of evidence support the spontaneous formation of ATP on F1 (refs 4,5) and its endergonic release6 at cooperative and rotating (or at least alternating) sites7. The release of ATP at the expense of protonmotive force might involve mechanical energy transduction from F0 into F1 by rotation of the smaller subunits (mainly ?) within (??)3, the catalytic hexagon of F1 as suggested by electron microscopy8, by X-ray crystal structure analysis9 and by the use of cleavable crosslinkers10. Here we record an intersubunit rotation in real time in the functional enzyme by applying polarized absorption relaxation after photobleaching to immobilized F1 with eosin-labelled ?. We observe the rotation of ? relative to immobilized (??)3 in a timespan of 100 ms, compatible with the rate of ATP hydrolysis by immobilized F1. Its angular range, which is of at least 200 degrees, favours a triple-site mechanism of catalysis7,11, with ? acting as a crankshaft in (??)3. The rotation of ? is blocked when ATP is substituted with its non-hydrolysable analogue AMP-PNP.

  4. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  5. Regulation of Intracellular Cholesterol Distribution by Na/K-ATPase*

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    Regulation of Intracellular Cholesterol Distribution by Na/K-ATPase* Received for publication/K-ATPase 1 subunit produces a parallel decrease in both caveolin-1 and cholesterol in light fractions of LLC redistribution of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments in the knockdown cells

  6. Functions of plant-specific myosin XI: from intracellular motility to plant postures.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruko; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific protein motor class myosin XI is known to function in rapid bulk flow of the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic streaming) and in organellar movements. Recent studies unveiled a wide range of physiological functions of myosin XI motors, from intracellular motility to organ movements. Arabidopsis thaliana has 13 members of myosin XI class. In vegetative organs, myosins XIk, XI1, and XI2 primarily contribute to dynamics and spatial configurations of endoplasmic reticulum that develops a tubular network in the cell periphery and thick strand-like structures in the inner cell regions. Myosin XI-i forms a nucleocytoplasmic linker and is responsible for nuclear movement and shape. In addition to these intracellular functions, myosin XIf together with myosin XIk is involved in the fundamental nature of plants; the actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton regulates organ straightening to adjust plant posture. PMID:26432645

  7. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  8. Actin and myosin contribute to mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, A.; He, J.; Mao, C. C.; Bailey, L. J.; Di Re, M.; Sembongi, H.; Kazak, L.; Dzionek, K.; Holmes, J. B.; Cluett, T. J.; Harbour, M. E.; Fearnley, I. M.; Crouch, R. J.; Conti, M. A.; Adelstein, R. S.; Walker, J. E.; Holt, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA maintenance and segregation are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast. We found two cytoskeletal proteins among six proteins tightly associated with rat liver mitochondrial DNA: non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and ?-actin. In human cells, transient gene silencing of MYH9 (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA), or the closely related MYH10 gene (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB), altered the topology and increased the copy number of mitochondrial DNA; and the latter effect was enhanced when both genes were targeted simultaneously. In contrast, genetic ablation of non-muscle myosin IIB was associated with a 60% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, compared to control cells. Gene silencing of ?-actin also affected mitochondrial DNA copy number and organization. Protease-protection experiments and iodixanol gradient analysis suggest some ?-actin and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA reside within human mitochondria and confirm that they are associated with mitochondrial DNA. Collectively, these results strongly implicate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PMID:21398640

  9. Structural similarities of Na,K-ATPase and SERCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sweadner, K J; Donnet, C

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of SERCA1a (skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic-reticulum/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase) has recently been determined at 2.6 A (note 1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution [Toyoshima, Nakasako, Nomura and Ogawa (2000) Nature (London) 405, 647-655]. Other P-type ATPases are thought to share key features of the ATP hydrolysis site and a central core of transmembrane helices. Outside of these most-conserved segments, structural similarities are less certain, and predicted transmembrane topology differs between subclasses. In the present review the homologous regions of several representative P-type ATPases are aligned with the SERCA sequence and mapped on to the SERCA structure for comparison. Homology between SERCA and the Na,K-ATPase is more extensive than with any other ATPase, even PMCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of plasma membrane. Structural features of the Na,K-ATPase are projected on to the Ca(2+)-ATPase crystal structure to assess the likelihood that they share the same fold. Homology extends through all ten transmembrane spans, and most insertions and deletions are predicted to be at the surface. The locations of specific residues are examined, such as proteolytic cleavage sites, intramolecular cross-linking sites, and the binding sites of certain other proteins. On the whole, the similarity supports a shared fold, with some particular exceptions. PMID:11389677

  10. INTRODUCTION Myosins are a superfamily of actin-dependent molecular motor

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    in a variety of essential processes that include muscular contraction, cytokinesis, vesicle transport, cell movement and cell shape change (reviewed by Mermall et al., 1998; Oliver et al., 1999; Sellers, 2000; Sokac smooth muscle/non-muscle myosins, Dictyostelium/Acanthamoeba type myosins and yeast type myosins

  11. Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural distribution and force generation in rat fibers

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural distribution and force generation in rat fibers. Snow, LaDora V. Thompson, and David D. Thomas. Muscle activity and aging affect myosin structural muscle activity could reverse myosin structural alterations that occur in aged rat muscle and whether

  12. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid sequence identity with a 723-aa protein from mouse brain reported to be a glutamic acid decarboxylase. The neck region of chicken myosin-V, which contains the IQ-motifs, was demonstrated to contain the binding sites for CM by analyzing CM binding to bacterially expressed fusion proteins containing the head, neck, and tail domains. Immunolocalization of myosin-V in brain and in cultured cells revealed an unusual distribution for this myosin in both neurons and nonneuronal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1469047

  13. Praziquantel has no direct effect on (Na(+)+K+)-ATPases and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPases of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; Noël, F

    1997-01-01

    Therapeutic concentrations of praziquantel produce a rapid and intense contraction of the human flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. As an action on ATPases responsible for calcium homeostasis arises as a possible explanation for the molecular mechanism of this effect, we tested here the effect of praziquantel on different preparations from male adult worms that were previously characterized for their content in (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase activities from different origins. Concentrations as high as 100 microM praziquantel did not inhibit (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase from tegument and carcass nor (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase from heterogeneous (P1) and microsomal (P4) fractions. As 100 microM praziquantel was also without effect on calcium permeability of microsomal vesicles actively loaded with 45Ca2+, the present results discard three hypotheses recently raised for the mechanism of praziquantel-induced contraction of S. mansoni. PMID:9150424

  14. Mammalian myosin I alpha, I beta, and I gamma: new widely expressed genes of the myosin I family

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction strategy was devised to identify new members of the mammalian myosin I family of actin-based motors. Using cellular RNA from mouse granular neurons and PC12 cells, we have cloned and sequenced three 1.2-kb polymerase chain reaction products that correspond to novel mammalian myosin I genes designated MMI alpha, MMI beta, MMI gamma. The pattern of expression for each of the myosin I's is unique: messages are detected in diverse tissues including the brain, lung, kidney, liver, intestine, and adrenal gland. Overlapping clones representing full-length cDNAs for MMI alpha were obtained from mouse brain. These encode a 1,079 amino acid protein containing a myosin head, a domain with five calmodulin binding sites, and a positively charged COOH-terminal tail. In situ hybridization reveals that MMI alpha is highly expressed in virtually all neurons (but not glia) in the postnatal and adult mouse brain and in neuroblasts of the cerebellar external granular layer. Expression varies in different brain regions and undergoes developmental regulation. Myosin I's are present in diverse organisms from protozoa to vertebrates. This and the expression of three novel members of this family in brain and other mammalian tissues suggests that they may participate in critical and fundamental cellular processes. PMID:8449986

  15. Preliminary research on myosin light chain kinase in rabbit liver

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yu-Zhen

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study preliminarily the properties of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in rabbit liver. METHODS: The expression of MLCK was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the MLCK was obtained from rabbit liver, and its activity was analyzed by ?-32 P incorporation technique to detect the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. RESULTS: MLCK was expressed in rabbit liver, and the activity of the enzyme was similar to rabbit smooth muscle MLCK, and calmodulin- dependent. When the concentration was 0.65 mg •L¯¹, the activity was at the highest level. CONCLUSION: MLCK expressed in rabbit liver may catalyze the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic cell functions. PMID:11854919

  16. Involvement of the C-terminal residues of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin on the regulation of smooth muscle actomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, M; Reardon, S; Mitani, Y; Kamisoyama, H; Matsuura, M; Ikebe, R

    1994-01-01

    The segment of smooth muscle regulatory light chain essential for the phosphorylation dependent activation of actomyosin motor activity and the binding of myosin heavy chain was identified. The C-terminal domain of the 20-kDa light chain, which is less conserved than the rest of the polypeptide among various muscle types, was mutated by either deletion or substitution of amino acid residues and the mutant light chains were then incorporated into myosin by subunit exchange. Deletion of Lys149-Ala166 markedly reduced the affinity of the light chain for the heavy chain, whereas the C-terminal five residues, Lys167-Asp171, did not contribute to the binding affinity. Deletion of Lys149-Phe158 abolished the phosphorylation-dependent activation of actomyosin ATPase activity as well as superprecipitation activity. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is critical for transmitting the change in the conformation of the regulatory light chain induced by phosphorylation at Ser19 to the heavy chain. Images PMID:8090776

  17. Changes in gene expression in the intact human heart. Downregulation of alpha-myosin heavy chain in hypertrophied, failing ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, B D; Minobe, W; Abraham, W T; Rizeq, M N; Bohlmeyer, T J; Quaife, R A; Roden, R L; Dutcher, D L; Robertson, A D; Voelkel, N F; Badesch, D B; Groves, B M; Gilbert, E M; Bristow, M R

    1997-01-01

    Using quantitative RT-PCR in RNA from right ventricular (RV) endomyocardial biopsies from intact nonfailing hearts, and subjects with moderate RV failure from primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), we measured expression of genes involved in regulation of contractility or hypertrophy. Gene expression was also assessed in LV (left ventricular) and RV free wall and RV endomyocardium of hearts from end-stage IDC subjects undergoing heart transplantation or from nonfailing donors. In intact failing hearts, downregulation of beta1-receptor mRNA and protein, upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression, and increased myocyte diameter indicated similar degrees of failure and hypertrophy in the IDC and PPH phenotypes. The only molecular phenotypic difference between PPH and IDC RVs was upregulation of beta2-receptor gene expression in PPH but not IDC. The major new findings were that (a) both nonfailing intact and explanted human ventricular myocardium expressed substantial amounts of alpha-myosin heavy chain mRNA (alpha-MHC, 23-34% of total), and (b) in heart failure alpha-MHC was downregulated (by 67-84%) and beta-MHC gene expression was upregulated. We conclude that at the mRNA level nonfailing human heart expresses substantial alpha-MHC. In myocardial failure this alteration in gene expression of MHC isoforms, if translated into protein expression, would decrease myosin ATPase enzyme velocity and slow speed of contraction. PMID:9410910

  18. On allosteric modulation of P-type Cu(+)-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Daniel; Sitsel, Oleg; Autzen, Henriette E; Meloni, Gabriele; Gourdon, Pontus; Nissen, Poul

    2013-07-10

    P-type ATPases perform active transport of various compounds across biological membranes and are crucial for ion homeostasis and the asymmetric composition of lipid bilayers. Although their functional cycle share principles of phosphoenzyme intermediates, P-type ATPases also show subclass-specific sequence motifs and structural elements that are linked to transport specificity and mechanistic modulation. Here we provide an overview of the Cu(+)-transporting ATPases (of subclass PIB) and compare them to the well-studied sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (of subclass PIIA). Cu(+) ions in the cell are delivered by soluble chaperones to Cu(+)-ATPases, which expose a putative "docking platform" at the intracellular interface. Cu(+)-ATPases also contain heavy-metal binding domains providing a basis for allosteric control of pump activity. Database analysis of Cu(+) ligating residues questions a two-site model of intramembranous Cu(+) binding, and we suggest an alternative role for the proposed second site in copper translocation and proton exchange. The class-specific features demonstrate that topological diversity in P-type ATPases may tune a general energy coupling scheme to the translocation of compounds with remarkably different properties. PMID:23500486

  19. Species variability of erythrocyte transport ATPases in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kazennov, A M; Maslova, M N; Matskevich Yu, A; Rustamov, F A; Shalabodov, A D

    1998-01-01

    Na+, K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in whole erythrocytes from five species of mammals (rat, mouse, guinea pig, golden hamster, rabbit) after cell treatment with Tween 20 (7.5 mg/ml) varied over a wide range: from 3.0 +/- 0.9 mumol Pi/hr/ml cells in rabbit to 27.3 +/- 4.9 mumol Pi/hr/ml cells in mouse for Na+, K(+)-ATPase and from 8.0 +/- 1.6 mumol Pi/hr/ml cells in hamster to 47.2 +/- 4.9 mumol Pi/hr/ml cells in mouse for Ca(2+)-ATPase. Differences were less pronounced in red cell ghosts. Fatty acid and phospholipid compositions of erythrocyte membranes were similar for all species. Nevertheless, the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase in ghosts significantly correlated (r = -0.884) with the ratio of PC + SM/PE + PS in red cell membranes. Rabbit membranes had the lowest content of arachidonate. Rat hemolysate activated Na+, K(+)-ATPase in the ghosts from the animals of any species investigated, whereas the enzyme activation by the homohemolysate was characteristic only of the rat, mouse, and guinea pig ghosts. The data obtained suggest that there are differences in both activity and intracellular control of transport ATPase in erythrocytes of different mammals. PMID:9530818

  20. Phospholipid-dependent assembly of mitochondrial ATPase complex.

    PubMed

    Pitotti, A; Dabbeni-Sala, F; Bruni, A

    1980-07-16

    1. Phosphatidylcholines of different acyl-chain composition and a preparation of ATPase complex depleted of phospholipids have been employed in order to evaluate the contribution of lipid bilayer to the assembly of this multi-subunit component of mitochondrial membrane. 2. At the minimal requirement for bilayer assembly (dinonanoylphosphatidylcholine, mixtures of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine), fragments with oligomycin-insensitive ATPase activity are reconstituted. Conformational changes with dislocation of ATPase complex subunits may explain these results. 3. At increased strength of acyl-chain interaction (dilauroylphosphatidylcholine and higher homologues), the damage to the ATPase complex is prevented but this is not sufficient to achieve functional restoration. Bilayers with a tendency to coalesce and fuse aggregate in large amounts with the complex and yield low ATPase reactivation. Bilayers of high stability yield complexes with physiological content of phospholipids and efficient ATPase activity. Transition between these two possibilities is found at sixteen carbon acyl-chains. Only at this chain length does the cholate dialysis procedure of reconstitution become feasible. 4. It is concluded that a minimum of 16 carbon atoms in each chain are required to organize a bilayer structurable to maintain the ATPase complex conformation and to sustain the transmembrane position of the whole assembly. PMID:6446938

  1. Identification of Hydroxyxanthones as Na/K-ATPase Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongbing; Li, Zhichuan; Tian, Jiang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Zhuorong; You, Qidong; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Si, Shuyi

    2010-01-01

    We have screened a chemical library and identified several novel structures of Na/K-ATPase inhibitors. One group of these inhibitors belongs to polyphenolic xanthone derivatives. Functional characterization reveals the following properties of this group of inhibitors. First, like ouabain, they are potent inhibitors of the purified Na/K-ATPase. Second, their effects on the Na/K-ATPase depend on the number and position of phenolic groups. Methylation of these phenolic groups reduces the inhibitory effect. Third, further characterization of the most potent xanthone derivative, MB7 (3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone), reveals that it does not change either Na+ or ATP affinity of the enzyme. Finally, unlike that of ouabain, the inhibitory effect of MB7 on Na/K-ATPase is not antagonized by K+. Moreover, MB7 does not activate the receptor Na/K-ATPase/Src complex and fails to stimulate protein kinase cascades in cultured cells. Thus, we have identified a group of novel Na/K-ATPase ligands that can inhibit the pumping function without stimulating the signaling function of Na/K-ATPase. PMID:20335388

  2. Variable surface loops and myosin activity: Accessories to a motor COLEEN T. MURPHY and JAMES A. SPUDICH*

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    studied form of myosin is myosin II (conventional myosin), which is found in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells, but there are also many classes of unconventional myosins). The crystal structure of chicken skeletal S1 (Rayment et al., 1993) suggests that rather than functioning

  3. The RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway is involved in extracellular matrix-mediated regulation of prolactin signaling in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Meng-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsing; Brackenbury, Lisa; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wu, Yi-Ying; Yang, Zhihong; Streuli, Charles H; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2012-04-01

    In mammary epithelial cells (MECs), prolactin-induced signaling and gene expression requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion to basement membrane (BM). In the absence of proper cell-BM interactions, for example, culturing cells on collagen-coated plastic dishes, signal propagation is substantially impaired. Here we demonstrate that the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway accounts for the ineffectiveness of prolactin signaling in MECs cultured on collagen I. Under these culture conditions, the RhoA pathway is activated, leading to downregulation of prolactin receptor expression and reduced prolactin signaling. Enforced activation of RhoA in MECs cultured on BM suppresses prolactin receptor levels, and prevents prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and ?-casein expression. Overexpression of dominant negative RhoA in MECs cultured on collagen I, or inhibiting Rok activity, increases prolactin receptor expression, and enhances prolactin signaling. In addition, inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity by blebbistatin also exerts a beneficial effect on prolactin receptor expression and prolactin signaling, suggesting that tension exerted by the collagen substratum, in collaboration with the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway, contributes to the failure of prolactin signaling. Furthermore, MECs cultured on laminin-coated plastic have similar morphology and response to prolactin as those cultured on collagen I. They display high levels of RhoA activity and are inefficient in prolactin signaling, stressing the importance of matrix stiffness in signal transduction. Our results reveal that RhoA has a central role in determining the fate decisions of MECs in response to cell-matrix interactions. PMID:21678418

  4. Proteasomal ATPase-Associated Factor 1 Negatively Regulates Proteasome Activity by Interacting with Proteasomal ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Hwang, Yong-Pil; Lee, Jong-Sik; Seo, Sang-Hyun; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2005-01-01

    The 26S proteasome, composed of the 20S core and the 19S regulatory complex, plays a central role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis by catalyzing degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. In a search for proteins involved in regulation of the proteasome, we affinity purified the 19S regulatory complex from HeLa cells and identified a novel protein of 43 kDa in size as an associated protein. Immunoprecipitation analyses suggested that this protein specifically interacted with the proteasomal ATPases. Hence the protein was named proteasomal ATPase-associated factor 1 (PAAF1). Immunoaffinity purification of PAAF1 confirmed its interaction with the 19S regulatory complex and further showed that the 19S regulatory complex bound with PAAF1 was not stably associated with the 20S core. Overexpression of PAAF1 in HeLa cells decreased the level of the 20S core associated with the 19S complex in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting that PAAF1 binding to proteasomal ATPases inhibited the assembly of the 26S proteasome. Proteasomal degradation assays using reporters based on green fluorescent protein revealed that overexpression of PAAF1 inhibited the proteasome activity in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of PAAF1 expression that is mediated by small inhibitory RNA enhanced the proteasome activity. These results suggest that PAAF1 functions as a negative regulator of the proteasome by controlling the assembly/disassembly of the proteasome. PMID:15831487

  5. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  6. Myosins VIII and XI Play Distinct Roles in Reproduction and Transport of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Khalid; Di Donato, Martin; Dolja, Valerian V.; Heinlein, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory parasites that depend on host cellular factors for their replication as well as for their local and systemic movement to establish infection. Although myosin motors are thought to contribute to plant virus infection, their exact roles in the specific infection steps have not been addressed. Here we investigated the replication, cell-to-cell and systemic spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using dominant negative inhibition of myosin activity. We found that interference with the functions of three class VIII myosins and two class XI myosins significantly reduced the local and long-distance transport of the virus. We further determined that the inactivation of myosins XI-2 and XI-K affected the structure and dynamic behavior of the ER leading to aggregation of the viral movement protein (MP) and to a delay in the MP accumulation in plasmodesmata (PD). The inactivation of myosin XI-2 but not of myosin XI-K affected the localization pattern of the 126k replicase subunit and the level of TMV accumulation. The inhibition of myosins VIII-1, VIII-2 and VIII-B abolished MP localization to PD and caused its retention at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that class XI myosins contribute to the viral propagation and intracellular trafficking, whereas myosins VIII are specifically required for the MP targeting to and virus movement through the PD. Thus, TMV appears to recruit distinct myosins for different steps in the cell-to-cell spread of the infection. PMID:25329993

  7. Model of Rho-Mediated Myosin Recruitment to the Cleavage Furrow during Cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Alexander; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2010-03-01

    The formation and constriction of the contractile ring during cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, depends on the recruitment of motor protein myosin to the cell's equatorial region. During cytokinesis, the myosin attached to the cell's cortex progressively disassembles at the flanking regions and concentrates in the equator [1]. This recruitment depends on myosin motor activity and activation by Rho proteins. Central spindle and astral microtubules establish a spatial pattern of differential Rho activity [2]. We propose a reaction-diffusion model for the dynamics of myosin and Rho proteins during cytokinesis. In the model, the mitotic spindle activates Rho at the equator. Active Rho promotes, in a switch-like manner, myosin assembly into cortical minifilaments. Mechanical stress by cortical myosin causes disassembly of myosin minifilaments and deactivates Rho. Our results explain both the recruitment of myosin to the cleavage furrow and the observed damped myosin oscillations in the cell's flanking regions [1]. Spatial extent, period and decay rate of myosin oscillations are calculated. Various regimes of myosin recruitment are predicted. [1] Zhou & Wang, Mol. Biol. Cell 19:318 (2008) [2] Murthy & Wadsworth, J. Cell Sci. 121:2350 (2008)

  8. Electrophoretic pattern, thermal denaturation, and in vitro digestibility of oxidized myosin.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Xiong, Y L

    2000-03-01

    Physicochemical changes and in vitro digestibility of chicken breast myosin oxidized with a nonenzymic free-radical-generating system (FeCl(3)/H(2)O(2)/ascorbate) were studied by SDS-PAGE, differential scanning calorimetry, and o-phthaldialdehyde assay. Oxidation caused fragmentation and polymerization of myosin. Myosin polymers were cross-linked mainly through disulfide bonds. Hydroxyl radicals destabilized myosin, lowering its denaturation temperature by up to 4 degrees C. Oxidized myosin also produced a new thermal transition in the 60-80 degrees C temperature range, which could be attributed to the formation of disulfide-stabilized polymers. The proteolytic susceptibility of myosin to pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin was increased by oxidation. Under nonreducing conditions, however, oxidized myosin showed decreased digestibility. The results may help explain variations in the functionality and nutritional quality of muscle foods in meat processing in which oxidation is involved. PMID:10725125

  9. Visualization of freeze-dried and shadowed myosin molecules immobilized on electron microscopic films.

    PubMed

    Walzthöny, D; Bähler, M; Wallimann, T; Eppenberger, H M; Moor, H

    1983-05-01

    The mica replication technique first described by Hall [5] has produced myosin molecules which were heterogeneous in appearance in terms of shadowing, decoration, contrast and background. Therefore, an alternative technique for the visualization of myosin molecules was developed: Myosin molecules are sprayed directly onto glow discharged or silicium-monoxide coated carbon filmed grids, omitting glycerol. After washing several times with distilled water, rapid freezing, and freeze-drying, the immobilized myosin molecules are visualized by shadow-casting at low temperature and at varying angles. After backing with carbon the "in situ" shadowed molecules are observed in the electron microscope. This technique has several advantages over the standard method in that it yields more reproducible results. It is potentially useful for investigating interactions of myosin binding proteins with myosin and for visualizing unshadowed myosin in the STEM. PMID:11596491

  10. Myosin superfamily: The multi-functional and irreplaceable factors in spermatogenesis and testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ruide; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-01-15

    Spermatogenesis is a fundamental process in sexual development and reproduction, in which the diploid spermatogonia transform into haploid mature spermatozoa. This process is under the regulation of multiple factors and pathway. Myosin has been implicated in various aspects during spermatogenesis. Myosins constitute a diverse superfamily of actin-based molecular motors that translocate along microfilament in an ATP-dependent manner, and six kinds of myosins have been proved that function during spermatogenesis. In mitosis and meiosis, myosins play an important role in spindle assembly and positioning, karyokinesis and cytokinesis. During spermiogenesis, myosins participate in acrosomal formation, nuclear morphogenesis, mitochondrial translocation and spermatid individualization. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the functions of myosin in spermatogenesis and some reproductive system diseases such as testicular tumors and prostate cancer, and discuss the roles of possible upstream molecules which regulate myosin in these processes. PMID:26478466

  11. Colorimetric Assays of Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is a plasma membrane enzyme that catalyzes active ion transport by the hydrolysis of ATP. Its activity in vivo is determined by many factors, particularly the concentration of intracellular sodium ions. It is the target of the cardiac glycoside class of drugs and of endogenous regulators. Its assay is often an endpoint in the investigation of physiological processes, and it is a promising drug target. As described in this unit, its enzymatic activity can be determined in extracts from tissues by test tube assay using a spectrophotometer or (32)P-ATP. The protocols in this chapter measure inorganic phosphate as the end product of hydrolysis of ATP. PMID:26695025

  12. Emergent complexity in Myosin V-based organelle inheritance.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Dacks, Joel B

    2012-03-01

    How is adaptability generated in a system composed of interacting cellular machineries, each with a separate and functionally critical job to perform? The machinery for organelle inheritance is precisely one such system, requiring coordination between robust and ancient cellular modules, including the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and organelle biogenesis/identity. Budding yeasts have emerged as powerful models to study these processes, which are critical for cellular survival, propagation, and differentiation, as organelles must compete for access to myosin V motors that travel along polarized actin cables to vectorially deliver bound cargo to the bud. Under the direction of the cell cycle, myosin V motors are recruited to organelles by specific interactions between their carboxyl-terminal globular tail domains and organelle-specific receptors. We used comparative genomics, phylogenetics, and secondary structure modeling to characterize the evolutionary history of these organelle-specific receptors. We find that while some receptors are retained widely across the animals and fungi, others are limited primarily to the Saccharomycetaceae family of budding yeast, with the emergent pattern of a conserved biogenic and inheritance factor often paired with an evolutionarily novel inheritance adaptor. We propose an evolutionary model whereby the emergence of myosin V-based organelle inheritance has utilized mechanisms of paralogy, mutation, and the appearance of pliable evolutionarily novel adaptor proteins. Our findings suggest an overarching evolutionary mechanism for how diverse cargoes compete for a single myosin V motor in organelle transport and detail one system's solution to obtaining evolutionary adaptability amongst constrained cellular modules. PMID:22046000

  13. Sarcomere Lattice Geometry Influences Cooperative Myosin Binding in Muscle

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    in muscle. PLoS Comput Biol 3(7): e115. doi:10.1371/ journal.pcbi.0030115 Introduction Muscle contraction influence contraction [1,3,4,6,8­ 12]. Of the muscle contraction models containing both spatial and temporalSarcomere Lattice Geometry Influences Cooperative Myosin Binding in Muscle Bertrand C. W. Tanner1

  14. Structural kinetics of myosin by transient time-resolved FRET

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Structural kinetics of myosin by transient time-resolved FRET Yuri E. Nesmelova,1,2 , Roman V unsolved due to a gap between static structural data and kinetics. We have filled this gap by detecting structure and kinetics simultaneously. This struc- tural kinetics experiment is made possible by a new

  15. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Tony D; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s(-1). PMID:24240432

  16. Optical trapping studies of acto-myosin motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Rachel E.; Rosenthal, Peter B.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Holder, Anthony A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2007-09-01

    Optical tweezers have been used extensively to measure the mechanical properties of individual biological molecules. Over the past 10-15 years optical trapping studies have revealed important information about the way in which motor proteins convert chemical energy to mechanical work. This paper focuses on studies of the acto-myosin motor system that is responsible for muscle contraction and a host of other cellular motilities. Myosin works by binding to filamentous actin, pulling and then releasing. Each cycle of interaction produces a few nanometres movement and a few piconewtons force. Individual interactions can be observed directly by holding an individual actin filament between two optically trapped microspheres and positioning it in the immediate vicinity of a single myosin motor. When the chemical fuel (adenosine triphosphate or ATP) is present the myosin undergoes repeated cycles of interaction with the actin filament producing square-wave like displacements and forces. Analysis of optical trapping data sets enables the size and timing of the molecular motions to be deduced.

  17. Characterization of a Myosin VII MyTH/FERM domain

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Johnsrud, Daniel O.; Thomas, David D.; Titus, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    A group of closely related myosins are characterized by the presence of at least one MyTH/FERM (myosin talin homology 4; band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain in their C-terminal tails. This domain interacts with a variety of binding partners, and mutations in either the MyTH4 or FERM domains of myosin VII and XV result in deafness, highlighting the functional importance of each domain. The N-terminal MyTH/FERM region of Dictyostelium myosin VII (M7) has been isolated as a first step toward gaining insight into the function of this domain and its interaction with binding partners. The M7 MyTH4/FERM domain (MF1) binds to both actin and microtubules in vitro, with dissociation constants of 13.7 and 1.7 ?M, respectively. Gel filtration and UV spectroscopy reveal that MF1 exists as a monomer in solution and forms a well-folded, compact conformation with a high degree of secondary structure. These results indicate that MF1 forms an integrated structural domain that serves to couple actin filaments and microtubules in specific regions of the cytoskeleton. PMID:21875595

  18. Molecular mechanism regulating myosin and cardiac functions by ELC.

    PubMed

    Lossie, Janine; Köhncke, Clemens; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Steffen, Walter; Canepari, Monica; Maffei, Manuela; Taube, Martin; Larchevêque, Oriane; Baumert, Philipp; Haase, Hannelore; Bottinelli, Roberto; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Morano, Ingo

    2014-07-18

    The essential myosin light chain (ELC) is involved in modulation of force generation of myosin motors and cardiac contraction, while its mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that ELC could modulate myosin stiffness which subsequently determines its force production and cardiac contraction. Therefore, we generated heterologous transgenic mouse (TgM) strains with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of ELC with human ventricular ELC (hVLC-1; TgM(hVLC-1)) or E56G-mutated hVLC-1 (hVLC-1(E56G); TgM(E56G)). hVLC-1 or hVLC-1(E56G) expression in TgM was around 39% and 41%, respectively of total VLC-1. Laser trap and in vitro motility assays showed that stiffness and actin sliding velocity of myosin with hVLC-1 prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (1.67 pN/nm and 2.3 ?m/s, respectively) were significantly higher than myosin with hVLC-1(E56G) prepared from TgM(E56G) (1.25 pN/nm and 1.7 ?m/s, respectively) or myosin with mouse VLC-1 (mVLC-1) prepared from C57/BL6 (1.41 pN/nm and 1.5 ?m/s, respectively). Maximal left ventricular pressure development of isolated perfused hearts in vitro prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (80.0 mmHg) were significantly higher than hearts from TgM(E56G) (66.2 mmHg) or C57/BL6 (59.3±3.9 mmHg). These findings show that ELCs decreased myosin stiffness, in vitro motility, and thereby cardiac functions in the order hVLC-1>hVLC-1(E56G)?mVLC-1. They also suggest a molecular pathomechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by hVLC-1 mutations. PMID:24911555

  19. Characterization of the Catalytic and Nucleotide Binding Properties of the ?-Kinase Domain of Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidai; Ye, Qilu; Jia, Zongchao; Côté, Graham P

    2015-09-25

    The ?-kinases are a widely expressed family of serine/threonine protein kinases that exhibit no sequence identity with conventional eukaryotic protein kinases. In this report, we provide new information on the catalytic properties of the ?-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase-A (termed A-CAT). Crystallization of A-CAT in the presence of MgATP yielded structures with AMP or adenosine in the catalytic cleft together with a phosphorylated Asp-766 residue. The results show that the ?- and ?-phosphoryl groups are transferred either directly or indirectly to the catalytically essential Asp-766. Biochemical assays confirmed that A-CAT hydrolyzed ATP, ADP, and AMP with kcat values of 1.9, 0.6, and 0.32 min(-1), respectively, and showed that A-CAT can use ADP to phosphorylate peptides and proteins. Binding assays using fluorescent 2'/3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) analogs of ATP and ADP yielded Kd values for ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine of 20 ± 3, 60 ± 20, 160 ± 60, and 45 ± 15 ?m, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Glu-713, Leu-716, and Lys-645, all of which interact with the adenine base, were critical for nucleotide binding. Mutation of the highly conserved Gln-758, which chelates a nucleotide-associated Mg(2+) ion, eliminated catalytic activity, whereas loss of the highly conserved Lys-722 and Arg-592 decreased kcat values for kinase and ATPase activities by 3-6-fold. Mutation of Asp-663 impaired kinase activity to a much greater extent than ATPase, indicating a specific role in peptide substrate binding, whereas mutation of Gln-768 doubled ATPase activity, suggesting that it may act to exclude water from the active site. PMID:26260792

  20. Earning stripes: myosin binding protein-C interactions with actin.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Bezold, Kristina L; Harris, Samantha P

    2014-03-01

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) was first discovered as an impurity during the purification of myosin from skeletal muscle. However, soon after its discovery, MyBP-C was also shown to bind actin. While the unique functional implications for a protein that could cross-link thick and thin filaments together were immediately recognized, most early research nonetheless focused on interactions of MyBP-C with the thick filament. This was in part because interactions of MyBP-C with the thick filament could adequately explain most (but not all) effects of MyBP-C on actomyosin interactions and in part because the specificity of actin binding was uncertain. However, numerous recent studies have now established that MyBP-C can indeed bind to actin through multiple binding sites, some of which are highly specific. Many of these interactions involve critical regulatory domains of MyBP-C that are also reported to interact with myosin. Here we review current evidence supporting MyBP-C interactions with actin and discuss these findings in terms of their ability to account for the functional effects of MyBP-C. We conclude that the influence of MyBP-C on muscle contraction can be explained equally well by interactions with actin as by interactions with myosin. However, because data showing that MyBP-C binds to either myosin or actin has come almost exclusively from in vitro biochemical studies, the challenge for future studies is to define which binding partner(s) MyBP-C interacts with in vivo. PMID:24442149

  1. Subunit 8 of Chloroplast F0Fr ATPase and OSCP of Mitochondrial F0Fr ATPase: a Comparison by CD-Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Junge, Wolfgang

    Subunit 8 of Chloroplast F0Fr ATPase and OSCP of Mitochondrial F0Fr ATPase: a Comparison by CD have been recorded with subunit 5 from chloroplast CF0CF, and with OSCP from mitochondrial MF0M F and ATP-synthesis in the F,-portion of their respective F0F,-ATPase. Evaluation of the data for both

  2. Biochemical characterization of P-type copper ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Inesi, Giuseppe; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Copper ATPases, in analogy with other members of the P-ATPase superfamily, contain a catalytic headpiece including an aspartate residue reacting with ATP to form a phosphoenzyme intermediate, and transmembrane helices containing cation-binding sites [TMBS (transmembrane metal-binding sites)] for catalytic activation and cation translocation. Following phosphoenzyme formation by utilization of ATP, bound copper undergoes displacement from the TMBS to the lumenal membrane surface, with no H+ exchange. Although PII-type ATPases sustain active transport of alkali/alkali-earth ions (i.e. Na+, Ca2+) against electrochemical gradients across defined membranes, PIB-type ATPases transfer transition metal ions (i.e. Cu+) from delivery to acceptor proteins and, prominently in mammalian cells, undergo trafficking from/to various membrane compartments. A specific component of copper ATPases is the NMBD (N-terminal metal-binding domain), containing up to six copper-binding sites in mammalian (ATP7A and ATP7B) enzymes. Copper occupancy of NMBD sites and interaction with the ATPase headpiece are required for catalytic activation. Furthermore, in the presence of copper, the NMBD allows interaction with protein kinase D, yielding phosphorylation of serine residues, ATP7B trafficking and protection from proteasome degradation. A specific feature of ATP7A is glycosylation and stabilization on plasma membranes. Cisplatin, a platinum-containing anti-cancer drug, binds to copper sites of ATP7A and ATP7B, and undergoes vectorial displacement in analogy with copper. PMID:25242165

  3. An ion-transporting ATPase encodes multiple apical localization signals

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial cells accumulate distinct populations of membrane proteins at their two plasmalemmal domains. We have examined the molecular signals which specify the differential subcellular distributions of two closely related ion pumps. The Na,K-ATPase is normally restricted to the basolateral membranes of numerous epithelial cell types, whereas the H,K-ATPase is a component of the apical surfaces of the parietal cells of the gastric epithelium. We have expressed full length and chimeric H,K-ATPase/Na,K-ATPase cDNAs in polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). We find that both the alpha and beta subunits of the H,K-ATPase encode independent signals that specify apical localization. Furthermore, the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit possesses a sequence which mediates its participation in the endocytic pathway. The interrelationship between epithelial sorting and endocytosis signals suggested by these studies supports the redefinition of apical and basolateral as functional, rather than simply topographic domains. PMID:8385670

  4. The role of non-muscle myosin IIA in aggregation and invasion of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Lara; Stove, Christophe; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; De Wever, Olivier; Dollé, Laurent; Colpaert, Nathalie; Depypere, Herman; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Bracke, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Human MCF-7/6 breast cancer cells differ from their MCF-7/AZ counterparts by their invasiveness in a number of assays in vitro, such as invasion of MCF-7 spheroids into embryonic chick heart fragments or type I collagen gels. Comparative proteomic analysis of these two variants revealed an identical pattern, except for a 230 kDa protein present in the invasive MCF-7/6 variant, but hardly detectable in the non-invasive MCF-7/AZ one. This protein appeared to be the non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain (NMIIA), also coined MYH9. Experimental inhibition of NMIIA by reducing either its expression (via stable shRNA transduction) or its function (via the specific ATPase inhibitor blebbistatin) underpinned the decisive role of NMIIA in MCF-7 cell invasion. Inhibition of NMIIA indeed blocked the invasion of MCF-7/6 cells in three-dimensional invasion substrata such as embryonic chick heart fragments and type I collagen gels. Invasiveness of MCF-7/6 cells has been related to poor formation and compaction of aggregates, due to a functionally defective E-cadherin/catenin complex. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of NMIIA stimulated MCF-7/6 cell aggregation. Together, these data indicate that NMIIA is a decisive protein for MCF-7 cells to invade, indicating that this molecule is a candidate for targeted anti-invasive treatment. PMID:22161839

  5. Bafilomycins: a class of inhibitors of membrane ATPases from microorganisms, animal cells, and plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, E J; Siebers, A; Altendorf, K

    1988-01-01

    Various membrane ATPases have been tested for their sensitivity to bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic. F1F0 ATPases from bacteria and mitochondria are not affected by this antibiotic. In contrast, E1E2 ATPases--e.g., the K+-dependent (Kdp) ATPase from Escherichia coli, the Na+,K+-ATPase from ox brain, and the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum--are moderately sensitive to this inhibitor. Finally, membrane ATPases from Neurospora vacuoles, chromaffin granules, and plant vacuoles are extremely sensitive. From this we conclude that bafilomycin A1 is a valuable tool for distinguishing among the three different types of ATPases and represents the first relatively specific potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases. PMID:2973058

