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Sample records for actin-activated myosin atpase

  1. Cooperativity of thiol-modified myosin filaments. ATPase and motility assays of myosin function.

    PubMed Central

    Root, D D; Reisler, E

    1992-01-01

    The effects of chemical modifications of myosin's reactive cysteines on actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and sliding velocities in the in vitro motility assays were examined in this work. The three types of modifications studied were 4-[N-[(iodoacetoxy)ethyl]-N-methylamino]-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3- diazole labeling of SH2 (based on Ajtai and Burghart. 1989. Biochemistry. 28:2204-2210.), phenylmaleimide labeling of SH1, and phenylmaleimide labeling of myosin in myofibrils under rigor conditions. Each type of modified myosin inhibited the sliding of actin in motility assays. The sliding velocities of actin over copolymers of modified and unmodified myosins in the motility assay were slowest with rigor-modified myosin and most rapid with SH2-labeled myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of similarly copolymerized myosins were lowest with SH2-labeled myosin and highest with rigor-modified myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of myosin subfragment-1 obtained from these modified myosins decreased in the same linear manner with the fraction of modified heads. These results are interpreted using a model in which the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments decreases the probability of myosin activation by actin. The sliding velocity of actin over monomeric rigor-modified myosin exceeded that over the filamentous form, which suggests for this myosin that filament structure is important for the inhibition of actin sliding in motility assays. The fact that all cysteine modifications examined inhibited the actomyosin ATPase activities and sliding velocities of actin over myosin poses questions concerning the information about the activated crossbridge obtained from probes attached to SH1 or SH2 on myosin. PMID:1420910

  2. Impacts of Usher Syndrome Type IB Mutations on Human Myosin VIIa Motor Function†

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a human hereditary disorder characterized by profound congenital deafness, retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. Myosin VIIa has been identified as the responsible gene for USH type 1B, and a number of missense mutations have been identified in the affected families. However, the molecular basis of the dysfunction of USH gene, myosin VIIa, in the affected families is unknown to date. Here we clarified the effects of USH1B mutations on human myosin VIIa motor function for the first time. The missense mutations of USH1B significantly inhibited the actin activation of ATPase activity of myosin VIIa. G25R, R212C, A397D and E450Q mutations abolished the actin-activated ATPase activity completely. P503L mutation increased the basal ATPase activity for 2-3 fold, but reduced the actin-activated ATPase activity to 50% of the wild type. While all the mutations examined, except for R302H, reduced the affinity for actin and the ATP hydrolysis cycling rate, they did not largely decrease the rate of ADP release from acto-myosin, suggesting that the mutations reduce the duty ratio of myosin VIIa. Taken together, the results suggest that the mutations responsible for USH1B cause the complete loss of the actin-activated ATPase activity or the reduction of duty ratio of myosin VIIa. PMID:18700726

  3. Review: The ATPase mechanism of myosin and actomyosin.

    PubMed

    Geeves, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Myosins are a large family of molecular motors that use the common P-loop, Switch 1 and Switch 2 nucleotide binding motifs to recognize ATP, to create a catalytic site than can efficiently hydrolyze ATP and to communicate the state of the nucleotide pocket to other allosteric binding sites on myosin. The energy of ATP hydrolysis is used to do work against an external load. In this short review I will outline current thinking on the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and how the energy of ATP hydrolysis is coupled to a series of protein conformational changes that allow a myosin, with the cytoskeleton track actin, to operate as a molecular motor of distinct types; fast movers, processive motors or strain sensors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 483-491, 2016. PMID:27061920

  4. Theoretical models for cooperative steady-state ATPase activity of myosin subfragment-1 on regulated actin.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, T L; Eisenberg, E; Chalovich, J M

    1981-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on the cooperative equilibrium binding of myosin subfragment-1-ADP to regulated actin, as influenced by Ca2+, is extended here to the cooperative steady-state ATPase activity of myosin subfragment-1 on regulated actin. Exact solution of the general steady-state problem will require Monte Carlo calculations. Three interrelated special cases are discussed in some detail and sample computer (not Monte Carlo) solutions are given. The eventual objective is to apply these considerations to in vitro experimental data and to in vivo muscle models. PMID:6455170

  5. Myosin XI-I is Mechanically and Enzymatically Unique Among Class-XI Myosins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins. The ADP dissociation rate from acto-At myosin XI-I was 17 s(-1), accounting for the low actin-sliding velocity. In contrast, the apparent affinity for actin in the presence of ATP, estimated from Kapp (0.61 µM) of actin-activated ATPase, was extremely high. The equilibrium dissociation constant for actin was very low in both the presence and absence of ATP, indicating a high affinity for actin. To examine At myosin XI-I motility in vivo, green fluorescent protein-fused full-length At myosin XI-I was expressed in cultured Arabidopsis cells. At myosin XI-I localized not only on the nuclear envelope but also on small dots moving slowly (0.23 µm s(-1)) along actin filaments. Our results show that the properties of At myosin XI-I differ from those of other Arabidopsis class-XI myosins. The data suggest that At myosin XI-I does not function as a driving force for cytoplasmic streaming but regulates the organelle velocity, supports processive organelle movement or acts as a tension generator. PMID:27273580

  6. Dialdehyde derivatives of purine mononucleotides: substrate properties and affinity modification of myosin ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, M.N.; Kodentsova, V.M.; Abdraimova, U.A.; Nikolaeva, O.P.; Petushkova, E.V.

    1986-03-20

    It was established that the dialdehyde derivative of ATP (oxo-ATP) is a good substrate of the Ca-ATPase of heavy meromyosin: (1.2-1.4) x 10/sup -4/ M; V = V/sub ATP/. At the same time, it is capable of inducing irreversible inhibition of the enzyme. Since oxo-ATP is rapidly digested by myosin, forming oxo-ADP, this inhibition is a consequence of the interaction of the enzyme with oxo-ADP. It was shown that the inhibition of heavy meromyosin (HMM), by oxo-ADP occurs according to the kinetics characteristic of affinity modification; moreover, ATP entirely protects HMM from the loss of activity. Similar data on the irreversible inhibition of ATPase activity under the action of oxo-ADP were obtained in the case of myosin, heavy meromyosin, subfragment-1, and natural actomyosin, as well as in the absence of divalent cations, which is evidence of modification of the active site of myosin ATPase.

  7. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-07-28

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of /sup 32/P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca/sup 2 +/- and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation.

  8. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  9. Temperature dependent measurements reveal similarities between muscle and non-muscle myosin motility

    PubMed Central

    Yengo, Christopher M.; Takagi, Yasuharu; Sellers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the temperature dependence of muscle and non-muscle myosin (heavy meromyosin, HMM) with in vitro motility and actin-activated ATPase assays. Our results indicate that myosin V (MV) has a temperature dependence that is similar in both ATPase and motility assays. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle myosin (SK), smooth muscle myosin (SM), and non-muscle myosin IIA (NM) have a different temperature dependence in ATPase compared to in vitro motility assays. In the class II myosins we examined (SK, SM, and NM) the rate-limiting step in ATPase assays is thought to be attachment to actin or phosphate release, while for in vitro motility assays it is controversial. In myosin V the rate-limiting step for both in vitro motility and ATPase assays is known to be ADP release. Consequently, in MV the temperature dependence of the ADP release rate constant is similar to the temperature dependence of in vitro motility. Interestingly, the temperature dependence of the ADP release rate constant of SM and NM was shifted toward the in vitro motility temperature dependence. Our results suggest that the rate-limiting step in SK, SM, and NM may shift from attachment-limited in solution to detachment-limited in the in vitro motility assay. Internal strain within the myosin molecule or by neighboring myosin motors may slow ADP release which becomes rate-limiting in the in vitro motility assay. Within this small subset of myosins examined, the in vitro sliding velocity correlates reasonably well with actin-activated ATPase activity, which was suggested by the original study by Barany et al. (Barany 1967). PMID:22930330

  10. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  11. Does Interaction between the Motor and Regulatory Domains of the Myosin Head Occur during ATPase Cycle? Evidence from Thermal Unfolding Studies on Myosin Subfragment 1

    PubMed Central

    Logvinova, Daria S.; Markov, Denis I.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Ushakov, Dmitry S.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) consists of two major structural domains, the motor (or catalytic) domain and the regulatory domain. Functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor is believed to involve a rotation of the regulatory domain (lever arm) relative to the motor domain during the ATPase cycle. According to predictions, this rotation can be accompanied by an interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminus of the essential light chain (ELC) associated with the regulatory domain. To check this assumption, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with temperature dependences of fluorescence to study changes in thermal unfolding and the domain structure of S1, which occur upon formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx that mimic S1 ATPase intermediate states S1**-ADP-Pi and S1*-ATP, respectively. To identify the thermal transitions on the DSC profiles (i.e. to assign them to the structural domains of S1), we compared the DSC data with temperature-induced changes in fluorescence of either tryptophan residues, located only in the motor domain, or recombinant ELC mutants (light chain 1 isoform), which were first fluorescently labeled at different positions in their C-terminal half and then introduced into the S1 regulatory domain. We show that formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx significantly stabilizes not only the motor domain, but also the regulatory domain of the S1 molecule implying interdomain interaction via ELC. This is consistent with the previously proposed concepts and also adds some new interesting details to the molecular mechanism of the myosin ATPase cycle. PMID:26356744

  12. An optimized micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on the molybdenum blue method and its application in screening natural product inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Myosin II plays multiple roles in physiological and pathological functions through its ATPase activity. The present study was designed to optimize a micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on molybdenum blue method, using a known myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. Several parameters were observed in the enzymatic reaction procedure, including the concentrations of the substrate (ATP) and calcium chloride, pH, and the reaction and incubation times. The proportion of coloration agent was also investigated. The sensitivity of this assay was compared with the malachite green method and bioluminescence method. Additionally, 20 natural compounds were studied for myosin II ATPase inhibitory activity using the optimized method. Our results showed that ATP at the concentration of 5 mmol·L(-1) and ammonium molybdate : stannous chloride at the ratio of 15 : 1 could greatly improve the sensitivity of this method. The IC50 of blebbistatin obtained by this method was consistent with literature. Compound 8 was screened with inhibitory activity on myosin II ATPase. The optimized method showed similar accuracy, lower detecting limit, and wider linear range, which could be a promising approach to screening myosin II ATPase inhibitors in vitro. PMID:27473959

  13. Movement of scallop myosin on Nitella actin filaments: regulation by calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Vale, R D; Szent-Gyorgyi, A G; Sheetz, M P

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine if Ca2+ regulates scallop myosin movement on actin, we have measured motility of scallop myosin along actin filaments using a direct visual assay. This procedure consists of covalently linking myosin to 1-micron beads and pipetting them onto a parallel array of actin filaments located on the cytoplasmic face of a Nitella internodal cell. In the absence of Ca2+, scallop myosin-coated beads exhibit no directed motion; however, in the presence of pCa2+ of greater than 5.84, these beads undergo linear translocations with average velocities of 2.0 micron/s. This Ca2+ -sensitive motility requires the presence of regulatory light chains on the scallop myosin. Removal of regulatory light chains with 10 mM EDTA produces a "desensitized" myosin, no longer sensitive to Ca2+, which moves at rates of 0.09-0.3 micron in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Readdition of regulatory light chains to preparations of desensitized myosin once again confers Ca2+-sensitive motility. The Ca2+ dependence of scallop-myosin motility shows a sharp transition, consistent with the Ca2+ activation sensitivity of the actin-activated ATPase. Furthermore, relative rates of movement of calcium-regulated myosins from various molluscan species are consistent with their respective rates of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, myosin motility along actin filaments provides a sensitive and direct assay of myosin activity and is suitable for studying myosin regulation. PMID:6238334

  14. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  15. Definite differences between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction as revealed using antibodies to myosin head.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Abe, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazushige; Saeki, Yasutake; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from attachment-detachment cycles between myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and actin filaments. It is generally believed that a myosin head first attaches to actin, undergoes conformational changes to produce force and motion in muscle, and then detaches from actin. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism of myosin head conformational changes still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. The myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (CVD) and lever arm (LD) domains. To give information about the role of these domains in the myosin head performance, we have examined the effect of three site-directed antibodies to the myosin head on in vitro ATP-dependent actin-myosin sliding and Ca2+-activated contraction of muscle fibers. Antibody 1, attaching to junctional peptide between 50K and 20K heavy chain segments in the CAD, exhibited appreciable effects neither on in vitro actin-myosin sliding nor muscle fiber contraction. Since antibody 1 covers actin-binding sites of the CAD, one interpretation of this result is that rigor actin-myosin linkage is absent or at most a transient intermediate in physiological actin-myosin cycling. Antibody 2, attaching to reactive lysine residue in the CVD, showed a marked inhibitory effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding without changing actin-activated myosin head (S1) ATPase activity, while it showed no appreciable effect on muscle contraction. Antibody 3, attaching to two peptides of regulatory light chains in the LD, had no significant effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding, while it reduced force development in muscle fibers without changing MgATPase activity. The above definite differences in the effect of antibodies 2 and 3 between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction can be explained by difference in experimental conditions; in the former, myosin heads are randomly oriented on a glass surface, while in the latter myosin heads are regularly

  16. Molecular Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis Class VIII Myosin, ATM1*

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Matsumoto, Rie; Sato, Kei; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Land plants possess myosin classes VIII and XI. Although some information is available on the molecular properties of class XI myosins, class VIII myosins are not characterized. Here, we report the first analysis of the enzymatic properties of class VIII myosin. The motor domain of Arabidopsis class VIII myosin, ATM1 (ATM1-MD), and the motor domain plus one IQ motif (ATM1-1IQ) were expressed in a baculovirus system and characterized. ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ had low actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity (Vmax = 4 s−1), although their affinities for actin were high (Kactin = 4 μm). The actin-sliding velocities of ATM1-MD and ATM1-1IQ were 0.02 and 0.089 μm/s, respectively, from which the value for full-length ATM1 is calculated to be ∼0.2 μm/s. The results of actin co-sedimentation assay showed that the duty ratio of ATM1 was ∼90%. ADP dissociation from the actin·ATM1 complex (acto-ATM1) was extremely slow, which accounts for the low actin-sliding velocity, low actin-activated ATPase activity, and high duty ratio. The rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1 was markedly biphasic with fast and slow phase rates (5.1 and 0.41 s−1, respectively). Physiological concentrations of free Mg2+ modulated actin-sliding velocity and actin-activated ATPase activity by changing the rate of ADP dissociation from acto-ATM1. GFP-fused full-length ATM1 expressed in Arabidopsis was localized to plasmodesmata, plastids, newly formed cell walls, and actin filaments at the cell cortex. Our results suggest that ATM1 functions as a tension sensor/generator at the cell cortex and other structures in Arabidopsis. PMID:24637024

  17. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  18. Myosin IIB and F-actin control apical vacuolar morphology and histamine-induced trafficking of H-K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, James M.; Rosen, Jared E.; Nakada, Stephanie L.; Rakholia, Milap; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of myosin or actin function and confocal microscopy were used to test the role of an actomyosin complex in controlling morphology, trafficking, and fusion of tubulovesicles (TV) containing H-K-ATPase with the apical secretory canaliculus (ASC) of primary-cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. In resting cells, myosin IIB and IIC, ezrin, and F-actin were associated with ASC, whereas H-K-ATPase localized to intracellular TV. Histamine caused fusion of TV with ASC and subsequent expansion resulting from HCl and water secretion; F-actin and ezrin remained associated with ASC whereas myosin IIB and IIC appeared to dissociate from ASC and relocalize to the cytoplasm. ML-7 (inhibits myosin light chain kinase) caused ASC of resting cells to collapse and most myosin IIB, F-actin, and ezrin to dissociate from ASC. TV were unaffected by ML-7. Jasplakinolide (stabilizes F-actin) caused ASC to develop large blebs to which actin, myosin II, and ezrin, as well as tubulin, were prominently localized. When added prior to stimulation, ML-7 and jasplakinolide prevented normal histamine-stimulated transformations of ASC/TV and the cytoskeleton, but they did not affect cells that had been previously stimulated with histamine. These results indicate that dynamic pools of actomyosin are required for maintenance of ASC structure in resting cells and for trafficking of TV to ASC during histamine stimulation. However, the dynamic pools of actomyosin are not required once the histamine-stimulated transformation of TV/ASC and cytoskeleton has occurred. These results also show that vesicle trafficking in parietal cells shares mechanisms with similar processes in renal collecting duct cells, neuronal synapses, and skeletal muscle. PMID:24578340