  6. Actin Structure-Dependent Stepping of Myosin 5a and 10 during Processive Movement

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Laura K.; Sellers, James R.; Sakamoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    How myosin 10, an unconventional myosin, walks processively along actin is still controversial. Here, we used single molecule fluorescence techniques, TIRF and FIONA, to study the motility and the stepping mechanism of dimerized myosin 10 heavy-meromyosin-like fragment on both single actin filaments and two-dimensional F-actin rafts cross-linked by fascin or ?-actinin. As a control, we also tracked and analyzed the stepping behavior of the well characterized processive motor myosin 5a. We have shown that myosin 10 moves processively along both single actin filaments and F-actin rafts with a step size of 31 nm. Moreover, myosin 10 moves more processively on fascin-F-actin rafts than on ?-actinin-F-actin rafts, whereas myosin 5a shows no such selectivity. Finally, on fascin-F-actin rafts, myosin 10 has more frequent side steps to adjacent actin filaments than myosin 5a in the F-actin rafts. Together, these results reveal further single molecule features of myosin 10 on various actin structures, which may help to understand its cellular functions. PMID:24069366

  7. Asymmetric myosin binding to the thin filament as revealed by a fluorescent nanocircuit.

    PubMed

    Coffee Castro-Zena, Pilar G; Root, Douglas D

    2013-07-01

    The interplay between myosin, actin, and striated muscle regulatory proteins involves complex cooperative interactions that propagate along the thin filament. A repeating unit of the tropomyosin dimer, troponin heterotrimer, and the actin protofilament heptamer is sometimes assumed to be able to bind myosin at any of its seven actins when activated even though the regulatory proteins are asymmetrically positioned along this repeating unit. Analysis of the impact of this asymmetry on actin and myosin interactions by sensitized emission luminescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy and a unique fluorescent nanocircuit design reveals that the troponin affects the structure and function of myosin heads bound nearby in a different manner than myosin heads bound further away from the troponin. To test this hypothesis, a fluorescent nanocircuit reported the position of the myosin lever arm only when the myosin was bound adjacent to the troponin, or in controls, only when the myosin was bound distant from the troponin. Confirming the hypothesis, the myosin lever arm is predominantly in the pre powerstroke orientation when bound near troponin, but is predominantly in the post powerstroke orientation when bound distant from troponin. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that troponin is responsible for the formation of myosin binding target zones along the thin filament. PMID:23274408

  8. Gelsolin and Non-muscle Myosin IIA Interact to Mediate Calcium-regulated Collagen Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pamma D.; Wang, Yongqiang; Janmey, Paul A.; Bresnick, Anne; Yin, Helen L.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of adhesion complexes is the rate-limiting step for collagen phagocytosis by fibroblasts, but the role of Ca2+ and the potential interactions of actin-binding proteins in regulating collagen phagocytosis are not well defined. We found that the binding of collagen beads to fibroblasts was temporally and spatially associated with actin assembly at nascent phagosomes, which was absent in gelsolin null cells. Analysis of tryptic digests isolated from gelsolin immunoprecipitates indicated that non-muscle (NM) myosin IIA may bind to gelsolin. Immunostaining and immunoprecipitation showed that gelsolin and NM myosin IIA associated at collagen adhesion sites. Gelsolin and NM myosin IIA were both required for collagen binding and internalization. Collagen binding to cells initiated a prolonged increase of [Ca2+]i, which was absent in cells null for gelsolin or NM myosin IIA. Collagen bead-induced increases of [Ca2+]i were associated with phosphorylation of the myosin light chain, which was dependent on gelsolin. NM myosin IIA filament assembly, which was dependent on myosin light chain phosphorylation and increased [Ca2+]i, also required gelsolin. Ionomycin-induced increases of [Ca2+]i overcame the block of myosin filament assembly in gelsolin null cells. We conclude that gelsolin and NM myosin IIA interact at collagen adhesion sites to enable NM myosin IIA filament assembly and localized, Ca2+-dependent remodeling of actin at the nascent phagosome and that these steps are required for collagen phagocytosis. PMID:21828045

  9. Inhibitors of myosin, but not actin, alter transport through Tradescantia plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Radford, Janine E; White, Rosemary G

    2011-01-01

    Actin and myosin are components of plasmodesmata, the cytoplasmic channels between plant cells, but their role in regulating these channels is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of myosin in regulating plasmodesmata in a well-studied, simple system comprising single filaments of cells which form stamen hairs in Tradescantia virginiana flowers. Effects of myosin inhibitors were assessed by analysing cell-to-cell movement of fluorescent tracers microinjected into treated cells. Incubation in the myosin inhibitor, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) or injection of anti-myosin antibodies increased cell-cell transport of fluorescent dextrans, while treatment with the myosin inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) decreased cell-cell transport. Pretreatment with the callose synthesis inhibitor, deoxy-D: -glucose (DDG), enhanced transport induced by BDM treatment or injection of myosin antibodies but did not relieve NEM-induced reduction in transport. In contrast to the myosin inhibitors, cell-to-cell transport was unaffected by treatment with the actin polymerisation inhibitor, latrunculin B, after controlling for callose synthesis with DDG. Transport was increased following azide treatment, and reduced after injection of ATP, as in previous studies. We propose that myosin detachment from actin, induced by BDM, opens T. virginiana plasmodesmata whereas the firm attachment of myosin to actin, promoted by NEM, closes them. PMID:21113638

  10. Three-dimensional structure of the human myosin thick filament: clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khayat, Hind A.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution information about the three-dimensional (3D) structure of myosin filaments has always been hard to obtain. Solving the 3D structure of myosin filaments is very important because mutations in human cardiac muscle myosin and its associated proteins (e.g. titin and myosin binding protein C) are known to be associated with a number of familial human cardiomyopathies (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy). In order to understand how normal heart muscle works and how it fails, as well as the effects of the known mutations on muscle contractility, it is essential to properly understand myosin filament 3D structure and properties in both healthy and diseased hearts. The aim of this review is firstly to provide a general overview of the 3D structure of myosin thick filaments, as studied so far in both vertebrates and invertebrate striated muscles. Knowledge of this 3D structure is the starting point from which myosin filaments isolated from human cardiomyopathic samples, with known mutations in either myosin or its associated proteins (titin or C-protein), can be studied in detail. This should, in turn, enable us to relate the structure of myosin thick filament to its function and to understanding the disease process. A long term objective of this research would be to assist the design of possible therapeutic solutions to genetic myosin-related human cardiomyopathies. PMID:24689030

  11. Evolutionary appearance of the plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase containing a penultimate threonine in the bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-08-01

    The plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase provides the driving force for solute transport via an electrochemical gradient of H (+) across the plasma membrane, and regulates pH homeostasis and membrane potential in plant cells. However, the plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase in non-vascular plant bryophyte is largely unknown. Here, we show that the moss Physcomitrella patens, which is known as a model bryophyte, expresses both the penultimate Thr-containing H (+) -ATPase (pT H (+) -ATPase) and non-pT H (+) -ATPase as in the green algae, and that pT H (+) -ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation of its penultimate Thr. A search in the P. patens genome database revealed seven H (+) -ATPase genes, designated PpHA (Physcomitrella patens H (+) -ATPase). Six isoforms are the pT H (+) -ATPase; a remaining isoform is non-pT H (+) -ATPase. An apparent 95-kD protein was recognized by anti-H (+) -ATPase antibodies against an isoform of Arabidopsis thaliana and was phosphorylated on the penultimate Thr in response to a fungal toxin fusicoccin and light in protonemata, indicating that the 95-kD protein contains pT H (+) -ATPase. Furthermore, we could not detect the pT H (+) -ATPase in the charophyte alga Chara braunii, which is the closest relative of the land plants, by immunological methods. These results strongly suggest the pT H (+) -ATPase most likely appeared for the first time in bryophyte. PMID:22836495

  12. Myosin Loop 2 Is Involved in the Formation of a Trimeric Complex of Twitchin, Actin, and Myosin*

    PubMed Central

    Funabara, Daisuke; Osawa, Rika; Ueda, Miki; Kanoh, Satoshi; Hartshorne, David J.; Watabe, Shugo

    2009-01-01

    Molluscan smooth muscles exhibit a low energy cost contraction called catch. Catch is regulated by twitchin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Recently, we found that the D2 fragment of twitchin containing the D2 site (Ser-4316) and flanking immunoglobulin motifs (TWD2-S) formed a heterotrimeric complex with myosin and with actin in the region that interacts with myosin loop 2 (Funabara, D., Hamamoto, C., Yamamoto, K., Inoue, A., Ueda, M., Osawa, R., Kanoh, S., Hartshorne, D. J., Suzuki, S., and Watabe, S. (2007) J. Exp. Biol. 210, 4399–4410). Here, we show that TWD2-S interacts directly with myosin loop 2 in a phosphorylation-sensitive manner. A synthesized peptide, CAQNKEAETTGTHKKRKSSA, based on the myosin loop 2 sequence (loop 2 peptide), competitively inhibited the formation of the trimeric complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that TWD2-S binds to the loop 2 peptide with a Ka of (2.44 ± 0.09) × 105 m?1 with two binding sites. The twitchin-binding peptide of actin, AGFAGDDAP, which also inhibited formation of the trimeric complex, bound to TWD2-S with a Ka of (5.83 ± 0.05) × 104 m?1 with two binding sites. The affinity of TWD2-S to actin and myosin was slightly decreased with an increase of pH, but this effect could not account for the marked pH dependence of catch in permeabilized fibers. The complex formation also showed a moderate Ca2+ sensitivity in that in the presence of Ca2+ complex formation was reduced. PMID:19439402

  13. 75 FR 1798 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of V-ATPase Inhibitor Compounds for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...osteoporosis, and Alzheimer's diseases. Briefly, vacuolar type (H+) ATPase (V-ATPase) has been described as ``a universal proton pump of eukaryotes''. V-ATPase is responsible for maintaining internal acidity and is important in myriad of...

  14. Electrostatic interactions in catalytic centers of F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnaya, Alexandra F.; Romanovsky, Yury M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2003-10-01

    F1-ATPase is one of the most important enzymes of membrane bioenergetics. F1-ATPase is the constituent complex that provides the ATP formation from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) at the expense of energy of electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions generated across the energy transducing mitochondrial, chloroplast or bacterial membrane. F1-ATPase is a reversible molecular machine that can work as a proton pump due to energy released in the course of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase reaction). The unusual feature of this enzyme is that it operates as a rotary molecular motor. Recently, using the fluorescence microscopy method for the real time visualization of molecular mobility of individual molecules, it was demonstrated directly that the ATP hydrolysis by F1-ATPase is accompanied by unidirectional rotations of mobile subunits (rotor) of F1F0-ATP synthase. In this work, we calculated the contribution of electrostatic interactions between charged groups of a substrate (MgATP), products molecules (MgADP and Pi), and charged amino acid residuals of ATPase molecule to the energy changes associated with the substrate binding and their chemical transformations in the catalytic centers located at the interface of ? and ? subunits of the enzyme (oligomer complex ?3?3? of bovine mitochondria ATPase). A catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis considered in our work includes conformational changes of ? and ? subunits caused by unidirectional rotations of an eccentric ? subunit. The knowledge of energy characteristics and force field in catalytic center of an enzyme in different conformational states may be important for further simulation dynamic properties of ATP synthase complex.

  15. Non-muscle myosins in tumor progression, cancer cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouderkirk, J. L.; Krendel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton, which regulates cell polarity, adhesion, and migration, can influence cancer progression, including initial acquisition of malignant properties by normal cells, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis to distant sites. Actin-dependent molecular motors, myosins, play key roles in regulating tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we examine how non-muscle myosins regulate neoplastic transformation and cancer cell migration and invasion. Members of the myosin superfamily can act as either enhancers or suppressors of tumor progression. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on how mutations or epigenetic changes in myosin genes and changes in myosin expression may affect tumor progression and patient outcomes and discusses the proposed mechanisms linking myosin inactivation or upregulation to malignant phenotype, cancer cell migration, and metastasis. PMID:25087729

  16. Stochastic force generation by small ensembles of myosin II motors

    E-print Network

    Thorsten Erdmann; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2012-02-14

    Forces in the actin cytoskeleton are generated by small groups of non-processive myosin II motors for which stochastic effects are highly relevant. Using a crossbridge model with the assumptions of fast powerstroke kinetics and equal load sharing between equivalent states, we derive a one-step master equation for the activity of a finite-sized ensemble of mechanically coupled myosin II motors. For constant external load, this approach yields analytical results for duty ratio and force-velocity relation as a function of ensemble size. We find that stochastic effects cannot be neglected for ensemble sizes below 15. The one-step master equation can be used also for efficient computer simulations with linear elastic external load and reveals the sequence of build-up of force and ensemble rupture that is characteristic for reconstituted actomyosin contractility.

  17. Evolution and Classification of Myosins, a Paneukaryotic Whole-Genome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Myosins are key components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, providing motility for a broad diversity of cargoes. Therefore, understanding the origin and evolutionary history of myosin classes is crucial to address the evolution of eukaryote cell biology. Here, we revise the classification of myosins using an updated taxon sampling that includes newly or recently sequenced genomes and transcriptomes from key taxa. We performed a survey of eukaryotic genomes and phylogenetic analyses of the myosin gene family, reconstructing the myosin toolkit at different key nodes in the eukaryotic tree of life. We also identified the phylogenetic distribution of myosin diversity in terms of number of genes, associated protein domains and number of classes in each taxa. Our analyses show that new classes (i.e., paralogs) and domain architectures were continuously generated throughout eukaryote evolution, with a significant expansion of myosin abundance and domain architectural diversity at the stem of Holozoa, predating the origin of animal multicellularity. Indeed, single-celled holozoans have the most complex myosin complement among eukaryotes, with paralogs of most myosins previously considered animal specific. We recover a dynamic evolutionary history, with several lineage-specific expansions (e.g., the myosin III-like gene family diversification in choanoflagellates), convergence in protein domain architectures (e.g., fungal and animal chitin synthase myosins), and important secondary losses. Overall, our evolutionary scheme demonstrates that the ancestral eukaryote likely had a complex myosin repertoire that included six genes with different protein domain architectures. Finally, we provide an integrative and robust classification, useful for future genomic and functional studies on this crucial eukaryotic gene family. PMID:24443438

  18. Stepwise Sliding of Single Actin and Myosin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiumei; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of sliding were explored in isolated actin and myosin filaments. Sliding occurs in steps. The steps are integer multiples of 2.7 nm, which is equal to the monomeric repeat along the actin filament. When filaments were forced to slide in the reverse direction, the size paradigm was the same. This size paradigm is parallel to that seen in the kinesin-microtubule system, where step size is an integer multiple of the tubulin repeat along the microtubule. PMID:14695277

  19. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K.

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  20. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Progress report, [July 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have evidence for at least nine myosin-like genes in Arbidopsis, six of which have been cloned by a PCR-based method from genomic DNA, two have been isolated by genomic DNA cloning, and four have been identified by cDNA cloning. Most of our attention has been focused on the four myosin genes for which we have cDNA clones, and these cDNAs have now been sequenced to completion. Each of these myosins is similar in overall structure, with each containing the characteristic myosin head (motor) domain, which possesses ATP- and actin-binding motifs, a series of IQ repeats, which may be involved in calmodulin binding, a domain with a high probability of forming an alpha-helical coiled-coil secondary structure, which may allow the polypeptides to form dimers, and a variable tail domain, which may serve to define the specific cellular component that each myosin interacts with. One of these myosin genes, called MYA1, displays structural similarity to class of myosins that includes the yeast MYO2, mouse Dilute, and chicken p190 proteins, and this group of myosins is thought to play a role in intracellular trafficking of organelles. Because MYA1 is similar to this interesting class of myosins, we have chosen to conduct detailed studies of MYA1.

  1. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human ?-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  2. Structural basis of cargo recognitions for class V myosins

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyi; Liu, Xiaotian; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Mingjie

    2013-01-01

    Class V myosins (MyoV), the most studied unconventional myosins, recognize numerous cargos mainly via the motor’s globular tail domain (GTD). Little is known regarding how MyoV-GTD recognizes such a diverse array of cargos specifically. Here, we solved the crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD in its apo-form and in complex with two distinct cargos, melanophilin and Rab interacting lysosomal protein-like 2. The apo-MyoVa-GTD structure indicates that most mutations found in patients with Griscelli syndrome, microvillus inclusion disease, or cancers or in “dilute” rodents likely impair the folding of GTD. The MyoVa-GTD/cargo complex structure reveals two distinct cargo-binding surfaces, one primarily via charge–charge interaction and the other mainly via hydrophobic interactions. Structural and biochemical analysis reveal the specific cargo-binding specificities of various isoforms of mammalian MyoV as well as very different cargo recognition mechanisms of MyoV between yeast and higher eukaryotes. The MyoVa-GTD structures resolved here provide a framework for future functional studies of vertebrate class V myosins. PMID:23798443

  3. Biochemistry of Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Haldeman, Brian D.; Jackson, Del; Carter, Mike; Baker, Jonathan E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2011-01-01

    The smooth muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a Ca2+-calmodulin-activated kinase that is found in many tissues. It is particularly important for regulating smooth muscle contraction by phosphorylation of myosin. This review summarizes selected aspects of recent biochemical work on MLCK that pertains to its function in smooth muscle. In general, the focus of the review is on new findings, unresolved issues, and areas with the potential for high physiological significance that need further study. The review includes a concise summary of the structure, substrates, and enzyme activity, followed by a discussion of the factors that may limit the effective activity of MLCK in the muscle. The interactions of each of the many domains of MLCK with the proteins of the contractile apparatus, and the multi-domain interactions of MLCK that may control its behaviors in the cell are summarized. Finally, new in vitro approaches to studying the mechanism of phosphorylation of myosin are introduced. PMID:21565153

  4. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  5. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the ?-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  6. Chaperones of F[subscript 1]-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, Anthony; Brunzelle, Joseph; Pribyl, Thomas; Xu, Xingjue; Gatti, Domenico L.; Ackerman, Sharon H.

    2009-09-25

    Mitochondrial F{sub 1}-ATPase contains a hexamer of alternating {alpha} and {beta} subunits. The assembly of this structure requires two specialized chaperones, Atp11p and Atp12p, that bind transiently to {beta} and {alpha}. In the absence of Atp11p and Atp12p, the hexamer is not formed, and {alpha} and {beta} precipitate as large insoluble aggregates. An early model for the mechanism of chaperone-mediated F{sub 1} assembly (Wang, Z. G., Sheluho, D., Gatti, D. L., and Ackerman, S. H. (2000) EMBO J. 19, 1486--1493) hypothesized that the chaperones themselves look very much like the {alpha} and {beta} subunits, and proposed an exchange of Atp11p for {alpha} and of Atp12p for {beta}; the driving force for the exchange was expected to be a higher affinity of {alpha} and {beta} for each other than for the respective chaperone partners. One important feature of this model was the prediction that as long as Atp11p is bound to {beta} and Atp12p is bound to {alpha}, the two F{sub 1} subunits cannot interact at either the catalytic site or the noncatalytic site interface. Here we present the structures of Atp11p from Candida glabrata and Atp12p from Paracoccus denitrificans, and we show that some features of the Wang model are correct, namely that binding of the chaperones to {alpha} and {beta} prevents further interactions between these F1 subunits. However, Atp11p and Atp12p do not resemble {alpha} or {beta}, and it is instead the F{sub 1} {gamma} subunit that initiates the release of the chaperones from {alpha} and {beta} and their further assembly into the mature complex.

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to the [alpha]- and [beta]-Subunits of the Plant Mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Horak, A.; Elthon, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have generated nine monoclonal antibodies against subunits of the maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondrial F1-ATPase. These monoclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing mice against maize mitochondrial fractions and randomly collecting useful hybridomas. To prove that these monoclonal antibodies were directed against ATPase subunits, we tested their cross-reactivity with purified F1-ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria. One of the antibodies ([alpha]-ATPaseD) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [alpha]-subunit and two ([beta]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseE) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [beta]-subunit. This established that, of the nine antibodies, four react with the maize [alpha]-ATPase subunit and the other five react with the maize [beta]-ATPase subunit. Most of the monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the F1-ATPase from a wide range of plant species. Each of the four monoclonal antibodies raised against the [alpha]-subunit recognizes a different epitope. Of the five [beta]-subunit antibodies, at least three different epitopes are recognized. Direct incubation of the monoclonal antibodies with the F1-ATPase failed to inhibit the ATPase activity. The monoclonal antibodies [alpha]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseD were bound to epoxide-glass QuantAffinity beads and incubated with a purified preparation of pea F1-ATPase. The ATPase activity was not inhibited when the antibodies bound the ATPase. The antibodies were used to help map the pea F1-ATPase subunits on a two-dimensional map of whole pea cotyledon mitochondrial protein. In addition, the antibodies have revealed antigenic similarities between various isoforms observed for the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the purified F1-ATPase. The specificity of these monoclonal antibodies, along with their cross-species recognition and their ability to bind the F1-ATPase without inhibiting enzymic function, makes these antibodies useful and invaluable tools for the further purification and characterization of plant mitochondrial F1-ATPases. PMID:12231744

  8. Developmental regulation of myosin gene expression in mouse cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the two isoforms of cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC), MHC alpha and MHC beta, in mammals is regulated postnatally by a variety of stimuli, including serum hormone levels. Less is known about the factors that regulate myosin gene expression in rapidly growing cardiac muscle in embryos. Using isoform-specific 35S-labeled cRNA probes corresponding to the two MHC genes and the two myosin alkali light chain (MLC) genes expressed in cardiac muscle, we have investigated the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of these different genes in the developing mouse heart by in situ hybridization. Between 7.5 and 8 d post coitum (p.c.), the newly formed cardiac tube begins to express MHC alpha, MHC beta, MLC1 atrial (MLC1A), and MLC1 ventricular (MLC1V) gene transcripts at high levels throughout the myocardium. As a distinct ventricular chamber forms between 8 and 9 d p.c., MHC beta mRNAs begin to be restricted to ventricular myocytes. This process is complete by 10.5 d p.c. During this time, MHC alpha mRNA levels decrease in ventricular muscle cells but continue to be expressed at high levels in atrial muscle cells. MHC alpha transcripts continue to decrease in ventricular myocytes until 16 d p.c., when they are detectable at low levels, but then increase, and finally replace MHC beta mRNAs in ventricular muscle by 7 d after birth. Like MHC beta, MLC1V transcripts become restricted to ventricular myocytes, but at a slower rate. MLC1V mRNAs continue to be detected at low levels in atrial cells until 15.5 d p.c. MLC1A mRNA levels gradually decrease but are still detectable in ventricular cells until a few days after birth. This dynamic pattern of changes in the myosin phenotype in the prenatal mouse heart suggests that there are different regulatory mechanisms for cell-specific expression of myosin isoforms during cardiac development. PMID:2277065

  9. Rotary catalysis of the stator ring of F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein in which 3 catalytic ?-subunits in a stator ?(3)?(3) ring undergo unidirectional and cooperative conformational changes to rotate the rotor ?-subunit upon adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. The prevailing view of the mechanism behind this rotary catalysis elevated the ?-subunit as a "dictator" completely controlling the chemical and conformational states of the 3 catalytic ?-subunits. However, our recent observations using high-speed atomic force microscopy clearly revealed that the 3 ?-subunits undergo cyclic conformational changes even in the absence of the rotor ?-subunit, thus dethroning it from its dictatorial position. Here, we introduce our results in detail and discuss the possible operating principle behind the F(1)-ATPase, along with structurally related hexameric ATPases, also mentioning the possibility of generating hybrid nanomotors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22465022

  10. Interaction of the mitochondrial ATPase complex with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, C; Bisson, R; Dabbeni-Sala, F; Pitotti, A; Gutweniger, H

    1980-11-10

    The interaction of bovine heart mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (Serrano, R., Kranner, B. L., and Racker, E. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 2453-2461) with phospholipids has been examined by labeling the subunits exposed to lipids with photoreactive radioactive phospholipids. A subunit of Mr = 29,000 and some polypeptides in the range of 6,000 to 13,000 daltons were labeled. F1-ATPase subunits did not interact with the photoactive probes. This result is compared with the different pattern of labeling obtained with another mitochondrial ATPase preparation (Galante, Y.M., Wong, S. Y., and Hatefi, Y. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 12372-12378), which is devoid of the 29,000 component. PMID:6448844

  11. Assaying P-Type ATPases Reconstituted in Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Damnjanovic, Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Reconstitution of P-type ATPases in unilamellar liposomes is a useful technique to study functional properties of these active ion transporters. Experiments with such liposomes provide an easy access to substrate-binding affinities of the ion pumps as well as to the lipid and temperature dependence of the pump current. Here, we describe two reconstitution methods by dialysis and the use of potential-sensitive fluorescence dyes to study transport properties of two P-type ATPases, the Na,K-ATPase from rabbit kidney and the K(+)-transporting KdpFABC complex from E. coli. Several techniques are introduced how the measured fluorescence signals may be analyzed to gain information on properties of the ion pumps. PMID:26695029

  12. Binding of sesquiterpene lactone inhibitors to the Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Wictome, M; Khan, Y M; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1995-09-15

    The mechanism of inhibition of the Ca(2+)-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum by the sesquiterpene lactones thapsigargin, trilobolide and thapsivillosin A (TvA) has been determined. A decrease in the affinity of the ATPase for Ca2+ is observed in the presence of the inhibitors (I), consistent with a shift in the E1/E2 equilibrium for the ATPase towards E2 forms. Amounts of inhibitor beyond a 1:1 molar ratio with ATPase produce no further decrease in affinity for Ca2+, inconsistent with the formation of a dead-end complex. Measurements of the rate of quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence of the ATPase by TvA are consistent with an association step to give E2I followed by an isomerization to a modified state E2AI. The kinetics of the reversal of the effects of TvA by Ca2+ at sub-stoichiometric amounts of TvA are bi-exponential, with a fast component whose rate is independent of TvA concentration and equal to the rate observed in the absence of TvA, and a slow component whose rate decreases with increasing TvA concentration. These observations are also consistent with the formation of a modified state E2AI following the initial binding of I to E2. The equilibrium constant E2AI/E2I increases in the order TvA < trilobolide < thapsigargin. The results suggest that the effects of the inhibitors on the overall ratio of E2 to E1 forms of the ATPase follow largely from the formation of E2AI from E2I, and that binding constants are very similar for E1Ca2, E1 and E2. PMID:7575419

  13. Binding of sesquiterpene lactone inhibitors to the Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Wictome, M; Khan, Y M; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of the Ca(2+)-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum by the sesquiterpene lactones thapsigargin, trilobolide and thapsivillosin A (TvA) has been determined. A decrease in the affinity of the ATPase for Ca2+ is observed in the presence of the inhibitors (I), consistent with a shift in the E1/E2 equilibrium for the ATPase towards E2 forms. Amounts of inhibitor beyond a 1:1 molar ratio with ATPase produce no further decrease in affinity for Ca2+, inconsistent with the formation of a dead-end complex. Measurements of the rate of quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence of the ATPase by TvA are consistent with an association step to give E2I followed by an isomerization to a modified state E2AI. The kinetics of the reversal of the effects of TvA by Ca2+ at sub-stoichiometric amounts of TvA are bi-exponential, with a fast component whose rate is independent of TvA concentration and equal to the rate observed in the absence of TvA, and a slow component whose rate decreases with increasing TvA concentration. These observations are also consistent with the formation of a modified state E2AI following the initial binding of I to E2. The equilibrium constant E2AI/E2I increases in the order TvA < trilobolide < thapsigargin. The results suggest that the effects of the inhibitors on the overall ratio of E2 to E1 forms of the ATPase follow largely from the formation of E2AI from E2I, and that binding constants are very similar for E1Ca2, E1 and E2. PMID:7575419

  14. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  15. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-03-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase ?1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  16. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P?ATPase ?1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P?ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle. PMID:25875448

  17. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride

    E-print Network

    Zulfiqar Ahmad

    Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride Zulfiqar activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride (MgFx) was studied. Wild-type F1-ATPase synthesis mechanism; Magnesium fluoride; ATPase inhibition; Transition state analog 1. Introduction ATP

  18. Allosteric Communication between Signal Peptides and the SecA Protein DEAD Motor ATPase Domain*

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    Allosteric Communication between Signal Peptides and the SecA Protein DEAD Motor ATPase Domain translocase ATPase is built of an amino-terminal DEAD helicase motor domain bound to a regulatory C-terminal 263 residues of the ATPase sub- domain of the DEAD motor are necessary and sufficient for high

  19. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  20. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M

    2015-11-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  1. Precipitation of solubilized Na+/K+-ATPase by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Esmann, M

    1988-05-01

    A method for preparation of membranous fragments of pure and highly active shark rectal gland Na+/K+-ATPase by Mn2+ precipitation of C12E8-solubilized enzyme is described. The method is rapid and inexpensive, and yields enzyme with a specific Na+/K+-ATPase activity of up to 1800 mumol/mg per h at 37 degrees C. The influence of the detergent/protein and lipid/protein ratios on the yield of membrane bound enzyme is described. PMID:2835103

  2. Differences in myosin composition between human oro-facial, masticatory and limb muscles: enzyme-, immunohisto- and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Stål, P; Eriksson, P O; Schiaffino, S; Butler-Browne, G S; Thornell, L E

    1994-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the myosin composition of defined fibre types of three embryologically different adult muscles, the oro-facial, masseter and limb muscles. In addition, the myosin composition in whole muscle specimens was analysed with biochemical methods. Both similarities and differences between muscles in the content of myosin heavy chains and myosin light chains were found. Nevertheless, each muscle had its own distinct identity. Our results indicated the presence of a previously undetected fast myosin heavy chain isoform in the oro-facial type II fibre population, tentatively termed 'fast F'. The masseter contained aberrant myosin isoforms, such as foetal myosin heavy chain and alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain and unique combinations of myosin heavy chain isoforms which were not found in the limb or oro-facial muscles. The type IM and IIC fibres coexpressed slow and fast A myosin heavy chains in the oro-facial and limb muscles but slow and a fast B like myosin heavy chain in the masseter. While single oro-facial and limb muscle fibres contained one or two myosin heavy chain types, single masseter fibres coexpressed up to four different myosin heavy chain isoforms. Describing the fibres according to their expression of myosin heavy chain isozymes, up to five fibre types could be distinguished in the oro-facial and limb muscles and eight in the masseter. Oro-facial and limb muscles expressed five myosin light chains, MLC1S, MLC2S, MLC1F, MLC2F and MLC3F, and the masseter four, MLC1S, MLC2S, MLC1F, and, in addition, an embryonic myosin light chain, MLC1emb, which is usually not present in normal adult skeletal muscle. These results probably reflect the way the muscles have evolved to meet the specialized functional requirements imposed upon them and are in agreement with the previously proposed concept that jaw and limb muscles belong to two distinct allotypes. PMID:7860700

  3. The case for a common ancestor: kinesin and myosin motor proteins and G proteins

    E-print Network

    Vale, Ronald D.

    of proteins can be a formidable task, especially if the proteins do not share common amino-acid sequencesThe case for a common ancestor: kinesin and myosin motor proteins and G proteins F. JON KULL1 , 2 and myosin, and possibly G proteins, are probably directly related via divergent evolution from a common core

  4. Participation of Myosin Va and Pka Type I in the Regeneration of Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Ira Verena; Strack, Siegfried; Reischl, Markus; Dahley, Oliver; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Kassel, Olivier; Zaccolo, Manuela; Rudolf, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Background The unconventional motor protein, myosin Va, is crucial for the development of the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in the early postnatal phase. Furthermore, the cooperative action of protein kinase A (PKA) and myosin Va is essential to maintain the adult NMJ. We here assessed the involvement of myosin Va and PKA in NMJ recovery during muscle regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings To address a putative role of myosin Va and PKA in the process of muscle regeneration, we used two experimental models the dystrophic mdx mouse and Notexin-induced muscle degeneration/regeneration. We found that in both systems myosin Va and PKA type I accumulate beneath the NMJs in a fiber maturation-dependent manner. Morphologically intact NMJs were found to express stable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and to accumulate myosin Va and PKA type I in the subsynaptic region. Subsynaptic cAMP signaling was strongly altered in dystrophic muscle, particularly in fibers with severely subverted NMJ morphology. Conclusions/Significance Our data show a correlation between the subsynaptic accumulation of myosin Va and PKA type I on the one hand and NMJ regeneration status and morphology, AChR stability and specificity of subsynaptic cAMP handling on the other hand. This suggests an important role of myosin Va and PKA type I for the maturation of NMJs in regenerating muscle. PMID:22815846

  5. Rigor to Post-Rigor Transition in Myosin V: Link between the Dynamics and the

    E-print Network

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    motors in which the chemical energy is efficiently converted to mechanical work. All known myosins, which into large scale conformational changes and mechanical work. Myosin family belongs to a class of molecular). The key struc- tural elements in the motor domain that control the allosteric communication and play

  6. Contribution of the myosin VI tail domain to processive stepping and intramolecular

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    -molecule gold nanoparticle tracking and optical trapping to examine the mechan- ism of coordination between. gating myo6 TIRF tweezers gold nanoparticle tracking Myosin VI uses the energy derived from ATP and anchor cellular substructures within the actin cytoske- leton (21). The myosin VI protein sequence C

  7. Protein Phosphatase 1 ? Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1?, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1?, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  8. Using fluorescent myosin to directly visualize cooperative activation of thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rama; Geeves, Michael A; Kad, Neil M

    2015-01-23

    Contraction of striated muscle is tightly regulated by the release and sequestration of calcium within myocytes. At the molecular level, calcium modulates myosin's access to the thin filament. Once bound, myosin is hypothesized to potentiate the binding of further myosins. Here, we directly image single molecules of myosin binding to and activating thin filaments. Using this approach, the cooperative binding of myosin along thin filaments has been quantified. We have found that two myosin heads are required to laterally activate a regulatory unit of thin filament. The regulatory unit is found to be capable of accommodating 11 additional myosins. Three thin filament activation states possessing differential myosin binding capacities are also visible. To describe this system, we have formulated a simple chemical kinetic model of cooperative activation that holds across a wide range of solution conditions. The stochastic nature of activation is strongly highlighted by data obtained in sub-optimal activation conditions where the generation of activation waves and their catastrophic collapse can be observed. This suggests that the thin filament has the potential to be turned fully on or off in a binary fashion. PMID:25429108

  9. Muscle and nonmuscle myosins probed by a spin label at equivalent sites in

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    site-directed spin labeling SDSL Myosin II is a motor enzyme involved in muscle contraction and cellMuscle and nonmuscle myosins probed by a spin label at equivalent sites in the force of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and §Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University

  10. Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1 Juan S. It has been difficult to determine the contribution of autoimmunity to tissue inflammation, because other severe autoimmune myocarditis. In this case, myosin-specific DTH and Ab production were significantly

  11. Heat-induced gelation of chicken Pectoralis major myosin and beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Vittayanont, M; Vega-Warner, V; Steffe, J F; Smith, D M

    2001-03-01

    The denaturation, aggregation, and rheological properties of chicken breast muscle myosin, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and mixed myosin/beta-LG solutions were studied in 0.6 M NaCl, 0.05 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, during heating. The endotherm of a mixture of myosin and beta-LG was identical to that expected if the endotherm of each protein was overlaid on the same axis. The maximum aggregation rate (AR(max)) increased, and the temperature at the AR(max) (T(max)) and initial aggregation temperature (T(o)) decreased as the concentration of both proteins was increased. The aggregation profile of <0.5% myosin was altered by the presence of 0.25% beta-LG. Addition of 0.5-3.0% beta-LG decreased storage moduli of 1% myosin between 55 and 75 degrees C, but increased storage moduli (G') when heated to 90 degrees C and after cooling. beta-LG had no effect on the gel point of > or =1.0% myosin, but enhanced gel strength when heated to 90 degrees C and after cooling. After cooling, the G' of 1% myosin/2%beta-LG gels was about 1.7 times greater than that of gels prepared from 2% myosin/1% beta-LG. PMID:11312900

  12. Role of Myosin Va in the Plasticity of the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Ira Verena; Petersen, Yvonne; Choi, Kyeong Rok; Witzemann, Veit; Hammer, John A.; Rudolf, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    Background Myosin Va is a motor protein involved in vesicular transport and its absence leads to movement disorders in humans (Griscelli and Elejalde syndromes) and rodents (e.g. dilute lethal phenotype in mice). We examined the role of myosin Va in the postsynaptic plasticity of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Methodology/Principal Findings Dilute lethal mice showed a good correlation between the propensity for seizures, and fragmentation and size reduction of NMJs. In an aneural C2C12 myoblast cell culture, expression of a dominant-negative fragment of myosin Va led to the accumulation of punctate structures containing the NMJ marker protein, rapsyn-GFP, in perinuclear clusters. In mouse hindlimb muscle, endogenous myosin Va co-precipitated with surface-exposed or internalised acetylcholine receptors and was markedly enriched in close proximity to the NMJ upon immunofluorescence. In vivo microscopy of exogenous full length myosin Va as well as a cargo-binding fragment of myosin Va showed localisation to the NMJ in wildtype mouse muscles. Furthermore, local interference with myosin Va function in live wildtype mouse muscles led to fragmentation and size reduction of NMJs, exclusion of rapsyn-GFP from NMJs, reduced persistence of acetylcholine receptors in NMJs and an increased amount of punctate structures bearing internalised NMJ proteins. Conclusions/Significance In summary, our data show a crucial role of myosin Va for the plasticity of live vertebrate neuromuscular junctions and suggest its involvement in the recycling of internalised acetylcholine receptors back to the postsynaptic membrane. PMID:19057648

  13. Inter-dependence of dimerization and organelle binding in myosin XI

    E-print Network

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    Inter-dependence of dimerization and organelle binding in myosin XI Jian-Feng Li* and Andreas filaments. These myosin motors bind to organelles through their C-terminal globular tail domain, although recent studies have also suggested a role for the central coiled-coil region during organelle binding

  14. Organelle Targeting of Myosin XI Is Mediated by Two Globular Tail Subdomains with Separate Cargo

    E-print Network

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    Organelle Targeting of Myosin XI Is Mediated by Two Globular Tail Subdomains with Separate Cargo 37996 Myosin XI are actin-based molecular motors that are thought to drive organelle movements in plants to organelles may occur via the globular tail domain in both types of motors, even though sequence sim- ilarity

  15. Filament-dependent and -independent Localization Modes of Drosophila Non-muscle Myosin II*S

    E-print Network

    Prehoda, Ken

    Filament-dependent and -independent Localization Modes of Drosophila Non-muscle Myosin II of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 Myosin II assembles into force-generating filaments through modulation of filament assembly and by targeting to appropriate cellular sites. Here we show

  16. Stability and Kinetic Properties of C5-Domain from Myosin Binding Protein C and its Mutants

    E-print Network

    Cecconi, Fabio

    Stability and Kinetic Properties of C5-Domain from Myosin Binding Protein C and its Mutants CarloR Firenze, Italy ABSTRACT The impact of three mutations of domain C5 from myosin binding protein C where folding originates. The scenario is also confirmed by the analysis of the kinetics of 27 test

  17. Myosin VIII regulates protonemal patterning and developmental timing in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Zon; Ritchie, Julie A; Pan, Ai-Hong; Quatrano, Ralph S; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2011-09-01

    Plants have two classes of myosins. While recent work has focused on class XI myosins showing that myosin XI is responsible for organelle motility and cytoplasmic streaming, much less is known about the role of myosin VIII in plant growth and development. We have used a combination of RNAi and insertional knockouts to probe myosin VIII function in the moss Physcomitrella patens. We isolated ?myo8ABCDE plants demonstrating that myosin VIII is not required for plant viability. However, myosin VIII mutants are smaller than wild-type plants in part due to a defect in cell size. Additionally, ?myo8ABCDE plants produce more side branches and form gametophores much earlier than wild-type plants. In the absence of nutrient media, ?myo8ABCDE plants exhibit significant protonemal patterning defects, including highly curved protonemal filaments, morphologically defective side branches, as well as an increase in the number of branches. Exogenous auxin partially rescues protonemal defects in ?myo8ABCDE plants grown in the absence of nutrients. This result, together with defects in protonemal branching, smaller caulonemal cells, and accelerated development in the ?myo8ABCDE plants, suggests that myosin VIII is involved in hormone homeostasis in P. patens. PMID:21873296