  19. Evidence that myosin does not contribute to force production in chromosome movement

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Antibody against cytoplasmic myosin, when microinjected into actively dividing cells, provides a physiological test for the role of actin and myosin in chromosome movement. Anti-Asterias egg myosin, characterized by Mabuchi and Okuno (1977, J. Cell Biol., 74:251), completely and specifically inhibits the actin activated Mg++ -ATPase of myosin in vitro and, when microinjected, inhibits cytokinesis in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that microinjected antibody has no observable effect on the rate or extent of anaphase chromosome movements. Neither central spindle elongation nor chromosomal fiber shortening is affected by doses up to eightfold higher than those require to uniformly inhibit cytokinesis in all injected cells. We calculate that such doses are sufficient to completely inhibit myosin ATPase activity in these cells. Cells injected with buffer alone, with myosin-absorbed antibody, or with nonimmune gamma-globulin, proceed normally through both mitosis and cytokinesis. Control gamma-globulin, labeled with fluorescein, diffuses to homogeneity throughout the cytoplasm in 2-4 min and remains uniformly distributed. Antibody is not excluded from the spindle region. Prometaphase chromosome movements, fertilization, pronuclear migration, and pronuclear fusion are also unaffected by microinjected antimyosin. These experiments demonstrate that antimyosin blocks the actomyosin interaction thought to be responsible for force production in cytokinesis but has no effect on mitotic or meiotic chromosome motion. They provide direct physiological evidence that myosin is not involved in force production for chromosome movement. PMID:6181080

  20. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel molecular motor, Leishmania myosin-XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Woodall, Katy A; Toseland, Christopher P; Hundschell, Christian; Veigel, Claudia

    2012-08-10

    The genome of the Leishmania parasite contains two classes of myosin. Myosin-XXI, seemingly the only myosin isoform expressed in the protozoan parasite, has been detected in both the promastigote and amastigote stages of the Leishmania life cycle. It has been suggested to perform a variety of functions, including roles in membrane anchorage, but also long-range directed movements of cargo. However, nothing is known about the biochemical or mechanical properties of this motor. Here we designed and expressed various myosin-XXI constructs using a baculovirus expression system. Both full-length (amino acids 1-1051) and minimal motor domain constructs (amino acids 1-800) featured actin-activated ATPase activity. Myosin-XXI was soluble when expressed either with or without calmodulin. In the presence of calcium (pCa 4.1) the full-length motor could bind a single calmodulin at its neck domain (probably amino acids 809-823). Calmodulin binding was required for motility but not for ATPase activity. Once bound, calmodulin remained stably attached independent of calcium concentration (pCa 3-7). In gliding filament assays, myosin-XXI moved actin filaments at ∼15 nm/s, insensitive to both salt (25-1000 mm KCl) and calcium concentrations (pCa 3-7). Calmodulin binding to the neck domain might be involved in regulating the motility of the myosin-XXI motor for its various cellular functions in the different stages of the Leishmania parasite life cycle. PMID:22718767

  1. Different subcellular localizations and functions of Arabidopsis myosin VIII

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Lior; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Belausov, Eduard; Sadot, Einat

    2008-01-01

    Background Myosins are actin-activated ATPases that use energy to generate force and move along actin filaments, dragging with their tails different cargos. Plant myosins belong to the group of unconventional myosins and Arabidopsis myosin VIII gene family contains four members: ATM1, ATM2, myosin VIIIA and myosin VIIIB. Results In transgenic plants expressing GFP fusions with ATM1 (IQ-tail truncation, lacking the head domain), fluorescence was differentially distributed: while in epidermis cells at the root cap GFP-ATM1 equally distributed all over the cell, in epidermal cells right above this region it accumulated in dots. Further up, in cells of the elongation zone, GFP-ATM1 was preferentially positioned at the sides of transversal cell walls. Interestingly, the punctate pattern was insensitive to brefeldin A (BFA) while in some cells closer to the root cap, ATM1 was found in BFA bodies. With the use of different markers and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, it was found that myosin VIII co-localized to the plasmodesmata and ER, colocalized with internalized FM4-64, and partially overlapped with the endosomal markers ARA6, and rarely with ARA7 and FYVE. Motility of ARA6 labeled organelles was inhibited whenever associated with truncated ATM1 but motility of FYVE labeled organelles was inhibited only when associated with large excess of ATM1. Furthermore, GFP-ATM1 and RFP-ATM2 (IQ-tail domain) co-localized to the same spots on the plasma membrane, indicating a specific composition at these sites for myosin binding. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that myosin VIII functions differently in different root cells and can be involved in different steps of endocytosis, BFA-sensitive and insensitive pathways, ER tethering and plasmodesmatal activity. PMID:18179725

  2. A Myo6 Mutation Destroys Coordination between the Myosin Heads, Revealing New Functions of Myosin VI in the Stereocilia of Mammalian Inner Ear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Amiel A.; Song, Lin; Ron, Uri; Tan, Joshua T.; Shitrit, Alina Starovolsky; Fuchs, Helmut; Hasson, Tama; Ben-Tal, Nir; Sweeney, H. Lee; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Steel, Karen P.; Avraham, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin VI, found in organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, is essential for auditory and vestibular function in mammals, since genetic mutations lead to hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction in both humans and mice. Here, we show that a missense mutation in this molecular motor in an ENU-generated mouse model, Tailchaser, disrupts myosin VI function. Structural changes in the Tailchaser hair bundles include mislocalization of the kinocilia and branching of stereocilia. Transfection of GFP-labeled myosin VI into epithelial cells and delivery of endocytic vesicles to the early endosome revealed that the mutant phenotype displays disrupted motor function. The actin-activated ATPase rates measured for the D179Y mutation are decreased, and indicate loss of coordination of the myosin VI heads or ‘gating’ in the dimer form. Proper coordination is required for walking processively along, or anchoring to, actin filaments, and is apparently destroyed by the proximity of the mutation to the nucleotide-binding pocket. This loss of myosin VI function may not allow myosin VI to transport its cargoes appropriately at the base and within the stereocilia, or to anchor the membrane of stereocilia to actin filaments via its cargos, both of which lead to structural changes in the stereocilia of myosin VI–impaired hair cells, and ultimately leading to deafness. PMID:18833301

  3. Millisecond time resolution electron cryo-microscopy of the M-ATP transient kinetic state of the acto-myosin ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M; Trinick, J; White, H

    1995-01-01

    The structure of the AM-ATP transient kinetic state of the acto-myosin ATPase cycle has been examined by electron microscopy using frozen-hydrated specimens prepared in low ionic strength. By spraying grids layered with the acto-S1 complex with ATP immediately before freezing, it was possible to examine the structure of the ternary complex with a time resolution of 10 ms. Disordered binding of the S1 was observed, suggesting more than one attachment geometry. This could be due to the presence of more than one biochemical intermediate, or to a single intermediate binding in more than one conformation. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:7787114

  4. A Failure to Communicate: MYOSIN RESIDUES INVOLVED IN HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY AFFECT INTER-DOMAIN INTERACTION.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2015-12-01

    Our molecular modeling studies suggest a charge-dependent interaction between residues Glu-497 in the relay domain and Arg-712 in the converter domain of human β-cardiac myosin. To test the significance of this putative interaction, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing indirect flight muscle myosin with charge reversal mutations in the relay (E496R) or converter (R713E). Each mutation yielded dramatic reductions in myosin Ca-ATPase activity (~80%) as well as in basal (~67%) and actin-activated (~84%) Mg-ATPase activity. E496R myosin-induced in vitro actin-sliding velocity was reduced by 71% and R713E myosin permitted no actin motility. Indirect flight muscles of late pupae from each mutant displayed disrupted myofibril assembly, with adults having severely abnormal myofibrils and no flight ability. To understand the molecular basis of these defects, we constructed a putative compensatory mutant that expresses myosin with both E496R and R713E. Intriguingly, ATPase values were restored to ~73% of wild-type and actin-sliding velocity increased to 40%. The double mutation suppresses myofibril assembly defects in pupal indirect flight muscles and dramatically reduces myofibril disruption in young adults. Although sarcomere organization is not sustained in older flies and flight ability is not restored in homozygotes, young heterozygotes fly well. Our results indicate that this charge-dependent interaction between the myosin relay and converter domains is essential to the mechanochemical cycle and sarcomere assembly. Furthermore, the same inter-domain interaction is disrupted when modeling human β-cardiac myosin heavy chain cardiomyopathy mutations E497D or R712L, implying that abolishing this salt bridge is one cause of the human disease. PMID:26446785

  5. Regulation of scallop myosin by the regulatory light chain depends on a single glycine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Jancso, A; Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1994-01-01

    Specific Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ activation of ATPase activity in scallop myosin require a regulatory light chain (RLC) from regulated (molluscan or vertebrate smooth) myosin; hybrids containing vertebrate skeletal RLCs do not bind Ca2+ and their ATPase activity is inhibited. Chimeras between scallop and chicken skeletal RLCs restore Ca2+ sensitivity to RLC-free myosin provided that residues 81-117 are derived from scallop. Six mutants (R90M, A94K, D98P, N105K, M116Q, and G117C) were generated by replacing amino acids of the scallop RLC with the corresponding skeletal RLC residues in positions conserved in either regulated or nonregulated myosins. Ca2+ binding was abolished by a G117C and a G117A mutation; however, these mutants have a decreased affinity for the heavy chain. None of the other mutations affected RLC function. Replacement of the respective cysteine with glycine in the skeletal RLC has markedly changed the regulatory properties of the molecule. The single cysteine to glycine mutation conferred to this light chain the ability to restore Ca2+ binding and regulated ATPase activity, although Ca2+ activation of the actin-activated ATPase was lower than with scallop RLC. The presence of amino acids other than glycine at this position in vertebrate skeletal myosin RLCs may explain why these are not fully functional in the scallop system. The results are in agreement with x-ray crystallography data showing the central role of G117 in stabilizing the Ca(2+)-binding site of scallop myosin. Images PMID:8090720

  6. Protein kinase C enhances myosin light-chain kinase effects on force development and ATPase activity in rat single skinned cardiac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, O; Puceat, M; Walsh, M P; Vassort, G

    1992-01-01

    Many neurohormones alter the force of cardiac contraction by variations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. alpha 1-Adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations, rather, modify the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca(2+)-calmodulin-myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) complex induces a large increase in Ca2+ sensitivity (0.14 pCa unit) of these easily accessible myofilaments. This increase is further enhanced by up to 0.19 pCa unit when protein kinase C (PKC) is added together with MLCK. Similarly, the Ca2+ ATPase activity of skinned cells in suspension is increased in the presence of MLCK and further in the presence of both kinases. 32P-labelling and SDS/PAGE show that these changes are associated with light-chain 2 (LC2) phosphorylation together with phosphorylation of troponin I and troponin T when PKC is added. Although to a smaller extent than in smooth muscle, phosphorylation of cardiac myosin LC2 may be involved in the modulation of heart contractility. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1386218

  7. Impact of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on β-myosin cross-bridge mechanics.

    PubMed

    Farman, Gerrie P; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Here we studied the impact of three HCM mutations located in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on the molecular mechanism of β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-bridge mechanics using the in vitro motility assay. To generate mutant β-myosin, native RLC was depleted from porcine cardiac MHC and reconstituted with mutant (A13T, F18L, and E22K) or wild-type (WT) human cardiac RLC. We characterized the mutant myosin force and motion generation capability in the presence of a frictional load. Compared with WT, all three mutants exhibited reductions in maximal actin filament velocity when tested under low or no frictional load. The actin-activated ATPase showed no significant difference between WT and HCM-mutant-reconstituted myosins. The decrease in velocity has been attributed to a significantly increased duty cycle, as was measured by the dependence of actin sliding velocity on myosin surface density, for all three mutant myosins. These results demonstrate a mutation-induced alteration in acto-myosin interactions that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:25324513

  8. Analysis of functional motions in Brownian molecular machines with an efficient block normal mode approach: myosin-II and Ca2+ -ATPase.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohui; Cui, Qiang

    2004-02-01

    The structural flexibilities of two molecular machines, myosin and Ca(2+)-ATPase, have been analyzed with normal mode analysis and discussed in the context of their energy conversion functions. The normal mode analysis with physical intermolecular interactions was made possible by an improved implementation of the block normal mode (BNM) approach. The BNM results clearly illustrated that the large-scale conformational transitions implicated in the functional cycles of the two motor systems can be largely captured with a small number of low-frequency normal modes. Therefore, the results support the idea that structural flexibility is an essential part of the construction principle of molecular motors through evolution. Such a feature is expected to be more prevalent in motor proteins than in simpler systems (e.g., signal transduction proteins) because in the former, large-scale conformational transitions often have to occur before the chemical events (e.g., ATP hydrolysis in myosin and ATP binding/phosphorylation in Ca(2+)-ATPase). This highlights the importance of Brownian motions associated with the protein domains that are involved in the functional transitions; in this sense, Brownian molecular machines is an appropriate description of molecular motors, although the normal mode results do not address the origin of the ratchet effect. The results also suggest that it might be more appropriate to describe functional transitions in some molecular motors as intrinsic elastic motions modulating local structural changes in the active site, which in turn gets stabilized by the subsequent chemical events, in contrast with the conventional idea of local changes somehow getting amplified into larger-scale motions. In the case of myosin, for example, we favor the idea that Brownian motions associated with the flexible converter propagates to the Switch I/II region, where the salt-bridge formation gets stabilized by ATP hydrolysis, in contrast with the textbook notion that

  9. The kinetics underlying the velocity of smooth muscle myosin filament sliding on actin filaments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Brian D; Brizendine, Richard K; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2014-07-25

    Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ~0.63 μm long and contain ~176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment- limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment- limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation. PMID:24907276

  10. The Kinetics Underlying the Velocity of Smooth Muscle Myosin Filament Sliding on Actin Filaments in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Brian D.; Brizendine, Richard K.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ∼0.63 μm long and contain ∼176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment-limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment-limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation. PMID:24907276

  11. Effects of chronic growth hormone hypersecretion on intrinsic contractility, energetics, isomyosin pattern, and myosin adenosine triphosphatase activity of rat left ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Timsit, J; Riou, B; Bertherat, J; Wisnewsky, C; Kato, N S; Weisberg, A S; Lubetzki, J; Lecarpentier, Y; Winegrad, S; Mercadier, J J

    1990-01-01

    We studied papillary muscle mechanics and energetics, myosin phenotype, and ATPase activities in left ventricles from rats bearing a growth hormone (GH)--secreting tumor. 18 wk after tumor induction, animals exhibited a dramatic increase in body weight (+101% vs. controls) but no change in the ventricular weight/body weight ratio. The maximum isometric force of papillary muscles normalized per cross-sectional area rose markedly (+42%, P less than 0.05 vs. controls), whereas the maximum unloaded shortening velocity did not change. This was observed despite a marked isomyosin shift towards V3 (32 +/- 5% vs. 8 +/- 2% in controls, P less than 0.001). Increased curvature of the force-velocity relationship (+64%, P less than 0.05 vs. controls) indicated that the muscles contracted more economically, suggesting the involvement of V3 myosin. Total calcium- and actin-activated myosin ATPase activities assayed on quickly frozen left ventricular sections were similar in tumor-bearing rats and in controls. After alkaline preincubation, these activities only decreased in tumor-bearing rats, demonstrating that V3 enzymatic sites were involved in total ATPase activity. These data demonstrate that chronic GH hypersecretion in the rat leads to a unique pattern of myocardial adaptation which allows the muscle to improve its contractile performance and economy simultaneously, thanks to myosin phenoconversion and an increase in the number of active enzymatic sites. Images PMID:2143510

  12. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions. PMID:27480605

  13. Novel familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MYL2 affects the structure and function of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Hershberger, Ray E; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. Here we describe a novel DCM mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), in which aspartic acid at position 94 is replaced by alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To obtain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A mutant proteins, and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-mutant or WT-reconstituted porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation induced a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC, and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The phosphorylation of RLC by Ca²⁺/calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair binding of RLC to the myosin heavy chain, and its incorporation into RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared with ATPase of wild-type. No changes in the myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in wild-type- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle, with no change in the calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with wild-type. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule, followed by its impaired interaction with the myosin heavy chain, may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  14. Velocities of unloaded muscle filaments are not limited by drag forces imposed by myosin cross-bridges

    PubMed Central

    Brizendine, Richard K.; Alcala, Diego B.; Carter, Michael S.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known which kinetic step in the acto-myosin ATPase cycle limits contraction speed in unloaded muscles (V0). Huxley’s 1957 model [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318] predicts that V0 is limited by the rate that myosin detaches from actin. However, this does not explain why, as observed by Bárány [Bárány M (1967) J Gen Physiol 50(6, Suppl):197–218], V0 is linearly correlated with the maximal actin-activated ATPase rate (vmax), which is limited by the rate that myosin attaches strongly to actin. We have observed smooth muscle myosin filaments of different length and head number (N) moving over surface-attached F-actin in vitro. Fitting filament velocities (V) vs. N to a detachment-limited model using the myosin step size d = 8 nm gave an ADP release rate 8.5-fold faster and ton (myosin’s attached time) and r (duty ratio) ∼10-fold lower than previously reported. In contrast, these data were accurately fit to an attachment-limited model, V = N·v·d, over the range of N found in all muscle types. At nonphysiologically high N, V = L/ton rather than d/ton, where L is related to the length of myosin’s subfragment 2. The attachment-limited model also fit well to the [ATP] dependence of V for myosin-rod cofilaments at three fixed N. Previously published V0 vs. vmax values for 24 different muscles were accurately fit to the attachment-limited model using widely accepted values for r and N, giving d = 11.1 nm. Therefore, in contrast with Huxley’s model, we conclude that V0 is limited by the actin–myosin attachment rate. PMID:26294254