  18. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  19. Structure of the S100A4/myosin-IIA complex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background S100A4, a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, modulates the motility of both non-transformed and cancer cells by regulating the localization and stability of cellular protrusions. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that S100A4 binds to the C-terminal end of the myosin-IIA heavy chain coiled-coil and disassembles myosin-IIA filaments; however, the mechanism by which S100A4 mediates myosin-IIA depolymerization is not well understood. Results We determined the X-ray crystal structure of the S100A4?8C/MIIA1908-1923 peptide complex, which showed an asymmetric binding mode for the myosin-IIA peptide across the S100A4 dimer interface. This asymmetric binding mode was confirmed in NMR studies using a spin-labeled myosin-IIA peptide. In addition, our NMR data indicate that S100A4?8C binds the MIIA1908-1923 peptide in an orientation very similar to that observed for wild-type S100A4. Studies of complex formation using a longer, dimeric myosin-IIA construct demonstrated that S100A4 binding dissociates the two myosin-IIA polypeptide chains to form a complex composed of one S100A4 dimer and a single myosin-IIA polypeptide chain. This interaction is mediated, in part, by the instability of the region of the myosin-IIA coiled-coil encompassing the S100A4 binding site. Conclusion The structure of the S100A4/MIIA1908-1923 peptide complex has revealed the overall architecture of this assembly and the detailed atomic interactions that mediate S100A4 binding to the myosin-IIA heavy chain. These structural studies support the idea that residues 1908–1923 of the myosin-IIA heavy chain represent a core sequence for the S100A4/myosin-IIA complex. In addition, biophysical studies suggest that structural fluctuations within the myosin-IIA coiled-coil may facilitate S100A4 docking onto a single myosin-IIA polypeptide chain. PMID:24252706

  20. In vivo orientation of single myosin lever arms in zebrafish skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C; Shelden, Eric A; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2014-09-16

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1/GFP coordination. Lever arms in both muscles indicated one preferred spherical polar orientation and widely distributed azimuthal orientations relative to the fiber symmetry axis. Cardiac myosin is more radially displaced from the fiber axis. Probe rigidity implies the PAGFP tag reliably indicates cross-bridge orientation in situ and in vivo. PMID:25229148

  1. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1/GFP coordination. Lever arms in both muscles indicated one preferred spherical polar orientation and widely distributed azimuthal orientations relative to the fiber symmetry axis. Cardiac myosin is more radially displaced from the fiber axis. Probe rigidity implies the PAGFP tag reliably indicates cross-bridge orientation in situ and in vivo. PMID:25229148

  2. Cardiac Myosin Activation: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Fady I.; Hartman, James J.; Elias, Kathleen A.; Morgan, Bradley P.; Rodriguez, Hector; Brejc, Katjuša; Anderson, Robert L.; Sueoka, Sandra H.; Lee, Kenneth H.; Finer, Jeffrey T.; Sakowicz, Roman; Baliga, Ramesh; Cox, David R.; Garard, Marc; Godinez, Guillermo; Kawas, Raja; Kraynack, Erica; Lenzi, David; Lu, Pu Ping; Muci, Alexander; Niu, Congrong; Qian, Xiangping; Pierce, Daniel W.; Pokrovskii, Maria; Suehiro, Ion; Sylvester, Sheila; Tochimoto, Todd; Valdez, Corey; Wang, Wenyue; Katori, Tatsuo; Kass, David A.; Shen, You-Tang; Vatner, Stephen F.; Morgans, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Decreased cardiac contractility is a central feature of systolic heart failure. Existing drugs increase cardiac contractility indirectly through signaling cascades but are limited by their mechanism-related adverse effects. To avoid these limitations, we previously developed omecamtiv mecarbil, a small-molecule, direct activator of cardiac myosin. Here, we show it binds to the myosin catalytic domain and operates by an allosteric mechanism to increase the transition rate of myosin into the strongly actin-bound force-generating state. Paradoxically, it inhibits adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) turnover in the absence of actin, which suggests that it stabilizes an actin-bound conformation of myosin. In animal models, omecamtiv mecarbil increases cardiac function by increasing the duration of ejection without changing the rates of contraction. Cardiac myosin activation may provide a new therapeutic approach for systolic heart failure. PMID:21415352

  3. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  4. The Connection Between Actin ATPase and Polymerization Herwig Schuler,1

    E-print Network

    Crystal IV. Interdomain Connectivity in Actin V. Actin ATPASE A. Monomeric Actin Hydrolyzes ATP B. Polymer Formation and ATP Hydrolysis C. The Actin­ATP/ADPPi Cap VI. Mechanism of ATP Hydrolysis on Actin A. Active necessary for many types of dynamic cellular transport processes. As part of the energytransducing mechanism

  5. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB -type Cu(+)-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu(+) across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu(+)-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu(+) recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu(+)-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu(+) is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  6. Unconventional myosin ID is expressed in myelinating oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Reiji; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Baba, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide

    2014-10-01

    Myelin is a dynamic multilamellar structure that ensheathes axons and is crucial for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes that wrap many layers of plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we found that myosin ID (Myo1d), a class I myosin, is enriched in the rat CNS myelin fraction. Myo1d is an unconventional myosin and has been shown to be involved in membrane trafficking in the recycling pathway in an epithelial cell line. Western blotting revealed that Myo1d expression begins early in myelinogenesis and continues to increase into adulthood. The localization of Myo1d in CNS myelin has not been reported, and the function of Myo1d in vivo remains unknown. To demonstrate the expression of Myo1d in CNS myelin and to begin to explore the function of Myo1d in myelination, we produced a new antibody against Myo1d that has a high titer and specificity for rat Myo1d. By using this antibody, we demonstrated that Myo1d is expressed in rat CNS myelin and is especially abundant in abaxonal and adaxonal regions (the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops, respectively), but that expression is low in peripheral nervous system myelin. In culture, Myo1d was expressed in mature rat oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, an increase in expression of Myo1d during maturation of CNS white matter (cerebellum and corpus callosum) was demonstrated by histological analysis. These results suggest that Myo1d may be involved in the formation and/or maintenance of CNS myelin. PMID:24903835

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Protects Erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase Against Oxidative Induced Damage During Aging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative damage in erythrocyte during aging in humans. Methods: Human erythrocyte membrane bound Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase activities were determined as a function of human age. Protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate was evaluated by in vitro experiments by adding epigallocatechin-3-gallate in concentration dependent manner (final concentration range 10-7M to 10-4M) to the enzyme assay medium. Oxidative stress was induced in vitro by incubating washed erythrocyte ghosts with tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (10-5 M final concentration). Results: We have reported concentration dependent effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced damage on activities of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase during aging in humans. We have detected a significant (p < 0.001) decreased activity of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+ -ATPase as a function of human age. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protected ATPases against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced damage in concentration dependent manner during aging in humans. Conclusion: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a powerful antioxidant that is capable of protecting erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+ -ATPase against oxidative stress during aging in humans. We may propose hypothesis that a high intake of catechin rich diet may provide some protection against development of aging and age related diseases. PMID:25364660

  8. Selective delipidation of the plasma membrane by surfactants: Enrichment of sterols and activation of ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P.; Cleland, R. Univ. of Washington, Seattle )

    1989-08-01

    The influence of plasma membrane lipid components on the activity of the H{sup +}-ATPase has been studied by determining the effect of surfactants on membrane lipids and ATPase activity of oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membrane vesicles purified by a two-phase partitioning procedure. Triton X-100, at 25 to 1 (weight/weight) Triton to plasma membrane protein, an amount that causes maximal activation of the ATPase in the ATPase assay, extracted 59% of the membrane protein but did not solubilize the bulk of the ATPase. The Triton-insoluble proteins had associated with them, on a micromole per milligram protein basis, only 14% as much phospholipid, but 38% of the glycolipids and sterols, as compared with the native membranes. The Triton insoluble ATPase could still be activated by Triton X-100. When solubilized by lysolecithin, there were still sterols associated with the ATPase fraction. Free sterols were found associated with the ATPase in the same relative proportions, whether treated with surfactants or not. We suggest that surfactants activate the ATPase by altering the hydrophobic environment around the enzyme. We propose that sterols, through their interaction with the ATPase, may be essential for ATPase activity.

  9. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A.

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ? Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ? Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ? First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  10. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  11. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life. PMID:25072053

  12. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life. PMID:25072053

  13. Active Uptake of Ca++ and Ca++-Activated Mg++ ATPase in Red Cell Membrane Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young N.; Shin, Bak C.; Lee, Kwang S.

    1971-01-01

    Isolated human red blood cell membrane fragments (RBCMF) were found to take up Ca++ in the presence of ATP.1 This ATP-dependent Ca++ uptake by RBCMF appears to be the manifestation of an active Ca++ transport mechanism in the red cell membrane reported previously (Schatzmann, 1966; Lee and Shin, 1969). The influences of altering experimental conditions on Ca++-stimulated Mg++ ATPase (Ca++ ATPase) and Ca++ uptake of RBCMF were studied. It was found that pretreatment of RBCMF at 50°C abolished both Ca++ ATPase and Ca++ uptake. Pretreatment of RBCMF with phospholipases A and C decreased both Ca++ ATPase and Ca++ uptake, whereas pretreatment with phospholipase D did not significantly alter either Ca++ ATPase or Ca++ uptake. Both Ca++ ATPase and Ca++ uptake had ATP specificity, similar optimum pH's, and optimum incubation temperatures. From these results, it was concluded that Ca++ uptake is intimately linked to Ca++ ATPase. PMID:5543418

  14. Motor-Driven Dynamics in Actin-Myosin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Loïc; Amblard, François; Furst, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of myosin motor protein activity on the filamentous actin (F-actin) rheological response is studied using diffusing wave spectroscopy. Under conditions of saturating motor activity, we find an enhancement of longitudinal filament fluctuations corresponding to a scaling of the viscoelastic shear modulus Gd(?)~?7/8. As the adenosine tri-phosphate reservoir sustaining motor activity is depleted, we find an abrupt transient to a passive, ``rigor state'' and a return to dissipation dominated by transverse filament modes. Single-filament measurements of the apparent persistence length support the notion that motor activity leads to an increase in the effective temperature for tangential motion.

  15. Effect of pH on the rate of myosin head detachment in molluscan catch muscle: are myosin heads involved in the catch state?

    PubMed

    Höpflinger, Marion Christine; Andruchova, Olena; Andruchov, Oleg; Grassberger, Herbert; Galler, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Moderate alkalisation is known to terminate the catch state of bivalve mollusc smooth muscles such as the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis L. In the present study, we investigated the effect of moderate alkalisation (pH 7.2-7.7 vs control pH 6.7) on the myosin head detachment rate in saponin-skinned fibre bundles of ABRM in order to investigate the possible role of myosin heads in the force maintenance during catch. The detachment rate of myosin heads was deduced from two types of experiments. (1) In stretch experiments on maximally Ca2+-activated fibre bundles (pCa 4.5), the rate of force decay after stepwise stretch was assessed. (2) In ATP step experiments, the rate of force decay from high force rigor (pCa>8) was evaluated. The ATP step was induced by photolysis of caged ATP. We found that moderate alkalisation induces relaxation of skinned fibres in catch, thereby reducing both force and stiffness, whereas it does not accelerate the rate of myosin head detachment. This acceleration, however, would be expected if catch would be simply due to myosin heads remaining sustainably attached to actin filaments. Thus, the myosin heads may be less involved in catch than generally assumed. Catch may possibly depend on a different kind of myofilament interconnections, which are abolished by moderate alkalisation. PMID:16449561

  16. Evolutionary appearance of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase containing a penultimate threonine in the bryophyte

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Masaki; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase provides the driving force for solute transport via an electrochemical gradient of H+ across the plasma membrane, and regulates pH homeostasis and membrane potential in plant cells. However, the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in non-vascular plant bryophyte is largely unknown. Here, we show that the moss Physcomitrella patens, which is known as a model bryophyte, expresses both the penultimate Thr-containing H+-ATPase (pT H+-ATPase) and non-pT H+-ATPase as in the green algae, and that pT H+-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation of its penultimate Thr. A search in the P. patens genome database revealed seven H+-ATPase genes, designated PpHA (Physcomitrella patens H+-ATPase). Six isoforms are the pT H+-ATPase; a remaining isoform is non-pT H+-ATPase. An apparent 95-kD protein was recognized by anti-H+-ATPase antibodies against an isoform of Arabidopsis thaliana and was phosphorylated on the penultimate Thr in response to a fungal toxin fusicoccin and light in protonemata, indicating that the 95-kD protein contains pT H+-ATPase. Furthermore, we could not detect the pT H+-ATPase in the charophyte alga Chara braunii, which is the closest relative of the land plants, by immunological methods. These results strongly suggest the pT H+-ATPase most likely appeared for the first time in bryophyte. PMID:22836495

  17. Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length

    PubMed Central

    Suggs, Jennifer A.; Cammarato, Anthony; Kronert, William A.; Nikkhoy, Massoud; Dambacher, Corey M.; Megighian, Aram; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) rod domains intertwine to form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers; these subsequently multimerize into thick filaments via electrostatic interactions. The subfragment 2/light meromyosin “hinge” region of the MHC rod, located in the C-terminal third of heavy meromyosin, may form a less stable coiled-coil than flanking regions. Partial “melting” of this region has been proposed to result in a helix to random-coil transition. A portion of the Drosophila melanogaster MHC hinge is encoded by mutually exclusive alternative exons 15a and 15b, the use of which correlates with fast (hinge A) or slow (hinge B) muscle physiological properties. To test the functional significance of alternative hinge regions, we constructed transgenic fly lines in which fast muscle isovariant hinge A was switched for slow muscle hinge B in the MHC isoforms of indirect flight and jump muscles. Substitution of the slow muscle hinge B impaired flight ability, increased sarcomere lengths by approximately 13% and resulted in minor disruption to indirect flight muscle sarcomeric structure compared with a transgenic control. With age, residual flight ability decreased rapidly and myofibrils developed peripheral defects. Computational analysis indicates that hinge B has a greater coiled-coil propensity and thus reduced flexibility compared to hinge A. Intriguingly, the MHC rod with hinge B was ~5 nm longer than myosin with hinge A, consistent with the more rigid coiled-coil conformation predicted for hinge B. Our study demonstrates that hinge B cannot functionally substitute for hinge A in fast muscle types, likely as a result of differences in the molecular structure of the rod, subtle changes in myofibril structure and decreased ability to maintain sarcomere structure in indirect flight muscle myofibrils. Thus alternative hinges are important in dictating the distinct functional properties of myosin isoforms and the muscles in which they are expressed. PMID:17316684

  18. Direct localization of monoclonal antibody-binding sites on Acanthamoeba myosin-II and inhibition of filament formation by antibodies that bind to specific sites on the myosin-II tail

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Electron microscopy of myosin-II molecules and filaments reacted with monoclonal antibodies demonstrates directly where the antibodies bind and shows that certain antibodies can inhibit the polymerization of myosin-II into filaments. The binding sites of seven of 23 different monoclonal antibodies were localized by platinum shadowing of myosin monomer-antibody complexes. The antibodies bind to a variety of sites on the myosin-II molecule, including the heads, the proximal end of the tail near the junction of the heads and tail, and the tip of the tail. The binding sites of eight of the 23 antibodies were also localized on myosin filaments by negative staining. Antibodies that bind to either the myosin heads or to the proximal end of the tail decorate the ends of the bipolar filaments. Some of the antibodies that bind to the tip of the myosin-II tail decorate the bare zone of the myosin-II thin filament with 14-nm periodicity. By combining the data from these electron microscope studies and the peptide mapping and competitive binding studies we have established the binding sites of 16 of 23 monoclonal antibodies. Two of the 23 antibodies block the formation of myosin-II filaments and given sufficient time, disassemble preformed myosin-II filaments. Both antibodies bind near one another at the tip of the myosin-II tail and are those that decorate the bare zone of preformed bipolar filaments with 14-nm periodicity. None of the other antibodies affect myosin filament formation, including one that binds to another site near the tip of the myosin-II tail. This demonstrates that antibodies can inhibit polymerization of myosin-II, but only when they bind to key sites on the tail of the molecule. PMID:6206074

  19. In vitro motility assays and single molecule analyses reveal functional structural transitions in the molecular motor myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudich, James

    2010-03-01

    The molecular basis of how myosin motors work has been significantly advanced by laser trap and other single molecule studies of myosins V and VI. Myosin V moves processively by stepping arm-over-arm, walking along the 36-nm pseudo-repeat of an actin filament by swinging its long lever arms through an angle of ˜70 ^o, and hydrolyzing one ATP per step. Compared to the laser trap, we have improved time resolution to submilliseconds by tracking single gold nanoparticle-myosin V conjugates using darkfield imaging, and have directly observed the behavior of the unbound head as the motor translocates. We have also developed a technique called single-molecule high resolution co-localization (SHREC), which allows simultaneous co-localization of two chromatically differing fluorophores only 10 nm apart. We used SHREC to directly observe myosin V molecules walking hand-over-hand. Myosin VI, a considerably different myosin family member, has been the biggest challenge to the lever arm hypothesis of myosin movement. It has a very short light chain binding domain (the conventional lever arm). Nevertheless, the molecule surprisingly steps processively 36 nm along an actin filament. Furthermore, myosin VI moves in the opposite direction to that of myosin II and myosin V. We now understand how this marvelous molecular motor achieves these feats.

  20. Myosin Vc Interacts with Rab32 and Rab38 Proteins and Works in the Biogenesis and Secretion of Melanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Boyle, Judith A.; Malenke, Parker B.; Martin, Faye E.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Cheney, Richard E.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2014-01-01

    Class V myosins are actin-based motors with conserved functions in vesicle and organelle trafficking. Herein we report the discovery of a function for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis as an effector of melanosome-associated Rab GTPases. We isolated Myosin Vc in a yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with Rab38, a Rab protein involved in the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles. Rab38 and its close homolog Rab32 bind to Myosin Vc but not to Myosin Va or Myosin Vb. Binding depends on residues in the switch II region of Rab32 and Rab38 and regions of the Myosin Vc coiled-coil tail domain. Myosin Vc also interacts with Rab7a and Rab8a but not with Rab11, Rab17, and Rab27. Although Myosin Vc is not particularly abundant on pigmented melanosomes, its knockdown in MNT-1 melanocytes caused defects in the trafficking of integral membrane proteins to melanosomes with substantially increased surface expression of Tyrp1, nearly complete loss of Tyrp2, and significant Vamp7 mislocalization. Knockdown of Myosin Vc in MNT-1 cells more than doubled the abundance of pigmented melanosomes but did not change the number of unpigmented melanosomes. Together the data demonstrate a novel role for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis and secretion. PMID:25324551

  1. Design principles governing the motility of myosin V

    E-print Network

    Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2013-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin V exhibits a wide repertoire of pathways during the stepping process, which is intimately connected to its biological function. The best understood of these is hand-over-hand stepping by a swinging lever arm movement toward the plus-end of actin filaments, essential to its role as a cellular transporter. However, single-molecule experiments have also shown that the motor "foot stomps", with one hand detaching and rebinding to the same site, and backsteps under sufficient load. Explaining the complete taxonomy of myosin V's load-dependent stepping pathways, and the extent to which these are constrained by motor structure and mechanochemistry, are still open questions. Starting from a polymer model, we develop an analytical theory to understand the minimal physical properties that govern motor dynamics. In particular, we solve the first-passage problem of the head reaching the target binding site, investigating the competing effects of load pulling back at the motor, strain in the lea...

  2. High-resolution helix orientation in actin-bound myosin determined with a bifunctional spin label.

    PubMed

    Binder, Benjamin P; Cornea, Sinziana; Thompson, Andrew R; Moen, Rebecca J; Thomas, David D

    2015-06-30

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a bifunctional spin label (BSL) bound stereospecifically to Dictyostelium myosin II, we determined with high resolution the orientation of individual structural elements in the catalytic domain while myosin is in complex with actin. BSL was attached to a pair of engineered cysteine side chains four residues apart on known ?-helical segments, within a construct of the myosin catalytic domain that lacks other reactive cysteines. EPR spectra of BSL-myosin bound to actin in oriented muscle fibers showed sharp three-line spectra, indicating a well-defined orientation relative to the actin filament axis. Spectral analysis indicated that orientation of the spin label can be determined within <2.1° accuracy, and comparison with existing structural data in the absence of nucleotide indicates that helix orientation can also be determined with <4.2° accuracy. We used this approach to examine the crucial ADP release step in myosin's catalytic cycle and detected reversible rotations of two helices in actin-bound myosin in response to ADP binding and dissociation. One of these rotations has not been observed in myosin-only crystal structures. PMID:26056276

  3. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects

    PubMed Central

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B.; Krenc, Agata K.; Meyers, David J.; Rock, Ronald S.; Anders, Robert A.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  4. PAR-4 and anillin regulate myosin to coordinate spindle and furrow position during asymmetric division.

    PubMed

    Pacquelet, Anne; Uhart, Perrine; Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-09-28

    During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate furrow and spindle positions during asymmetric division. In Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos, myosin localizes at the anterior cortex whereas the mitotic spindle localizes toward the posterior. We find that PAR-4/LKB1 impinges on myosin via two pathways, an anillin-dependent pathway that also responds to the cullin CUL-5 and an anillin-independent pathway involving the kinase PIG-1/MELK. In the absence of both PIG-1/MELK and the anillin ANI-1, myosin accumulates at the anterior cortex and induces a strong displacement of the furrow toward the anterior, which can lead to DNA segregation defects. Regulation of asymmetrically localized myosin is thus critical to ensure that furrow and spindle midzone positions coincide throughout cytokinesis. PMID:26416962

  5. Involvement of myosin light-chain kinase in endothelial cell retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wysolmerski, R.B.; Lagunoff, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were used to investigate the mechanism of endothelial cell retraction. Postconfluent endothelial cells permeabilized with saponin retracted upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}. Retraction was accompanied by thiophosphorylation of 19,000-Da myosin light chains when adenosine 5'-(gamma-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate was included in the medium. Both retraction and thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains exhibited a graded quantitative dependence on Ca{sup 2+}. When permeabilized monolayers were extracted in buffer D containing 100 mM KCl and 30 mM MgCl2 for 30 min, the cells failed to retract upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}, and no thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains occurred. The ability both to retract and to thiophosphorylate myosin light chains was restored by the addition to the permeabilized, extracted cells of myosin light-chain kinase and calmodulin together but not by either alone. These studies indicate that endothelial cell retraction, as does smooth muscle contraction, depends on myosin light-chain kinase phosphorylation of myosin light chains.

  6. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  7. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  8. A novel type of myosin implicated in signalling by rho family GTPases.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, J; Scheel, A A; Diekmann, D; Hall, A; Ruppert, C; Bähler, M

    1995-01-01

    A novel widely expressed type of myosin (fifth unconventional myosin from rat: myr 5) from rat tissues, defining a ninth class of myosins, was identified. The predicted amino acid sequence of myr 5 exhibits several features not found previously in myosins. The myosin head domain contains a unique N-terminal extension and an insertion of 120 amino acids at a postulated myosin-actin contact site. Nevertheless, myr 5 is able to bind actin filaments in an ATP-regulated manner. The head domain is followed by four putative light chain binding sites. The tail domain of myr 5 contains a region which coordinates two atoms of zinc followed by a region that stimulates GTP hydrolysis of members of the ras-related rho subfamily of small G-proteins. Myr 5 therefore provides the first direct link between rho GTPases which have been implicated in the regulation of actin organization and the actin cytoskeleton. It is also the first unconventional myosin for which a tail binding partner(s), namely members of the rho family, has been identified. Images PMID:7882973

  9. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics. PMID:25956244

  10. Ubiquitination Participates in the Lysosomal Degradation of Na,K-ATPase in Steady-State Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lecuona, Emilia; Sun, Haiying; Vohwinkel, Christine; Ciechanover, Aaron; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2009-01-01

    The alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) Na,K-ATPase contributes to vectorial Na+ transport and plays an important role in keeping the lungs free of edema. We determined, by cell surface labeling with biotin and immunofluorescence, that approximately 30% of total Na,K-ATPase is at the plasma membrane of AEC in steady-state conditions. The half-life of the plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase was about 4 hours, and the incorporation of new Na,K-ATPase to the plasma membrane was Brefeldin A sensitive. Both protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition with bisindolylmaleimide (10 ?M) and infection with an adenovirus expressing dominant-negative PKC? prevented Na,K-ATPase degradation. In cells expressing the Na,K-ATPase ?1-subunit lacking the PKC phosphorylation sites, the plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase had a moderate increase in half-life. We also found that the Na,K-ATPase was ubiquitinated in steady-state conditions and that proteasomal inhibitors prevented its degradation. Interestingly, mutation of the four lysines described to be necessary for ubiquitination and endocytosis of the Na,K-ATPase in injurious conditions did not have an effect on its half-life in steady-state conditions. Lysosomal inhibitors prevented Na,K-ATPase degradation, and co-localization of Na,K-ATPase and lysosomes was found after labeling and chasing the plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase for 4 hours. Accordingly, we provide evidence suggesting that phosphorylation and ubiquitination are necessary for the steady-state degradation of the plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase in the lysosomes in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:19286978

  11. Myosin-Va and Dynamic Actin Oppose Microtubules to Drive Long-Range Organelle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard D.; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A.; Tooth, David J.; Ramalho, Jose S.; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively [1–8]. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 ?m). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the “highways and local roads” model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks [2]. The “cooperative capture” model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering [5, 9]. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning [10, 11]. PMID:25065759

  12. The Role of Structural Dynamics of Actin in Class-Specific Myosin Motility

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Taro Q. P.; Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Iwane, Atsuko H.; Yanagida, Toshio; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2015-01-01

    The structural dynamics of actin, including the tilting motion between the small and large domains, are essential for proper interactions with actin-binding proteins. Gly146 is situated at the hinge between the two domains, and we previously showed that a G146V mutation leads to severe motility defects in skeletal myosin but has no effect on motility of myosin V. The present study tested the hypothesis that G146V mutation impaired rotation between the two domains, leading to such functional defects. First, our study showed that depolymerization of G146V filaments was slower than that of wild-type filaments. This result is consistent with the distinction of structural states of G146V filaments from those of the wild type, considering the recent report that stabilization of actin filaments involves rotation of the two domains. Next, we measured intramolecular FRET efficiencies between two fluorophores in the two domains with or without skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin or the heavy meromyosin equivalent of myosin V in the presence of ATP. Single-molecule FRET measurements showed that the conformations of actin subunits of control and G146V actin filaments were different in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin. This altered conformation of G146V subunits may lead to motility defects in myosin II. In contrast, distributions of FRET efficiencies of control and G146V subunits were similar in the presence of myosin V, consistent with the lack of motility defects in G146V actin with myosin V. The distribution of FRET efficiencies in the presence of myosin V was different from that in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin, implying that the roles of actin conformation in myosin motility depend on the type of myosin. PMID:25945499

  13. Thermodynamic evidence of non-muscle myosin II-lipid-membrane interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schewkunow, Vitali; Sharma, Karan P.; Diez, Gerold; Klemm, Anna H.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2008-02-08

    A unique feature of protein networks in living cells is that they can generate their own force. Proteins such as non-muscle myosin II are an integral part of the cytoskeleton and have the capacity to convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into directional movement. Non-muscle myosin II can move actin filaments against each other, and depending on the orientation of the filaments and the way in which they are linked together, it can produce contraction, bending, extension, and stiffening. Our measurements with differential scanning calorimetry showed that non-muscle myosin II inserts into negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Using lipid vesicles made of DMPG/DMPC at a molar ratio of 1:1 at 10 mg/ml in the presence of different non-muscle myosin II concentrations showed a variation of the main phase transition of the lipid vesicle at around 23 deg. C. With increasing concentrations of non-muscle myosin II the thermotropic properties of the lipid vesicle changed, which is indicative of protein-lipid interaction/insertion. We hypothesize that myosin tail binds to acidic phospholipids through an electrostatic interaction using the basic side groups of positive residues; the flexible, amphipathic helix then may partially penetrate into the bilayer to form an anchor. Using the stopped-flow method, we determined the binding affinity of non-muscle myosin II when anchored to lipid vesicles with actin, which was similar to a pure actin-non-muscle myosin II system. Insertion of myosin tail into the hydrophobic region of lipid membranes, a model known as the lever arm mechanism, might explain how its interaction with actin generates cellular movement.

  14. An Introduction to P-type ATPase Research.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases account for a major proportion of energy consumption in the cell by maintaining electrochemical gradients for key cations and heavy metals as well as asymmetric distributions of lipids in bilayer membranes. They represent a long history of biochemical and biophysical research, but the field is also embracing novel approaches to expand our knowledge of their mechanism of action and of the integration of their function into advanced networks that define molecular physiology, behavior and disease. PMID:26695016

  15. No effect of twitchin phosphorylation on the rate of myosin head detachment in molluscan catch muscle: are myosin heads involved in the catch state?

    PubMed

    Andruchova, Olena; Höpflinger, Marion Christine; Andruchov, Oleg; Galler, Stefan

    2005-08-01

    Phosphorylation of twitchin is known to abolish the catch state of anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. To investigate the role of myosin head involvement in force maintenance during catch, the effect of twitchin phosphorylation on myosin head detachment was studied in saponin-skinned fibre bundles of ABRM. The detachment rate of myosin heads was deduced from two types of experiments: (1) force decay after stepwise stretch of maximally Ca2+-activated fibre bundles (pCa 4.5) and (2) force decay from high-force rigor, the former induced by a stepwise increase in ATP concentration elicited by photolysis of caged ATP (pCa<8). The rate of detachment was not affected by thiophosphorylation or phosphorylation of twitchin by 0.12 mM cAMP in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitor cyclosporine A (1 microM). Conversely, measurements of the rate of stretch-induced delayed force increase (stretch activation) and of the force increase following an ATP step in low-force rigor (pCa 4.5) suggest that the rate of myosin head attachment decreases after twitchin phosphorylation. We conclude that catch is not due to myosin heads remaining attached to actin filaments, but depends on myofilament interconnections that break down when twitchin is phosphorylated. PMID:15952034

  16. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination are necessary for Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Laura A.; Welch, Lynn C.; Zhou, Guofei; Ben-Saadon, Ronen; Ciechanover, Aaron; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2007-01-01

    As a cellular adaptative response, hypoxia decreases Na,K-ATPase activity by triggering the endocytosis of its ?1 subunit in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we present evidence that the ubiquitin conjugating system is important in the Na,K-ATPase endocytosis during hypoxia and ubiquitination of Na,K-ATPase ?1 subunit occurs at the basolateral membrane. Endocytosis and ubiquitination were prevented when the Ser 18 in the PKC phosphorylation motif of the Na,K-ATPase ?1 subunit was mutated to an alanine, suggesting that phosphorylation at Ser-18 is required for ubiquitination. Mutation of the four lysines surrounding Ser 18 to arginine prevented Na,K-ATPase ubiquitination and endocytosis during hypoxia; however, only one of them was sufficient to restore hypoxia-induced endocytosis. We provide evidence that ubiquitination plays an important role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia by regulating Na,K-ATPase ?1-subunit endocytosis. PMID:17532187

  17. Phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit of Na+,K(+)-ATPase inhibits the activity of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bertorello, A M; Aperia, A; Walaas, S I; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

    1991-12-15

    We have examined two distinct protein kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, for their ability to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of three different types of Na+,K(+)-ATPase preparation. cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylated purified shark rectal gland Na+,K(+)-ATPase to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha subunit. Protein kinase C phosphorylated purified shark rectal gland Na+,K(+)-ATPase to a stoichiometry of approximately 2 mol of phosphate per mol of alpha subunit. The phosphorylation by each of the kinases was associated with an inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of about 40-50%. These two protein kinases also inhibited the activity of a partially purified preparation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase from rat renal cortex and the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase present in preparations of basolateral membrane vesicles from rat renal cortex. PMID:1662394

  18. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca; Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  19. Temperature dependence of mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive proton transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Solaini, G; Baracca, A; Parenti Castelli, G; Lenaz, G

    1984-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (complex V) kinetic parameters has been investigated in enzyme preparations of different phospholipid composition. In submitochondrial particles, isolated complex V, and complex V reconstituted in dimyristoyl lecithin vesicles, the Arrhenius plots show discontinuities in the range 18-28 degrees C, while no discontinuity is detected with dioleoyl lecithin recombinant. Van't Hoff plots of Km also show breaks in the same temperature interval, with the exception of the dioleoyl-enzyme vesicles, where Km is unchanged. Thermodynamic analysis of the ATPase reaction shows that DMPC-complex V has rather larger values of activation enthalpy and activation entropy below the transition temperature (24 degrees C) than those of the other preparations, while all enzyme preparations show similar free energies of activation (14.3-18.5 kcal/mol). The results indicate that temperature and lipid composition influence to a different extent both kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the mitochondrial ATPase. PMID:6242243

  20. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H/sup +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors.

  1. Radiation inactivation analysis of chloroplast CF0-CF1 ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Y.; Chien, L.F.; Pan, R.L.

    1988-06-25

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to measure the functional size of adenosine triphosphatase of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for acid-base-induced ATP synthesis was 450 +/- 24 kilodaltons; for phenazine methosulfate-mediated ATP synthesis, 613 +/- 33 kilodaltons; and for methanol-activated ATP hydrolysis, 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons. The difference (170 +/- 57 kilodaltons) between 450 +/- 24 and 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons is explained to be the molecular mass of proton channel (coupling factor 0) across the thylakoid membrane. Our data suggest that the stoichiometry of subunits I, II, and III of coupling factor 0 is 1:2:15. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activated by methanol, heat, and trypsin digestion have a similar functional size. However, anions such as SO/sub 3/(2-) and CO/sub 3/(2-) increased the molecular mass for both ATPase's (except trypsin-activated Mg2+-ATPase) by 12-30%. Soluble coupling factor 1 has a larger target size than that of membrane-bound. This is interpreted as the cold effect during irradiation.

  2. Motor-driven dynamics in actin-myosin networks.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Loïc; Amblard, François; Furst, Eric M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of myosin motor protein activity on the filamentous actin (F-actin) rheological response is studied using diffusing wave spectroscopy. Under conditions of saturating motor activity, we find an enhancement of longitudinal filament fluctuations corresponding to a scaling of the viscoelastic shear modulus G(d)(omega) approximately omega(7/8). As the adenosine tri-phosphate reservoir sustaining motor activity is depleted, we find an abrupt transient to a passive, "rigor state" and a return to dissipation dominated by transverse filament modes. Single-filament measurements of the apparent persistence length support the notion that motor activity leads to an increase in the effective temperature for tangential motion. PMID:11800991

  3. On Myosin II dynamics in the presence of external loads

    E-print Network

    A. Buonocore; L. Caputo; Y. Ishii; E. Pirozzi; T. Yanagida; L. M. Ricciardi

    2005-04-18

    We address the controversial hot question concerning the validity of the loose coupling versus the lever-arm theories in the actomyosin dynamics by re-interpreting and extending the phenomenological washboard potential model proposed by some of us in a previous paper. In this new model a Brownian motion harnessing thermal energy is assumed to co-exist with the deterministic swing of the lever-arm, to yield an excellent fit of the set of data obtained by some of us on the sliding of Myosin II heads on immobilized actin filaments under various load conditions. Our theoretical arguments are complemented by accurate numerical simulations, and the robustness of the model is tested via different choices of parameters and potential profiles.

  4. A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; de Souza, W; Noël, F

    1988-12-01

    A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity was found in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni. Its specific and relative activities were higher in the heterogeneous cuticle fraction and in the microsomal fraction. The K0.5 for ATPase activation by free Ca2+ was 0.2-0.5 microM. This is the first description of an ATPase activity stimulated by Ca2+ in the micromolar range in S. mansoni. PMID:2973994

  5. Abscisic acid suppresses hypocotyl elongation by dephosphorylating plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-04-01

    Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is thought to mediate hypocotyl elongation, which is induced by the phytohormone auxin through the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase. However, regulation of the H(+)-ATPase during hypocotyl elongation by other signals has not been elucidated. Hypocotyl elongation in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitors vanadate and erythrosine B, and was significantly reduced in aha2-5, which is a knockout mutant of the major H(+)-ATPase isoform in etiolated seedlings. Application of the phytohormone ABA to etiolated seedlings suppressed hypocotyl elongation within 30 min at the half-inhibitory concentration (4.2 µM), and induced dephosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase without affecting the amount of H(+)-ATPase. Interestingly, an ABA-insensitive mutant, abi1-1, did not show ABA inhibition of hypocotyl elongation or ABA-induced dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase. This indicates that ABI1, which is an early ABA signaling component through the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCARs (pyrabactin resistance/pyrabactin resistance 1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor), is involved in these responses. In addition, we found that the fungal toxin fusiccocin (FC), an H(+)-ATPase activator, induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase, and that FC-induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed by ABA. Taken together, these results indicate that ABA has an antagonistic effect on hypocotyl elongation through, at least in part, dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase in etiolated seedlings. PMID:24492258

  6. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; K?opocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.). PMID:19088799

  7. The myosin mesa and a possible unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many times one explores the structure of the myosin molecule, there is always something new to discover. Here, I describe the myosin mesa, a structural feature of the motor domain that has the characteristics of a binding domain for another protein, possibly myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C). Interestingly, many well-known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations lie along this surface and may affect the putative interactions proposed here. A potential unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is discussed here. It involves increased power output of the cardiac muscle as a result of HCM mutations causing the release of inhibition by myosin binding protein C. PMID:25619247

  8. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain during capping of mouse T- lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Colchicine induces the clustering of at least three different T- lymphoma surface antigens (T200, Thy-1, and gp 69/71) into a cap structure in the absence of any external ligand. In addition, colchicine induces the intracellular accumulation of actin and myosin directly beneath the surface cap structure. We have discovered that myosin molecules (both heavy and light chains) are closely associated with the plasma membrane of T-lymphoma cells. Most importantly, we have found that the 20,000-dalton light chain of lymphocyte myosin is both phosphorylated and preferentially accumulated in the plasma membrane of colchicine-induced capped cells. It is proposed that myosin light chain is directly involved in the activation of membrane-associated actomyosin required for the collection of surface proteins into a cap structure (analogous to muscle cell sliding filament contraction). PMID:6976966

  9. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  10. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways, enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na+, K+-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  11. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, G.E.; Ontell, M.; Cox, R.; Sassoon, D.; Buckingham, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated the temporal sequence of myosin gene expression in the developing skeletal muscle masses of mouse embryos. The probes used were isoform-specific, 35S-labeled antisense cRNAs to the known sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and myosin alkali light chain gene transcripts. Results showed that both cardiac and skeletal myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain mRNAs were first detected between 9 and 10 d post coitum (p.c.) in the myotomes of the most rostral somites. Myosin transcripts appeared in more caudal somites at later stages in a developmental gradient. The earliest myosin heavy chain transcripts detected code for the embryonic skeletal (MHCemb) and beta-cardiac (MHC beta) isoforms. Perinatal myosin heavy chain (MHCpn) transcripts begin to accumulate at 10.5 d p.c., which is much earlier than previously reported. At this stage, MHCemb is the major MHC transcript. By 12.5 d p.c., MHCpn and MHCemb mRNAs are present to an equal extent, and by 15.5 d p.c. the MHCpn transcript is the major MHC mRNA detected. Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 d p.c., which marks the beginning of the fetal stage of muscle development. This is the first stage at which we can detect differences in expression of myosin genes between developing muscle fibers. We conclude that, during the development of the myotome and body wall muscles, different myosin genes follow independent patterns of activation and acculumation.

  12. Interaction of D-600 with the transmembrane domain of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Becker, V M; Alvarez, R; Lepock, J R; Gonzalez-Serratos, H

    2000-07-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether the organic Ca(2+) channel blocker D-600 (gallopamil), which penetrates into muscle cells, affects sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) uptake by directly inhibiting the light SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. We have previously shown that at 10 microM, D-600 inhibits LSR ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake by 50% but has no effect on ATPase activity (21). These data suggest that the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase might be a potential target for D-600. The ATPase activity of the enzyme is associated with its hydrophilic cytoplasmic domain, whereas Ca(2+) binding and translocation are associated with the transmembrane domain (18). In the present experiments, we determined which of the two domains of the ATPase is affected by D-600. Thermal inactivation experiments using the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase demonstrated that D-600 decreased the thermal stability of Ca(2+) transport but had no effect on the stability of ATPase activity. In addition, D-600 at a concentration of 160 microM did not have any leaking effect of Ca(2+) on the Ca(2+)-loaded SR. Thermal denaturation profiles of SR membranes revealed that D-600 interacts directly with the transmembrane domain of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. No evidence for interaction with the nucleotide domain was obtained. We conclude that the Ca(2+) blocker D-600 inhibits the SR Ca(2+) pump specifically by interacting with the transmembrane Ca(2+)-binding domain of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:10898728

  13. Requirement for Ergosterol in V-ATPase Function Underlies Antifungal Activity of Azole Drugs

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    and the fungal pathogen C. albicans, fluconazole impaired vacuolar acidification, whereas concomitant ergosterol feeding restored V-ATPase function and cell growth. Furthermore, fluconazole exacerbated cytosolic Ca2

  14. Conformational changes at the nucleotide site in the presence of bound ADP do not set the velocity of fast Drosophila myosins.

    PubMed

    Eldred, Catherine C; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger; Swank, Douglas M

    2013-02-01

    The conformational changes in myosin associated with ADP release and their influence on actin sliding velocity are not understood. Following actin binding, the myosin active site is in equilibrium between a closed and open ADP bound state, with the open state previously thought to favor ADP release and thus expected to be favored in faster myosins. However, our recent work with a variety of myosins suggests the opposite, that the open conformation is dominant in slower myosins, which have higher ADP affinities. To test if this correlation holds for fast myosin isoforms, we determined the relationships between conformational pocket dynamics, ADP affinity and velocity of four Drosophila myosins: indirect flight muscle (IFM) myosin (IFI), embryonic muscle myosin (EMB) and two IFI/EMB chimeras. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of nucleotide-analog spin probes (SLADP) bound to IFI subfragment-1 in the absence of actin showed a high degree of immobilization, indicating a predominately closed nucleotide pocket. The A·M·SLADP spectra of all four myosins in fibers (actin bound) also indicated an equilibrium favoring the closed conformation with the closed state closing even further. However, the energetics of pocket closure did not correlate with Drosophila myosin actin velocity suggesting our previous model relating pocket dynamics to velocity does not hold for fast myosin isoforms. We conclude that for these fast myosins, and possibly other fast myosins, velocity is controlled by factors other than the ratio of open to closed nucleotide pocket conformation. PMID:23203294

  15. Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

  16. Interaction of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit (MYPT1) with Myosin Phosphatase-RhoA Interacting Protein (MRIP): A Role of Glutamic Acids in the Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunhee; Stafford, III, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins bind to and functionally link protein members of signaling pathways. Interaction of the scaffold proteins, myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1) and myosin phosphatase-RhoA interacting protein (MRIP), causes co-localization of myosin phosphatase and RhoA to actomyosin. To examine biophysical properties of interaction of MYPT1 with MRIP, we employed analytical ultracentrifugation and surface plasmon resonance. In regard to MRIP, its residues 724–837 are sufficient for the MYPT1/MRIP interaction. Moreover, MRIP binds to MYPT1 as either a monomer or a dimer. With respect to MYPT1, its leucine repeat region, LR (residues 991–1030) is sufficient to account for the MYPT1/MRIP interaction. Furthermore, point mutations that replace glutamic acids 998–1000 within LR reduced the binding affinity toward MRIP. This suggests that the glutamic acids of MYPT1 play an important role in the interaction. PMID:26445108

  17. Optineurin links myosin VI to the Golgi complex and is involved in Golgi organization and exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sahlender, Daniela A.; Roberts, Rhys C.; Arden, Susan D.; Spudich, Giulietta; Taylor, Marcus J.; Luzio, J. Paul; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2005-01-01

    Myosin VI plays a role in the maintenance of Golgi morphology and in exocytosis. In a yeast 2-hybrid screen we identified optineurin as a binding partner for myosin VI at the Golgi complex and confirmed this interaction in a range of protein interaction studies. Both proteins colocalize at the Golgi complex and in vesicles at the plasma membrane. When optineurin is depleted from cells using RNA interference, myosin VI is lost from the Golgi complex, the Golgi is fragmented and exocytosis of vesicular stomatitis virus G-protein to the plasma membrane is dramatically reduced. Two further binding partners for optineurin have been identified: huntingtin and Rab8. We show that myosin VI and Rab8 colocalize around the Golgi complex and in vesicles at the plasma membrane and overexpression of constitutively active Rab8-Q67L recruits myosin VI onto Rab8-positive structures. These results show that optineurin links myosin VI to the Golgi complex and plays a central role in Golgi ribbon formation and exocytosis. PMID:15837803

  18. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  19. Novel myosin mutations for hereditary hearing loss revealed by targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, Zippora; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Karfunkel-Doron, Daphne; Sirigu, Serena; Davidov, Bella; Shohat, Mordechai; Frydman, Moshe; Houdusse, Anne; Kanaan, Moien; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous, with a large number of genes and mutations contributing to this sensory, often monogenic, disease. This number, as well as large size, precludes comprehensive genetic diagnosis of all known deafness genes. A combination of targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also referred to as next-generation sequencing, was applied to determine the deafness-causing genes in hearing-impaired individuals from Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arab families. Among the mutations detected, we identified nine novel mutations in the genes encoding myosin VI, myosin VIIA and myosin XVA, doubling the number of myosin mutations in the Middle East. Myosin VI mutations were identified in this population for the first time. Modeling of the mutations provided predicted mechanisms for the damage they inflict in the molecular motors, leading to impaired function and thus deafness. The myosin mutations span all regions of these molecular motors, leading to a wide range of hearing phenotypes, reinforcing the key role of this family of proteins in auditory function. This study demonstrates that multiple mutations responsible for hearing loss can be identified in a relatively straightforward manner by targeted-gene MPS technology and concludes that this is the optimal genetic diagnostic approach for identification of mutations responsible for hearing loss. PMID:24105371

  20. Calcium-dependent phosphorylation alters class XIVa myosin function in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing; Andenmatten, Nicole; Hortua Triana, Miryam A.; Deng, Bin; Meissner, Markus; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Class XIVa myosins comprise a unique group of myosin motor proteins found in apicomplexan parasites, including those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. The founding member of the class XIVa family, Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA), is a monomeric unconventional myosin that functions at the parasite periphery to control gliding motility, host cell invasion, and host cell egress. How the motor activity of TgMyoA is regulated during these critical steps in the parasite's lytic cycle is unknown. We show here that a small-molecule enhancer of T. gondii motility and invasion (compound 130038) causes an increase in parasite intracellular calcium levels, leading to a calcium-dependent increase in TgMyoA phosphorylation. Mutation of the major sites of phosphorylation altered parasite motile behavior upon compound 130038 treatment, and parasites expressing a nonphosphorylatable mutant myosin egressed from host cells more slowly in response to treatment with calcium ionophore. These data demonstrate that TgMyoA undergoes calcium-dependent phosphorylation, which modulates myosin-driven processes in this important human pathogen. PMID:24989796

  1. Genome-wide identification, splicing, and expression analysis of the myosin gene family in maize (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifeng; Zhong, Mingyu; Wang, Gang; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    The actin-based myosin system is essential for the organization and dynamics of the endomembrane system and transport network in plant cells. Plants harbour two unique myosin groups, class VIII and class XI, and the latter is structurally and functionally analogous to the animal and fungal class V myosin. Little is known about myosins in grass, even though grass includes several agronomically important cereal crops. Here, we identified 14 myosin genes from the genome of maize (Zea mays). The relatively larger sizes of maize myosin genes are due to their much longer introns, which are abundant in transposable elements. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that maize myosin genes could be classified into class VIII and class XI, with three and 11 members, respectively. Apart from subgroup XI-F, the remaining subgroups were duplicated at least in one analysed lineage, and the duplication events occurred more extensively in Arabidopsis than in maize. Only two pairs of maize myosins were generated from segmental duplication. Expression analysis revealed that most maize myosin genes were expressed universally, whereas a few members (XI-1, -6, and -11) showed an anther-specific pattern, and many underwent extensive alternative splicing. We also found a short transcript at the O1 locus, which conceptually encoded a headless myosin that most likely functions at the transcriptional level rather than via a dominant-negative mechanism at the translational level. Together, these data provide significant insights into the evolutionary and functional characterization of maize myosin genes that could transfer to the identification and application of homologous myosins of other grasses. PMID:24363426

  2. Regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in kidney proximal tubules: involvement of GTP binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bertorello, A; Aperia, A

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluates the involvement of GTP-dependent regulatory proteins (G-proteins) in the regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) segments. Single PCT segments were dissected from rat kidney and permeabilized to allow nucleotides and medium free access to the interior of the cell. A GDP analogue that blocks GTP-dependent activation of the G-protein, GDP beta S (400 microM) significantly inhibited PCT Na+-K+-ATPase activity when Na in the medium (Nam) was greater than or equal to 70 mM. The inhibition was attenuated when Nam was 55 and 35 mM and was no longer significant when Nam was 25 mM. GDP beta S had no inhibitory effect on the activity of purified Na+-K+-ATPase. A nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue, GppNHp (50 microM) significantly increased Na+-K+-ATPase activity when Nam was 25 and 35 mM, but not when Nam was 55-140 mM. Dopamine (DA) and DA1 plus DA2 agonists significantly inhibit Na+-K+-ATPase activity. DA inhibition was competitively abolished by GppNHp. In PCT segments from rats pretreated with pertussis toxin, DA and DA1 plus DA2 agonist inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity was abolished. In PCT segments from rats pretreated with cholera toxin, basal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was increased, but DA significantly inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in PCT segments is regulated via a G-protein that stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity and a DA-activated pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein that inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2563204

  3. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D.; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  5. Inhibition of dendrite formation in mouse melanocytes transiently transfected with antisense DNA to myosin Va

    PubMed Central

    EDGAR, ALASDAIR J.; BENNETT, JONATHAN P.

    1999-01-01

    In mice a molecular motor of the myosin V class (designated myosin Va) is known to be the product of the dilute locus, where a mutation prevents melanosome transport in melanocytes. There is conflicting evidence about whether it has a role in dendrite outgrowth. We investigated its role by transiently transfecting antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit its expression in a melanocyte cell line. We demonstrated mRNA and protein expression of myosin Va in 3 mouse melanocyte lines and 1 human melanoma cell line, using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Two splice variants were found in human cells whilst only the longer transcript, containing an additional exon, was present in mouse melanocyte lines. The shorter variant was detected in other mouse tissues. Myosin Va protein levels were similar in 3 melanocyte lines with differing amounts of pigmentation, indicating that expression of myosin Va is not tightly coupled to expression of melanin. Immunocytochemistry showed 2 types of myosin Va localisation. A punctate pattern of staining concentrated in the perinuclear region was indicative of organelle association, and the observation of occasional linear punctate staining aligned with F-actin bundles supported the idea that myosin Va has a role in transporting melanosomes along actin filaments. Staining was also intense at tips of dendrites and at sites of dendrite-cell contact, consistent with a possible role in dendrite growth. Transient transfection of antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against myosin Va mRNA reduced expression of myosin Va protein in cultured mouse melan-a melanocytes by over 70% 20 h after transfection whereas a control (shuffled sequence) oligonucleotide did not. Upon trypsinisation and replating these cells the capacity of the transfected cells to extend new dendrites was reduced in the cells containing the specific antisense oligonucleotides but unaffected by the control oligonucleotide. Image analysis confirmed that the effect of transfection on morphology was statistically significant (P<0.01). In contrast when cells were not trypsinised and replated following transfection so that previously existing dendrites could persist, the normal dendritic morphology continued to be observed. We conclude that in addition to its involvement in melanosome transport, myosin Va has a role in the extension of new dendrites by melanocytes but not in maintenance of pre-existing dendrites. PMID:10529054

  6. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

  7. Suramin Inhibits Hsp104 ATPase and Disaggregase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P.; Castellano, Laura M.; Shorter, James

    2014-01-01

    Hsp104 is a hexameric AAA+ protein that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis to dissolve disordered protein aggregates as well as amyloid fibers. Interestingly, Hsp104 orthologues are found in all kingdoms of life except animals. Thus, Hsp104 could represent an interesting drug target. Specific inhibition of Hsp104 activity might antagonize non-metazoan parasites that depend on a potent heat shock response, while producing little or no side effects to the host. However, no small molecule inhibitors of Hsp104 are known except guanidinium chloride. Here, we screen over 16,000 small molecules and identify 16 novel inhibitors of Hsp104 ATPase activity. Excluding compounds that inhibited Hsp104 activity by non-specific colloidal effects, we defined Suramin as an inhibitor of Hsp104 ATPase activity. Suramin is a polysulphonated naphthylurea and is used as an antiprotozoal drug for African Trypanosomiasis. Suramin also interfered with Hsp104 disaggregase, unfoldase, and translocase activities, and the inhibitory effect of Suramin was not rescued by Hsp70 and Hsp40. Suramin does not disrupt Hsp104 hexamers and does not effectively inhibit ClpB, the E. coli homolog of Hsp104, establishing yet another key difference between Hsp104 and ClpB behavior. Intriguingly, a potentiated Hsp104 variant, Hsp104A503V, is more sensitive to Suramin than wild-type Hsp104. By contrast, Hsp104 variants bearing inactivating sensor-1 mutations in nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) 1 or 2 are more resistant to Suramin. Thus, Suramin depends upon ATPase events at both NBDs to exert its maximal effect. Suramin could develop into an important mechanistic probe to study Hsp104 structure and function. PMID:25299406

  8. V-ATPases in osteoclasts: structure, function and potential inhibitors of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Qin, A; Cheng, T S; Pavlos, N J; Lin, Z; Dai, K R; Zheng, M H

    2012-09-01

    The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump is a macromolecular complex composed of at least 14 subunits organized into two functional domains, V(1) and V(0). The complex is located on the ruffled border plasma membrane of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, mediating extracellular acidification for bone demineralization during bone resorption. Genetic studies from mice to man implicate a critical role for V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast-related diseases including osteopetrosis and osteoporosis. Thus, the V-ATPase complex is a potential molecular target for the development of novel anti-resorptive agents useful for the treatment of osteolytic diseases. Here, we review the current structure and function of V-ATPase subunits, emphasizing their exquisite roles in osteoclastic function. In addition, we compare several distinct classes of V-ATPase inhibitors with specific inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Understanding the structure-function relationship of the osteoclast V-ATPase may lead to the development of osteoclast-specific V-ATPase inhibitors that may serve as alternative therapies for the treatment of osteolytic diseases. PMID:22652318

  9. Mammary gland involution is associated with rapid down regulation of major mammary Ca**2+-ATPases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty percent of calcium in milk is transported across the mammary cells apical membrane by the plasma membrane Ca**2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2). The effect of abrupt cessation of milk production on the Ca**2+-ATPases and mammary calcium transport is unknown. We found that 24 hours after stopping milk prod...

  10. INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES OF BRAIN AND LIVER HOMOGENATES BY TRIETHYLTIN (TET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro, TET is an effective inhibitor of both mitochondrial and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in subcellular fractions from brain and liver. Although TET binds with high affinity to mitochondrial ATPase, it also binds to other cellular constituents including hemoglobin and myelin. T...

  11. The Evolution of the Conserved ATPase Domain (CAD): Reconstructing the History of an Ancient Protein Module

    E-print Network

    Purugganan, Michael D.

    The Evolution of the Conserved ATPase Domain (CAD): Reconstructing the History of an Ancient to as the Conserved ATPase Domain or CAD. Phylogenetic analysis of 133 CAD se- quences from 38 species reveal that AAA CADs are organized into discrete groups that are related not only in structure but in cellular function

  12. Plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase of Pachysolen tannophilus: Characterization and role in alcohol tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, M.F.S.; Lee, Hung )

    1991-07-01

    Following cell fractionation in sucrose density gradients, plasma membrane Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase from Pachysolen tannophilus was studied. The ATPase displayed na apparent K{sub m} for ATP of 1.42 mM and was inhibited by high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}. The inhibitory effects of ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and benzyl alcohol on Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase were evaluated, and the concentration of each alcohol that inhibited ATPase activity by 50% (IC{sub 50}) was determined. The IC{sub 50} decreased as the chain length of the alcohol increased. Moreover, the IC{sub 50} for ATPase activity was similar to the IC{sub 50} for growth rate, suggesting an association between impaired growth and ATPase inhibition. Almost complete inhibition of ATPase activity occurred at temperatures approaching 60C, and the optimal temperature was around 44C for ATPase from both control and ethanol-treated cells. Inclusion of 50 mM MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2} in the medium did not rescue cells from the deleterious effects of ethanol.

  13. Functional Interaction Between Na/K-ATPase and NMDA Receptor in Cerebellar Neurons.

    PubMed

    Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Lopacheva, Olga M; Kruusmägi, Markus; Lopachev, Alexandr V; Shah, Zahoor A; Boldyrev, Alexander A; Liu, Lijun

    2015-12-01

    NMDA receptors play a crucial role in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory. Activation of NMDA receptors changes intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), which are subsequently restored by Na/K-ATPase. We used immunochemical and biochemical methods to elucidate the potential mechanisms of interaction between these two proteins. We observed that NMDA receptor and Na/K-ATPase interact with each other and this interaction was shown for both isoforms of ? subunit (?1 and ?3) of Na/K-ATPase expressed in neurons. Using Western blotting, we showed that long-term exposure of the primary culture of cerebellar neurons to nanomolar concentrations of ouabain (a cardiotonic steroid, a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) leads to a decrease in the levels of NMDA receptors which is likely mediated by the ?3 subunit of Na/K-ATPase. We also observed a decrease in enzymatic activity of the ?1 subunit of Na/K-ATPase caused by NMDA receptor activation. This effect is mediated by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Thus, Na/K-ATPase and NMDA receptor can interact functionally by forming a macromolecular complex which can be important for restoring ionic balance after neuronal excitation. Furthermore, this interaction suggests that NMDA receptor function can be regulated by endogenous cardiotonic steroids which recently have been found in cerebrospinal fluid or by pharmacological drugs affecting Na/K-ATPase function. PMID:25381029

  14. Biophysical Journal Volume 85 August 2003 695706 695 The Unbinding of ATP from F1-ATPase

    E-print Network

    Oster, George

    , chloroplasts and bacteria. ATP synthase consists of two motors: a membrane-spanning portion, F0, and a solubleBiophysical Journal Volume 85 August 2003 695­706 695 The Unbinding of ATP from F1-ATPase Iris molecular dynamics, we study the unbinding of ATP in F1-ATPase from its tight binding state to its weak

  15. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  16. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon; Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H+ ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1? dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1? or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1?/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1? and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1?/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1?/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:25981168

  17. Purification of Na,K-ATPase from Pig Kidney.

    PubMed

    Fedosova, Natalya U

    2016-01-01

    The method of purification of Na,K-ATPase from pig kidney is based on a differential centrifugation and SDS-treatment of a microsomal preparation. The yield is 0.4 mg protein per 1 g tissue with the specific (ouabain-sensitive) activity of 25-28 ?mol Pi/min per mg protein and nucleotide binding capacity of 3 nmol/mg. The protein/lipid ratio is 1/1 (mg/mg) with a protein purity of ~80 %. PMID:26695017

  18. Reconstitution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jonas Lindholt; Fedosova, Natalya U; Nissen, Poul; Boesen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiscs are disc-shaped self-assembled lipid bilayers encircled by membrane scaffolding proteins derived from Apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1). They constitute a versatile tool for studying membrane proteins since reconstitution into nanodiscs allows studies of the membrane proteins in detergent-free aqueous solutions in a lipid bilayer. Here, we apply the technique to the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) from pig kidney using Membrane Scaffolding Protein 1 D1 (MSP1D1). Contrary to other reports, the nanodiscs obtained by our protocol are built up of the native lipids originally present in the detergent solubilized sample together with the NKA. PMID:26695051

  19. Regional Myosin Heavy Chains Distribution in Selected Paraspinal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Regev, Gilad J.; Kim, Choll W.; Thacker, Bryan E.; Tomiya, Akihito; Garfin, Steven R.; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with repeated measures design. Objective To compare the myosin heavy chain isoform distribution within and between paraspinal muscles and to test the theory that fiber type gradients exist as a function of paraspinal muscle depth. Summary of Background Data There is still uncertainty regarding the fiber type distributions within different paraspinal muscles. It has been previously proposed that deep fibers of the multifidus muscle may contain a higher ratio of type I to type II fibers, because, unlike superficial fibers, they primarily stabilize the spine, and may therefore have relatively higher endurance. Using a minimally invasive surgical approach, utilizing tubular retractors that are placed within anatomic inter-muscular planes, it was feasible to obtain biopsies from the multifidus, longissimus, iliocostalis and psoas muscles at specific predefined depths. Methods Under an IRB approved protocol, muscle biopsies were obtained from 15 patients who underwent minimally invasive spinal surgery, using the posterior paramedian (Wiltse) approach or the minimally invasive lateral approach. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform distribution was analyzed using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Since multiple biopsies were obtained from each patient, MyHC distribution was compared using both within- and between-muscle repeated measures analyses. Results The fiber type distribution was similar among the posterior paraspinal muscles and was composed of relatively high percentage of type I (63%), compared to type IIA (19%) and type IIX (18%) fibers. In contrast, the psoas muscle was found to contain a lower percentage of type I fibers (42%) and a higher percentage of type IIA (33%) and IIX fibers (26%; P<0.05). No significant difference was found for fiber type distribution among three different depths of the multifidus and psoas muscles. Conclusion Fiber type distribution between the posterior paraspinal muscles is consistent and is composed of relatively high percentage of type I fibers, consistent with a postural function. The psoas muscle, on the other hand, is composed of a higher percentage of type II fibers such as in the appendicular muscles. Our data do not support the idea of a fiber type gradient as a function of depth for any muscle studied. PMID:20461040

  20. Arabidopsis Myosin XI: A Motor Rules the Tracks1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chao; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L.; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell expansion relies on intracellular trafficking of vesicles and macromolecules, which requires myosin motors and a dynamic actin network. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myosin XI powers the motility of diverse cellular organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endomembrane vesicles, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. Several recent studies show that there are changes in actin organization and dynamics in myosin xi mutants, indicating that motors influence the molecular tracks they use for transport. However, the mechanism by which actin organization and dynamics are regulated by myosin XI awaits further detailed investigation. Here, using high spatiotemporal imaging of living cells, we quantitatively assessed the architecture and dynamic behavior of cortical actin arrays in a mutant with three Myosin XI (XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K) genes knocked out (xi3KO). In addition to apparent reduction of organ and cell size, the mutant showed less dense and more bundled actin filament arrays in epidermal cells. Furthermore, the overall actin dynamicity was significantly inhibited in the xi3KO mutant. Because cytoskeletal remodeling is contributed mainly by filament assembly/disassembly and translocation/buckling, we also examined the dynamic behavior of individual actin filaments. We found that the xi3KO mutant had significantly decreased actin turnover, with a 2-fold reduction in filament severing frequency. Moreover, quantitative analysis of filament shape change over time revealed that myosin XI generates the force for buckling and straightening of both single actin filaments and actin bundles. Thus, our data provide genetic evidence that three Arabidopsis class XI myosins contribute to actin remodeling by stimulating turnover and generating the force for filament shape change. PMID:25237128

  1. Fluorescent antibody localization of myosin in the cytoplasm, cleavage furrow, and mitotic spindle of human cells

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of myosin molecules in human cells using myosin-specific antibody coupled with fluorescent dyes. Rabbits were immunized with platelet myosin or myosin rod. They produced antisera which precipitated only myosin among all the components in crude platelet extracts. From these antisera we isolated immunoglobulin- G (IgG) and conjugated it with tetramethylrhodamine or fluorescein. We separated IgG with 2-5 fluorochromes per molecule from both under- and over-conjugated IgG by ion exchange chromatography and used it to stain acetone-treated cells. The following controls established the specificity of the staining patterns: (a) staining with labeled preimmune IgG; (b) staining with labeled immune IgG adsorbed with purified myosin; (c) staining with labeled immune IgG mixed with either unlabeled preimmune or immune serum; and (d) staining with labeled antibody purified by affinity chromatography. In blood smears, only the cytoplasm of platelets and leukocytes stained. In spread Enson and HeLa cells, stress fibers stained strongly in closely spaced 0.5 mum spots. The cytoplasm stained uniformly in those cells presumed to be motile before acetone treatment. In dividing HeLa cells there was a high concentration of myosin-specific staining in the vicinity of the contractole ring and in the mitotic spindle, especially the region between the chromosomes and the poles. We detected no staining of erythrocytes, or nuclei of leukocytes and cultured cells, or the surface of platelets and cultured cells. PMID:62755

  2. Effects of hindlimb unweighting and aging on rat semimembranosus muscle and myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng; Lowe, Dawn A; Thompson, LaDora V

    2006-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lower specific force (force/cross-sectional area) generated by type II fibers from hindlimb-unweighted rats resulted from structural changes in myosin (i.e., a change in the ratio of myosin cross bridges in the weak- and strong-binding state during contraction). In addition, we determined whether those changes were age dependent. Permeabilized semimembranosus muscle fibers from young adult and aged rats, some of which were hindlimb unweighted for 3 wk, were studied for Ca(2+)-activated force generation and maximal unloaded shortening velocity. Fibers were also spin labeled specifically at myosin Cys707 to assess the structural distribution of myosin during maximal isometric contraction using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) expression and the ratio of MHC to actin were evaluated in each fiber. Fibers from the unweighted rats generated 34% less specific force than fibers from weight-bearing rats (P < 0.001), independent of age. Electron paramagnetic resonance analyses showed that the fraction of myosin heads in the strong-binding structural state during contraction was 11% lower in fibers from the unweighted rats (P = 0.019), independent of age. More fibers from unweighted rats coexpressed MHC IIB-IIX compared with fibers from weight-bearing rats (P = 0.049). Unweighting induced a slowing of maximal unloaded shortening velocity and an increase in the ratio of MHC to actin in fibers from young rats only. These data indicate that altered myosin structural distribution during contraction and a preferential loss of actin contribute to unweighting-induced muscle weakness. Furthermore, the age of the rat has an influence on some parameters of changes in muscle contractility that are induced by unweighting. PMID:16690785

  3. Cloning of the genes encoding two murine and human cochlear unconventional type I myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Crozet, F.; El Amraoui, Z.; Blanchard, S.

    1997-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for unconventional myosins in the function of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear. We report here the characterization of the cDNAs encoding two unconventional type I myosins from a mouse cochlear cDNA library. The first cDNA encodes a putative protein named Myo1c, which is likely to be the murine orthologue of the bullfrog myosin I{beta} and which may be involved in the gating of the mechanotransduction channel of the sensory hair cells. This myosin belongs to the group of short-tailed myosins I, with its tail ending shortly after a polybasic, TH-1-like domain. The second cDNA encodes a novel type I myosin Myo1f which displays three regions: a head domain with the conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, a neck domain with a single IQ motif, and a tail domain with the tripartite structure initially described in protozoan myosins I. The tail of Myo1f includes (1) a TH-1 region rich in basic residues, which may interact with anionic membrane phospholipids; (2) a TH-2 proline-rich region, expected to contain an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site; and (3) an SH-3 domain found in a variety of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding Myo1c and Myo1f display a widespread tissue expression in the adult mouse. Myo1c and Myo1f were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomal regions 11D-11E and 17B-17C, respectively. The human orthologuous genes MYO1C and MYO1F were also characterized, and mapped to the human chromosomal regions 17p13 and 19p13.2- 19p1.3.3, respectively. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Transgene integration into the human AAVS1 locus enhances myosin II-dependent contractile force by reducing expression of myosin binding subunit 85.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takeomi; Li, Rui; Haga, Hisashi; Kawabata, Kazushige

    2015-09-18

    The adeno-associated virus site 1 (AAVS1) locus in the human genome is a strong candidate for gene therapy by insertion of an exogenous gene into the locus. The AAVS1 locus includes the coding region for myosin binding subunit 85 (MBS85). Although the function of MBS85 is not well understood, myosin II-dependent contractile force may be affected by altered expression of MBS85. The effect of altered expression of MBS85 on cellular contractile force should be examined prior to the application of gene therapy. In this study, we show that transgene integration into AAVS1 and consequent reduction of MBS85 expression changes myosin II-dependent cellular contractile force. We established a human fibroblast cell line with exogenous DNA knocked-in to AAVS1 (KI cells) using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Western blotting analysis showed that KI cells had significantly reduced MBS85 expression. KI cells also showed greater cellular contractile force than control cells. The increased contractile force was associated with phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC). Transfection of KI cells with an MBS85 expression plasmid restored cellular contractile force and phosphorylation of MRLC to the levels in control cells. These data suggest that transgene integration into the human AAVS1 locus induces an increase in cellular contractile force and thus should be considered as a gene therapy to effect changes in cellular contractile force. PMID:26260320

  5. Substitutions of Aspartate 378 in the Phosphorylation Domain of the Yeast PMA1 H -ATPase Disrupt Protein

    E-print Network

    Rao, Rajini

    Substitutions of Aspartate 378 in the Phosphorylation Domain of the Yeast PMA1 H -ATPase Disrupt Connecticut 06510 There is strong evidence that Asp-378 of the yeast PMA1 ATPase plays an essential role-378 was replaced by Asn, Ser, and Glu, and the mutant ATPases were expressed in a temperature

  6. F1-ATPase, the C-terminal End of Subunit Is Not Required for ATP Hydrolysis-driven Rotation*

    E-print Network

    Junge, Wolfgang

    F1-ATPase, the C-terminal End of Subunit Is Not Required for ATP Hydrolysis-driven Rotation, 49076 Osnabru¨ck, Germany ATP hydrolysis by the isolated F1-ATPase drives the rotation of the central coli F1-ATPase). The ATP hydrolysis activity of a load- free ensemble of F1 with 12 residues deleted

  7. Identification of calcium-transporting ATPases of Entamoeba histolytica and cellular localization of the putative SERCA.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Higuera, Aarón; Salas-Casas, Andrés; Calixto-Gálvez, Mercedes; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Pérez-Ishiwara, D Guillermo; Ximénez, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2013-09-01

    Calcium has an important role on signaling of different cellular processes in the protozoa parasite Entamoeba histolytica, including development and pathogenesis. However, the systems that control calcium responses in this parasite are incompletely understood. Calcium-ATPases (Ca(2+)-ATPases) are proteins that play an important role in calcium homeostasis by catalyzing the active efflux of this ion from cytoplasm and are essential to the correct functioning of the cell machinery. Here, we reported the identification of five E. histolytica genes encoding putative Ca(2+)-ATPases, three related to PMCA, and two related to organellar ATPases. RT-PCR assays showed that all those genes are expressed in trophozoites and specific antibodies against the SERCA-like member located this protein in a continuous cytoplasmic network, supporting the hypothesis that it corresponds to the Ca(2+)-ATPase responsible to sequester calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum of this parasite. PMID:23800535

  8. Regulation of the synthesis and assembly of the plant vacuolar H sup + -ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Taiz, L.

    1992-01-01

    During the past three years we have focused on four main areas: the characterization of the 5{prime}-upstream sequence of the gene for the V-ATPase 70 kDa (A) subunit gene, the generation of V-ATPase-deficient mutants using antisense constructs of the A subunit cDNA, analysis of V-ATPase ultrastructure by negative staining and the characterization of organelle-specific isoforms of the A subunit of carrot. In addition we have extended our studies on the cellular distribution of the V-ATPase and we have continued our investigation of the evolution of the V-ATPases by characterizing the A and B subunits of two species of the archaebacterium, Methanococcus.

  9. Vacuolar-ATPase Inhibition Blocks Iron Metabolism to Mediate Therapeutic Effects in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lina S; von Schwarzenberg, Karin; Lehr, Thorsten; Ulrich, Melanie; Kubisch-Dohmen, Rebekka; Liebl, Johanna; Trauner, Dirk; Menche, Dirk; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2015-07-15

    Generalized strategies to improve breast cancer treatment remain of interest to develop. In this study, we offer preclinical evidence of an important metabolic mechanism underlying the antitumor activity of inhibitors of the vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase), a heteromultimeric proton pump. Specifically, our investigations in the 4T1 model of metastatic breast cancer of the V-ATPase inhibitor archazolid suggested that its ability to trigger metabolic stress and apoptosis associated with tumor growth inhibition related to an interference with hypoxia-inducible factor-1? signaling pathways and iron metabolism. As a consequence of disturbed iron metabolism, archazolid caused S-phase arrest, double-stranded DNA breaks, and p53 stabilization, leading to apoptosis. Our findings link V-ATPase to cell-cycle progression and DNA synthesis in cancer cells, and highlight the basis for the clinical exploration of V-ATPase as a potentially generalizable therapy for breast cancer. PMID:26018087

  10. H/sup +/-ATPase activity from storage tissue of Beta vulgaris. IV. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding and inhibition of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Oleski, N.A.; Bennett, A.B.

    1987-03-01

    The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase from red beet storage tissue were determined using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a H/sup +/-ATPase antibody. When plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with 20 micromolar (/sup 14/C)-DCCD at 0/sup 0/C, a single 97,000 dalton protein was visualized on a fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. A close correlation between (/sup 14/C)DCCD labeling of the 97,000 dalton protein and the extent of ATPase inhibition over a range of DCCD concentration suggests that this 97,000 dalton protein is a component of the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase. An antibody raised against the plasma membrane H/sup +/-ATPase of Neurospora crassa cross-reacted with the 97,000 dalton DCCD-binding protein, further supporting the identity of this protein. Immunoblots of two-dimensional gels of red beet plasma membrane vesicles indicated the isoelectric point of the H/sup +/-ATPase to be 6.5.

  11. Retrieval of the Vacuolar H+-ATPase from Phagosomes Revealed by Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Margaret; Maddera, Lucinda; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2010-01-01

    Background The vacuolar H+-ATPase, or V-ATPase, is a highly-conserved multi-subunit enzyme that transports protons across membranes at the expense of ATP. The resulting proton gradient serves many essential functions, among them energizing transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and acidifying organelles such as endosomes. The enzyme is not present in the plasma membrane from which a phagosome is formed, but is rapidly delivered by fusion with endosomes that already bear the V-ATPase in their membranes. Similarly, the enzyme is thought to be retrieved from phagosome membranes prior to exocytosis of indigestible material, although that process has not been directly visualized. Methodology To monitor trafficking of the V-ATPase in the phagocytic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum, we fed the cells yeast, large particles that maintain their shape during trafficking. To track pH changes, we conjugated the yeast with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cells were labeled with VatM-GFP, a fluorescently-tagged transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, in parallel with stage-specific endosomal markers or in combination with mRFP-tagged cytoskeletal proteins. Principal Findings We find that the V-ATPase is commonly retrieved from the phagosome membrane by vesiculation shortly before exocytosis. However, if the cells are kept in confined spaces, a bulky phagosome may be exocytosed prematurely. In this event, a large V-ATPase-rich vacuole coated with actin typically separates from the acidic phagosome shortly before exocytosis. This vacuole is propelled by an actin tail and soon acquires the properties of an early endosome, revealing an unexpected mechanism for rapid recycling of the V-ATPase. Any V-ATPase that reaches the plasma membrane is also promptly retrieved. Conclusions/Signficance Thus, live cell microscopy has revealed both a usual route and alternative means of recycling the V-ATPase in the endocytic pathway. PMID:20052281

  12. Actomyosin content of Physarum plasmodia and detection of immunological cross-reactions with myosins from related species

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The content of myosin in plasmodia of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum was measured by an immunological technique, quantitative microcomplement (C') fixation. Migrating plasmodia (starved after growth on rolled oats) contained 0.60 +/- 0.08 (SD) mg myosin per g fresh plasmodia. Myosin comprised 0.77% +/- 0.05 (SD) of the total plasmodial protein. When total plasmodial proteins were separated by electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, a large amount of protein appeared in a band comigrating with muscle actin. Densitometry performed after Coomassie blue staining indicated that as much as 15- 25% of the total protein in the plasmodium could be actin. This gives an actin/myosin ratio by weight in the myxomycete plasmodium as high as 19-33, a very "actin-rich" actomyosin compared with rabbit skeletal muscle actomyosin with an actin/myosin ratio of 0.6. Starvation stimulates rapid migration and is correlated with a higher percent of both myosin and actin in the total protein of the plasmodium compared with normally growing cultures. Immunological cross-reaction of myosins from a variety of species was measured by C' fixation using an antiserum produced against purified native myosin from P. polycephalum. Although myxomycete and vertebrate striated muscle myosins have very similar morphological and biochemical properties, and apparently possess similar binding properties to F-actin, only myosins from myxomycetes in the order Physarales, rather closely related to P. polycephalum, gave detectable cross-reactions. This finding suggests that many amino acid sequences in myosin have been variable during evolution. PMID:944188

  13. Identification of Myosin XI Receptors in Arabidopsis Defines a Distinct Class of Transport Vesicles[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Morgun, Eva A.; Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanism through which myosin XI-K attaches to its principal endomembrane cargo, a yeast two-hybrid library of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs was screened using the myosin cargo binding domain as bait. This screen identified two previously uncharacterized transmembrane proteins (hereinafter myosin binding proteins or MyoB1/2) that share a myosin binding, conserved domain of unknown function 593 (DUF593). Additional screens revealed that MyoB1/2 also bind myosin XI-1, whereas myosin XI-I interacts with the distantly related MyoB7. The in vivo interactions of MyoB1/2 with myosin XI-K were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses. In epidermal cells, the yellow fluorescent protein–tagged MyoB1/2 localize to vesicles that traffic in a myosin XI–dependent manner. Similar to myosin XI-K, MyoB1/2 accumulate in the tip-growing domain of elongating root hairs. Gene knockout analysis demonstrated that functional cooperation between myosin XI-K and MyoB proteins is required for proper plant development. Unexpectedly, the MyoB1-containing vesicles did not correspond to brefeldin A–sensitive Golgi and post-Golgi or prevacuolar compartments and did not colocalize with known exocytic or endosomal compartments. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that DUF593 emerged in primitive land plants and founded a multigene family that is conserved in all flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that MyoB are membrane-anchored myosin receptors that define a distinct, plant-specific transport vesicle compartment. PMID:23995081

  14. Calcium-activated Myosin V closes the Drosophila pupil

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Akiko K.; Li, Bingbing X.; Xia, Hongai; Ready, Donald F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Approximately forty years ago, an elegant automatic gain control was revealed in compound eye photoreceptors: in bright light, an assembly of small pigment granules migrates to the cytoplasmic face of the photosensitive membrane organelle, the rhabdomere, where they attenuate waveguide propagation along the rhabdomere [1-3]. This migration effects a “longitudinal pupil” that reduces rhodopsin exposure by a factor of 0.8 log units [3, 4]. Light-induced elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ triggers pigment granule migration [5-7] and pigment granules fail to migrate in a mutant deficient in photoactivated TRP calcium channels [8, 9]. However, the mechanism that moves photoreceptor pigment granules remains elusive: Are the granules actively pulled towards the rhabdomere upon light, or are they instead actively pulled into the cytoplasm in the absence of light? Here we show that Ca2+-activated Myosin V (MyoV) pulls pigment granules to the rhabdomere. Thus, among its several functions [10, 11], MyoV is also a sensory adaptation motor. In vitro, Ca2+ both activates and inhibits MyoV motility [12-16]; in vivo, its role is undetermined. This first demonstration of an in vivo role for Ca2+ in MyoV activity shows that in Drosophila photoreceptors, Ca2+ stimulates MyoV motility. PMID:18585038

  15. Modelling the effect of myosin X motors on filopodia growth

    E-print Network

    Katrin Wolff; Conrad Barrett-Freeman; Martin R. Evans; Andrew B. Goryachev; Davide Marenduzzo

    2013-12-16

    We present a numerical simulation study of the dynamics of filopodial growth in the presence of active transport by myosin X motors. We employ both a microscopic agent-based model, which captures the stochasticity of the growth process, and a continuum mean-field theory which neglects fluctuations. We show that in the absence of motors, filopodia growth is overestimated by the continuum mean-field theory. Thus fluctuations slow down the growth, especially when the protrusions are driven by a small number (10 or less) of F-actin fibres, and when the force opposing growth (coming from membrane elasticity) is large enough. We also show that, with typical parameter values for eukaryotic cells, motors are unlikely to provide an actin transport mechanism which enhances filopodial size significantly, unless the G-actin concentration within the filopodium greatly exceeds that of the cytosol bulk. We explain these observations in terms of order-of-magnitude estimates of diffusion-induced and advection-induced growth of a bundle of Brownian ratchets.