  15. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  16. Isolation of myosin from starfish sperm heads.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, I

    1976-08-01

    Myosin was extracted and partially purified from the head portion of spermatozoa of the starfish, Asterias amurensis. The sperm myosin showed a specific Ca2+-activated ATPase [EC 3.6.1.3] activity of 0.2 mumoles Pi/min/mg at high ionic strength and pH 6.5. It resembled egg myosin in forming thick filaments, becoming attached to actin filaments. subunit composition, and serological properties. PMID:12147

  17. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  18. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  19. Localization and Characterization of a 7.3-kDa Region of Caldesmon Which Reversibly Inhibits Actomyosin ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chalovich, Joseph M.; Bryan, Joseph; Benson, Caryl E.; Velaz, Laly

    2005-01-01

    Cleavage of caldesmon with chymotrypsin yields a series of fragments which bind both calmodulin and actin and inhibit the binding of myosin subfragments to actin and the subsequent stimulation of ATPase activity. Several of these fragments have been purified by cation exchange chromatography and their amino-terminal sequences determined. The smallest fragment has a molecular mass of about 7.3 kDa and extends from Leu597 to Phe665. This polypeptide inhibits the actin-activated ATPase of myosin S-1; this inhibition is augmented by smooth muscle tropomyosin and relieved by Ca2+-calmodulin. The binding of the 7.3-kDa fragment to actin is competitive with the binding of S - 1 to actin. Thus, this polypeptide has several of the important features characteristic of intact caldesmon. However, although an intact caldesmon molecule covers between six and nine actin monomers, the 7.3-kDa fragment binds to actin in a 1:1 complex. Comparison of this fragment with others suggests that a small region of caldesmon is responsible for at least part of the interaction with both calmodulin and actin. PMID:1386604

  20. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  2. Distinct Functional Interactions between Actin Isoforms and Nonsarcomeric Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Mirco; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Chizhov, Igor; Claus, Peter; Heissler, Sarah M.; Preller, Matthias; Taft, Manuel H.; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. These interactions support a wide range of cellular processes including cytokinesis, maintenance of cell polarity, cell adhesion, migration, and mechano-electrical transduction. To elucidate differences in the ability of isoactins to bind and stimulate the enzymatic activity of individual myosin isoforms, we characterized the interactions of human skeletal muscle α-actin, cytoplasmic β-actin, and cytoplasmic γ-actin with human myosin-7A and nonmuscle myosins-2A, -2B and -2C1. In the case of nonmuscle myosins-2A and -2B, the interaction with either cytoplasmic actin isoform results in 4-fold greater stimulation of myosin ATPase activity than was observed in the presence of α-skeletal muscle actin. Nonmuscle myosin-2C1 is most potently activated by β-actin and myosin-7A by γ-actin. Our results indicate that β- and γ-actin isoforms contribute to the modulation of nonmuscle myosin-2 and myosin-7A activity and thereby to the spatial and temporal regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. FRET-based analyses show efficient copolymerization abilities for the actin isoforms in vitro. Experiments with hybrid actin filaments show that the extent of actomyosin coupling efficiency can be regulated by the isoform composition of actin filaments. PMID:23923011

  3. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  4. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  5. Unconventional myosins acting unconventionally

    PubMed Central

    Woolner, Sarah; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional myosins are proteins that bind actin filaments in an ATP-regulated manner. Because of their association with membranes, they have traditionally been viewed as motors that function primarily to transport membranous organelles along actin filaments. Recently, however, a wealth of roles for myosins that are not obviously related to organelle transport have been uncovered, including organization of F-actin, mitotic spindle regulation and gene transcription. Furthermore, it has also become apparent that the motor domains of different myosins vary strikingly in their biophysical attributes. We suggest that the assumption that most unconventional myosins function primarily as organelle transporters might be misguided. PMID:19406643

  6. Direct real-time detection of the structural and biochemical events in the myosin power stroke.

    PubMed

    Muretta, Joseph M; Rohde, John A; Johnsrud, Daniel O; Cornea, Sinziana; Thomas, David D

    2015-11-17

    A principal goal of molecular biophysics is to show how protein structural transitions explain physiology. We have developed a strategic tool, transient time-resolved FRET [(TR)(2)FRET], for this purpose and use it here to measure directly, with millisecond resolution, the structural and biochemical kinetics of muscle myosin and to determine directly how myosin's power stroke is coupled to the thermodynamic drive for force generation, actin-activated phosphate release, and the weak-to-strong actin-binding transition. We find that actin initiates the power stroke before phosphate dissociation and not after, as many models propose. This result supports a model for muscle contraction in which power output and efficiency are tuned by the distribution of myosin structural states. This technology should have wide application to other systems in which questions about the temporal coupling of allosteric structural and biochemical transitions remain unanswered. PMID:26578772

  7. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  8. Myosins, Actin and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kruppa, Antonina J; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-08-01

    Myosin motor proteins working together with the actin cytoskeleton drive a wide range of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on their roles in autophagy - the pathway the cell uses to ensure homeostasis by targeting pathogens, misfolded proteins and damaged organelles for degradation. The actin cytoskeleton regulated by a host of nucleating, anchoring and stabilizing proteins provides the filament network for the delivery of essential membrane vesicles from different cellular compartments to the autophagosome. Actin networks have also been implicated in structurally supporting the expanding phagophore, moving autophagosomes and enabling efficient fusion with the lysosome. Only a few myosins have so far been shown to play a role in autophagy. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions in the early stages delivering membrane for the initial formation of the autophagosome, whereas myosin IC and myosin VI are involved in the final stages providing specific membranes for autophagosome maturation and its fusion with the lysosome. PMID:27146966

  9. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  10. Hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosins reconstituted with actin, myosin and tropomyosin from skeletal and catch muscles.

    PubMed

    Shelud'ko, Nikolay S; Vyatchin, Ilya G; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Shevchenko, Ulyana V

    2015-08-21

    In this study, we investigated hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosin models including key contractile proteins: actin, myosin, and tropomyosin. These proteins were isolated from the rabbit skeletal muscle and the catch muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Our results confirmed literature data on an unusual ability of bivalve's tropomyosin to inhibit Mg-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle actomyosin. We have shown that the degree of inhibition depends on the environmental conditions and may vary within a wide range. The inhibitory effect of mussel tropomyosin was not detected in non-hybrid model (mussel myosin + mussel actin + mussel tropomyosin). This effect was revealed only in hybrid models containing mussel tropomyosin + rabbit (or mussel) actin + rabbit myosin. We assume that mussel and rabbit myosins have mismatched binding sites for actin. In addition, mussel tropomyosin interacting with actin is able to close the binding sites of rabbit myosin with actin, which leads to inhibition of Mg-ATPase activity. PMID:26166820

  11. The Relay/Converter Interface Influences Hydrolysis of ATP by Skeletal Muscle Myosin II.

    PubMed

    Bloemink, Marieke J; Melkani, Girish C; Bernstein, Sanford I; Geeves, Michael A

    2016-01-22

    The interface between relay and converter domain of muscle myosin is critical for optimal myosin performance. Using Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle S1, we performed a kinetic analysis of the effect of mutations in the converter and relay domain. Introduction of a mutation (R759E) in the converter domain inhibits the steady-state ATPase of myosin S1, whereas an additional mutation in the relay domain (N509K) is able to restore the ATPase toward wild-type values. The R759E S1 construct showed little effect on most steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The exception was a 25-30% reduction in the rate constant of the hydrolysis step, the step coupled to the cross-bridge recovery stroke that involves a change in conformation at the relay/converter domain interface. Significantly, the double mutant restored the hydrolysis step to values similar to the wild-type myosin. Modeling the relay/converter interface suggests a possible interaction between converter residue 759 and relay residue 509 in the actin-detached conformation, which is lost in R759E but is restored in N509K/R759E. This detailed kinetic analysis of Drosophila myosin carrying the R759E mutation shows that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain is important for fine-tuning myosin kinetics, in particular ATP binding and hydrolysis. PMID:26586917