  16. Cooperative folding of muscle myosins: I. Mechanical model

    E-print Network

    Matthieu Caruel; Jean-Marc Allain; Lev Truskinovsky

    2015-10-12

    Mechanically induced folding of passive cross-linkers is a fundamental biological phenomenon. A typical example is a conformational change in myosin II responsible for the power-stroke in skeletal muscles. In this paper we present an athermal perspective on such folding by analyzing the simplest purely mechanical prototype: a parallel bundle of bi-stable units attached to a common backbone. We show that in this analytically transparent model, characterized by a rugged energy landscape, the ground states are always highly coherent, single-phase configurations. We argue that such cooperative behavior, ensuring collective conformational change, is due to the dominance of long- range interactions making the system non-additive. The detailed predictions of our model are in agreement with experimentally observed non-equivalence of fast force recovery in skeletal muscles loaded in soft and hard devices. Some features displayed by the model are also recognizable in the behavior of other biological systems with passive multi-stability and long-range interactions including detaching adhesive binders and pulled RNA/DNA hairpins.

  17. Head-to-tail regulation is critical for the in vivo function of myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell organization requires regulated cargo transport along cytoskeletal elements. Myosin V motors are among the most conserved organelle motors and have been well characterized in both yeast and mammalian systems. Biochemical data for mammalian myosin V suggest that a head-to-tail autoinhibitory interaction is a primary means of regulation, but the in vivo significance of this interaction has not been studied. Here we generated and characterized mutations in the yeast myosin V Myo2p to reveal that it is regulated by a head-to-tail interaction and that loss of regulation renders the myosin V constitutively active. We show that an unregulated motor is very deleterious for growth, resulting in severe defects in Myo2-mediated transport processes, including secretory vesicle transport, mitochondrial inheritance, and nuclear orientation. All of the defects associated with motor misregulation could be rescued by artificially restoring regulation. Thus, spatial and temporal regulation of myosin V in vivo by a head-to-tail interaction is critical for the normal delivery functions of the motor. PMID:25940346

  18. Functional characterization of mutations in the myosin Vb gene associated with microvillus inclusion disease

    PubMed Central

    Szperl, Agata M.; Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Prekeris, Rytis; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Karrenbeld, Arend; Dijkstra, Gerard; Hoekstra, Dick; Mercer, David; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wapenaar, Martin C.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare autosomal recessive enteropathy characterized by intractable diarrhea and malabsorption. Recently, various MYO5B gene mutations have been identified in MVID patients. Interestingly, several MVID patients showed only a MYO5B mutation in one allele (heterozygous) or no mutations in the MYO5B gene, illustrating the need to further functionally characterize the cell biological effects of the MYO5B mutations. Methods The genomic DNA of nine patients diagnosed with microvillus inclusion disease was screened for MYO5B mutations, and qPCR and immunohistochemistry on the material of two patients was performed to investigate resultant cellular consequences. Results We demonstrate for the first time that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with altered myosin Vb mRNA expression and with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that the typical and myosin Vb–controlled accumulation of rab11a-and FIP5-positive recycling endosomes in the apical cytoplasm of the cells is abolished in MVID enterocytes, which is indicative for altered myosin Vb function. Also, we report 8 novel MYO5B mutations in 9 MVID patients of various etnic backgrounds, including compound heterozygous mutations. Conclusions Our functional analysis indicate that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein and apical recycling endosomes which, together with the additional compound heterozygous mutations, significantly strengthen the link between MYO5B and MVID. PMID:21206382

  19. Catch force links and the low to high force transition of myosin.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas M; Mooers, Susan U; Siegman, Marion J

    2006-05-01

    Catch is characterized by maintenance of force with very low energy utilization in some invertebrate muscles. Catch is regulated by phosphorylation of the mini-titin, twitchin, and a catch component of force exists at all [Ca2+] except those resulting in maximum force. The mechanism responsible for catch force was characterized by determining how the effects of agents that inhibit the low to high force transition of the myosin cross-bridge (inorganic phosphate, butanedione monoxime, trifluoperazine, and blebbistatin) are modified by twitchin phosphorylation and [Ca2+]. In permeabilized anterior byssus retractor muscles from Mytilus edulis, catch force was identified as being sensitive to twitchin phosphorylation, whereas noncatch force was insensitive. In all cases, inhibition of the low to high force transition caused an increase in catch force. The same relationship exists between catch force and noncatch force whether force is varied by changes in [Ca2+] and/or agents that inhibit cross-bridge force production. This suggests that myosin in the high force state detaches catch force maintaining structures, whereas myosin in the low force state promotes their formation. It is unlikely that the catch structure is the myosin cross-bridge; rather, it appears that myosin interacts with the structure, most likely twitchin, and regulates its attachment and detachment. PMID:16473905

  20. Head-to-tail regulation is critical for the in vivo function of myosin V.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Kirk W; Bretscher, Anthony

    2015-05-11

    Cell organization requires regulated cargo transport along cytoskeletal elements. Myosin V motors are among the most conserved organelle motors and have been well characterized in both yeast and mammalian systems. Biochemical data for mammalian myosin V suggest that a head-to-tail autoinhibitory interaction is a primary means of regulation, but the in vivo significance of this interaction has not been studied. Here we generated and characterized mutations in the yeast myosin V Myo2p to reveal that it is regulated by a head-to-tail interaction and that loss of regulation renders the myosin V constitutively active. We show that an unregulated motor is very deleterious for growth, resulting in severe defects in Myo2-mediated transport processes, including secretory vesicle transport, mitochondrial inheritance, and nuclear orientation. All of the defects associated with motor misregulation could be rescued by artificially restoring regulation. Thus, spatial and temporal regulation of myosin V in vivo by a head-to-tail interaction is critical for the normal delivery functions of the motor. PMID:25940346

  1. Functional adaptation of the switch-2 nucleotide sensor enables rapid processive translocation by myosin-5.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Nikolett T.; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Takács, Balázs; Gyimesi, Máté; Hazai, Eszter; Bikádi, Zsolt; Sellers, James R.; Kovács, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    Active site loops that are conserved across superfamilies of myosins, kinesins, and G proteins play key roles in allosteric coupling of NTP hydrolysis to interaction with track filaments or effector proteins. In this study, we investigated how the class-specific natural variation in the switch-2 active site loop contributes to the motor function of the intracellular transporter myosin-5. We used single-molecule, rapid kinetic and spectroscopic experiments and semiempirical quantum chemical simulations to show that the class-specific switch-2 structure including a tyrosine (Y439) in myosin-5 enables rapid processive translocation along actin filaments by facilitating Mg2+-dependent ADP release. Using wild-type control and Y439 point mutant myosin-5 proteins, we demonstrate that the translocation speed precisely correlates with the kinetics of nucleotide exchange. Switch-2 variants can thus be used to fine-tune translocation speed while maintaining high processivity. The class-specific variation of switch-2 in various NTPase superfamilies indicates its general role in the kinetic tuning of Mg2+-dependent nucleotide exchange.—Nagy, N.T., Sakamoto, T., Takács, B., Gyimesi, M., Hazai, E., Bikádi, Z., Sellers, J.R., Kovács, M. Functional adaptation of the switch-2 nucleotide sensor enables rapid processive translocation by myosin-5. PMID:20631329

  2. Myosin VI and VIIa distribution among inner ear epithelia in diverse fishes.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Dabdoub, Alain; Kelley, Matthew W; Popper, Arthur N

    2007-02-01

    Unconventional myosins are critical motor proteins in the vertebrate inner ear. Mutations in any one of at least six different myosins can lead to human hereditary deafness, but the precise functions of these proteins in the ear are unknown. This study uses a comparative approach to better understand the role of myosins VI and VIIa in vertebrate ears by examining protein distribution for these two myosins in the ears of evolutionarily diverse fishes and the aquatic clawed toad Xenopus laevis. Both myosins are expressed in the inner ears of all species examined in this study. Myo7a localizes to hair cells, particularly the actin-rich hair bundle, in all species studied. Myo6 also localizes to hair cells, but its distribution differs between species and end organs. Myo6 is found in hair bundles of most fish and frog epithelia examined here but not in anterior and posterior utricular hair bundles of American shad. These results show that myo7a distribution is highly conserved in diverse vertebrates and suggest functional conservation as well. The finding of myo6 in fish and Xenopus hair bundles, however, suggests a novel role for this protein in anamniotic hair cells. The lack of myo6 in specific American shad utricular hair bundles indicates a unique quality of these cells among fishes, perhaps relating to ultrasound detection capability that is found in this species. PMID:17204383

  3. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  4. Localization of actin and myosin for the study of ameboid movement in Dictyostelium using improved immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of actin and myosin in Dictyostelium amebae at different developmental stages was studied by improved immunofluorescence ("agar-overlay" technique). Both were localized at the cortical region of amebae in all early developmental stages. In amebae with polarized morphology, bright fluorescence with antiactin was seen in the anterior pseudopode. The cortex in the posterior end was also stained with antiactin. On the other hand, very specific crescent-shaped staining with antimyosin was seen at the posterior cortex. In cells in contact with each other, actin was concentrated at the contact region, whereas myosin was localized specifically in the cortex on the other side of the contact region. At the aggregation stage, when monopodial amebae migrate forming streams, actin staining was seen all around the cell periphery, with intense fluorescence in the anterior pseudopode. On the other hand, specific staining of myosin was seen only at the posterior cortex. The cleavage furrow of cells performing cytokinesis displayed distinct myosin staining, and this staining represented the filamentous structure aligned in parallel to the axis of constriction. These findings indicate that myosin staining reflects the portion of the cell cortex where contraction occurs and the motive force of ameboid movement is generated at the posterior cortex of a migrating cell. PMID:6381508

  5. The role of myosin-II in force generation of DRG filopodia and lamellipodia

    PubMed Central

    Sayyad, Wasim A.; Amin, Ladan; Fabris, Paolo; Ercolini, Erika; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating neurons process the mechanical stimulus by exerting the protrusive forces through lamellipodia and filopodia. We used optical tweezers, video imaging and immunocytochemistry to analyze the role of non-muscle myosin-II on the protrusive force exerted by lamellipodia and filopodia from developing growth cones (GCs) of isolated Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons. When the activity of myosin-II was inhibited by 30??M Blebbistatin protrusion/retraction cycles of lamellipodia slowed down and during retraction lamellipodia could not lift up axially as in control condition. Inhibition of actin polymerization with 25?nM Cytochalasin-D and of microtubule polymerization with 500?nM Nocodazole slowed down the protrusion/retraction cycles, but only Cytochalasin-D decreased lamellipodia axial motion. The force exerted by lamellipodia treated with Blebbistatin decreased by 50%, but, surprisingly, the force exerted by filopodia increased by 20-50%. The concomitant disruption of microtubules caused by Nocodazole abolished the increase of the force exerted by filopodia treated with Blebbistatin. These results suggest that; i- Myosin-II controls the force exerted by lamellipodia and filopodia; ii- contractions of the actomyosin complex formed by filaments of actin and myosin have an active role in ruffle formation; iii- myosin-II is an essential component of the structural stability of GCs architecture. PMID:25598228

  6. A proteomic study of myosin II motor proteins during tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Betapudi, Venkaiah; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Chance, Mark R; Egelhoff, Thomas T

    2011-04-15

    Myosin II motor proteins play important roles in cell migration. Although myosin II filament assembly plays a key role in the stabilization of focal contacts at the leading edge of migrating cells, the mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating the localized assembly of lamellipodial myosin II filaments are poorly understood. We performed a proteomic analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) phosphorylation sites in MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells to identify MHC phosphorylation sites that are activated during integrin engagement and lamellar extension on fibronectin. Fibronectin-activated MHC phosphorylation was identified on novel and previously recognized consensus sites for phosphorylation by protein kinase C and casein kinase II (CK-II). S1943, a CK-II consensus site, was highly phosphorylated in response to matrix engagement, and phosphoantibody staining revealed phosphorylation on myosin II assembled into leading-edge lamellae. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological reduction nor small inhibitory RNA reduction in CK-II activity reduced this stimulated S1943 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that S1943 phosphorylation is upregulated during lamellar protrusion, and that CK-II does not appear to be the kinase responsible for this matrix-induced phosphorylation event. PMID:21316371

  7. Cell, Vol. 116, 737749, March 5, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press The Mechanism of Myosin VI Translocation

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    cycle. An especially usefulStanford University approach has been to apply a load to an active motor in the chemomechanical cycle (Block et al.,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 2003; Wang et al., 1998).3 Department Myosin VI, also a processive motor (Rock et al., 2001),optical trapping, we observed myosin VI stepping

  8. Mapping the H+ (V)-ATPase interactome: identification of proteins involved in trafficking, folding, assembly and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Merkulova, Maria; P?unescu, Teodor G.; Azroyan, Anie; Marshansky, Vladimir; Breton, Sylvie; Brown, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    V-ATPases (H+ ATPases) are multisubunit, ATP-dependent proton pumps that regulate pH homeostasis in virtually all eukaryotes. They are involved in key cell biological processes including vesicle trafficking, endosomal pH sensing, membrane fusion and intracellular signaling. They also have critical systemic roles in renal acid excretion and blood pH balance, male fertility, bone remodeling, synaptic transmission, olfaction and hearing. Furthermore, V-ATPase dysfunction either results in or aggravates various other diseases, but little is known about the complex protein interactions that regulate these varied V-ATPase functions. Therefore, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify V-ATPase associated proteins and construct a V-ATPase interactome. Our analysis using kidney tissue revealed V-ATPase-associated protein clusters involved in protein quality control, complex assembly and intracellular trafficking. ARHGEF7, DMXL1, EZR, NCOA7, OXR1, RPS6KA3, SNX27 and 9 subunits of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex (CCT) were found to interact with V-ATPase for the first time in this study. Knockdown of two interacting proteins, DMXL1 and WDR7, inhibited V-ATPase-mediated intracellular vesicle acidification in a kidney cell line, providing validation for the utility of our interactome as a screen for functionally important novel V-ATPase-regulating proteins. Our data, therefore, provide new insights and directions for the analysis of V-ATPase cell biology and (patho)physiology. PMID:26442671

  9. Myosin-V as a Mechanical Sensor: An Elastic Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Düttmann, Markus; Togashi, Yuichi; Yanagida, Toshio; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    According to recent experiments, the molecular-motor myosin behaves like a strain sensor, exhibiting different functional responses when loads in opposite directions are applied to its tail. Within an elastic-network model, we explore the sensitivity of the protein to the forces acting on the tail and find, in agreement with experiments, that such forces invoke conformational changes that should affect filament binding and ADP release. Furthermore, conformational responses of myosin to the application of forces to individual residues in its principal functional regions are systematically investigated and a detailed sensitivity map of myosin-V is thus obtained. The results suggest that the strain-sensor behavior is involved in the intrinsic operation of this molecular motor. PMID:22325277

  10. Thermodynamic features of myosin filament suspensions: implications for the modeling of muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Grazi, E; Cintio, O

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of myosin filament suspensions shows that these solutions are characterized by highly nonideal behavior. From these data a model is constructed that allows us to predict that 1) when subjected to an increasing protein osmotic pressure, myosin filaments experience an elastic deformation, which is not linearly related to the acting force; and 2) at constant protein osmotic pressure, when the cross-bridges of the myosin filaments are subjected to an external, nonosmotic force parallel to the filament axis, they are deformed and the water activity coefficient is altered. As a consequence, in muscle, passive and active shortening of the sarcomere is expected to promote the change of the water-water and of the water-protein interactions. We thus propose to depict muscle contraction as a chemo-osmoelastic transduction, where the analysis of the energy partition during the power stroke requires consideration of the osmotic factor in addition to the chemoelastic ones. PMID:11423416

  11. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  12. Structural basis for drug-induced allosteric changes to human ?-cardiac myosin motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Donald A.; Forgacs, Eva; Miller, Matthew T.; Stock, Ann M.

    2015-08-01

    Omecamtiv Mecarbil (OM) is a small molecule allosteric effector of cardiac myosin that is in clinical trials for treatment of systolic heart failure. A detailed kinetic analysis of cardiac myosin has shown that the drug accelerates phosphate release by shifting the equilibrium of the hydrolysis step towards products, leading to a faster transition from weak to strong actin-bound states. The structure of the human ?-cardiac motor domain (cMD) with OM bound reveals a single OM-binding site nestled in a narrow cleft separating two domains of the human cMD where it interacts with the key residues that couple lever arm movement to the nucleotide state. In addition, OM induces allosteric changes in three strands of the ?-sheet that provides the communication link between the actin-binding interface and the nucleotide pocket. The OM-binding interactions and allosteric changes form the structural basis for the kinetic and mechanical tuning of cardiac myosin.

  13. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  14. Locating phospholamban in co-crystals with Ca(2+)-ATPase by cryoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Young, H S; Jones, L R; Stokes, D L

    2001-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLB) is responsible for regulating Ca(2+) transport by Ca(2+)-ATPase across the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac and smooth muscle. This regulation is coupled to beta-adrenergic stimulation, and dysfunction has been associated with end-stage heart failure. PLB appears to directly bind to Ca(2+)-ATPase, thus slowing certain steps in the Ca(2+) transport cycle. We have determined 3D structures from co-crystals of PLB with Ca(2+)-ATPase by cryoelectron microscopy of tubular co-crystals at 8--10 A resolution. Specifically, we have used wild-type PLB, a monomeric PLB mutant (L37A), and a pentameric PLB mutant (N27A) for co-reconstitution and have compared resulting structures with three control structures of Ca(2+)-ATPase alone. The overall molecular shape of Ca(2+)-ATPase was indistinguishable in the various reconstructions, indicating that PLB did not have any global effects on Ca(2+)-ATPase conformation. Difference maps reveal densities which we attributed to the cytoplasmic domain of PLB, though no difference densities were seen for PLB's transmembrane helix. Based on these difference maps, we propose that a single PLB molecule interacts with two Ca(2+)-ATPase molecules. Our model suggests that PLB may resist the large domain movements associated with the catalytic cycle, thus inhibiting turnover. PMID:11463632

  15. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings. PMID:25087500

  16. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  17. Characterization and effect of light on the plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase of bean leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnemeyer, P. A.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Proton excretion from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf cells is increased by bright white light. To test whether this could be due, at least in part, to an increase in plasma membrane (PM) ATPase activity, PM vesicles were isolated from primary leaves by phase partitioning and used to characterize PM ATPase activity and changes in response to light. ATPase activity was characterized as magnesium ion dependent, vanadate sensitive, and slightly stimulated by potassium chloride. The pH optimum was 6.5, the Km was approximately 0.30 millimolar ATP, and the activity was about 60% latent. PM vesicles were prepared from leaves of plants grown for 11 days in dim red light (growing slowly) or grown for 10 days in dim red light and then transferred to bright white-light for 1 day (growing rapidly). For both light treatments, ATPase specific activity was approximately 600 to 700 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute, and the latency, Km, and sensitivity to potassium chloride were also similar. PM vesicles from plants grown in complete darkness, however, exhibited a twofold greater specific activity. We conclude that the promotion of leaf growth and proton excretion by bright white light is not due to an increase in ATPase specific activity. Light does influence ATPase activity, however; both dim red light and bright white light decreased the ATPase specific activity by nearly 50% as compared with dark-grown leaves.

  18. Electron Microscopic Observation and Biochemical Properties of Carp Myosin B during Frozen Storage at -8°C with Cryoprotectants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Norio; Oguni, Moritoshi; Yamamoto, Mika; Shinano, Haruo

    The cryoprotective effect of sorbitol (0.5M) and monosodium glutamate (0.3M) was examined on the freeze denaturation of carp myosin B filaments by observing the morphological changes in electron microscopy. Myosin B in the presence of 0.1 or 0.6M KCl was stored at -8°C that was higer temperature than the eutectic point of KCl and provided the concentrated KCl solution for causing the filamentous structure to deform. In the case of frozen storage in 0.1M KCl, the deformation of myosin B filaments was protected with both cryoprotectants. In the case of 0.6M KCl with monosodium glutamate, the deformation of the filaments was prevented. However, the granular matters deformed from myosin B were observed to some extent in 0.6M KCl with sorbitol. Morphological changes of the filaments in the electron microscopy agreed with the changes in biochemical properties of myosin B.

  19. Alteration of complex sphingolipid composition and its physiological significance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking vacuolar ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Toume, Moeko

    2015-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complex sphingolipids have three types of polar head group and five types of ceramide; however, the physiological significance of the structural diversity is not fully understood. Here, we report that deletion of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in yeast causes dramatic alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition, which includes decreases in hydroxylation at the C-4 position of long-chain bases and the C-2 position of fatty acids in the ceramide moiety, decreases in inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) levels, and increases in mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and mannosyldiinositol phosphorylceramide [M(IP)2C] levels. V-ATPase-deleted cells exhibited slow growth at pH?7.2, whereas the increase in MIPC levels was significantly enhanced when V-ATPase-deleted cells were incubated at pH?7.2. The protein expression levels of MIPC and M(IP)2C synthases were significantly increased in V-ATPase-deleted cells incubated at pH?7.2. Loss of MIPC synthesis or an increase in the hydroxylation level of the ceramide moiety of sphingolipids on overexpression of Scs7 and Sur2 sphingolipid hydroxylases enhanced the growth defect of V-ATPase-deleted cells at pH?7.2. On the contrary, the growth rate of V-ATPase-deleted cells was moderately increased on the deletion of SCS7 and SUR2. In addition, supersensitivities to Ca2+, Zn2+ and H2O2, which are typical phenotypes of V-ATPase-deleted cells, were enhanced by the loss of MIPC synthesis. These results indicate the possibility that alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition is an adaptation mechanism for a defect of V-ATPase. PMID:26404656

  20. Origin of asymmetry at the intersubunit interfaces of V1-ATPase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Yumemi; Takeda, Kazuki; Kuranaga, Takeshi; Numoto, Nobutaka; Miki, Kunio

    2013-08-01

    V-type ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the rotary ATPase complexes that mediate energy conversion between the chemical energy of ATP and the ion gradient across the membrane through a rotary catalytic mechanism. Because V-ATPase has structural features similar to those of well-studied F-type ATPase, the structure is expected to highlight the common essence of the torque generation of rotary ATPases. Here, we report a complete model of the extra-membrane domain of the V-ATPase (V1-ATPase) of a thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, consisting of three A subunits, three B subunits, one D subunit, and one F subunit. The X-ray structure at 3.9Å resolution provides detailed information about the interactions between A3B3 and DF subcomplexes as well as interactions among the respective subunits, which are defined by the properties of side chains. Asymmetry at the intersubunit interfaces was detected from the structural differences among the three AB pairs in the different reaction states, while the large interdomain motion in the catalytic A subunits was not observed unlike F1 from various species and V1 from Enterococcus hirae. Asymmetry is mainly realized by rigid-body rearrangements of the relative position between A and B subunits. This is consistent with the previous observations by the high-resolution electron microscopy for the whole V-ATPase complexes. Therefore, our result plausibly implies that the essential motion for the torque generation is not the large interdomain movement of the catalytic subunits but the rigid-body rearrangement of subunits. PMID:23639357

  1. Abscisic Acid Induction of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Pantoja, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key component in water-deficit-induced responses, including those triggered by drought, NaCl, and low- temperature stress. In this study a role for ABA in mediating the NaCl-stress-induced increases in tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and Na+/H+ antiport activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, leading to vacuolar Na+ sequestration, were investigated. NaCl or ABA treatment of adult M. crystallinum plants induced V-ATPase H+ transport activity, and when applied in combination, an additive effect on V-ATPase stimulation was observed. In contrast, treatment of juvenile plants with ABA did not induce V-ATPase activity, whereas NaCl treatment resulted in a similar response to that observed in adult plants. Na+/H+ antiport activity was induced in both juvenile and adult plants by NaCl, but ABA had no effect at either developmental stage. Results indicate that ABA-induced changes in V-ATPase activity are dependent on the plant reaching its adult phase, whereas NaCl-induced increases in V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport activity are independent of plant age. This suggests that ABA-induced V-ATPase activity may be linked to the stress-induced, developmentally programmed switch from C3 metabolism to Crassulacean acid metabolism in adult plants, whereas, vacuolar Na+ sequestration, mediated by the V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport, is regulated through ABA-independent pathways. PMID:10398716

  2. Copper-transporting ATPases: The evolutionarily conserved machineries for balancing copper in living systems.

    PubMed

    Migocka, Magdalena

    2015-10-01

    Copper ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are ubiquitous transmembrane proteins using energy from ATP to transport copper across different biological membranes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. As they belong to the P-ATPase family, Cu-ATPases contain a characteristic catalytic domain with an evolutionarily conserved aspartate residue phosphorylated by ATP to form a phosphoenzyme intermediate, as well as transmembrane helices containing a cation-binding cysteine-proline-cysteine/histidine/serine (CPx) motif for catalytic activation and cation translocation. In addition, most Cu-ATPases possess the N-terminal Cu-binding CxxC motif required for regulation of enzyme activity. In cells, the Cu-ATPases receive copper from soluble chaperones and maintain intracellular copper homeostasis by efflux of copper from the cell or transport of the metal into the intracellular compartments. In addition, copper pumps play an essential role in cuproprotein biosynthesis by the uptake of copper into the cell or delivery of the metal into the chloroplasts and thylakoid lumen or into the lumen of the secretory pathway, where the metal ion is incorporated into copper-dependent enzymes. In the recent years, significant progress has been made toward understanding the function and regulation of Cu-transporting ATPases in archaea, bacteria, yeast, humans, and plants, providing new insights into the specific physiological roles of these essential proteins in various organisms and revealing some conservative regulatory mechanisms of Cu-ATPase activity. In this review, the structural, biochemical, and functional properties of Cu-ATPases from phylogenetically different organisms are summarized and discussed, with particular attention given to the recent insights into the molecular biology of copper pumps in plants. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 67(10):737-745, 2015. PMID:26422816

  3. Acid secretion and the H,K ATPase of stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, C.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.; Helander, H.; Shin, J.; Besancon, M.; Bamberg, K.; Hersey, S.; Sachs, G.

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of acid secretion was clarified by the development of H2-receptor antagonists in the 1970s. It appears that gastrin and acetylcholine exert their effects on acid secretion mainly by stimulation of histamine release from the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell of the fundic gastric mucosa. The isolated ECL cell of rat gastric mucosa responds to gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK), acetylcholine, and epinephrine with histamine release and to somatostatin and R-alpha-methyl histamine by inhibition of histamine release. Histamine and acetylcholine stimulate the parietal cell by elevation of cAMP or [Ca]i by activation of H2 or M3 receptors, respectively. These independent pathways converge to activate the gastric acid pump, the H+,K+ ATPase. Activation is a function of the association of the ATPase with a potassium chloride transport pathway that occurs in the membrane of the secretory canaliculus of the parietal cell. Hence the secretory canaliculus is the site of acid secretion, the acid being pumped into the lumen of the canaliculus. The pump is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic and a smaller glycosylated protein. This final step of acid secretion has become the target of drugs also designed to inhibit acid secretion. The target domain of the benzimidazole class of acid pump inhibitors is the extracytoplasmic domain of the pump that is secreting acid, and the target amino acids are the cysteines present in this domain. The secondary structure of the pump can be analyzed by determining trypsin-sensitive bonds in intact, cytoplasmic-side-out vesicles of the ATPase, and it has been shown that the alpha subunit has at least eight membrane-spanning segments. Omeprazole, the first acid pump inhibitor, forms a disulfide bond with cysteines in the extracytoplasmic loop between the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segment and to a cysteine in the extracytoplasmic loop between the seventh and eight segments, preventing phosphorylation of the pump by ATP. As a result of the effective and long-lasting inhibition of acid secretion by the acid pump inhibitor, superior clinical results have been found in all forms of acid-related disease. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 PMID:1341065

  4. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Cole, Rex A.; Fowler, John E.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 ?m/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6–1.5 ?m/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development. PMID:26426395

  5. Role of myosin Va in purinergic vesicular neurotransmission in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Arun; He, Xue-Dao

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that myosin Va, by transporting purinergic vesicles to the varicosity membrane for exocytosis, plays a key role in purinergic vesicular neurotransmission. Studies were performed in wild-type (WT) and myosin Va-deficient dilute, brown, nonagouti (DBA) mice. Intracellular microelectrode recordings were made in mouse antral muscle strips. Purinergic inhibitory junction potential (pIJP) was recorded under nonadrenergic noncholinergic conditions after masking the nitrergic junction potentials. DBA mice showed reduced pIJP but normal hyperpolarizing response to P2Y1 receptor agonist MRS-2365. To investigate the mechanism of reduced purinergic transmission in DBA mice, studies were performed in isolated varicosities obtained from homogenates of whole gut tissues by ultracentrifugation and sucrose cushion purification. Purinergic varicosities were identified in tissue sections and in isolated varicosities by immunostaining for the vesicular ATP transporter, the solute carrier protein SLC17A9. The varicosities were similar in WT and DBA mice. Myosin Va was markedly reduced in DBA varicosities compared with the WT varicosities. Proximity ligation assay showed that myosin Va was closely associated with SLC17A9. Vesicular exoendocytosis was examined by FM1–43 staining of varicosities, which showed that exoendocytosis after KCl stimulation was impaired in DBA varicosities compared with WT varicosities. These studies show that SLC17A9 identifies ATP-containing purinergic varicosities. Myosin Va associates with SLC17A9-stained vesicles and possibly transports them to varicosity membrane for exocytosis. In myosin Va-deficient mice, purinergic inhibitory neurotransmission is impaired. PMID:22207579

  6. The Effects of Hsp90?1 Mutations on Myosin Thick Filament Organization

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuxia; Liu, Kechun; Tian, Zhenjun; Du, Shao Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90? plays a key role in myosin folding and thick filament assembly in muscle cells. To assess the structure and function of Hsp90? and its potential regulation by post-translational modification, we developed a combined knockdown and rescue assay in zebrafish embryos to systematically analyze the effects of various mutations on Hsp90? function in myosin thick filament organization. DNA constructs expressing the Hsp90?1 mutants with altered putative ATP binding, phosphorylation, acetylation or methylation sites were co-injected with Hsp90?1 specific morpholino into zebrafish embryos. Myosin thick filament organization was analyzed in skeletal muscles of the injected embryos by immunostaining. The results showed that mutating the conserved D90 residue in the Hsp90?1 ATP binding domain abolished its function in thick filament organization. In addition, phosphorylation mimicking mutations of T33D, T33E and T87E compromised Hsp90?1 function in myosin thick filament organization. Similarly, K287Q acetylation mimicking mutation repressed Hsp90?1 function in myosin thick filament organization. In contrast, K206R and K608R hypomethylation mimicking mutations had not effect on Hsp90?1 function in thick filament organization. Given that T33 and T87 are highly conserved residues involved post-translational modification (PTM) in yeast, mouse and human Hsp90 proteins, data from this study could indicate that Hsp90?1 function in myosin thick filament organization is potentially regulated by PTMs involving phosphorylation and acetylation. PMID:26562659

  7. Unphosphorylated calponin enhances the binding force of unphosphorylated myosin to actin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Horia Nicolae; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Kachmar, Linda; Ijpma, Gijs; Hilbert, Lennart; Matusovskiy, Oleg; Benedetti, Andrea; Sobieszek, Apolinary; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Smooth muscle has the distinctive ability to maintain force for long periods of time and at low energy costs. While it is generally agreed that this property, called the latch-state, is due to the dephosphorylation of myosin while attached to actin, dephosphorylated-detached myosin can also attach to actin and may contribute to force maintenance. Thus, we investigated the role of calponin in regulating and enhancing the binding force of unphosphorylated tonic muscle myosin to actin. Methods To measure the effect of calponin on the binding of unphosphorylated myosin to actin, we used the laser trap assay to quantify the average force of unbinding (Funb) in the absence and presence of calponin or phosphorylated calponin. Results Funb from F-actin alone (0.12±0.01pN; mean±SE) was significantly increased in the presence of calponin (0.20±0.02pN). This enhancement was lost when calponin was phosphorylated (0.12±0.01pN). To further verify that this enhancement of Funb was due to cross-linking of actin to myosin by calponin, we repeated the measurements at high ionic strength. Indeed, the Funb obtained at a [KCl] of 25mM (0.21±0.02pN; mean±SE) was significantly decreased at a [KCl] of 150mM, (0.13±0.01pN). Conclusions This study provides direct molecular level-evidence that calponin enhances the binding force of unphosphorylated myosin to actin by cross-linking them and that this is reversed upon calponin phosphorylation. Thus, calponin might play an important role in the latch-state. General Significance This study suggests a new mechanism that likely contributes to the latch-state, a fundamental and important property of smooth muscle that remains unresolved. PMID:23747303

  8. The non-linear elasticity of the muscle sarcomere and the compliance of myosin motors

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Reconditi, Massimo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Force in striated muscle is due to attachment of the heads of the myosin, the molecular motors extending from the myosin filament, to the actin filament in each half-sarcomere, the functional unit where myosin motors act in parallel. Mechanical and X-ray structural evidence indicates that at the plateau of isometric contraction (force T0), less than half of the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere is due to the strain in the array of myosin motors (s), with the remainder being accounted for by the compliance of filaments acting as linear elastic elements in series with the motor array. Early during the development of isometric force, however, the half-sarcomere compliance has been found to be less than that expected from the linear elastic model assumed above, and this non-linearity may affect the estimate of s. This question is investigated here by applying nanometre–microsecond-resolution mechanics to single intact fibres from frog skeletal muscle at 4°C, to record the mechanical properties of the half-sarcomere throughout the development of force in isometric contraction. The results are interpreted with mechanical models to estimate the compliance of the myosin motors. Our conclusions are as follows: (i)?early during the development of an isometric tetanus, an elastic element is present in parallel with the myosin motors, with a compliance of ?200?nm?MPa?1 (?20?times larger than the compliance of the motor array at T0); and (ii)?during isometric contraction, s is 1.66?±?0.05?nm, which is not significantly different from the value estimated with the linear elastic model. PMID:24344166

  9. Criticalities in crosslinked actin networks due to myosin activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many essential processes in cells and tissues, like motility and morphogenesis, are orchestrated by molecular motors applying internal, active stresses on crosslinked networks of actin filaments. Using scaling analysis, mean-field calculation, numerical modelling and in vitro experiments of such active networks we predict and observe different mechanical regimes exhibiting interesting critical behaviours with non-trivial power-law dependencies. Firstly, we find that the presence of active stresses can dramatically increase the stiffness of a floppy network, as was observed in reconstituted intracellular F-actin networks with myosin motors and extracellular gels with contractile cells. Uniform internal stress results in an anomalous, critical mechanical regime only in the vicinity of the rigidity percolation points of the network. However, taking into account heterogeneity of motors, we demonstrate that the motors, stiffening any floppy network, induce large non-affine fluctuations, giving rise to a critical mechanical regime. Secondly, upon increasing motor concentration, the resulting large internal stress is able to significantly enhance unbinding of the network's crosslinks and, therefore, disconnect the initially well-connected network to isolated clusters. However, during this process, when the network approaches marginal connectivity the internal stresses are expected to drop drastically such that the connectivity stabilizes. This general argument and detailed numerical simulations show that motors should drive a well connected network to a close vicinity of a critical point of marginal connectivity. Experiments clearly confirm this conclusion and demonstrate robust critical connectivity of initially well-connected networks, ruptured by the motor activity for a wide range of parameters. M. Sheinman, C.P. Broedersz and F.C. MacKintosh, Phys. Rev. Lett, in press. J. Alvarado, M. Sheinman, A. Sharma, F.C. MacKintosh and G. Koenderink, in preparation.

  10. Myosin II Regulates Activity Dependent Compensatory Endocytosis at Central Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Indra; Huettner, James E.; Turney, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that endocytosis, not exocytosis, can be rate limiting for neurotransmitter release at excitatory CNS synapses during sustained activity and therefore may be a principal determinant of synaptic fatigue. At low stimulation frequencies, the probability of synaptic release is linked to the probability of synaptic retrieval such that evoked release results in proportional retrieval even for release of single synaptic vesicles. The exact mechanism by which the retrieval rates are coupled to release rates, known as compensatory endocytosis, remains unknown. Here we show that inactivation of presynaptic myosin II (MII) decreases the probability of synaptic retrieval. To be able to differentiate between the presynaptic and postsynaptic functions of MII, we developed a live cell substrate patterning technique to create defined neural circuits composed of small numbers of embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and physically isolated from the surrounding culture. Acute application of blebbistatin to inactivate MII in circuits strongly inhibited evoked release but not spontaneous release. In circuits incorporating both control and MIIB knock-out cells, loss of presynaptic MIIB function correlated with a large decrease in the amplitude of evoked release. Using activity-dependent markers FM1–43 and horseradish peroxidase, we found that MII inactivation greatly slowed vesicular replenishment of the recycling pool but did not impede synaptic release. These results indicate that MII-driven tension or actin dynamics regulate the major pathway for synaptic vesicle retrieval. Changes in retrieval rates determine the size of the recycling pool. The resulting effect on release rates, in turn, brings about changes in synaptic strength. PMID:24107946

  11. A bioinformatic and computational study of myosin phosphatase subunit diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dippold, Rachael P.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in myosin phosphatase (MP) subunits may provide specificity in signaling pathways that regulate muscle tone. We utilized public databases and computational algorithms to investigate the phylogenetic diversity of MP regulatory (PPP1R12A-C) and inhibitory (PPP1R14A-D) subunits. The comparison of exonic coding sequences and expression data confirmed or refuted the existence of isoforms and their tissue-specific expression in different model organisms. The comparison of intronic and exonic sequences identified potential expressional regulatory elements. As examples, smooth muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12A) is highly conserved through evolution. Its alternative exon E24 is present in fish through mammals with two invariant features: 1) a reading frame shift generating a premature termination codon and 2) a hexanucleotide sequence adjacent to the 3? splice site hypothesized to be a novel suppressor of exon splicing. A characteristic of the striated muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12B) locus is numerous and phylogenetically variable transcriptional start sites. In fish this locus only codes for the small (M21) subunit, suggesting the primordial function of this gene. Inhibitory subunits show little intragenic variability; their diversity is thought to have arisen by expansion and tissue-specific expression of different gene family members. We demonstrate differences in the regulatory landscape between smooth muscle enriched (PPP1R14A) and more ubiquitously expressed (PPP1R14B) family members and identify deeply conserved intronic sequence and predicted transcriptional cis-regulatory elements. This bioinformatic and computational study has uncovered a number of attributes of MP subunits that supports selection of ideal model organisms and testing of hypotheses regarding their physiological significance and regulated expression. PMID:24898838

  12. Preparation of active enzyme samples for IR studies of Na+/K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Thoenges, Detlef; Zscherp, Christian; Grell, Ernst; Barth, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In the case of the integral membrane protein Na+/K+-ATPase, preparation of highly concentrated samples for IR difference spectroscopy often leads to inactivation of the enzyme. Therefore, we compared the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase using different techniques of sample preparation. The loss of activity can be minimized by cooling the sample to 10 degrees C and by the addition of glycerol and dithiothreitol. The activity of Na+/K+-ATPase isolated from pig kidney is independent of the protein concentration whereas the enzyme from shark rectal gland is inactivated at concentrations above 1 microg/microL and is thus unsuitable for IR experiments. PMID:12012445

  13. Na+,K+-ATPase as the Target Enzyme for Organic and Inorganic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Vasi?, Vesna; Momi?, Tatjana; Petkovi?, Marijana; Krsti?, Danijela

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the literature data concerning specific and non specific inhibitors of Na+,K+-ATPase receptor. The immobilization approaches developed to improve the rather low time and temperature stability of Na+,K+-ATPase, as well to preserve the enzyme properties were overviewed. The functional immobilization of Na+,K+-ATPase receptor as the target, with preservation of the full functional protein activity and access of various substances to an optimum number of binding sites under controlled conditions in the combination with high sensitive technology for the detection of enzyme activity is the basis for application of this enzyme in medical, pharmaceutical and environmental research.