  12. The Relay/Converter Interface Influences Hydrolysis of ATP by Skeletal Muscle Myosin II*

    PubMed Central

    Bloemink, Marieke J.; Melkani, Girish C.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Geeves, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The interface between relay and converter domain of muscle myosin is critical for optimal myosin performance. Using Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle S1, we performed a kinetic analysis of the effect of mutations in the converter and relay domain. Introduction of a mutation (R759E) in the converter domain inhibits the steady-state ATPase of myosin S1, whereas an additional mutation in the relay domain (N509K) is able to restore the ATPase toward wild-type values. The R759E S1 construct showed little effect on most steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The exception was a 25–30% reduction in the rate constant of the hydrolysis step, the step coupled to the cross-bridge recovery stroke that involves a change in conformation at the relay/converter domain interface. Significantly, the double mutant restored the hydrolysis step to values similar to the wild-type myosin. Modeling the relay/converter interface suggests a possible interaction between converter residue 759 and relay residue 509 in the actin-detached conformation, which is lost in R759E but is restored in N509K/R759E. This detailed kinetic analysis of Drosophila myosin carrying the R759E mutation shows that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain is important for fine-tuning myosin kinetics, in particular ATP binding and hydrolysis. PMID:26586917

  13. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  14. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jonathan E; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R; Friedman, Thomas B

    2014-08-26

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin-specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end-directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (∼ 430 nm · s(-1) at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (k(cat) ∼ 6 s(-1)) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (k(det) = 6.2 s(-1)) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  15. Transgenic expression and purification of myosin isoforms using the Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle system

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, James T.; Melkani, Girish C.; Huxford, Tom; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2011-01-01

    Biophysical and structural studies on muscle myosin rely upon milligram quantities of extremely pure material. However, many biologically interesting myosin isoforms are expressed at levels that are too low for direct purification from primary tissues. Efforts aimed at recombinant expression of functional striated muscle myosin isoforms in bacterial or insect cell culture have largely met with failure, although high level expression in muscle cell culture has recently been achieved at significant expense. We report a novel method for the use of strains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster genetically engineered to produce histidine-tagged recombinant muscle myosin isoforms. This method takes advantage of the single muscle myosin heavy chain gene within the Drosophila genome, the high level of expression of accessible myosin in the thoracic indirect flight muscles, the ability to knock out endogenous expression of myosin in this tissue and the relatively low cost of fruit fly colony production and maintenance. We illustrate this method by expressing and purifying a recombinant histidine-tagged variant of embryonic body wall skeletal muscle myosin II from an engineered fly strain. The recombinant protein shows the expected ATPase activity and is of sufficient purity and homogeneity for crystallization. This system may prove useful for the expression and isolation of mutant myosins associated with skeletal muscle diseases and cardiomyopathies for their biochemical and structural characterization. PMID:22178692

  16. Regulation of Myosin II Dynamics by Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of Its Light Chain in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II, an actin-based motor protein, plays an essential role in actin cytoskeleton organization and cellular motility. Although phosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) is known to be involved in myosin II filament assembly and motor activity in vitro, it remains unclear exactly how MRLC phosphorylation regulates myosin II dynamics in vivo. We established clones of Madin Darby canine kidney II epithelial cells expressing MRLC-enhanced green fluorescent protein or its mutants. Time-lapse imaging revealed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for proper dynamics of myosin II. Inhibitors affecting myosin phosphorylation and MRLC mutants indicated that monophosphorylation of MRLC is required and sufficient for maintenance of stress fibers. Diphosphorylated MRLC stabilized myosin II filaments and was distributed locally in regions of stress fibers where contraction occurs, suggesting that diphosphorylation is involved in the spatial regulation of myosin II assembly and contraction. We further found that myosin phosphatase or Zipper-interacting protein kinase localizes to stress fibers depending on the activity of myosin II ATPase. PMID:17151359

  17. Involvement of myosin in intracellular motility and cytomorphogenesis in Micrasterias.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Anke; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    Myosin was detected on Western blots of Micrasterias denticulata extracts by use of antibodies from different sources. Inhibitors with different targets of the actomyosin system, such as the myosin ATPase-blockers N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), or the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexhydro-1,4-diazapine (ML7), had similar effects on intracellular motility during cell development in the green alga Micrasterias, thus pointing towards a participation of myosin in these processes. The drugs markedly altered the mode of postmitotic nuclear migration, slowed down cytoplasmic streaming, changed cell pattern development and prevented normal chloroplast distribution and spreading into the growing semicell. In addition, an increase and dilatations in ER cisternae and marked morphological changes of the Golgi system were observed by transmission electron microscopy after exposure of growing cells to BDM. Neither BDM nor ML7 exhibited any effect on the distribution or arrangement of the cortical F-actin network nor on the F-actin basket around the nucleus, characteristic of untreated growing Micrasterias cells (J Cell Sci 107 (1994) 1929). This is particularly interesting since BDM caused disintegration of the microtubule system co-localized to the F-actin cage during normal nuclear migration. Together with the fact that other microtubules not connected to the F-actin system remained uninfluenced by BDM, this observation is evidence of an integrative function of myosin between the cytoskeleton elements. PMID:14642529

  18. Review: Ras GTPases and myosin: Qualitative conservation and quantitative diversification in signal and energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias P; Goody, Roger S

    2016-08-01

    Most GTPases and many ATPases belong to the P-loop class of proteins with significant structural and mechanistic similarities. Here we compare and contrast the basic properties of the Ras family GTPases and myosin, and conclude that there are fundamental similarities but also distinct differences related to their specific roles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 422-430, 2016. PMID:27018658

  19. Mechanochemical tuning of myosin-I by the N-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Lin, Tianming; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that generate force to power a wide array of motile cellular functions. Myosins have the inherent ability to change their ATPase kinetics and force-generating properties when they encounter mechanical loads; however, little is known about the structural elements in myosin responsible for force sensing. Recent structural and biophysical studies have shown that myosin-I isoforms, Myosin-Ib (Myo1b) and Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), have similar unloaded kinetics and sequences but substantially different responses to forces that resist their working strokes. Myo1b has the properties of a tension-sensing anchor, slowing its actin-detachment kinetics by two orders of magnitude with just 1 pN of resisting force, whereas Myo1c has the properties of a slow transporter, generating power without slowing under 1-pN loads that would stall Myo1b. To examine the structural elements that lead to differences in force sensing, we used single-molecule and ensemble kinetic techniques to show that the myosin-I N-terminal region (NTR) plays a critical role in tuning myosin-I mechanochemistry. We found that replacing the Myo1c NTR with the Myo1b NTR changes the identity of the primary force-sensitive transition of Myo1c, resulting in sensitivity to forces of <2 pN. Additionally, we found that the NTR plays an important role in stabilizing the post–power-stroke conformation. These results identify the NTR as an important structural element in myosin force sensing and suggest a mechanism for generating diversity of function among myosin isoforms. PMID:26056287

  20. Actin age orchestrates myosin-5 and myosin-6 run lengths.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R; Rock, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies in which motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1-3]. Myosin-5 walks toward the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks toward the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling toward the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3- to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, whereas myosin-6 takes 1.7- to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  1. Expression of the inclusion body myopathy 3 mutation in Drosophila depresses myosin function and stability and recapitulates muscle inclusions and weakness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Melkani, Girish C; Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Anju; Kronert, William A; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies are characterized by variable clinical features. Inclusion body myopathy 3 (IBM-3) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a missense mutation (E706K) in the myosin heavy chain IIa gene. Adult patients experience progressive muscle weakness. Biopsies reveal dystrophic changes, rimmed vacuoles with cytoplasmic inclusions, and focal disorganization of myofilaments. We constructed a transgene encoding E706K myosin and expressed it in Drosophila (E701K) indirect flight and jump muscles to establish a novel homozygous organism with homogeneous populations of fast IBM-3 myosin and muscle fibers. Flight and jump abilities were severely reduced in homozygotes. ATPase and actin sliding velocity of the mutant myosin were depressed >80% compared with wild-type myosin. Light scattering experiments and electron microscopy revealed that mutant myosin heads bear a dramatic propensity to collapse and aggregate. Thus E706K (E701K) myosin appears far more labile than wild-type myosin. Furthermore, mutant fly fibers exhibit ultrastructural hallmarks seen in patients, including cytoplasmic inclusions containing aberrant proteinaceous structures and disorganized muscle filaments. Our Drosophila model reveals the unambiguous consequences of the IBM-3 lesion on fast muscle myosin and fibers. The abnormalities observed in myosin function and muscle ultrastructure likely contribute to muscle weakness observed in our flies and patients. PMID:22496423