  14. Isolation of H(+),K(+)-ATPase-enriched Membrane Fraction from Pig Stomachs.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Olesen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is an ATP-driven proton pump responsible for the acid secretion. Here, we describe the procedure for the isolation of H(+),K(+)-ATPase-enriched membrane vesicle fractions by Ficoll/sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Further purification by SDS treatment of membrane fractions is also introduced. These procedures allow us to obtain purified protein preparations in a quantity of several tens of milligrams, with the specific activity of ~480 ?mol/mg/h. High purity and stability of H(+),K(+)-ATPase in the membrane preparation enable us to evaluate its detailed biochemical properties, and also to obtain 2D crystals for structural analysis. PMID:26695019

  15. Contraction parameters, myosin composition and metabolic enzymes of the skeletal muscles of the etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus and of the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Insectivora: soricidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, T; Kubis, H P; Wetzel, P; Sender, S; Asmussen, G; Fons, R; Jürgens, K D

    1999-09-01

    In the Etruscan shrew, the isometric twitch contraction times of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles are shorter than in any other mammal, allowing these muscles to contract at outstandingly high contraction frequencies. This species has the highest mass-specific metabolic rate of all mammals and requires fast skeletal muscles not only for locomotion but also for effective heat production and for an extremely high ventilation rate. No differences could be detected in the fibre type pattern, the myosin heavy and light chain composition, or in the activity of the metabolic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the two limb muscles, the EDL and the soleus, which in larger mammalian species exhibit distinct differences in contractile proteins and metabolic enzymes. All properties determined in EDL and soleus muscles of Suncus etruscus, as well as in the larger Crocidura russula, are typical for fast-oxidative fibres, and the same holds for several other skeletal muscles including the diaphragm muscle of S. etruscus. Nevertheless, the EDL and soleus muscles showed different mechanical properties in the two shrew species. Relaxation times and, in C. russula, time to peak force are shorter in the EDL than in the soleus muscle. This is in accordance with the time course of the Ca(2+) transients in these muscles. Such a result could be due to different parvalbumin concentrations, to a different volume fraction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the two muscles or to different Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Alternatively, the lower content of cytosolic creatine kinase (CK) in the soleus compared with the EDL muscle could indicate that the observed difference in contraction times between these shrew muscles is due to the CK-controlled activity of their sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:10460733

  16. Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F$_1$-ATPase

    E-print Network

    Shoichi Toyabe; Eiro Muneyuki

    2015-01-16

    F$_\\mathrm{o}$F$_1$-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F$_1$-motor (F$_1$-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. Isolated F$_1$-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central $\\gamma$-shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the $\\gamma$-shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F$_1$-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F$_1$-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

  17. Is the ATPase from halobacterium saccharovorum an evolutionary relic?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Altekar, W.; Kristjansson, H.

    1986-01-01

    The ATP Synthase Complex present in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts or bacteria is composed of 2 sectors: FO, an integral membrane protein consisting of 3 subunits mediating proton translocation across the membrane and F1, the catalytic component composed of 5 non-identical subunits. The apparent early origin of the ATP Synthase Complex, as implied by its ubiquitous distribution, seems inconsistent with its structural and functional complexity and raises the question if simpler versions of the ATP Synthase exist. Such an ATP Synthase has been searched for in various Archaebacteria. A purified halobacterial ATPase activity which possesses certain properties consistent with those of an ATP Synthase but which has a different subunit structure is described.

  18. Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2015-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F1-motor (F1-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. The isolated F1-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central ? -shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the ? -shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F1-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F1-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using a methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

  19. Kinesin-2 KIF3AB Exhibits Novel ATPase Characteristics*

    PubMed Central

    Albracht, Clayton D.; Rank, Katherine C.; Obrzut, Steven; Rayment, Ivan; Gilbert, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    KIF3AB is an N-terminal processive kinesin-2 family member best known for its role in intraflagellar transport. There has been significant interest in KIF3AB in defining the key principles that underlie the processivity of KIF3AB in comparison with homodimeric processive kinesins. To define the ATPase mechanism and coordination of KIF3A and KIF3B stepping, a presteady-state kinetic analysis was pursued. For these studies, a truncated murine KIF3AB was generated. The results presented show that microtubule association was fast at 5.7 ?m?1 s?1, followed by rate-limiting ADP release at 12.8 s?1. ATP binding at 7.5 ?m?1 s?1 was followed by an ATP-promoted isomerization at 84 s?1 to form the intermediate poised for ATP hydrolysis, which then occurred at 33 s?1. ATP hydrolysis was required for dissociation of the microtubule·KIF3AB complex, which was observed at 22 s?1. The dissociation step showed an apparent affinity for ATP that was very weak (K½,ATP at 133 ?m). Moreover, the linear fit of the initial ATP concentration dependence of the dissociation kinetics revealed an apparent second-order rate constant at 0.09 ?m?1 s?1, which is inconsistent with fast ATP binding at 7.5 ?m?1 s?1 and a Kd,ATP at 6.1 ?m. These results suggest that ATP binding per se cannot account for the apparent weak K½,ATP at 133 ?m. The steady-state ATPase Km,ATP, as well as the dissociation kinetics, reveal an unusual property of KIF3AB that is not yet well understood and also suggests that the mechanochemistry of KIF3AB is tuned somewhat differently from homodimeric processive kinesins. PMID:25122755

  20. Torque Generation of Enterococcus hirae V-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Hara, Mayu; Rahman, Suhaila; Yamato, Ichiro; Muneyuki, Eiro; Noji, Hiroyuki; Murata, Takeshi; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    V-ATPase (VoV1) converts the chemical free energy of ATP into an ion-motive force across the cell membrane via mechanical rotation. This energy conversion requires proper interactions between the rotor and stator in VoV1 for tight coupling among chemical reaction, torque generation, and ion transport. We developed an Escherichia coli expression system for Enterococcus hirae VoV1 (EhVoV1) and established a single-molecule rotation assay to measure the torque generated. Recombinant and native EhVoV1 exhibited almost identical dependence of ATP hydrolysis activity on sodium ion and ATP concentrations, indicating their functional equivalence. In a single-molecule rotation assay with a low load probe at high ATP concentration, EhVoV1 only showed the “clear” state without apparent backward steps, whereas EhV1 showed two states, “clear” and “unclear.” Furthermore, EhVoV1 showed slower rotation than EhV1 without the three distinct pauses separated by 120° that were observed in EhV1. When using a large probe, EhVoV1 showed faster rotation than EhV1, and the torque of EhVoV1 estimated from the continuous rotation was nearly double that of EhV1. On the other hand, stepping torque of EhV1 in the clear state was comparable with that of EhVoV1. These results indicate that rotor-stator interactions of the Vo moiety and/or sodium ion transport limit the rotation driven by the V1 moiety, and the rotor-stator interactions in EhVoV1 are stabilized by two peripheral stalks to generate a larger torque than that of isolated EhV1. However, the torque value was substantially lower than that of other rotary ATPases, implying the low energy conversion efficiency of EhVoV1. PMID:25258315

  1. Oligomeric Interactions of Sarcolipin and the Ca-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Autry, Joseph M.; Rubin, John E.; Pietrini, Sean D.; Winters, Deborah L.; Robia, Seth L.; Thomas, David D.

    2011-01-01

    We have detected directly the interactions of sarcolipin (SLN) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fusion proteins labeled with cyan fluorescent protein (donor) and yellow fluorescent protein (acceptor). SLN is a membrane protein that helps control contractility by regulating SERCA activity in fast-twitch and atrial muscle. Here we used FRET microscopy and spectroscopy with baculovirus expression in insect cells to provide direct evidence for: 1) oligomerization of SLN and 2) regulatory complex formation between SLN and the fast-twitch muscle Ca-ATPase (SERCA1a isoform). FRET experiments demonstrated that SLN monomers self-associate into dimers and higher order oligomers in the absence of SERCA, and that SLN monomers also bind to SERCA monomers in a 1:1 binary complex when the two proteins are coexpressed. FRET experiments further demonstrated that the binding affinity of SLN for itself is similar to that for SERCA. Mutating SLN residue isoleucine-17 to alanine (I17A) decreased the binding affinity of SLN self-association and converted higher order oligomers into monomers and dimers. The I17A mutation also decreased SLN binding affinity for SERCA but maintained 1:1 stoichiometry in the regulatory complex. Thus, isoleucine-17 plays dual roles in determining the distribution of SLN homo-oligomers and stabilizing the formation of SERCA-SLN heterodimers. FRET results for SLN self-association were supported by the effects of SLN expression in bacterial cells. We propose that SLN exists as multiple molecular species in muscle, including SERCA-free (monomer, dimer, oligomer) and SERCA-bound (heterodimer), with transmembrane zipper residues of SLN serving to stabilize oligomeric interactions. PMID:21737843

  2. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  3. Bcl-2 Suppresses Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca21-ATPase Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Airways

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Dremina, Elena S.; Sharov, Victor S.; Guo, Xiaoling; Jones, Tara N.; Loader, Joan E.; Tatreau, Jason R.; Perraud, Anne-Laure; Schoneich, Christian; Randell, Scott H.; White, Carl W.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Modulation of the activity of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) can profoundly affect Ca21 homeostasis. Although altered calcium homeostasis is a characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), the role ...

  4. Bcl-2 Suppresses Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Airways

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Dremina, Elena S.; Sharov, Victor S.; Guo, Xiaoling; Jones, Tara N.; Loader, Joan E.; Tatreau, Jason R.; Perraud, Anne-Laure; Schö neich, Christian; Randell, Scott H.; White, Carl W.

    2009-05-01

    Rationale: Modulation of the activity of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) can profoundly affect Ca2+ homeostasis. Although altered calcium homeostasis is a characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), the role ...

  5. [The influence of lindane and lindane metabolites on microsomal and mitochondrial ATPase in vitro].

    PubMed

    Heinevetter, D; Lewerenz, H J; Plass, R; Macholz, R

    1985-10-01

    In vitro investigations of the influence of lindane and its metabolites were performed on microsomal and mitochondrial ATPases from liver, kidney and brain of rat and mouse. The microsomal Na+-K+-ATPases in rat liver were inhibited by the tested substances. An increase of activity was observed only with 2.5 X 10(-5) M gamma-HCH. Effects on the microsomal Na+-K+-ATPase from kidney and brain of rat were also indicated. The mitochondrial enzyme in rat liver was stimulated by all the compounds tested at concentrations of 10(-4) M - 10(-2) M. The effects on mitochondrial enzymes from kidney and brain varied in dependence on the tested substances. In the microsomes and mitochondria of mouse an influence on the Na+-K+-ATPases similar to the effects on the preparations from organs of rat was evident. PMID:2416797

  6. The structure of the peripheral stalk of Thermus thermophilus H+-ATPase/synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lawrence K; Stewart, Alastair G; Donohoe, Mhairi; Bernal, Ricardo A; Stock, Daniela

    2010-03-22

    Proton-translocating ATPases are ubiquitous protein complexes that couple ATP catalysis with proton translocation via a rotary catalytic mechanism. The peripheral stalks are essential components that counteract torque generated from proton translocation during ATP synthesis or from ATP hydrolysis during proton pumping. Despite their essential role, the peripheral stalks are the least conserved component of the complexes, differing substantially between subtypes in composition and stoichiometry. We have determined the crystal structure of the peripheral stalk of the A-type ATPase/synthase from Thermus thermophilus consisting of subunits E and G. The structure contains a heterodimeric right-handed coiled coil, a protein fold never observed before. We have fitted this structure into the 23 {angstrom} resolution EM density of the intact A-ATPase complex, revealing the precise location of the peripheral stalk and new implications for the function and assembly of proton-translocating ATPases.

  7. Mitochondrion-rich cells distribution, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and gill morphometry of the Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Wallice P; Silva, Naara F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2011-09-01

    Detailed measurements of gill area and constituent variables (total filament number, total filament length and mean filament length), and immunolocalization of the ?-subunit of Na?/K?-ATPase and Na?/K?-ATPase activity were performed on both hemibranchs of all five arches of freshwater potamotrygonid stingrays (Paratrygon aiereba and Potamotrygon sp.). Both species exhibit similar mass-specific gill area, 89.8 ± 6.6 and 91.5 ± 4.3 mm² g?¹ for P. aiereba and Potamotrygon sp., respectively. The density of Na?/K?-ATPase-rich MRCs and Na?/K?-ATPase activity was higher in the 4th gill arch in both species. The Na?/K?-ATPase activity was positively correlated to the Na?/K?-ATPase-rich Na?/K?-ATPase rich) mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) distribution among the gill arches of P. aiereba but not in Potamotrygon sp. The levels Na?/K?-ATPase activity were not correlated to the gill surface area among the arches for both rays' species. Considering that the Na?/K?-ATPase-rich MRC is the main site for active ion transport in the gill epithelia and Na?/K?-ATPase activity plays a crucial role in osmoionoregulatory function, we suggesting that 4th gill arch is more relevant for osmoregulation and ion balance in these potamotrygonids. PMID:21132527

  8. Motor-motor interactions in ensembles of muscle myosin: using theory to connect single molecule to ensemble measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcott, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Interactions between the proteins actin and myosin drive muscle contraction. Properties of a single myosin interacting with an actin filament are largely known, but a trillion myosins work together in muscle. We are interested in how single-molecule properties relate to ensemble function. Myosin's reaction rates depend on force, so ensemble models keep track of both molecular state and force on each molecule. These models make subtle predictions, e.g. that myosin, when part of an ensemble, moves actin faster than when isolated. This acceleration arises because forces between molecules speed reaction kinetics. Experiments support this prediction and allow parameter estimates. A model based on this analysis describes experiments from single molecule to ensemble. In vivo, actin is regulated by proteins that, when present, cause the binding of one myosin to speed the binding of its neighbors; binding becomes cooperative. Although such interactions preclude the mean field approximation, a set of linear ODEs describes these ensembles under simplified experimental conditions. In these experiments cooperativity is strong, with the binding of one molecule affecting ten neighbors on either side. We progress toward a description of myosin ensembles under physiological conditions.

  9. X-ray diffraction from flight muscle with a headless myosin mutation: implications for interpreting reflection patterns

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Trombitás, Károly; Yagi, Naoto; Suggs, Jennifer A.; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is one of the most useful animal models to study the causes and effects of hereditary diseases because of its rich genetic resources. It is especially suitable for studying myopathies caused by myosin mutations, because specific mutations can be induced to the flight muscle-specific myosin isoform, while leaving other isoforms intact. Here we describe an X-ray-diffraction-based method to evaluate the structural effects of mutations in contractile proteins in Drosophila indirect flight muscle. Specifically, we describe the effect of the headless myosin mutation, Mhc10-Y97, in which the motor domain of the myosin head is deleted, on the X-ray diffraction pattern. The loss of general integrity of the filament lattice is evident from the pattern. A striking observation, however, is the prominent meridional reflection at d = 14.5 nm, a hallmark for the regularity of the myosin-containing thick filament. This reflection has long been considered to arise mainly from the myosin head, but taking the 6th actin layer line reflection as an internal control, the 14.5-nm reflection is even stronger than that of wild-type muscle. We confirmed these results via electron microscopy, wherein image analysis revealed structures with a similar periodicity. These observations have major implications on the interpretation of myosin-based reflections. PMID:25400584

  10. Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons React to Semaphorin 3A Application through a Biphasic Response that Requires Multiple Myosin II Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A.; Wysolmerski, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Growth cone responses to guidance cues provide the basis for neuronal pathfinding. Although many cues have been identified, less is known about how signals are translated into the cytoskeletal rearrangements that steer directional changes during pathfinding. Here we show that the response of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to Semaphorin 3A gradients can be divided into two steps: growth cone collapse and retraction. Collapse is inhibited by overexpression of myosin IIA or growth on high substrate-bound laminin-1. Inhibition of collapse also prevents retractions; however collapse can occur without retraction. Inhibition of myosin II activity with blebbistatin or by using neurons from myosin IIB knockouts inhibits retraction. Collapse is associated with movement of myosin IIA from the growth cone to the neurite. Myosin IIB redistributes from a broad distribution to the rear of the growth cone and neck of the connecting neurite. High substrate-bound laminin-1 prevents or reverses these changes. This suggests a model for the Sema 3A response that involves loss of growth cone myosin IIA to facilitate actin meshwork instability and collapse, followed by myosin IIB concentration at the rear of the cone and neck region where it associates with actin bundles to drive retraction. PMID:19109430

  11. Solubilisation of myosin in a solution of low ionic strength l-histidine: Significance of the imidazole ring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Zou, Yufeng; Han, Minyi; Pan, Lihua; Xing, Tong; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-04-01

    Myosin, a major muscle protein, can be solubilised in a low ionic strength solution containing l-histidine (His). To elucidate which chemical constituents in His are responsible for this solubilisation, we investigated the effects of 5mM His, imidazole (Imi), l-?-alanine (Ala), 1-methyl-l-histidine (M-his) and l-carnosine (Car) on particle properties of myosin suspensions and conformational characteristics of soluble myosin at low ionic strength (1mM KCl, pH 7.5). His, Imi and Car, each containing an imidazole ring, were able to induce a myosin suspension, which had small particle size species and high absolute zeta potential, thus increasing the solubility of myosin. His, Imi and Car affected the tertiary structure and decreased the ?-helix content of soluble myosin. Therefore, the imidazole ring of His appeared to be the significant chemical constituent in solubilising myosin at low ionic strength solution, presumably by affecting its secondary structure. PMID:26593463

  12. Identification of NaK-ATPase inhibitors in human plasma as nonesterified fatty acids and lysophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R A; O'Hara, D S; Mitch, W E; Smith, T W

    1986-09-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factors with cardiac glycoside-like activity have been implicated in the response to volume expansion in animals and in the pathogenesis of certain human diseases. We recently described four fractions (IR1, EI1, EI2, EI3) from normal human plasma that inhibit NaK-ATPase, displace ouabain from the enzyme, and exhibit digoxin-like immunoreactivity (Kelly, R. A., O'Hara, D. S., Canessa, M. L., Mitch, W. E., and Smith, T. W. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11396-11405). In this report, we identify the active component of these plasma fractions as long-chain nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lysophospholipids. These lipids were present in fractions EI1, EI2, and EI3 in quantities sufficient to account for all of the NaK-ATPase inhibitory activity. The digoxin-like immunoreactivity in fraction IR1 could be attributed to hydrocortisone and other endogenous steroids. To explore the nature of the lipid-NaK-ATPase interactions, we examined the effects of various ATP or sodium concentrations on the NaK-ATPase activity measured in the presence of NEFA. Varying sodium did not affect the inhibition of NaK-ATPase by linoleic acid. At less than 0.15 mM ATP, linoleic acid stimulated NaK-ATPase, but at higher ATP concentrations, the enzyme was progressively inhibited. In summary, NEFA and lysophospholipids, at levels similar to those occurring in human plasma, may account for all of the NaK-ATPase inhibitory activity observed in human plasma fractions. These lipids probably do not directly regulate NaK-ATPase in vivo under normal physiologic conditions, but may alter the sodium pump in disease states characterized by abnormalities in lipid metabolism or plasma protein binding. PMID:3017943

  13. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele; Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth; Andersson, Magnus; Klymchuk, Tetyana; Nielsen, Anna Marie; Rees, Douglas C.; Nissen, Poul; Gourdon, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, required for signaling and proper function of a range of proteins involved in e.g. DNA-binding and enzymatic catalysis1. In prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases of class IB (ZntA) are crucial for cellular redistribution and detoxification of Zn2+ and related elements2,3. Here we present crystal structures representing the phosphoenzyme ground state (E2P) and a dephosphorylation intermediate (E2.Pi) of ZntA from Shigella sonnei, determined at 3.2 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal a similar fold as the Cu+-ATPases with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn2+ ions. The E2P structure displays a wide extracellular release pathway reaching the invariant residues at the high-affinity site, including Cys392, Cys394 and Asp714. The pathway closes in the E2.Pi state where Asp714 interacts with the conserved Lys693, which possibly stimulates Zn2+ release as a built-in counter-ion, as also proposed for H+-ATPases. Indeed, transport studies in liposomes provide experimental support for ZntA activity without counter-transport. These findings suggest a mechanistic link between PIB-type Zn2+-ATPases and PIII-type H+-ATPases, and show at the same time structural features of the extracellular release pathway that resemble the PII-type ATPases such as the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase4,5 (SERCA) and Na+,K+-ATPase6. PMID:25132545

  14. Neutral phospholipids stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity: a specific lipid-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Haviv, Haim; Habeck, Michael; Kanai, Ryuta; Toyoshima, Chikashi; Karlish, Steven J D

    2013-04-01

    Membrane proteins interact with phospholipids either via an annular layer surrounding the transmembrane segments or by specific lipid-protein interactions. Although specifically bound phospholipids are observed in many crystal structures of membrane proteins, their roles are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase is highly dependent on acid phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine, and previous work on purified detergent-soluble recombinant Na,K-ATPase showed that phosphatidylserine stabilizes and specifically interacts with the protein. Most recently the phosphatidylserine binding site has been located between transmembrane segments of ?TM8-10 and the FXYD protein. This paper describes stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity of the purified human ?1?1 or ?1?1FXYD1 complexes by neutral phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylethanolamine. In the presence of phosphatidylserine, soy phosphatidylcholine increases the Na,K-ATPase turnover rate from 5483 ± 144 to 7552 ± 105 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of ?1?1FXYD1 complexes prepared with native or synthetic phospholipids shows that the stimulatory effect is structurally selective for neutral phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains, especially dilinoleoyl phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. By contrast to phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine destabilizes the Na,K-ATPase. Structural selectivity for stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and destabilization by neutral phospholipids distinguish these effects from the stabilizing effects of phosphatidylserine and imply that the phospholipids bind at distinct sites. A re-examination of electron densities of shark Na,K-ATPase is consistent with two bound phospholipids located between transmembrane segments ?TM8-10 and TMFXYD (site A) and between TM2, -4, -6, -and 9 (site B). Comparison of the phospholipid binding pockets in E2 and E1 conformations suggests a possible mechanism of stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity by the neutral phospholipid. PMID:23430748

  15. Microfluidic Investigation Reveals Distinct Roles for Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin II Activity in Capillary Leukocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Sylvain; Benoliel, Anne-Marie; Bongrand, Pierre; Théodoly, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Circulating leukocyte sequestration in pulmonary capillaries is arguably the initiating event of lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a microfluidic investigation of the roles of actin organization and myosin II activity during the different stages of leukocyte trafficking through narrow capillaries (entry, transit and shape relaxation) using specific drugs (latrunculin A, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin). The deformation rate during entry reveals that cell stiffness depends strongly on F-actin organization and hardly on myosin II activity, supporting a microfilament role in leukocyte sequestration. In the transit stage, cell friction is influenced by stiffness, demonstrating that the actin network is not completely broken after a forced entry into a capillary. Conversely, membrane unfolding was independent of leukocyte stiffness. The surface area of sequestered leukocytes increased by up to 160% in the absence of myosin II activity, showing the major role of molecular motors in microvilli wrinkling and zipping. Finally, cell shape relaxation was largely independent of both actin organization and myosin II activity, whereas a deformed state was required for normal trafficking through capillary segments. PMID:19450501

  16. Actin-Myosin Spatial Patterns from a Simplified Isotropic Viscoelastic Owen L. Lewis,1

    E-print Network

    Guy, Bob

    material may not be easily characterized by a single well-defined elastic modulus and viscosity (7, reported elastic moduli range in 0.8­30 Pa (4,6,8), small compared to reports of elastic moduli of live are the rela- tive strengths of elastic stresses, effective viscosity, and myosin contractility

  17. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sunny S; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Theriot, Julie A

    2015-04-27

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  18. Myosin II Motor Activity in the Lateral Amygdala Is Required for Fear Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Young, Erica; Miller, Courtney; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Learning induces dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton that are required to support memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics during learning and memory are poorly understood. Myosin II motors are highly expressed in actin-rich growth structures including dendritic spines, and we have…

  19. Self-Organization of Myosin II in Reconstituted Actomyosin Bundles Matthew R. Stachowiak,

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    and mixed actin filament polarity (15), and in fission yeast, the cyto- kinetic contractile ring contains that contained only actin filaments and myosin II. Upon addition of ATP, the bundles contracted and the uniformly puncta. In nonmuscle cells, such puncta are aggregates of bipolar minifilaments, each containing ~10

  20. Myosin-II sets the optimal response time scale of chemotactic amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The response dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton to external chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in numerous cellular functions. One of the key players that governs the dynamics of the actin network is the motor protein myosin-II. Here we investigate the role of myosin-II in the response of the actin system to external stimuli. We used a microfluidic device in combination with a photoactivatable chemoattractant to apply stimuli to individual cells with high temporal resolution. We directly compare the actin dynamics in Dictyostelium discodelium wild type (WT) cells to a knockout mutant that is deficient in myosin-II (MNL). Similar to the WT a small population of MNL cells showed self-sustained oscillations even in absence of external stimuli. The actin response of MNL cells to a short pulse of chemoattractant resembles WT during the first 15 sec but is significantly delayed afterward. The amplitude of the dominant peak in the power spectrum from the response time series of MNL cells to periodic stimuli with varying period showed a clear resonance peak at a forcing period of 36 sec, which is significantly delayed as compared to the resonance at 20 sec found for the WT. This shift indicates an important role of myosin-II in setting the response time scale of motile amoeba. Institute of Physics und Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

  1. Crosstalk between non-processive myosin motors mediated by the actin filament elasticity

    E-print Network

    Farago, Oded

    . Muscle contraction, for instance, involves the simultaneous action of hundreds of myosin II motors with the cell cytoskeleton. Some processes, such as the transport of cargoes, are achieved mainly by the action of individual motors. Others, such as cell motility and division, require the cooperative work of many motors

  2. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Tarantula Myosin Filaments Suggests How Phosphorylation May Regulate

    E-print Network

    Wriggers, Willy

    September 2008; accepted 2 October 2008 Available online 14 October 2008 Muscle contraction involves of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA 3 Department of Cell Biology, University occurs when this interaction is blocked by molecular switches on these filaments. In many muscles, myosin

  3. Mathematical modeling of acto-myosin contraction in wound healing and regeneration

    E-print Network

    Ribot, Magali

    10 days Mathematical modeling of acto-myosin contraction in wound healing and regeneration Luís contraction in embryonic wound healing and regeneration Actin cable formation ­ actin wave Actin cable contraction: wound-healing #12;Embryo wound healing No inflamatory response Original tissue building machinery

  4. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  5. Functional adaptation of the switch-2 nucleotide sensor enables rapid processive translocation by myosin-5.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nikolett T; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Takács, Balázs; Gyimesi, Máté; Hazai, Eszter; Bikádi, Zsolt; Sellers, James R; Kovács, Mihály

    2010-11-01

    Active site loops that are conserved across superfamilies of myosins, kinesins, and G proteins play key roles in allosteric coupling of NTP hydrolysis to interaction with track filaments or effector proteins. In this study, we investigated how the class-specific natural variation in the switch-2 active site loop contributes to the motor function of the intracellular transporter myosin-5. We used single-molecule, rapid kinetic and spectroscopic experiments and semiempirical quantum chemical simulations to show that the class-specific switch-2 structure including a tyrosine (Y439) in myosin-5 enables rapid processive translocation along actin filaments by facilitating Mg(2+)-dependent ADP release. Using wild-type control and Y439 point mutant myosin-5 proteins, we demonstrate that the translocation speed precisely correlates with the kinetics of nucleotide exchange. Switch-2 variants can thus be used to fine-tune translocation speed while maintaining high processivity. The class-specific variation of switch-2 in various NTPase superfamilies indicates its general role in the kinetic tuning of Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotide exchange. PMID:20631329

  6. Prolactin Opens the Sensitive Period for Androgen Regulation of a Larynx-Specific Myosin

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Darcy B.

    Prolactin Opens the Sensitive Period for Androgen Regulation of a Larynx-Specific Myosin Heavy March 1999; accepted 7 May 1999 ABSTRACT: The larynx of Xenopus laevis is a sex- ually differentiated for androgen-induced LM expression in the larynx and controls the ability of male sex hormones to masculinize

  7. Model of myosin recruitment to the cell equator for cytokinesis: feedback mechanisms and dynamical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Alexander; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    The formation and constriction of the contractile ring during cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, depends on the recruitment of motor protein myosin to the cell's equatorial region. During animal cell cytokinesis, cortical myosin filaments (MF) disassemble at the flanking regions and concentrate in the equator. This recruitment depends on myosin motor activity and the Rho proteins that regulate MF assembly and disassembly. Central spindle and astral microtubules help establish a spatial pattern of differential Rho activity. We propose a reaction-diffusion model for the dynamics of MF recruitment to the equatorial region. In the model, the central spindle and mechanical stress promote self-reinforcing MF assembly. Negative feedback is introduced by MF-induced recruitment of inhibitor myosin phosphatase. Our model yields various dynamical regimes and explains both the recruitment of MF to the cleavage furrow and the observed damped MF oscillations in the flanking regions, as well as steady MF assembly. Space and time parameters of MF oscillations are calculated. We predict oscillatory relaxation of cortical MF upon removal of locally-applied external stress.

  8. Mechanical Coupling between Myosin Molecules Causes Differences between Ensemble and Single-Molecule Measurements

    E-print Network

    Peskin, Charles S.

    , hydrolyzing ATP to power the relative sliding of actin filaments. The technological advances that have enabled-stroke), which moves actin. When unbound (or weakly bound), myosin hydrolyzes ATP and reverses the power and hydrolyzing ATP in the process. The recent development of single molecule measurements has allowed mechanical

  9. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

  10. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  11. Myosin-II inhibition and soft 2D matrix maximize multinucleation and cellular projections typical

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    -like projections that fragment readily un- der shear, as seen in platelet generation from MKs in vivo. The effects stimulation activates platelet spreading and integrin IIb3. Myosin-II thus seems a central, matrix of platelet-producing megakaryocytes Jae-Won Shina,b , Joe Swiftb , Kyle R. Spinlerb , and Dennis E. Dischera

  12. Structure of MyTH4-FERM domains in myosin VIIa tail bound to cargo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Pan, Lifeng; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-02-11

    The unconventional myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is one of the five proteins that form a network of complexes involved in formation of stereocilia. Defects in these proteins cause syndromic deaf-blindness in humans [Usher syndrome I (USH1)]. Many disease-causing mutations occur in myosin tail homology 4-protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (MyTH4-FERM) domains in the myosin tail that binds to another USH1 protein, Sans. We report the crystal structure of MYO7A MyTH4-FERM domains in complex with the central domain (CEN) of Sans at 2.8 angstrom resolution. The MyTH4 and FERM domains form an integral structural and functional supramodule binding to two highly conserved segments (CEN1 and 2) of Sans. The MyTH4-FERM/CEN complex structure provides mechanistic explanations for known deafness-causing mutations in MYO7A MyTH4-FERM. The structure will also facilitate mechanistic and functional studies of MyTH4-FERM domains in other myosins. PMID:21311020

  13. A new model for myosin dimeric motors incorporating Brownian ratchet and powerstroke mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Kawai, Ryoichi

    A new model for myosin dimeric motors incorporating Brownian ratchet and powerstroke mechanisms motor proteins in general. A single motor domain is modeled using our previous work on hybrid motors that exhibit elements of both a powerstroke and a Brownian motor mechanism. The different behavior observed

  14. Role of the Salt-bridge between Switch-1 and Switch-2 of Dictyostelium Myosin

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Role of the Salt-bridge between Switch-1 and Switch-2 of Dictyostelium Myosin Marcus Furch1-phosphate. The closed form seems to be necessary for hydrolysis and is stabilised by the formation of a salt-bridge between an arginine residue in N2 and a glutamate residue in N3. We examined the role of this salt-bridge

  15. Fluorescence Polarization Transients from Rhodamine Isomers on the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain in Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    E-print Network

    Croquette, Vincent

    in Skeletal Muscle Fibers Seth C. Hopkins,* Cibele Sabido-David,# John E.T. Corrie,§ Malcolm Irving,# and Yale E. Goldman* *Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to examine orientation changes of two rhodamine probes bound to myosin heads in skeletal muscle fibers

  16. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg ; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  17. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  18. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O'Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  19. Functional analysis of the DNA-stimulated ATPase domain of yeast SWI2/SNF2.

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, E; Peterson, C L

    1996-01-01

    The yeast SWI2/SNF2 polypeptide is a subunit of the SWI/SNF protein complex that is required for many transcriptional activators to function in a chromatin context. SWI2 is believed to be the founding member of a new subfamily of DNA-stimulated ATPases/DNA helicases that includes proteins that function in DNA repair (RAD5, RAD16, ERCC6), recombination (RAD54), transcription (MOT1, ISWI, brm, BRG1, hBRM) and cell cycle control (STH1). We have created a set of 16 mutations within the SWI2 ATPase domain and have analyzed the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo. We have identified residues within each of the seven ATPase motifs that are required for SWI2 function. We have also identified crucial residues that are interspersed between the known ATPase motifs. In contrast, we identify other highly conserved residues that appear to be dispensable for SWI2 function. We also find that single amino acid changes in ATPase motifs IV and VI lead to a dominant negative phenotype. None of the 12 SWI2 mutations that disrupt SWI2 activity in vivo alter the assembly of the SWI/SNF complex. These studies provide an invaluable framework for biochemical analysis of the SWI2 ATPase and for functional analysis of other SWI2 family members. PMID:8871545

  20. Insulin interacts directly with Na?/K?ATPase and protects from digoxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Oubaassine, R; Weckering, M; Kessler, L; Breidert, M; Roegel, J C; Eftekhari, P

    2012-09-01

    Insulin has shown to have cardioprotective effect in diabetic patient after digoxin intoxication. The latter, prompted us to study whether insulin interacts directly with Na?/K?-ATPase. The interaction of insulin with Na?/K?-ATPase was explored using enzyme activity, Biacore and Western blot. We also used, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and chronotropy on both neonatal and adult rats cardiomyocytes. Insulin at concentration 1.7e?? M blunted the effect of digoxin on Na?/K?-ATPase activity. In Western blot, the same insulin concentration decreased enzyme ? subunit immunoreactivity. Insulin and digoxin decreased both enzyme ? subunit immunoreactivity but insulin/digoxin co-treatment did not. Biacore confirmed a direct interaction between insulin and Na?/K?-ATPase. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, insulin plus digoxin induced cell apoptosis but not alone. In adult rat cardiomyocytes, insulin at optimal dose did not induce apoptosis but prevented the one induced by digoxin. In immunocytochemsitry both insulin and digoxin altered Na?/K?-ATPase ? subunit immunoreactivity while their association did not. Finally, insulin increased the beating rate of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (45±7 beats/min); so did digoxin (36±13 beats/min). The effect of insulin was prevented after pre-treated with digoxin. These results demonstrate that insulin interacts directly with Na?/K?-ATPase pump and alters the effect of digoxin. This would have important clinical relevance in cardiac complications related to type I and II diabetes. PMID:22562035

  1. Purification, characterization and crystallization of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Morales-Rios, Edgar; Watt, Ian N; Zhang, Qifeng; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Montgomery, Martin G; Wakelam, Michael J O; Walker, John E

    2015-09-01

    The structures of F-ATPases have been determined predominantly with mitochondrial enzymes, but hitherto no F-ATPase has been crystallized intact. A high-resolution model of the bovine enzyme built up from separate sub-structures determined by X-ray crystallography contains about 85% of the entire complex, but it lacks a crucial region that provides a transmembrane proton pathway involved in the generation of the rotary mechanism that drives the synthesis of ATP. Here the isolation, characterization and crystallization of an integral F-ATPase complex from the ?-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans are described. Unlike many eubacterial F-ATPases, which can both synthesize and hydrolyse ATP, the P. denitrificans enzyme can only carry out the synthetic reaction. The mechanism of inhibition of its ATP hydrolytic activity involves a ? inhibitor protein, which binds to the catalytic F?-domain of the enzyme. The complex that has been crystallized, and the crystals themselves, contain the nine core proteins of the complete F-ATPase complex plus the ? inhibitor protein. The formation of crystals depends upon the presence of bound bacterial cardiolipin and phospholipid molecules; when they were removed, the complex failed to crystallize. The experiments open the way to an atomic structure of an F-ATPase complex. PMID:26423580

  2. Na?-K?-ATPase, a potent neuroprotective modulator against Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Nan; Sun, Yong-Jun; Pan, Shuo; Li, Jun-Xia; Qu, Yin-E; Li, Yao; Wang, Yong-Li; Gao, Zi-Bin

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive cognitive and memory dysfunction, which is the most common form of dementia. Although the pathogenesis of neuronal injury in AD is not clear, recent evidences suggest that Na?-K?-ATPase plays an important role in AD, and may be a potent neuroprotective modulator against AD. This review aims to provide readers with an in-depth understanding of Na?-K?-ATPase in AD through these modulations of some factors that are as follows, which leads to the change of learning and memory in the process of AD. 1. The deficiency in Na?, K?-ATPase ?1, ?2 and ?3 isoform genes induced learning and memory deficits, and ? isoform was evidently changed in AD, revealing that Na?, K?-ATPase ? isoform genes may play an important role in AD. 2. Some factors, such as ?-amyloid, cholinergic and oxidative stress, can modulate learning and memory in AD through the mondulation of Na?-K?-ATPase activity. 3. Some substances, such as Zn, s-Ethyl cysteine, s-propyl cysteine, citicoline, rivastigmine, Vit E, memantine, tea polyphenol, curcumin, caffeine, Alpinia galanga (L.) fractions, and Bacopa monnieri could play a role in improving memory performance and exert protective effects against AD by increasing expression or activity of Na?, K?-ATPase. PMID:23033963

  3. Purification, characterization and crystallization of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rios, Edgar; Watt, Ian N.; Zhang, Qifeng; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Walker, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The structures of F-ATPases have been determined predominantly with mitochondrial enzymes, but hitherto no F-ATPase has been crystallized intact. A high-resolution model of the bovine enzyme built up from separate sub-structures determined by X-ray crystallography contains about 85% of the entire complex, but it lacks a crucial region that provides a transmembrane proton pathway involved in the generation of the rotary mechanism that drives the synthesis of ATP. Here the isolation, characterization and crystallization of an integral F-ATPase complex from the ?-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans are described. Unlike many eubacterial F-ATPases, which can both synthesize and hydrolyse ATP, the P. denitrificans enzyme can only carry out the synthetic reaction. The mechanism of inhibition of its ATP hydrolytic activity involves a ? inhibitor protein, which binds to the catalytic F1-domain of the enzyme. The complex that has been crystallized, and the crystals themselves, contain the nine core proteins of the complete F-ATPase complex plus the ? inhibitor protein. The formation of crystals depends upon the presence of bound bacterial cardiolipin and phospholipid molecules; when they were removed, the complex failed to crystallize. The experiments open the way to an atomic structure of an F-ATPase complex. PMID:26423580

  4. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Andrew J.; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Wallace, B.A.; Esmann, Mikael

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  5. A propagating ATPase gradient drives transport of surface-confined cellular cargo

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Neuman, Keir C.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The faithful segregation of duplicated genetic material into daughter cells is critical to all organisms. In many bacteria, the segregation of chromosomes involves transport of “centromere-like” loci over the main body of the chromosome, the nucleoid, mediated by a two-protein partition system: a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and an ATPase stimulator, ParB, which binds to the centromere-like loci. These systems have previously been proposed to function through a filament-based mechanism, analogous to actin- or microtubule-based movement. Here, we reconstituted the F-plasmid partition system using a DNA-carpeted flow cell as an artificial nucleoid surface and magnetic beads coated with plasmid partition complexes as surface-confined cargo. This minimal system recapitulated directed cargo motion driven by a surface ATPase gradient that propagated with the cargo. The dynamics are consistent with a diffusion-ratchet model, whereby the cargo dynamically establishes, and interacts with, a concentration gradient of the ATPase. A chemophoresis force ensues as the cargo perpetually chases the ATPase gradient, allowing the cargo to essentially “surf” the nucleoid on a continuously traveling wave of the ATPase. Demonstration of this non–filament-based motility mechanism in a biological context establishes a distinct class of motor system used for the transport and positioning of large cellular cargo. PMID:24567408

  6. Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase for Structural Analysis by Electron Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has provided important information on the structural biology of P-type ATPases. Here, I describe the procedure for making 2D crystals of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase purified from pig stomach. The 2D crystals are produced by dialyzing detergent-solubilized H(+),K(+)-ATPase mixed with synthetic phospholipids. Removal of the detergent induces the reconstitution of H(+),K(+)-ATPase molecules into the lipid bilayer. In the presence of fluorinated phosphate analogs, or in combination with transporting cations or the specific antagonist SCH28080, H(+),K(+)-ATPase forms crystalline 2D arrays. The molecular conformation and morphology of the 2D crystals vary depending on the crystallizing conditions. Using these 2D crystals, three-dimensional structures of H(+),K(+)-ATPase can be generated by data correction from ice-embedded 2D crystals using cryo-electron microscopy, followed by processing the recorded images using electron crystallography methods. PMID:26695054

  7. Perturbation of the Vacuolar ATPase: A NOVEL CONSEQUENCE OF INOSITOL DEPLETION.

    PubMed

    Deranieh, Rania M; Shi, Yihui; Tarsio, Maureen; Chen, Yan; McCaffery, J Michael; Kane, Patricia M; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2015-11-13

    Depletion of inositol has profound effects on cell function and has been implicated in the therapeutic effects of drugs used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. We have previously shown that the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VPA) depletes inositol by inhibiting myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of inositol biosynthesis. To elucidate the cellular consequences of inositol depletion, we screened the yeast deletion collection for VPA-sensitive mutants and identified mutants in vacuolar sorting and the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). Inositol depletion caused by starvation of ino1? cells perturbed the vacuolar structure and decreased V-ATPase activity and proton pumping in isolated vacuolar vesicles. VPA compromised the dynamics of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI3,5P2) and greatly reduced V-ATPase proton transport in inositol-deprived wild-type cells. Osmotic stress, known to increase PI3,5P2 levels, did not restore PI3,5P2 homeostasis nor did it induce vacuolar fragmentation in VPA-treated cells, suggesting that perturbation of the V-ATPase is a consequence of altered PI3,5P2 homeostasis under inositol-limiting conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that inositol depletion caused by starvation of an inositol synthesis mutant or by the inositol-depleting drug VPA leads to perturbation of the V-ATPase. PMID:26324718

  8. A thermo-physical analysis of the proton pump vacuolar-ATPase: the constructal approach

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Umberto; Ponzetto, Antonio; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Pumping protons across a membrane was a critical step at the origin of life on earth, and it is still performed in all living organisms, including in human cells. Proton pumping is paramount to keep normal cells alive, e.g. for lysosomal digestion and for preparing peptides for immune recognition, but it goes awry in cancer cells. They acidify their microenvironment hence membrane voltage is lowered, which in turn induces cell proliferation, a hallmark of cancer. Proton pumping is achieved by means of rotary motors, namely vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPase), which are present at many of the multiple cellular interfaces. Therefore, we undertook an examination of the thermodynamic properties of V-ATPases. The principal result is that the V-ATPase-mediated control of the cell membrane potential and the related and consequent environmental pH can potentially represent a valuable support strategy for anticancer therapies. A constructal theory approach is used as a new viewpoint to study how V-ATPase can be modulated for therapeutic purposes. In particular, V-ATPase can be regulated by using external fields, such as electromagnetic fields, and a theoretical approach has been introduced to quantify the appropriate field strength and frequency for this new adjuvant therapeutic strategy. PMID:25342534

  9. Mechanical Unfolding of Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Árpád; Kellermayer, Miklós S.Z.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick-filament-associated protein that performs regulatory and structural roles within cardiac sarcomeres. It is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of proteins consisting of eight Ig- and three fibronectin (FNIII)-like domains, along with a unique regulatory sequence referred to as the M-domain, whose structure is unknown. Domains near the C-terminus of cMyBP-C bind tightly to myosin and mediate the association of cMyBP-C with thick (myosin-containing) filaments, whereas N-terminal domains, including the regulatory M-domain, bind reversibly to myosin S2 and/or actin. The ability of MyBP-C to bind to both myosin and actin raises the possibility that cMyBP-C cross-links myosin molecules within the thick filament and/or cross-links myosin and thin (actin-containing) filaments together. In either scenario, cMyBP-C could be under mechanical strain. However, the physical properties of cMyBP-C and its behavior under load are completely unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanical properties of recombinant baculovirus-expressed cMyBP-C using atomic force microscopy to assess the stability of individual cMyBP-C molecules in response to stretch. Force-extension curves showed the presence of long extensible segment(s) that became stretched before the unfolding of individual Ig and FNIII domains, which were evident as sawtooth peaks in force spectra. The forces required to unfold the Ig/FNIII domains at a stretch rate of 500 nm/s increased monotonically from ?30 to ?150 pN, suggesting a mechanical hierarchy among the different Ig/FNIII domains. Additional experiments using smaller recombinant proteins showed that the regulatory M-domain lacks significant secondary or tertiary structure and is likely an intrinsically disordered region of cMyBP-C. Together, these data indicate that cMyBP-C exhibits complex mechanical behavior under load and contains multiple domains with distinct mechanical properties. PMID:22004751

  10. A de novo mutation of the beta cardiac myosin heavy chain gene in an infantile restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Simon; Raboisson, Marie-Josée; Ducreux, Corinne; Chalabreysse, Lara; Millat, Gilles; Bozio, André; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the first pediatric case of restrictive cardiomyopathy secondary to a de novo mutation in the cardiac myosin heavy chain gene MYH7. The clinical course is characterized by an early onset of disease, mild hypertrophy of the left ventricle and a very short evolution to death. Because of the location of the mutation in the hinge region between the rod part and the globular head of the myosin molecule, it is possible that restrictive cardiomyopathy resulted from an impairment of flexion/extension of myosin heads during the contraction/relaxation cycle. PMID:18380764

  11. UCS proteins: chaperones for myosin and co-chaperones for Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weiming; Odunuga, Odutayo O

    2015-01-01

    The UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p) family of proteins has emerged as chaperones that are specific for the folding, assembly and function of myosin. These proteins participate in various important myosin-dependent cellular processes that include myofibril organization and muscle functions, cell differentiation, cardiac and skeletal muscle development, cytokinesis and endocytosis. Mutations in the genes that code for UCS proteins cause serious defects in these actomyosin-based processes. Homologs of UCS proteins can be broadly divided into (1) animal UCS proteins, generally known as UNC-45 proteins, which contain an N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain in addition to the canonical UCS domain, and (2) fungal UCS proteins, which lack the TPR domain. Structurally, except for TPR domain, both sub-classes of UCS proteins comprise of several irregular armadillo (ARM) repeats that are divided into two-domain architecture: a combined central-neck domain and a C-terminal UCS domain. Structural analyses suggest that UNC-45 proteins form elongated oligomers that serve as scaffolds to recruit Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 to form a multi-protein chaperoning complex that assists myosin heads to fold and simultaneously organize them into myofibrils. Similarly, fungal UCS proteins may dimerize to promote folding of non-muscle myosins as well as determine their step size along actin filaments. These findings confirm UCS proteins as a new class of myosin-specific chaperones and co-chaperones for Hsp90. This chapter reviews the implications of the outcome of studies on these proteins in cellular processes such as muscle formation, and disease states such as myopathies and cancer. PMID:25487020

  12. Dopamine D4 Receptors Regulate GABAA Receptor Trafficking via an Actin/Cofilin/Myosin-dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Graziane, Nicholas M; Yuen, Eunice Y; Yan, Zhen

    2009-03-27

    The GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory transmission in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in cognitive processes such as working memory. Our previous study has found that GABA(A)R current is subject to the regulation of dopamine D(4) receptors, a PFC-enriched neuromodulator critically involved in various mental disorders associated with PFC dysfunction. In this study, we have investigated the cellular mechanism underlying D(4) modulation of GABA(A)Rs. We found that the density of surface clusters of GABA(A)R beta2/3 subunits was reduced by D(4), suggesting that the D(4) reduction of GABA(A)R current is associated with a decrease in functional GABA(A)Rs at the plasma membrane. Moreover, the D(4) reduction of GABA(A)R current was blocked by the actin stabilizer phalloidin and was occluded by the actin destabilizer latrunculin, suggesting that D(4) regulates GABA(A)R trafficking via an actin-dependent mechanism. Cofilin, a major actin depolymerizing factor whose activity is strongly increased by dephosphorylation at Ser(3), provides the possible link between D(4) signaling and the actin dynamics. Because myosin motor proteins are important for the transport of vesicles along actin filaments, we also tested the potential involvement of myosin in D(4) regulation of GABA(A)R trafficking. We found that dialysis with a myosin peptide, which competes with endogenous myosin proteins for actin-binding sites, prevented the D(4) reduction of GABA(A)R current. These results suggest that D(4) receptor activation increases cofilin activity presumably via its dephosphorylation, resulting in actin depolymerization, thus causing a decrease in the myosin-based transport of GABA(A)R clusters to the surface. PMID:19179335

  13. Impact of membrane-associated hydrogenases on the F?F?-ATPase in Escherichia coli during glycerol and mixed carbon fermentation: ATPase activity and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the mutants lacking hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and to produce molecular hydrogen (H2) by four membrane-associated hydrogenases (Hyd) changing activity in response to different conditions. In this study, overall ATPase activity of glycerol alone and mixed carbon sources (glucose and glycerol) fermented E. coli wild type and different Hyd mutants and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were first investigated. ATPase activity was higher in glycerol fermented wild type cells at pH 7.5 compared to pH 6.5 and pH 5.5; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity at pH 7.5. The ATPase activity at pH 7.5, compared with wild type, was lower in selC and less in hypF single mutants, suppressed in hyaB hybC selC triple mutant. Moreover, total ATPase activity of mixed carbon fermented wild type cells was maximal at pH 7.5 and lowered at pH 5.5. The ATPase activities of hypF and hyaB hybC selC mutants were higher at pH 5.5, compared with wild type; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity of hypF mutant. These results demonstrate that in E. coli during glycerol fermentation the membrane proton-translocating FOF1-ATPase has major input in overall ATPase activity and alkaline pH is more optimal for the FOF1-ATPase operation. Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 are required for the FOF1-ATPase activity upon anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. The impact of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 on the FOF1-ATPase is more obvious during mixed carbon fermentation at slightly acidic pH. PMID:26049001

  14. Single-fiber expression and fiber-specific adaptability to short-term intense exercise training of Na+-K+-ATPase ?- and ?-isoforms in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, V L; McKenna, M J; Serpiello, F R; Lamboley, C R; Aughey, R J; Stepto, N K; Bishop, D J; Murphy, R M

    2015-03-15

    The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) plays a key role in muscle excitability, but little is known in human skeletal muscle about fiber-type-specific differences in NKA isoform expression or adaptability. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken in 17 healthy young adults to contrast NKA isoform protein relative abundance between type I and IIa fibers. We further investigated muscle fiber-type-specific NKA adaptability in eight of these adults following 4-wk repeated-sprint exercise (RSE) training, comprising three sets of 5 × 4-s sprints, 3 days/wk. Single fibers were separated, and myosin heavy chain (I and IIa) and NKA (?1-3 and ?1-3) isoform abundance were determined via Western blotting. All six NKA isoforms were expressed in both type I and IIa fibers. No differences between fiber types were found for ?1-, ?2-, ?3-, ?1-, or ?3-isoform abundances. The NKA ?2-isoform was 27% more abundant in type IIa than type I fibers (P < 0.05), with no other fiber-type-specific trends evident. RSE training increased ?1 in type IIa fibers (pretraining 0.70 ± 0.25, posttraining 0.84 ± 0.24 arbitrary units, 42%, P < 0.05). No training effects were found for other NKA isoforms. Thus human skeletal muscle expresses all six NKA isoforms and not in a fiber-type-specific manner; this points to their different functional roles in skeletal muscle cells. Detection of elevated NKA ?1 after RSE training demonstrates the sensitivity of the single-fiber Western blotting technique for fiber-type-specific intervention effects. PMID:25614596

  15. Mechanical modulation of catalytic power on F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Okuno, Daichi; Sakakihara, Shouichi; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Iino, Ryota; Yoshida, Masasuke; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The conformational fluctuation of enzymes has a crucial role in reaction acceleration. However, the contribution to catalysis enhancement of individual substates with conformations far from the average conformation remains unclear. We studied the catalytic power of the rotary molecular motor F(1)-ATPase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 as it was stalled in transient conformations far from a stable pausing angle. The rate constants of ATP binding and hydrolysis were determined as functions of the rotary angle. Both rates exponentially increase with rotation, revealing the molecular basis of positive cooperativity among three catalytic sites: elementary reaction steps are accelerated via the mechanical rotation driven by other reactions on neighboring catalytic sites. The rate enhancement induced by ATP binding upon rotation was greater than that brought about by hydrolysis, suggesting that the ATP binding step contributes more to torque generation than does the hydrolysis step. Additionally, 9% of the ATP-driven rotary step was supported by thermal diffusion, suggesting that acceleration of the ATP docking process occurs via thermally agitated conformational fluctuations. PMID:22101603

  16. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P < 0.0001). Similarly, MDA content of erythrocyte membranes was significantly increased during hibernation (P < 0.025). The activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the erythrocyte membrane was significantly decreased in the hibernating state as compared to the active state. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also decreased, though not significant, during hibernation. These results suggest that during hibernation, the bears are under increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3812 Biochemistry 1993,32, 3812-3821 Rotational Dynamics of Actin-Bound Myosin Heads in Active Myofibrils?

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    -EPR) to measure the submillisecond rotational motions of actin-bound myosin headsin activemyofibrils. The cross-bridges in a suspension of spin-labeled myofibrils. The myofibrils were partially cross-linked with EDC [1-ethyl-3

  18. 8960 Biochemistry 1995,34, 8960-8972 X-ray Structures of the Myosin Motor Domain of Dictyostelium discoideum

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    to that observed previously in the three-dimensional model of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 in which in biology. It is well established that muscle contraction occurs when the thick and thin filaments, which

  19. Myosin-V is activated by binding secretory cargo and released in coordination with Rab/exocyst function

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.; Bretscher, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Cell organization requires motor-dependent transport of specific cargos along cytoskeletal elements. How the delivery cycle is coordinated with other events is poorly understood. Here we define the in vivo delivery cycle of myosin-V in its essential function of secretory vesicle transport along actin cables in yeast. We show myosin-V is activated by binding a secretory vesicle, and myosin-V mutations that compromise vesicle binding render the motor constitutively active. About 10 motors associate with each secretory vesicle for rapid transport to sites of cell growth. Once transported, the motors remain associated with the secretory vesicles until they undergo exocytosis. Motor release is temporally regulated by vesicle-bound Rab-GTP hydrolysis and requires vesicle tethering by the exocyst complex, but does not require vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All components of this transport cycle are conserved in vertebrates, so these results should be generally applicable to other myosin-V delivery cycles. PMID:23079598

  20. Luminal flow modulates H+-ATPase activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Pastor-Soler, Núria M.; Schreck, Carlos; Zavilowitz, Beth; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-mediated Na+ absorption and BK channel-mediated K+ secretion in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) are modulated by flow, the latter requiring an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), microtubule integrity, and exocytic insertion of preformed channels into the apical membrane. As axial flow modulates HCO3? reabsorption in the proximal tubule due to changes in both luminal Na+/H+ exchanger 3 and H+-ATPase activity (Du Z, Yan Q, Duan Y, Weinbaum S, Weinstein AM, Wang T. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290: F289–F296, 2006), we sought to test the hypothesis that flow also regulates H+-ATPase activity in the CCD. H+-ATPase activity was assayed in individually identified cells in microperfused CCDs isolated from New Zealand White rabbits, loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then subjected to an acute intracellular acid load (NH4Cl prepulse technique). H+-ATPase activity was defined as the initial rate of bafilomycin-inhibitable cell pH (pHi) recovery in the absence of luminal K+, bilateral Na+, and CO2/HCO3?, from a nadir pH of ?6.2. We found that 1) an increase in luminal flow rate from ?1 to 5 nl·min?1·mm?1 stimulated H+-ATPase activity, 2) flow-stimulated H+ pumping was Ca2+ dependent and required microtubule integrity, and 3) basal and flow-stimulated pHi recovery was detected in cells that labeled with the apical principal cell marker rhodamine Dolichos biflorus agglutinin as well as cells that did not. We conclude that luminal flow modulates H+-ATPase activity in the rabbit CCD and that H+-ATPases therein are present in both principal and intercalated cells. PMID:21957178

  1. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury. PMID:24614235

  2. Na,K-ATPase structure/function relationships probed by the denaturant urea.

    PubMed

    Esmann, Mikael; Fedosova, Natalya U; Olesen, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Urea interacts with the Na,K-ATPase, leading to reversible as well as irreversible inhibition of the hydrolytic activity. The enzyme purified from shark rectal glands is more sensitive to urea than Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney. An immediate and reversible inhibition under steady-state conditions of hydrolytic activity at 37°C is demonstrated for the three reactions studied: the overall Na,K-ATPase activity, the Na-ATPase activity observed in the absence of K+ as well as the K+-dependent phosphatase reaction (K-pNPPase) seen in the absence of Na+. Half-maximal inhibition is seen with about 1M urea for shark enzyme and about 2M urea for pig enzyme. In the presence of substrates there is also an irreversible inhibition in addition to the reversible process, and we show that ATP protects against the irreversible inhibition for both the Na,K-ATPase and Na-ATPase reaction, whereas the substrate paranitrophenylphosphate leads to a slight increase in the rate of irreversible inhibition of the K-pNPPase. The rate of the irreversible inactivation in the absence of substrates is much more rapid for shark enzyme than for pig enzyme. The larger number of potentially urea-sensitive hydrogen bonds in shark enzyme compared to pig enzyme suggests that interference with the extensive hydrogen bonding network might account for the higher urea sensitivity of shark enzyme. The reversible inactivation is interpreted in terms of domain interactions and domain accessibilities using as templates the available crystal structures of Na,K-ATPase. It is suggested that a few interdomain hydrogen bonds are those mainly affected by urea during reversible inactivation. PMID:25687971

  3. The modulation of erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity by curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an active biphenolic molecule present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been reported to elicit plethora of health protective effects. The present study was carried out in vitro, in vivo and in silico to investigate the modulatory effects of curcumin on erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity. In vitro curcumin (10?5 M to 10?8 M) was incubated with human erythrocytes membrane. In vivo curcumin (340 mg/kg b.w. and 170 mg/kg b.w.) was supplemented to wistar rats for 21 days. In silico, catalytic unit ? of Na+/K+-ATPase (3b8e.pdb) protein was used as a receptor for the natural ligand ATP to study curcumin-mediated docking simulation using AutoDock4. The in vitro effect of curcumin on the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in human erythrocytes was biphasic. An inhibitory response was observed at 10?5 M (p < 0.001). An activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase activity was observed at 10?7 and 10?8 M (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). In vivo, curcumin supplementation to rats increased the Na+/K+-ATPase activity at doses 340 mg/kg b.w. (p < 0.001) as well as at 170 mg/kg b.w., (p < 0.01). AutoDock4 docking simulation study showed that both ligands curcumin and ATP actively interacted with amino acids Glu214, Ser215, Glu216, Thr371, Asn377, Arg378, Met379, Arg438, Val440, Ala444, Lys451 and Asp586 at the catalytic cavity of Na+/K+-ATPase. ATP had more H bonding and hydrophobic interaction with active site amino acid residues compared to curcumin. These finding may explain some of the health beneficial properties of curcumin associated with deregulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity or ions homeostasis.

  4. Disparate Subcellular Localization Patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pilus ATPases Involved in Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Poney; Habash, Marc; Burrows, Lori L.

    2005-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses polar type IV pili (TFP), which are responsible for adhesion to various materials and twitching motility on surfaces. Twitching occurs by alternate extension and retraction of TFP, which arise from assembly and disassembly of pilin subunits at the base of the pilus. The ATPase PilB promotes pilin assembly, while the ATPase PilT or PilU or both promote pilin dissociation. Fluorescent fusions to two of the three ATPases (PilT and PilU) were functional, as shown by complementation of the corresponding mutants. PilB and PilT fusions localized to both poles, while PilU fusions localized only to the piliated pole. To identify the portion of the ATPases required for localization, sequential C-terminal deletions of PilT and PilU were generated. The conserved His and Walker B boxes were dispensable for polar localization but were required for twitching motility, showing that localization and function could be uncoupled. Truncated fusions that retained polar localization maintained their distinctive distribution patterns. To dissect the cellular factors involved in establishing polarity, fusion protein localization was monitored with a panel of TFP mutants. The localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-PilT and YFP-PilU was independent of the subunit PilA, other TFP ATPases, and TFP-associated proteins previously shown to be associated with the membrane or exhibiting polar localization. In contrast, YFP-PilB exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic localization in a pilC mutant, suggesting that PilC is required for polar localization of PilB. Finally, localization studies performed with fluorescent ATPase chimeras of PilT and PilU demonstrated that information responsible for the characteristic localization patterns of the ATPases likely resides in their N termini. PMID:15659660

  5. The modulation of erythrocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin, an active biphenolic molecule present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been reported to elicit plethora of health protective effects. The present study was carried out in vitro, in vivo and in silico to investigate the modulatory effects of curcumin on erythrocyte membrane Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. In vitro curcumin (10(-) (5) M to 10(-) (8) M) was incubated with human erythrocytes membrane. In vivo curcumin (340 mg/kg b.w. and 170 mg/kg b.w.) was supplemented to wistar rats for 21 days. In silico, catalytic unit ? of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (3b8e.pdb) protein was used as a receptor for the natural ligand ATP to study curcumin-mediated docking simulation using AutoDock4. The in vitro effect of curcumin on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in human erythrocytes was biphasic. An inhibitory response was observed at 10(-) (5) M (p < 0.001). An activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was observed at 10(-) (7) and 10(-) (8) M (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). In vivo, curcumin supplementation to rats increased the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at doses 340 mg/kg b.w. (p < 0.001) as well as at 170 mg/kg b.w., (p < 0.01). AutoDock4 docking simulation study showed that both ligands curcumin and ATP actively interacted with amino acids Glu214, Ser215, Glu216, Thr371, Asn377, Arg378, Met379, Arg438, Val440, Ala444, Lys451 and Asp586 at the catalytic cavity of Na+/K+-ATPase. ATP had more H bonding and hydrophobic interaction with active site amino acid residues compared to curcumin. These finding may explain some of the health beneficial properties of curcumin associated with deregulated Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity or ions homeostasis. PMID:26644941

  6. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald JY; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason TC

    2011-01-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na+/K+-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:21293466

  7. Burkholderia pseudomallei Type III Secretion System Cluster 3 ATPase BsaS, a Chemotherapeutic Target for Small-Molecule ATPase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lan; Lai, Shu-Chin; Treerat, Puthayalai; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease of high mortality for humans and other animal species; it is prevalent in tropical regions worldwide. The pathogenesis of melioidosis depends on the ability of its causative agent, the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, to enter and survive in host cells. B. pseudomallei can escape from the phagosome into the cytosol of phagocytic cells where it replicates and acquires actin-mediated motility, avoiding killing by the autophagy-dependent process, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP). The type III secretion system cluster 3 (TTSS3) facilitates bacterial escape from phagosomes, although the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Given the recent identification of small-molecule inhibitors of the TTSS ATPase, we sought to determine the potential of the predicted TTSS3 ATPase, encoded by bsaS, as a target for chemotherapeutic treatment of infection. A B. pseudomallei bsaS deletion mutant was generated and used as a control against which to assess the effect of inhibitor treatment. Infection of RAW 264.7 cells with wild-type bacteria and subsequent treatment with the ATPase inhibitor compound 939 resulted in reduced intracellular bacterial survival, reduced escape from phagosomes, and increased colocalization with both LC3 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1). These changes were similar to those observed for infection of RAW 264.7 cells with the bsaS deletion mutant. We propose that treatment with the ATPase inhibitor compound 939 decreased intracellular bacterial survival through a reduced ability of bacteria to escape from phagosomes and increased killing via LAP. Therefore, small-molecule inhibitors of the TTSS3 ATPase have potential as therapeutic treatments against melioidosis. PMID:25605762

  8. Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Farah; Ouyang, Kunfu; Campbell, Stuart G.; Lyon, Robert C.; Chuang, Joyce; Fitzsimons, Dan; Tangney, Jared; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Chung, Charles S.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Kasahara, Hideko; Ghassemian, Majid; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Moss, Richard L.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Chen, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions provide the driving force underlying each heartbeat. The current view is that actin-bound regulatory proteins play a dominant role in the activation of calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction. In contrast, the relevance and nature of regulation by myosin regulatory proteins (for example, myosin light chain-2 [MLC2]) in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. By integrating gene-targeted mouse and computational models, we have identified an indispensable role for ventricular Mlc2 (Mlc2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, which directly control actin-myosin interactions, were directly affected, but surprisingly, Mlc2v phosphorylation also fed back to cooperatively influence calcium-dependent activation of the thin filament. Loss of these mechanisms produced early defects in the rate of cardiac muscle twitch relaxation and ventricular torsion. Strikingly, these defects preceded the left ventricular dysfunction of heart disease and failure in a mouse model with nonphosphorylatable Mlc2v. Thus, there is a direct and early role for Mlc2 phosphorylation in regulating actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle contraction, and dephosphorylation of Mlc2 or loss of these mechanisms can play a critical role in heart failure. PMID:22426213

  9. An Unstable Head-Rod Junction May Promote Folding into the Compact Off-State Conformation of Regulated Myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Brown,J.; Yang, Y.; Reshetnikova, L.; Gourinath, S.; Suvege, D.; Kardos, J.; Hobor, F.; Reutzel, R.; Nyitray, L.; Cohen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The N-terminal region of myosin's rod-like subfragment 2 (S2) joins the two heads of this dimeric molecule and is key to its function. Previously, a crystal structure of this predominantly coiled-coil region was determined for a short fragment (51 residues plus a leucine zipper) of the scallop striated muscle myosin isoform. In that study, the N-terminal 10-14 residues were found to be disordered. We have now determined the structure of the same scallop peptide in three additional crystal environments. In each of two of these structures, improved order has allowed visualization of the entire N-terminus in one chain of the dimeric peptide. We have also compared the melting temperatures of this scallop S2 peptide with those of analogous peptides from three other isoforms. Taken together, these experiments, along with examination of sequences, point to a diminished stability of the N-terminal region of S2 in regulated myosins, compared with those myosins whose regulation is thin filament linked. It seems plain that this isoform-specific instability promotes the off-state conformation of the heads in regulated myosins. We also discuss how myosin isoforms with varied thermal stabilities share the basic capacity to transmit force efficiently in order to produce contraction in their on states.

  10. Myosin-II repression favors pre/proplatelets but shear activation generates platelets and fails in macrothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Spinler, Kyle R; Shin, Jae-Won; Lambert, Michele P; Discher, Dennis E

    2015-01-15

    Megakaryocyte ploidy and the generation of pre/proplatelets are both increased in culture by pharmacologic inhibition of myosin-II, but nonmuscle myosin-IIA (MIIA) mutations paradoxically cause MYH9-related diseases (MYH9-RD) that adversely affect platelets. In marrow, megakaryocytes extend projections into the microcirculation, where shear facilitates fragmentation to large pre/proplatelets, suggesting that fluid stresses and myosin-II activity somehow couple in platelet biogenesis. Here, in bulk shear, plateletlike particles generated from megakaryocytes are maximized at a shear stress typical of that in the microcirculation and after treatment with a myosin-II inhibitor. MIIA activity in static cells is naturally repressed through phosphorylation at Serine-1943, but shear decreases phosphorylation, consistent with MIIA activation and localization to platelet cortex. Micropipette aspiration of cells shows myosin-II accumulates at stressed sites, but its inhibition prevents such mechanoactivation and facilitates generation of CD41(+) fragments similar in size to pre/proplatelets. MYH9-RD mutants phenocopy inhibition, revealing a dominant negative effect. MIIA is diffuse in the large platelets of a MYH9-RD patient with macrothrombocytopenia and is also diffuse in normal pre/proplatelets treated with inhibitor that blocks in vitro division to small platelets. The findings explain the large platelets in MYH9-RD and the near-normal thrombocrit of patients. Myosin-II regulation thus controls platelet size and number. PMID:25395423

  11. Structure of myosin-1c tail bound to calmodulin provides insights into calcium-mediated conformational coupling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Li, Jianchao; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2015-01-01

    Class I myosins can sense cellular mechanical forces and function as tension-sensitive anchors or transporters. How mechanical load is transduced from the membrane-binding tail to the force-generating head in myosin-1 is unknown. Here we determined the crystal structure of the entire tail of mouse myosin-1c in complex with apocalmodulin, showing that myosin-1c adopts a stable monomer conformation suited for force transduction. The lever-arm helix and the C-terminal extended PH domain of the motor are coupled by a stable post-IQ domain bound to calmodulin in a highly unusual mode. Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin induces major conformational changes in both IQ motifs and the post-IQ domain and increases flexibility of the myosin-1c tail. Our study provides a structural blueprint for the neck and tail domains of myosin-1 and expands the target binding modes of the master Ca(2+)-signal regulator calmodulin. PMID:25437912

  12. Hexamers of the Type II Secretion ATPase GspE from Vibrio cholerae with Increased ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Connie; Turley, Stewart; Marionni, Samuel T.; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Kelly K.; Patrick, Marcella; Shah, Ripal; Sandkvist, Maria; Bush, Matthew F.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The Type II Secretion System (T2SS), a multi-protein machinery spanning two membranes in Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for the secretion of folded proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The critical multi-domain T2SS assembly ATPase GspEEpsE had so far not been structurally characterized as a hexamer. Here, four hexamers of Vibrio cholerae GspEEpsE are obtained when fused to Hcp1 as an assistant hexamer, as shown by native mass spectrometry. The enzymatic activity of the GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions is ~20 times higher than that of a GspEEpsE monomer indicating that increasing the local concentration of GspEEpsE by the fusion strategy was successful. Crystal structures of GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions with different linker lengths reveal regular and elongated hexamers of GspEEpsE with major differences in domain orientation within subunits, and in subunit assembly. SAXS studies on GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions suggest that even further variability in GspEEpsE hexamer architecture is likely. PMID:23954505

  13. Stiffness, working stroke, and force of single-myosin molecules in skeletal muscle: elucidation of these mechanical properties via nonlinear elasticity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Motoshi; Higuchi, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    In muscles, the arrays of skeletal myosin molecules interact with actin filaments and continuously generate force at various contraction speeds. Therefore, it is crucial for myosin molecules to generate force collectively and minimize the interference between individual myosin molecules. Knowledge of the elasticity of myosin molecules is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of muscle contractions because elasticity directly affects the working and drag (resistance) force generation when myosin molecules are positively or negatively strained. The working stroke distance is also an important mechanical property necessary for elucidation of the thermodynamic efficiency of muscle contractions at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on these mechanical properties obtained from single-fiber and single-molecule studies and discuss recent findings associated with these mechanical properties. We also discuss the potential molecular mechanisms associated with reduction of the drag effect caused by negatively strained myosin molecules. PMID:23685901

  14. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julieta; Delgado, Kelly Valcárcel; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Nucleotides and nucleosides are secreted into extracellular media at different concentrations as a consequence of different physiologic and pathological conditions. Ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes present on the surface of most cells, hydrolyze these extracellular nucleotides and reduce the concentration of them, thus affecting the activation of different nucleotide and nucleoside receptors. Also, ecto-nucleotidases are present in a number of microorganisms and play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we characterized the ecto-ATPase activities present on the surface of HIV-1 particle and human macrophages as well. We found that the kinetic properties of HIV-1 and macrophage ecto-ATPases are similar, suggesting that the enzyme is the same. This ecto-ATPase activity was increased in macrophages infected in vitro with HIV-1. Using three different non-related ecto-ATPase inhibitors-POM-1, ARL67156 and BG0-we showed that the inhibition of these macrophage and viral ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection. In addition, we also found that elevated extracellular concentrations of ATP inhibit HIV-1 production by infected macrophages. PMID:25577295

  15. PATBox: A Toolbox for Classification and Analysis of P-Type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Søndergaard, Dan; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2015-01-01

    P-Type ATPases are part of the regulatory system of the cell where they are responsible for transporting ions and lipids through the cell membrane. These pumps are found in all eukaryotes and their malfunction has been found to cause several severe diseases. Knowing which substrate is pumped by a certain P-Type ATPase is therefore vital. The P-Type ATPases can be divided into 11 subtypes based on their specificity, that is, the substrate that they pump. Determining the subtype experimentally is time-consuming. Thus it is of great interest to be able to accurately predict the subtype based on the amino acid sequence only. We present an approach to P-Type ATPase sequence classification based on the k-nearest neighbors, similar to a homology search, and show that this method provides performs very well and, to the best of our knowledge, better than any existing method despite its simplicity. The classifier is made available as a web service at http://services.birc.au.dk/patbox/ which also provides access to a database of potential P-Type ATPases and their predicted subtypes. PMID:26422234

  16. Critical role of ?-phosphate in structural transition of Na,K-ATPase upon ATP binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Anashkina, Anastasia A.; Klimanova, Elizaveta A.; Dergousova, Elena A.; Lopina, Olga D.; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2014-06-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium ions by Na,K-ATPase is accompanied by the enzyme conformational transition between E1 and E2 states. ATP and ADP bind to Na,K-ATPase in the E1 conformation with similar affinity but the properties of enzyme in complexes with these nucleotides are different. We have studied thermodynamics of Na,K-ATPase binding with adenine nucleotides at different temperatures using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our data indicate that ?-phosphate is involved in complex formation by increasing the affinity of adenine nucleotides to Na,K-ATPase by an order of magnitude, while ?-phosphate does not affect it. ATP binding to Na,K-ATPase in contrast to ADP binding generates a structural transition in the enzyme, which is consistent with the movement of a significant portion of the surface area to a solvent-protected state. We propose that ATP binding leads to convergence of the nucleotide-binding and phosphorylation domains transferring the enzyme from the ``E1-open'' to ``E1-closed'' conformation ready for phosphorylation.

  17. Cation transport coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An integrated, animated model.

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco A; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John C; Horisberger, Jean D; Borin, Ivana A

    2010-07-01

    An Adobe® animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na(+) and K(+) translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P(2c) -type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also known as an E(1) /E(2) -ATPase as it undergoes conformational changes between the E(1) and E(2) forms during the pumping cycle, altering the affinity and accessibility of the transmembrane ion-binding sites. The animation is based on Horisberger's scheme that incorporates the most recent significant findings to have improved our understanding of the (Na, K)-ATPase structure-function relationship. The movements of the various domains within the (Na, K)-ATPase ?-subunit illustrate the conformational changes that occur during Na(+) and K(+) translocation across the membrane and emphasize involvement of the actuator, nucleotide, and phosphorylation domains, that is, the "core engine" of the pump, with respect to ATP binding, cation transport, and ADP and P(i) release. PMID:21567843

  18. Schizoid neurochemical pathology-induced membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibition in relation to neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-12-01

    Psychiatric abnormalities have been described in primary neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis, primary generalized epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), central nervous system glioma, and syndrome X with vascular dementia. It was therefore considered pertinent to compare monoamine neurotransmitter pattern in schizophrenia with those in the disorders described above. The end result of neurotransmission is changes in membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity. Membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibition can lead to magnesium depletion, which can lead to an upregulated isoprenoid pathway. The isoprenoid pathway produces three important metabolites--digoxin, an endogenous membrane Na(+) -K+ ATPase inhibitor; ubiquinone, a membrane antioxidant and component of mitochondrial electron transport chain; and dolichol, important in N-glycosylation of protein. The serum/plasma levels of digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, magnesium, HMG CoA reductase activity, and RBC Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity were estimated in all these disorders. The result showed that the concentration of serum tryptophan and serotonin was high and serum tyrosine, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline low in all the disorders studied. The plasma HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, and serum dolichol levels were high and serum ubiquinone levels, serum magnesium, and RBC Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity were low in all the disorders studied. The significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of syndrome X, multiple sclerosis, primary generalized epilepsy, schizophrenia, SSPE, and Parkinson's disease is discussed in the setting of the interrelationship between these disorders documented in literature. PMID:14602543

  19. [Inhibitory effect of environmental pollutants on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activity in humans].