  2. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  3. Contractility parameters of human β-cardiac myosin with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation R403Q show loss of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Sommese, Ruth F.; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Combs, Ariana; Langer, Stephen; Sutton, Shirley; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Geeves, Michael A.; Ruppel, Kathleen M.; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding the force-generating machinery of the cardiac sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin. We present a detailed characterization of the most debated HCM-causing mutation in human β-cardiac myosin, R403Q. Despite numerous studies, most performed with nonhuman or noncardiac myosin, there is no consensus about the mechanism of action of this mutation on the function of the enzyme. We use recombinant human β-cardiac myosin and new methodologies to characterize in vitro contractility parameters of the R403Q myosin compared to wild type. We extend our studies beyond pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin. We find that, with pure actin, the intrinsic force generated by R403Q is ~15% lower than that generated by wild type. The unloaded velocity is, however, ~10% higher for R403Q myosin, resulting in a load-dependent velocity curve that has the characteristics of lower contractility at higher external loads compared to wild type. With regulated actin filaments, there is no increase in the unloaded velocity and the contractility of the R403Q myosin is lower than that of wild type at all loads. Unlike that with pure actin, the actin-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity for R403Q myosin with Ca2+-regulated actin filaments is ~30% lower than that for wild type, predicting a lower unloaded duty ratio of the motor. Overall, the contractility parameters studied fit with a loss of human β-cardiac myosin contractility as a result of the R403Q mutation. PMID:26601291

  4. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin stabilizes the super-relaxed state in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  5. The Myosin Inhibitor Blebbistatin Stabilizes the Super-Relaxed State in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  6. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K.; Carter, Michael S.; Alcala, Diego B.; Brown, Avery E.; Chattin, Amy M.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Walsh, Michael P.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot–labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto–myosin and MLCK–myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting “stuck” on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. PMID:26415568

  7. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  8. P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    P-type ATPases form a large superfamily of cation and lipid pumps. They are remarkably simple with only a single catalytic subunit and carry out large domain motions during transport. The atomic structure of P-type ATPases in different conformations, together with ample mutagenesis evidence, has provided detailed insights into the pumping mechanism by these biological nanomachines. Phylogenetically, P-type ATPases are divided into five subfamilies, P1-P5. These subfamilies differ with respect to transported ligands and the way they are regulated. PMID:21351879

  9. Myosin heavy chain-based fibre types in red cell hyper- and normovolaemic Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Karlström, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2002-09-01

    An assumed link between red cell hypervolaemia, an excessive amount of training and impaired performance of hypervolaemic horses has led to a theory that the muscle fibres could be affected. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-based fibre type composition in gluteus medius muscle of red blood cell normo- (NV) and hypervolaemic (HV) Standardbred trotters was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 13 NV and 16 HV horses. Serial transverse sections were cut and reacted with antibodies against different isoforms of the myosin heavy chains MHCI, MHCIIA and MHCIIX. Sections were also stained for myofibrillar ATPase pH 4,6 to identify types I, IIA and IIB, and NADH tetrazolium reductase to evaluate the oxidative capacity. The results show that types I and IIA fibres corresponded between staining methods, whereas IIB fibres in the ATPase stains were more numerous than pure MHCIIX fibres from immunohistochemistry. Many fibres identified histochemically as type IIB fibres contained both MHC isoforms IIA and IIX (MHCIIAX). Most fibres had a high oxidative capacity, but among the fibres within a section, the lowest was seen subjectively in pure MHCIIX fibres. Immunohistochemical stains make it possible to detect differences in fibre type composition that are not observed with myosin ATPase stainings, as it was found that HV horses had a lower percentage of MHCIIX fibres than NV horses. Immunohistochemical methods are, therefore, valuable for use in further research and clinical studies concerning muscle adaptations. PMID:12405701

  10. A comparison of rat myosin from fast and slow skeletal muscle and the effect of disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unsworth, B. R.; Witzmann, F. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Certain enzymatic and structural features of myosin, purified from rat skeletal muscles representative of the fast twitch glycolytic (type IIb), the fast twitch oxidative (type IIa), and the slow twitch oxidative (type I) fiber, were determined and the results were compared with the measured contractile properties. Good correlation was found between the shortening velocities and Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity for each fiber type. Short term hind limb immobilization caused prolongation of contraction time and one-half relaxation time in the fast twitch muscles and a reduction of these contractile properties in slow twitch soleus. Furthermore, the increased maximum shortening velocity in the immobilized soleus could be correlated with increased Ca(2+)-ATPase, but no change was observed in the enzymatic activity of the fast twitch muscles. No alteration in light chain distribution with disuse was observed in any of the fiber types. The myosin from slow twitch soleus could be distinguished from fast twitch myosins on the basis of the pattern of peptides generated by proteolysis of the heavy chains. Six weeks of hind limb immobilization resulted in both an increased ATPase activity and an altered heavy chain primary structure in the slow twitch soleus muscle.

  11. The Most Prevalent Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Mutations in the Embryonic Myosin Motor Share Functional Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Walklate, Jonathan; Vera, Carlos; Bloemink, Marieke J.; Geeves, Michael A.; Leinwand, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic myosin isoform is expressed during fetal development and rapidly down-regulated after birth. Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS) is a disease associated with missense mutations in the motor domain of this myosin. It is the most severe form of distal arthrogryposis, leading to overcontraction of the hands, feet, and orofacial muscles and other joints of the body. Availability of human embryonic muscle tissue has been a limiting factor in investigating the properties of this isoform and its mutations. Using a recombinant expression system, we have studied homogeneous samples of human motors for the WT and three of the most common FSS mutants: R672H, R672C, and T178I. Our data suggest that the WT embryonic myosin motor is similar in contractile speed to the slow type I/β cardiac based on the rate constant for ADP release and ADP affinity for actin-myosin. All three FSS mutations show dramatic changes in kinetic properties, most notably the slowing of the apparent ATP hydrolysis step (reduced 5–9-fold), leading to a longer lived detached state and a slowed Vmax of the ATPase (2–35-fold), indicating a slower cycling time. These mutations therefore seriously disrupt myosin function. PMID:26945064

  12. The Most Prevalent Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Mutations in the Embryonic Myosin Motor Share Functional Defects.

    PubMed

    Walklate, Jonathan; Vera, Carlos; Bloemink, Marieke J; Geeves, Michael A; Leinwand, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    The embryonic myosin isoform is expressed during fetal development and rapidly down-regulated after birth. Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS) is a disease associated with missense mutations in the motor domain of this myosin. It is the most severe form of distal arthrogryposis, leading to overcontraction of the hands, feet, and orofacial muscles and other joints of the body. Availability of human embryonic muscle tissue has been a limiting factor in investigating the properties of this isoform and its mutations. Using a recombinant expression system, we have studied homogeneous samples of human motors for the WT and three of the most common FSS mutants: R672H, R672C, and T178I. Our data suggest that the WT embryonic myosin motor is similar in contractile speed to the slow type I/β cardiac based on the rate constant for ADP release and ADP affinity for actin-myosin. All three FSS mutations show dramatic changes in kinetic properties, most notably the slowing of the apparent ATP hydrolysis step (reduced 5-9-fold), leading to a longer lived detached state and a slowed Vmax of the ATPase (2-35-fold), indicating a slower cycling time. These mutations therefore seriously disrupt myosin function. PMID:26945064

  13. Mapping interactions between myosin relay and converter domains that power muscle function.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2014-05-01

    Intramolecular communication within myosin is essential for its function as motor, but the specific amino acid residue interactions required are unexplored within muscle cells. Using Drosophila melanogaster skeletal muscle myosin, we performed a novel in vivo molecular suppression analysis to define the importance of three relay loop amino acid residues (Ile(508), Asn(509), and Asp(511)) in communicating with converter domain residue Arg(759). We found that the N509K relay mutation suppressed defects in myosin ATPase, in vitro motility, myofibril stability, and muscle function associated with the R759E converter mutation. Through molecular modeling, we define a mechanism for this interaction and suggest why the I508K and D511K relay mutations fail to suppress R759E. Interestingly, I508K disabled motor function and myofibril assembly, suggesting that productive relay-converter interaction is essential for both processes. We conclude that the putative relay-converter interaction mediated by myosin residues 509 and 759 is critical for the biochemical and biophysical function of skeletal muscle myosin and the normal ultrastructural and mechanical properties of muscle. PMID:24627474

  14. Resolution of three structural states of spin-labeled myosin in contracting muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ostap, E M; Barnett, V A; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to detect ATP- and calcium-induced changes in the structure of spin-labeled myosin heads in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers in key physiological states. The probe was a nitroxide iodoacetamide derivative attached selectively to myosin SH1 (Cys 707), the conventional EPR spectra of which have been shown to resolve several conformational states of the myosin ATPase cycle, on the basis of nanosecond rotational motion within the protein. Spectra were acquired in rigor and during the steady-state phases of relaxation and isometric contraction. Spectral components corresponding to specific conformational states and biochemical intermediates were detected and assigned by reference to EPR spectra of trapped kinetic intermediates. In the absence of ATP, all of the myosin heads were rigidly attached to the thin filament, and only a single conformation was detected, in which there was no sub-microsecond probe motion. In relaxation, the EPR spectrum resolved two conformations of the myosin head that are distinct from rigor. These structural states were virtually identical to those observed previously for isolated myosin and were assigned to the populations of the M*.ATP and M**.ADP.Pi states. During isometric contraction, the EPR spectrum resolves the same two conformations observed in relaxation, plus a small fraction (20-30%) of heads in the oriented actin-bound conformation that is observed in rigor. This rigor-like component is a calcium-dependent, actin-bound state that may represent force-generating cross-bridges. As the spin label is located near the nucleotide-binding pocket in a region proposed to be pivotal for large-scale force-generating structural changes in myosin, we propose that the observed spectroscopic changes indicate directly the key steps in energy transduction in the molecular motor of contracting muscle. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:7669895

  15. Directional Mechanosensing in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Myosin is a family of versatile motor proteins that perform various tasks, such as organelle transport, anchoring and cell deformation. Although the general mechanism of the motors has been fairly well established, details on dynamic aspects like force response of the motor, and force propagation are yet to be fully understood. In this poster, we present the response of the ATP binding region to force exerted on the tail domain in order to test the proposed tension-dependent gating mechanism of myosin VI processive motion. We employed the Self-Organized Polymer model in a computer simulation to explore the effect. Current results show that the ATP binding domain of myosin VI indeed exhibits tension dependence - both structurally and dynamically.