    PubMed

    Grabowska, M; Gumi?ska, M; Ignacak, J

    1991-01-01

    In the inhabitants of Chorzów, the most polluted town in the Upper Silesia, who showed increased urine fluoride excretion and elevated blood lead concentrations, the studies on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activities have been undertaken. The investigations showed the decrease in (Na,K)ATPase activity by about 70% in comparison with the average norm in 85% of workers of the Nitrogen Chemical Plant and the Slaughterhouse (groups A and M) and by about 50% in 65% of workers of the Steelworks (group S). The decrease in Mg-ATPase activity was smaller, by about 40% in 70% persons in groups A and M, and only by 20% in comparison with the control activity in 40% persons in group S. The correlation between the decrease in (Na,K)ATPase activity in vivo and the increase in urine fluoride excretion was demonstrated. Although the possibility of lead influence on this enzyme in vivo cannot be excluded, the correlation between the changes in ATPase activity and blood lead concentration was not found. PMID:1668849

  20. Activation of (Na+ + K+)-dependent ATPase by lipid vesicles of negative phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Palatini, P; Dabbeni-Sala, F; Pitotti, A; Bruni, A; Mandersloot, J C

    1977-04-01

    1. Kidney (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase was depleted of phospholipids by extraction with lubrol and inserted in lipid structures of known composition. Both ouabain-sensitive ATPase and phosphatase reactions could be partially restored by lipid replacement. 2. Lipid vesicles of natural and synthetic negative phospholipids proved to be effective. The low activity of uncharged liposomes was increased when negative charges were included into the bilayer structure. 3. Reactivation by negative phospholipids was accompanied by spontaneous re-assembly of a stable lipid-protein complex. By contrast, the interaction of lipid deficient ATPase complex with uncharged lamellae was possible only after sonication of lipid-protein suspension. Reactivation did not ensue. 4. The ouabain-sensitive ATPase reactivated by synthetic dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol yielded curvilinear Arrhenius plots. The same pattern was seen with the original undepleted microsomal preparation. A discontinuity close to the temperature of fluid-order transition was found with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol. 5. It is concluded that reassembly of lipid-deficient (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase requires the addition of diacylphospholipids with fluid acyl-chains and negatively charged polar heads able to assemble in an expanded lamellar configuration. PMID:192291

  1. Vectorially oriented monolayers of detergent-solubilized Ca(2+) -ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, L A; Stongin, R M; Smith, A B; Blasie, J K; Peticolas, L J; Bean, J C

    1996-01-01

    A method for tethering proteins to solid surfaces has been utilized to form vectorially oriented monolayers of the detergent-solubilized integral membrane protein Ca(2+) -ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Bifunctional, organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) possessing "headgroup" binding specificity for the substrate and "endgroup" binding specificity for the enzyme were utilized to tether the enzyme to the substrate. Specifically, an amine-terminated 11-siloxyundecaneamine SAM was found to bind the Ca(2+)-ATPase primarily electrostatically. The Ca(2+)-ATPase was labeled with the fluorescent probe 5-(2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid before monolayer formation. Consequently, fluorescence measurements performed on amine-terminated SAM/enzyme monolayers formed on quartz substrates served to establish the nature of protein binding. Formation of the monolayers on inorganic multilayer substrates fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy made it possible to use x-ray interferometry to determine the profile structure for the system, which was proved correct by x-ray holography. The profile structures established the vectorial orientation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase within these monolayers, to a spatial resolution of approximately 12 A. Such vectorially oriented monolayers of detergent-solubilized Ca(2+)-ATPase from SR make possible a wide variety of correlative structure/function studies, which would serve to elucidate the mechanism of Ca(2+) transport by this enzyme. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:9172737

  2. On the regulation, function, and localization of the DNA-dependent ATPase PICH.

    PubMed

    Kaulich, Manuel; Cubizolles, Fabien; Nigg, Erich A

    2012-08-01

    The putative chromatin remodeling enzyme Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) was discovered as an interaction partner and substrate of the mitotic kinase Plk1. During mitosis PICH associates with centromeres and kinetochores and, most interestingly, constitutes a robust marker for ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs) that connect separating chromatids in anaphase cells. The precise roles of PICH remain to be clarified. Here, we have used antibody microinjection and siRNA-rescue experiments to study PICH function and localization during M phase progression, with particular emphasis on the role of the predicted ATPase domain and the regulation of PICH localization by Plk1. We show that interference with PICH function results in chromatin bridge formation and micronucleation and that ATPase activity is critical for PICH function. Interestingly, an intact ATPase domain of PICH is required for prevention of chromatin bridge formation but not for UFB resolution, and quantitative analyses of UFB and chromatin bridge frequencies suggest that these structures are of different etiologies. We also show that the ATPase activity of PICH is required for temporal and spatial control of PICH localization to chromatin and that Plk1 likely controls PICH localization through phosphorylation of proteins distinct from PICH itself. This work strengthens the view that PICH is an important, Plk1-regulated enzyme, whose ATPase activity is essential for maintenance of genome integrity. Although not required for the spindle assembly checkpoint, PICH is clearly important for faithful chromosome segregation. PMID:22527115

  3. Structural Insights into Functional Overlapping and Differentiation among Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Andrey F. Z.; Trindade, Daniel M.; Tonoli, Celisa C. C.; de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Assis, Leandro H. P.; Honorato, Rodrigo V.; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; von Delft, Frank; Larson, Roy E.; Murakami, Mario T.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin V (MyoV) motors have been implicated in the intracellular transport of diverse cargoes including vesicles, organelles, RNA-protein complexes, and regulatory proteins. Here, we have solved the cargo-binding domain (CBD) structures of the three human MyoV paralogs (Va, Vb, and Vc), revealing subtle structural changes that drive functional differentiation and a novel redox mechanism controlling the CBD dimerization process, which is unique for the MyoVc subclass. Moreover, the cargo- and motor-binding sites were structurally assigned, indicating the conservation of residues involved in the recognition of adaptors for peroxisome transport and providing high resolution insights into motor domain inhibition by CBD. These results contribute to understanding the structural requirements for cargo transport, autoinhibition, and regulatory mechanisms in myosin V motors. PMID:24097982

  4. Interplay between myosin IIA-mediated contractility and actin network integrity orchestrates podosome composition and oscillations

    PubMed Central

    van den Dries, K.; Meddens, M.B.M; de Keijzer, S.; Shekhar, S.; Subramaniam, V.; Figdor, C.G.; Cambi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-resident dendritic cells patrol for foreign antigens while undergoing slow mesenchymal migration. Using actomyosin-based structures called podosomes, dendritic cells probe and remodel extracellular matrix topographical cues. Podosomes comprise an actin-rich protrusive core surrounded by an adhesive ring of integrins, cytoskeletal adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. Here we reveal how the integrity and dynamics of protrusive cores and adhesive rings are coordinated by the actomyosin apparatus. Core growth by actin polymerization induces podosome protrusion and provides tension within the actin network filaments. The tension transmitted to the ring recruits vinculin and zyxin and preserves overall podosome integrity. Conversely, myosin IIA contracts the actin network filaments and applies tension to the vinculin molecules bound, counterbalancing core growth and eventually reducing podosome size and protrusion. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized interplay between actin and myosin IIA in podosomes, providing novel mechanistic insights into how actomyosin-based structures allow dendritic cells to sense the extracellular environment. PMID:23361003

  5. Bidirectional cooperative motion of myosin-II motors on actin tracks with randomly alternating polarities

    E-print Network

    Gilboa, Barak; Farago, Oded; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The cooperative action of many molecular motors is essential for dynamic processes such as cell motility and mitosis. This action can be studied by using motility assays in which the motion of cytoskeletal filaments over a surface coated with motor proteins is tracked. In previous studies of actin-myosin II systems, fast directional motion was observed, reflecting the tendency of myosin II motors to propagate unidirectionally along actin filaments. Here, we present a motility assay with actin bundles consisting of short filamentous segments with randomly alternating polarities. These actin tracks exhibit bidirectional motion with macroscopically large time intervals (of the order of several seconds) between direction reversals. Analysis of this bidirectional motion reveals that the characteristic reversal time, $\\tau_{rev}$, does not depend on the size of the moving bundle or on the number of motors, $N$. This observation contradicts previous theoretical calculations based on a two-state ratchet model [Badoua...

  6. A mouse model of myosin binding protein C human familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Q; Sanbe, A; Osinska, H; Hewett, T E; Klevitsky, R; Robbins, J

    1998-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, including the cardiac isoform of myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C), and multiple mutations which cause truncated forms of the protein to be made are linked to the disease. We have created transgenic mice in which varying amounts of a mutated MyBP-C, lacking the myosin and titin binding domains, are expressed in the heart. The transgenically encoded, truncated protein is stable but is not incorporated efficiently into the sarcomere. The transgenic muscle fibers showed a leftward shift in the pCa2+-force curve and, importantly, their power output was reduced. Additionally, expression of the mutant protein leads to decreased levels of endogenous MyBP-C, resulting in a striking pattern of sarcomere disorganization and dysgenesis. PMID:9769321

  7. Myocardial Infarct Imaging of Antibodies to Canine Cardiac Myosin with Indium-111-Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaw, Ban An; Fallon, John T.; Strauss, H. William; Haber, Edgar

    1980-07-01

    Antibodies, by virtue of marked selectivity and affinity, may lend themselves to identification of structures of unique antigenic specificity in vivo. In experimental myocardial infarction in dogs, F(ab')2 fragments of antibodies to cardiac myosin that had been labeled with iodine-131 were shown to localize within the lesion. Because the energy characteristics of iodine isotopes are not ideal for imaging with a gamma camera, a new method for labeling antibody fragments with divalent or polyvalent radionuclides was developed. A bifunctional chelating agent, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid was covalently coupled, by an amide bond, to Fab fragments of antibodies to canine cardiac myosin. A stable chelate was then formed with indium-111, a nuclide that has appropriate half-life and energy characteristics for gamma imaging. Antibodies treated in this way retain their antigen-binding activity and are useful in locating myocardial infarcts in vivo.

  8. Direct observation of motion of single F-actin filaments in the presence of myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Toshio; Nakase, Michiyuki; Nishiyama, Katsumi; Oosawa, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Actin is found in almost all kinds of non-muscle cells where it is thought to have an important role in cell motility. A proper understanding of that role will only be possible when reliable in vitro systems are available for investigating the interaction of cellular actin and myosin. A start has been made on several systems1-4, most recently by Sheetz and Spudich who demonstrated unidirectional movement of HMM-coated beads along F-actin cables on arrays of chloroplasts exposed by dissection of a Nitella cell5. As an alternative approach, we report here the direct observation by fluorescence microscopy of the movements of single F-actin filaments interacting with soluble myosin fragments energized by Mg2+-ATP.

  9. Myosin-II dependent cell contractility contributes to spontaneous nodule formation of mesothelioma cells

    E-print Network

    Tárnoki-Zách, Julia; Méhes, Elod; Paku, Sándor; Neufeld, Zoltán; Hegedus, Balázs; Döme, Balázs; Czirok, Andras

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that characteristic nodules emerge in cultures of several malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cell lines. Instead of excessive local cell proliferation, the nodules arise by Myosin II-driven cell contractility. The aggregation process can be prevented or reversed by suitable pharmacological inhibitors of acto-myosin contractility. A cell-resolved elasto-plastic model of the multicellular patterning process indicates that the morphology and size of the nodules as well as the speed of their formation is determined by the mechanical tension cells exert on their neighbors, and the stability of cell-substrate adhesion complexes. A linear stability analysis of a homogenous, self-tensioned Maxwell fluid indicates the unconditional presence of a patterning instability.

  10. A small part of myosin IIB takes on a big role in cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Fenix, Aidan M; Burnette, Dylan T

    2015-04-13

    A migrating cell must establish front-to-back polarity in order to move. In this issue, Juanes-Garcia et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201407059) report that a short serine-rich motif in nonmuscle myosin IIB is required to establish the cell's rear. This motif represents a new paradigm for what determines directional cell migration. PMID:25869662

  11. Clathrin regulates centrosome positioning by promoting acto-myosin cortical tension in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Spiró, Zoltán; Thyagarajan, Kalyani; De Simone, Alessandro; Träger, Sylvain; Afshar, Katayoun; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Regulation of centrosome and spindle positioning is crucial for spatial cell division control. The one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has proven attractive for dissecting the mechanisms underlying centrosome and spindle positioning in a metazoan organism. Previous work revealed that these processes rely on an evolutionarily conserved force generator complex located at the cell cortex. This complex anchors the motor protein dynein, thus allowing cortical pulling forces to be exerted on astral microtubules emanating from microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Here, we report that the clathrin heavy chain CHC-1 negatively regulates pulling forces acting on centrosomes during interphase and on spindle poles during mitosis in one-cell C. elegans embryos. We establish a similar role for the cytokinesis/apoptosis/RNA-binding protein CAR-1 and uncover that CAR-1 is needed to maintain proper levels of CHC-1. We demonstrate that CHC-1 is necessary for normal organization of the cortical acto-myosin network and for full cortical tension. Furthermore, we establish that the centrosome positioning phenotype of embryos depleted of CHC-1 is alleviated by stabilizing the acto-myosin network. Conversely, we demonstrate that slight perturbations of the acto-myosin network in otherwise wild-type embryos results in excess centrosome movements resembling those in chc-1(RNAi) embryos. We developed a 2D computational model to simulate cortical rigidity-dependent pulling forces, which recapitulates the experimental data and further demonstrates that excess centrosome movements are produced at medium cortical rigidity values. Overall, our findings lead us to propose that clathrin plays a critical role in centrosome positioning by promoting acto-myosin cortical tension. PMID:24961801

  12. PKC-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction: Role of myosin light chain phosphorylation versus actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Moreno-Dominguez, Alejandro

    2015-06-15

    Defective protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been suggested to contribute to abnormal vascular contraction in disease conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Our previous work on agonist and pressure-induced cerebral vasoconstriction implicated PKC as a major contributor to force production in a myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation-independent manner. Here, we used phorbol dibutyrate to selectively induce a PKC-dependent constriction in rat middle cerebral arteries and delineate the relative contribution of different contractile mechanisms involved. Specifically, we employed an ultra-sensitive 3-step western blotting approach to detect changes in the content of phosphoproteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, thin filament activation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Data indicate that PKC activation evoked a greater constriction at a similar level of LC20 phosphorylation achieved by 5-HT. PDBu-evoked constriction persisted in the presence of Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC, and in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Biochemical evidence indicates that either + or - extracellular Ca(2+), PDBu (i) inhibits MLCP activity via the phosphorylation of myosin targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17), (ii) increases the phosphorylation of paxillin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and reduces G-actin content, and (iii) does not change the phospho-content of the thin filament proteins, calponin and caldesmon. PDBu-induced constriction was more sensitive to disruption of actin cytoskeleton compared to inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for the pivotal contribution of cytoskeletal actin polymerization in force generation following PKC activation in cerebral resistance arteries. PMID:25931148

  13. Regulation of nonmuscle myosin II during 3-methylcholanthrene induced dedifferentiation of C2C12 myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sumit K.; Saha, Shekhar; Das, Provas; Das, Mahua R.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2014-08-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) induces tumor formation at the site of injection in the hind leg of mice within 110 days. Recent reports reveal that the transformation of normal muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes for tumor formation, however the molecular mechanism behind this process is not well understood. Here, we show in an in vitro study that 3MC induces fragmentation of multinucleate myotubes into viable mononucleates. These mononucleates form colonies when they are seeded into soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation. Immunoblot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC{sub 20}) is 5.6±0.5 fold reduced in 3MC treated myotubes in comparison to vehicle treated myotubes during the fragmentation of myotubes. In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. Interestingly, addition of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, enhances the fragmentation, whereas phosphatase inhibitor perturbs the 3MC induced fragmentation of myotubes. These results suggest that decrease in RLC{sub 20} phosphorylation may be associated with the fragmentation step of dedifferentiation. - Highlights: • 3-Methylcholanthrene induces fragmentation of C2C12-myotubes. • Dedifferentiation can be divided into two steps – fragmentation and proliferation. • Fragmentation is associated with rearrangement of nonmuscle myosin II. • Genes associated with differentiation and proliferation are not altered during fragmentation. • Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain is reduced during fragmentation.

  14. Fission yeast tropomyosin specifies directed transport of myosin-V along actin cables

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Joseph E.; Pollard, Luther W.; Sckolnick, Maria; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Hodges, Alex R.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Lord, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of class-V myosins is their processivity—the ability to take multiple steps along actin filaments without dissociating. Our previous work suggested, however, that the fission yeast myosin-V (Myo52p) is a nonprocessive motor whose activity is enhanced by tropomyosin (Cdc8p). Here we investigate the molecular mechanism and physiological relevance of tropomyosin-mediated regulation of Myo52p transport, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches. Single molecules of Myo52p, visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, moved processively only when Cdc8p was present on actin filaments. Small ensembles of Myo52p bound to a quantum dot, mimicking the number of motors bound to physiological cargo, also required Cdc8p for continuous motion. Although a truncated form of Myo52p that lacked a cargo-binding domain failed to support function in vivo, it still underwent actin-dependent movement to polarized growth sites. This result suggests that truncated Myo52p lacking cargo, or single molecules of wild-type Myo52p with small cargoes, can undergo processive movement along actin-Cdc8p cables in vivo. Our findings outline a mechanism by which tropomyosin facilitates sorting of transport to specific actin tracks within the cell by switching on myosin processivity. PMID:24196839

  15. Role of fission yeast myosin I in organization of sterol-rich membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tetsuya; Chang, Fred

    2005-07-26

    Specialized membrane domains containing lipid rafts are thought to be important for membrane processes such as signaling and trafficking. An unconventional type I myosin has been shown to reside in lipid rafts and function to target a disaccharidase to rafts in brush borders of intestinal mammalian cells. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, distinct sterol-rich membrane domains are formed at the cell division site and sites of polarized cell growth at cell tips. Here, we show that the sole S. pombe myosin I, myo1p, is required for proper organization of these membrane domains. myo1 mutants lacking the TH1 domain exhibit a uniform distribution of sterol-rich membranes all over the plasma membrane throughout the cell cycle. These effects are independent of endocytosis because myo1 mutants exhibit no endocytic defects. Conversely, overexpression of myo1p induces ectopic sterol-rich membrane domains. Myo1p localizes to nonmotile foci that cluster in sterol-rich plasma membrane domains and fractionates with detergent-resistant membranes. Because the myo1p TH1 domain may bind directly to acidic phospholipids, these findings suggest a model for how type I myosin contributes to the organization of specialized membrane domains. PMID:16051179

  16. Inhibition of tracheal smooth muscle contraction and myosin phosphorylation by ryanodine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerthoffer, W.T.; Murphey, K.A.; Khoyi, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that muscarinic activation of airway smooth muscle in low Ca++ solutions increases myosin phosphorylation without increasing tension. Blocking Ca++ influx reduced phosphorylation, but not to basal levels. It was proposed that release of intracellular Ca++ contributed to dissociation of phosphorylation and contraction. To test this hypothesis the effects of ryanodine were studied under similar conditions. Ryanodine (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) antagonized caffeine-induced contraction of canine tracheal smooth muscle. Ryanodine also reduced carbachol-induced contractions and carbachol-induced myosin phosphorylation. The effect of ryanodine on potassium and serotonin-induced contractions was also investigated to test for a nonspecific inhibitory effect. In contrast to the effect on carbachol responses, ryanodine (10(-5) M) potentiated the contractile response to low concentrations of serotonin and potassium, but had no effect on the maximum response to either stimulant. Carbachol (10(-6) M) and ryanodine (10(-5) M) both significantly decreased /sup 45/Ca++ content of tracheal muscle. The effect of ryanodine and carbachol together on /sup 45/Ca++ content was not greater than either drug alone suggesting that ryanodine reduces the caffeine and carbachol responses by depleting releaseable Ca++ stores. Ryanodine significantly reduced Ca++-induced contraction and myosin phosphorylation in carbachol-stimulated muscle, suggesting that some of the Ca++ responsible for elevated phosphorylation is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  17. Laser Raman Light-Scattering Observations of Conformational Changes in Myosin Induced by Inorganic Salts

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Terence W.; Peticolas, Warner L.; Robson, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    The Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of myosin and mixtures of myosin in solutions of the salts CaCl2, MgCl2, and LiBr have been taken. The spectrum of the solvent background has been subtracted by means of a computer, leaving only the Raman peaks of the protein. From an analysis of the Raman bands in the regions at 900, 940, 1,240-1,300, and 1,650-1,670 cm-1, it seems likely that CaCl2 effects an ?-to ?-transition in myosin, probably owing to the interaction of the Ca2+ ion, LiBr appears to denature the protein leading to increased random coil structure, and MgCl2 appears to have an effect intermediate between the two other salts. These results are reported for concentrations as low as 10-5 M of CaCl2 and MgCl2. This investigation indicates the usefulness of the Raman light-scattering technique for the study of protein conformational changes. PMID:698341

  18. Bidirectional cooperative motion of myosin-II motors on actin tracks with randomly alternating polarities

    E-print Network

    Barak Gilboa; David Gillo; Oded Farago; Anne Bernheim-Groswasser

    2009-03-26

    The cooperative action of many molecular motors is essential for dynamic processes such as cell motility and mitosis. This action can be studied by using motility assays in which the motion of cytoskeletal filaments over a surface coated with motor proteins is tracked. In previous studies of actin-myosin II systems, fast directional motion was observed, reflecting the tendency of myosin II motors to propagate unidirectionally along actin filaments. Here, we present a motility assay with actin bundles consisting of short filamentous segments with randomly alternating polarities. These actin tracks exhibit bidirectional motion with macroscopically large time intervals (of the order of several seconds) between direction reversals. Analysis of this bidirectional motion reveals that the characteristic reversal time, $\\tau_{rev}$, does not depend on the size of the moving bundle or on the number of motors, $N$. This observation contradicts previous theoretical calculations based on a two-state ratchet model [Badoual et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 99, p. 6696 (2002)], predicting an exponential increase of $\\tau_{rev}$ with $N$. We present a modified version of this model that takes into account the elastic energy due to the stretching of the actin track by the myosin II motors. The new model yields a very good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Detachment, futile cycling, and nucleotide pocket collapse in myosin-V stepping.

    PubMed

    Boon, Neville J; Hoyle, Rebecca B

    2015-02-01

    Myosin-V is a highly processive dimeric protein that walks with 36-nm steps along actin tracks, powered by coordinated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reactions in the two myosin heads. No previous theoretical models of the myosin-V walk reproduce all the observed trends of velocity and run length with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP and external forcing. In particular, a result that has eluded all theoretical studies based upon rigorous physical chemistry is that run length decreases with both increasing [ADP] and [ATP]. We systematically analyze which mechanisms in existing models reproduce which experimental trends and use this information to guide the development of models that can reproduce them all. We formulate models as reaction networks between distinct mechanochemical states with energetically determined transition rates. For each network architecture, we compare predictions for velocity and run length to a subset of experimentally measured values, and fit unknown parameters using a bespoke Monte Carlo simulated annealing optimization routine. Finally we determine which experimental trends are replicated by the best-fit model for each architecture. Only two models capture them all: one involving [ADP]-dependent mechanical detachment, and another including [ADP]-dependent futile cycling and nucleotide pocket collapse. Comparing model-predicted and experimentally observed kinetic transition rates favors the latter. PMID:25768541

  20. Myosin-binding protein C corrects an intrinsic inhomogeneity in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Michael J.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Mun, Ji Young; Previs, Samantha Beck; Gulick, James; Lee, Kyounghwan; Robbins, Jeffrey; Craig, Roger; Lederer, W. J.; Warshaw, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The beating heart exhibits remarkable contractile fidelity over a lifetime, which reflects the tight coupling of electrical, chemical, and mechanical elements within the sarcomere, the elementary contractile unit. On a beat-to-beat basis, calcium is released from the ends of the sarcomere and must diffuse toward the sarcomere center to fully activate the myosin- and actin-based contractile proteins. The resultant spatial and temporal gradient in free calcium across the sarcomere should lead to nonuniform and inefficient activation of contraction. We show that myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C), through its positioning on the myosin thick filaments, corrects this nonuniformity in calcium activation by exquisitely sensitizing the contractile apparatus to calcium in a manner that precisely counterbalances the calcium gradient. Thus, the presence and correct localization of MyBP-C within the sarcomere is critically important for normal cardiac function, and any disturbance of MyBP-C localization or function will contribute to the consequent cardiac pathologies. PMID:25839057

  1. Sequence Requirements for Myosin Gene Expression and Regulation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Okkema, P. G.; Harrison, S. W.; Plunger, V.; Aryana, A.; Fire, A.

    1993-01-01

    Four Caenorhabditis elegans genes encode muscle-type specific myosin heavy chain isoforms: myo-1 and myo-2 are expressed in the pharyngeal muscles; unc-54 and myo-3 are expressed in body wall muscles. We have used transformation-rescue and lacZ fusion assays to determine sequence requirements for regulated myosin gene expression during development. Multiple tissue-specific activation elements are present for all four genes. For each of the four genes, sequences upstream of the coding region are tissue-specific promoters, as shown by their ability to drive expression of a reporter gene (lacZ) in the appropriate muscle type. Each gene contains at least one additional tissue-specific regulatory element, as defined by the ability to enhance expression of a heterologous promoter in the appropriate muscle type. In rescue experiments with unc-54, two further requirements apparently independent of tissue specificity were found: sequences within the 3' non-coding region are essential for activity while an intron near the 5' end augments expression levels. The general intron stimulation is apparently independent of intron sequence, indicating a mechanistic effect of splicing. To further characterize the myosin gene promoters and to examine the types of enhancer sequences in the genome, we have initiated a screen of C. elegans genomic DNA for fragments capable of enhancing the myo-2 promoter. The properties of enhancers recovered from this screen suggest that the promoter is limited to muscle cells in its ability to respond to enhancers. PMID:8244003

  2. Switch II Mutants Reveal Coupling between the Nucleotide- and Actin-Binding Regions in Myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Darshan V.; David, Charles; Jacobs, Donald J.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Conserved active-site elements in myosins and other P-loop NTPases play critical roles in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis; however, the mechanisms of allosteric communication among these mechanoenzymes remain unresolved. In this work we introduced the E442A mutation, which abrogates a salt-bridge between switch I and switch II, and the G440A mutation, which abolishes a main-chain hydrogen bond associated with the interaction of switch II with the ? phosphate of ATP, into myosin V. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mant-labeled nucleotides or IAEDANS-labeled actin and FlAsH-labeled myosin V to examine the conformation of the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions, respectively. We demonstrate that in the absence of actin, both the G440A and E442A mutants bind ATP with similar affinity and result in only minor alterations in the conformation of the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP). In the presence of ADP and actin, both switch II mutants disrupt the formation of a closed NBP actomyosin.ADP state. The G440A mutant also prevents ATP-induced opening of the actin-binding cleft. Our results indicate that the switch II region is critical for stabilizing the closed NBP conformation in the presence of actin, and is essential for communication between the active site and actin-binding region. PMID:22713570

  3. Detachment, Futile Cycling and Nucleotide Pocket Collapse in Myosin-V Stepping

    E-print Network

    Neville J. Boon; Rebecca B. Hoyle

    2015-02-06

    Myosin-V is a highly processive dimeric protein that walks with 36nm steps along actin tracks, powered by coordinated ATP hydrolysis reactions in the two myosin heads. No previous theoretical models of the myosin-V walk reproduce all the observed trends of velocity and run-length with [ADP], [ATP] and external forcing. In particular, a result that has eluded all theoretical studies based upon rigorous physical chemistry is that run length decreases with both increasing [ADP] and [ATP]. We systematically analyse which mechanisms in existing models reproduce which experimental trends and use this information to guide the development of models that can reproduce them all. We formulate models as reaction networks between distinct mechanochemical states with energetically determined transition rates. For each network architecture, we compare predictions for velocity and run length to a subset of experimentally measured values, and fit unknown parameters using a bespoke MCSA optimization routine. Finally we determine which experimental trends are replicated by the best-fit model for each architecture. Only two models capture them all: one involving [ADP]-dependent mechanical detachment, and another including [ADP]-dependent futile cycling and nucleotide pocket collapse. Comparing model-predicted and experimentally observed kinetic transition rates favors the latter.

  4. A mechanical model for the motility of actin filaments on myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Dan V., Jr.; Fulga, Florin; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2004-03-01

    The interaction of actin filaments with myosin is crucial to cell motility, muscular contraction, cell division and other processes. The in vitro motility assay involves the motion of actin filaments on a substrate coated with myosin, and is used extensively to investigate the dynamics of the actomyosin system. Following on from previous work, we propose a new mechanical model of actin motility on myosin, wherein a filament is modeled as a chain of beads connected by harmonic springs. This imposes a limitation on the "stretching" of the filament. The rotation of one bead with respect to its neighbours is also constrained in similar way. We implemented this model and used Monte Carlo simulations to determine whether it can predict the directionality of filament motion. The principal advantages of this model over our previous one are that we have removed the empirically correct but artificial assumption that the filament moves like a "worm" i.e. the head determines the direction of movement and the rest of the filament "follows" the head as well as the inclusion of dependencies on experimental rate constants (and so also on e.g. ATP concentration) via the cross-bridge cycle.

  5. Detachment, futile cycling, and nucleotide pocket collapse in myosin-V stepping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Neville J.; Hoyle, Rebecca B.

    2015-02-01

    Myosin-V is a highly processive dimeric protein that walks with 36-nm steps along actin tracks, powered by coordinated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reactions in the two myosin heads. No previous theoretical models of the myosin-V walk reproduce all the observed trends of velocity and run length with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP and external forcing. In particular, a result that has eluded all theoretical studies based upon rigorous physical chemistry is that run length decreases with both increasing [ADP] and [ATP]. We systematically analyze which mechanisms in existing models reproduce which experimental trends and use this information to guide the development of models that can reproduce them all. We formulate models as reaction networks between distinct mechanochemical states with energetically determined transition rates. For each network architecture, we compare predictions for velocity and run length to a subset of experimentally measured values, and fit unknown parameters using a bespoke Monte Carlo simulated annealing optimization routine. Finally we determine which experimental trends are replicated by the best-fit model for each architecture. Only two models capture them all: one involving [ADP]-dependent mechanical detachment, and another including [ADP]-dependent futile cycling and nucleotide pocket collapse. Comparing model-predicted and experimentally observed kinetic transition rates favors the latter.

  6. Unfolding transitions in myosin give rise to the double-hyperbolic force velocity relation in muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-05-01

    This work presents an extension to a recent model of muscle contraction that was based on entropic elasticity (Nielsen 2002 J. Theor. Biol. 219 99-119). By using entropic elasticity as the origin of muscle force, various possibilities emerge that can account for the presence of the double-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in muscle that was observed by Edman (1988 J. Physiol. 404 301-21). In the present work, it will be argued that a slight change (elongation) of the contour length of the entropic springs involved in their high-force regions is sufficient to produce such a double-hyperbolic profile. A sudden elongation would correspond to an unfolding event of a small region of the myosin molecule, which causes a sudden reduction of the tension that may be produced by the individual molecule. To obtain the double-hyperbolic profile, it is assumed that a gradual transition occurs in the entropic spring array from being mainly composed of non-unfolded myosin springs that have a short (i.e. normal) contour length to consisting of a mixture of myosin springs with short and long (unfolded) contour lengths.

  7. Force generation by skeletal muscle is controlled by mechanosensing in myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Linari, Marco; Brunello, Elisabetta; Reconditi, Massimo; Fusi, Luca; Caremani, Marco; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-12-10

    Contraction of both skeletal muscle and the heart is thought to be controlled by a calcium-dependent structural change in the actin-containing thin filaments, which permits the binding of myosin motors from the neighbouring thick filaments to drive filament sliding. Here we show by synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction of frog (Rana temporaria) single skeletal muscle cells that, although the well-known thin-filament mechanism is sufficient for regulation of muscle shortening against low load, force generation against high load requires a second permissive step linked to a change in the structure of the thick filament. The resting (switched 'OFF') structure of the thick filament is characterized by helical tracks of myosin motors on the filament surface and a short backbone periodicity. This OFF structure is almost completely preserved during low-load shortening, which is driven by a small fraction of constitutively active (switched 'ON') myosin motors outside thick-filament control. At higher load, these motors generate sufficient thick-filament stress to trigger the transition to its long-periodicity ON structure, unlocking the major population of motors required for high-load contraction. This concept of the thick filament as a regulatory mechanosensor provides a novel explanation for the dynamic and energetic properties of skeletal muscle. A similar mechanism probably operates in the heart. PMID:26560032

  8. Differential activity of Drosophila Hox genes induces myosin expression and can maintain compartment boundaries.

    PubMed

    Curt, Jesús R; de Navas, Luis F; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Compartments are units of cell lineage that subdivide territories with different developmental potential. In Drosophila, the wing and haltere discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior (A/P) compartments, which require the activity of Hedgehog, and into dorsal and ventral (D/V) compartments, needing Notch signaling. There is enrichment in actomyosin proteins at the compartment boundaries, suggesting a role for these proteins in their maintenance. Compartments also develop in the mouse hindbrain rhombomeres, which are characterized by the expression of different Hox genes, a group of genes specifying different structures along their main axis of bilaterians. We show here that the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax can maintain the A/P and D/V compartment boundaries when Hedgehog or Notch signaling is compromised, and that the interaction of cells with and without Ultrabithorax expression induces high levels of non-muscle myosin II. In the absence of Ultrabithorax there is occasional mixing of cells from different segments. We also show a similar role in cell segregation for the Abdominal-B Hox gene. Our results suggest that the juxtaposition of cells with different Hox gene expression leads to their sorting out, probably through the accumulation of non-muscle myosin II at the boundary of the different cell territories. The increase in myosin expression seems to be a general mechanism used by Hox genes or signaling pathways to maintain the segregation of different groups of cells. PMID:23451173

  9. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  10. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-01-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N?=?3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities. PMID:25778778

  11. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N?=?3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities. PMID:25778778

  12. The On-off Switch in Regulated Myosins: Different Triggers but Related Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, D.; Mui, S; O' Neall-Hennessey, E; Szent-Györgyi, A; Cohen, C

    2009-01-01

    In regulated myosin, motor and enzymatic activities are toggled between the on-state and off-state by a switch located on its lever arm domain, here called the regulatory domain (RD). This region consists of a long {alpha}-helical 'heavy chain' stabilized by a 'regulatory' light chain (RLC) and an 'essential' light chain (ELC). The on-state is activated by phosphorylation of the RLC of vertebrate smooth muscle RD or by direct binding of Ca{sup 2+} to the ELC of molluscan RD. Crystal structures are available only for the molluscan RD. To understand in more detail the pathway between the on-state and the off-state, we have now also determined the crystal structure of a molluscan (scallop) RD in the absence of Ca{sup 2+}. Our results indicate that loss of Ca{sup 2+} abolishes most of the interactions between the light chains and may increase the flexibility of the RD heavy chain. We propose that disruption of critical links with the C-lobe of the RLC is the key event initiating the off-state in both smooth muscle myosins and molluscan myosins.

  13. Contribution of three ionic types of polysaccharides to the thermal gelling properties of chicken breast myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Zi; Chen, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xing; Li, Pei-Jun; Ma, Fei; Lu, Qiu-Hong

    2014-03-26

    The effects of anionic (?-carrageenan, KCG), neutral (locust bean gum, LBG), and cationic polysaccharides (water-soluble chitosan, WSC) on the water-holding capacity (WHC) and hardness of chicken myosin gels were investigated at 0-1.0% addition levels. The changes of gel properties were explained using different instrumental techniques. The results revealed that KCG and LBG at 0.5-1.0% could respectively cause significant increases of both WHC and hardness of corresponding heat-induced myosin-polysaccharide gels (P < 0.05). These increases could be ascribed to a slower relaxation, reinforced cross-linked extent, enhanced hydrogen bonding, and a fine-stranded gel network, according to the analysis of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic rheology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy measurements. However, the weak molecular interaction within myosin-WSC gels induced an insignificant change of the WHC and hardness (P > 0.05). Therefore, it is interesting to search for the anionic polysaccharide and neutral polysaccharide for use as fat substitutes in the development of low-fat meat products. PMID:24635768

  14. ALKYLTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of ATPase activities by triethyltin (TET), diethyltin (DET), monoethyltin (MET) and trimethyltin (TMT) was studied in homogenates of brain and liver from adult rats. MET did not produce significant inhibition. ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates from TET-t...

  15. H+ V-ATPase-Energized Transporters in Brush Border Membrane Vesicles from Whole Larvae of Aedes Aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brush Border Membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from Whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AeBBMVWs ) contain an H+ V-ATPase (V), a Na+/H+ antiporter, NHA1 (A) and a Na+-coupled, nutrient amino acid transporter, NAT8 (N), VAN for short. All V-ATPase subunits are present in the Ae. aegypti genome and in the vesicles...

  16. Effect of SS-toxin, a metabolite of Stemphylium solani, -ATPase activity and standard redox system in plasma

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    Effect of SS-toxin, a metabolite of Stemphylium solani, on H+ -ATPase activity and standard redox. SS-toxin is a newly described non-proteinaceous toxin produced by the phytopathogenic fungus, Stemphylium solani, the cause of garlic leaf blight. In this study, the effects of SS-toxin on the H+ -ATPase

  17. Biochemistry 1993, 32, 8103-8 111 8103 Proton Slip of the Chloroplast ATPase: Its Nucleotide Dependence, Energetic

    E-print Network

    Junge, Wolfgang

    Biochemistry 1993, 32, 8103-8 111 8103 Proton Slip of the Chloroplast ATPase: Its Nucleotide Received March 15. 1993; Revised Manuscript Received May 18, 1993 ABSTRACT: The F-ATPase of chloroplasts couples proton flow to ATP synthesis, but is leaky to protons in the absenceof nucleotides. This "proton

  18. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry of a Rotary ATPase Reveals ATP-induced Reduction in Conformational Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Roberta; Liko, Idlir; Wu, Kuan-Jung; Stewart, Alastair G.; Stock, Daniela; Robinson, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    Rotary ATPases play fundamental roles in energy conversion, their catalytic rotation being associated with inter-domain fluctuations and heterogeneity of conformational states. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) we compare the conformational dynamics of the intact ATPase from Thermus thermophilus (TtATPase) with its membrane and soluble subcomplexes. Our results define regions with enhanced flexibility assigned to distinct subunits within the overall assembly. To provide a structural context for our experimental data we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and observed conformational changes of the peripheral stalks reflecting their intrinsic flexibility. By isolating complexes at different phases of cell growth and manipulating nucleotides, metal ions and pH during isolation, we reveal differences that can be related to conformational changes in the Vo complex, triggered by ATP binding. Together these results implicate nucleotides in modulating flexibility of the stator components and uncover mechanistic detail underlying operation and regulation in the context of the holo-enzyme. PMID:24557135

  19. First crystal structures of Na+,K+-ATPase: new light on the oldest ion pump.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Chikashi; Kanai, Ryuta; Cornelius, Flemming

    2011-12-01

    Na(+),K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (NKA) is the first P-type ion translocating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) ever identified, and the significance of this class of proteins was highlighted by the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Jens C. Skou for the discovery in 1957. More than half a century passed between the initial identification and the publication of a high-resolution crystal structure of NKA. Although the new crystal structures provided many surprises and insights, structural biology on this system remains challenging, as NKA is a very difficult protein to crystallize. Here we explain the reasons behind the challenges, introduce a mechanism that governs the function, and summarize current knowledge of NKA structure in comparison with another member of the P-type ATPase family, Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:22153495

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis P-Type ATPases: Possible Targets for Drug or Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been the biggest killer in the human history; currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills nearly 2 million people each year worldwide. The high prevalence of TB obligates the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of anti-TB vaccines that can control multidrug resistance and latent TB infections. Membrane proteins have recently been suggested as key targets for bacterial viability. Current studies have shown that mycobacteria P-type ATPases may play critical roles in ion homeostasis and in the response of mycobacteria to toxic substances in the intraphagosomal environment. In this review, we bring together the genomic, transcriptomic, and structural aspects of the P-type ATPases that are relevant during active and latent Mtb infections, which can be useful in determining the potential of these ATPases as drug targets and in uncovering their possible roles in the development of new anti-TB attenuated vaccines. PMID:25110669