  16. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  17. Association of a Myosin Immunoanalogue with Cell Envelopes of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia and Its Participation in Swelling and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Esnault, Karine; el Moudni, Brahim; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chabasse, Dominique; Tronchin, Guy

    1999-01-01

    A myosin immunoanalogue was identified in conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus by Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and gold immunoelectron microscopy with two different antimyosin antibodies. The distribution pattern of this protein was followed during the early stages of germination. A single 180-kDa polypeptide, detected predominantly in a cell envelope extract, was found to cross-react with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against vertebrate muscle myosin. Immunoelectron microscopy permitted precise localization of this polypeptide, indicating that myosin analogue was mainly distributed along the plasma membrane of resting and swollen conidia. In germinating conidia, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed myosin analogue at the periphery of germ tubes, whereas actin appeared as dispersed punctate structures in the cytoplasm that were more concentrated at the site of germ tube emergence. A myosin ATPase inhibitor, butanedione monoxime, greatly reduced swelling and blocked germination. In contrast, when conidia were treated with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, swelling was not affected and germination was only partially reduced. Butanedione monoxime-treated conidia showed accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles and did not achieve cell wall reorganization, unlike swollen conidia. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for this myosin analogue in the deposition of cell wall components during germination of A. fumigatus conidia and therefore in host tissue colonization. PMID:10024566

  18. Direct measurements of the coordination of lever arm swing and the catalytic cycle in myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Darshan V.; Muretta, Joseph M.; Swenson, Anja M.; Davis, Jonathon P.; Thomas, David D.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Myosins use a conserved structural mechanism to convert the energy from ATP hydrolysis into a large swing of the force-generating lever arm. The precise timing of the lever arm movement with respect to the steps in the actomyosin ATPase cycle has not been determined. We have developed a FRET system in myosin V that uses three donor–acceptor pairs to examine the kinetics of lever arm swing during the recovery and power stroke phases of the ATPase cycle. During the recovery stroke the lever arm swing is tightly coupled to priming the active site for ATP hydrolysis. The lever arm swing during the power stroke occurs in two steps, a fast step that occurs before phosphate release and a slow step that occurs before ADP release. Time-resolved FRET demonstrates a 20-Å change in distance between the pre- and postpower stroke states and shows that the lever arm is more dynamic in the postpower stroke state. Our results suggest myosin binding to actin in the ADP.Pi complex triggers a rapid power stroke that gates the release of phosphate, whereas a second slower power stroke may be important for mediating strain sensitivity. PMID:26553992

  19. A small molecule species specifically inhibits Fusarium myosin I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengqi; Chen, Yun; Yin, Yanni; Ji, Huan-Hong; Shim, Won-Bo; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Mingguo; Li, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of cereal crops worldwide. Recently, a novel fungicide JS399-19 has been launched into the marketplace to manage FHB. It is compelling that JS399-19 shows highly inhibitory activity towards some Fusarium species, but not to other fungi, indicating that it is an environmentally compatible fungicide. To explore the mode of action of this species-specific compound, we conducted a whole-genome transcript profiling together with genetic and biochemical assays, and discovered that JS399-19 targets the myosin I of F. graminearum (FgMyo1). FgMyo1 is essential for F. graminearum growth. A point mutation S217L or E420K in FgMyo1 is responsible for F. graminearum resistance to JS399-19. In addition, transformation of F. graminearum with the myosin I gene of Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast, also led to JS399-19 resistance. JS399-19 strongly inhibits the ATPase activity of the wild-type FgMyo1, but not the mutated FgMyo1(S217L/E420K) . These results provide us a new insight into the design of species-specific antifungal compounds. Furthermore, our strategy can be applied to identify novel drug targets in various pathogenic organisms. PMID:25404531

  20. Unregulated smooth-muscle myosin in human intestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Alhopuro, Pia; Phichith, Denis; Tuupanen, Sari; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Nybondas, Miranda; Saharinen, Juha; Robinson, James P; Yang, Zhaohui; Chen, Li-Qiong; Orntoft, Torben; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Järvinen, Heikki; Eng, Charis; Moeslein, Gabriela; Shibata, Darryl; Houlston, Richard S; Lucassen, Anneke; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Launonen, Virpi; Ristimäki, Ari; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Sweeney, H Lee; Aaltonen, Lauri A

    2008-04-01

    A recent study described a recessive ATPase activating germ-line mutation in smooth-muscle myosin (smmhc/myh11) underlying the zebrafish meltdown (mlt) phenotype. The mlt zebrafish develops intestinal abnormalities reminiscent of human Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and juvenile polyposis (JP). To examine the role of MYH11 in human intestinal neoplasia, we searched for MYH11 mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), PJS and JP. We found somatic protein-elongating frameshift mutations in 55% of CRCs displaying microsatellite instability and in the germ-line of one individual with PJS. Additionally, two somatic missense mutations were found in one microsatellite stable CRC. These two missense mutations, R501L and K1044N, and the frameshift mutations were functionally evaluated. All mutations resulted in unregulated molecules displaying constitutive motor activity, similar to the mutant myosin underlying mlt. Thus, MYH11 mutations appear to contribute also to human intestinal neoplasia. Unregulated MYH11 may affect the cellular energy balance or disturb cell lineage decisions in tumor progenitor cells. These data challenge our view on MYH11 as a passive differentiation marker functioning in muscle contraction and add to our understanding of intestinal neoplasia. PMID:18391202

  1. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  2. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. Methodology We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the “target zone”, situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77°/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127° range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. Conclusion We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force

  3. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very

  4. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3 nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5 nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4 nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed. PMID:26498981

  5. Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC- PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain. PMID:7929586

  6. CARBONYLATION OF MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS IN RAT HEARTS DURING DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chun-Hong; Rozanski, George J.; Nagai, Ryoji; Stockdale, Frank E.; Patel, Kaushik P.; Wang, Mu; Singh, Jaipaul; Mayhan, William G.; Bidasee, Keshore R.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac inotropy progressively declines during diabetes mellitus. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect remain incompletely characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that ventricular myosin heavy chains (MHC) undergo carbonylation by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) during diabetes and these modifications contribute to the inotropic decline. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later animals were divided into two groups: one group was treated with the RCS blocker aminoguanidine for six weeks, while the other group received no treatment. After eight weeks of diabetes, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening, left ventricular pressure development (+dP/dt) and myocyte shortening were decreased by 9%, 16%, 34% and 18%, respectively. Ca2+- and Mg2+-actomyosin ATPase activities and peak actomyosin syneresis were also reduced by 35%, 28%, and 72%. MHC-α to MHC-β ratio was 12:88. Mass spectrometry and Western blots revealed the presence of carbonyl adducts on MHC-α and MHC-β. Aminoguandine treatment did not alter MHC composition, but it blunted formation of carbonyl adducts and decreases in actomyosin Ca2+-sensitive ATPase activity, syneresis, myocyte shortening, cardiac ejection fraction, fractional shortening and +dP/dt induced by diabetes. From these new data it can be concluded that in addition to isozyme switching, modification of MHC by RCS also contributes to the inotropic decline seen during diabetes. PMID:20359464

  7. Skeletal muscle myosin light chains are essential for physiological speeds of shortening.

    PubMed

    Lowey, S; Waller, G S; Trybus, K M

    1993-09-30

    In muscle each myosin head contains a regulatory light chain (LC2) that is wrapped around the head/rod junction, and an alkali light chain that is distal to LC2 (ref. 1). The role of these light chains in vertebrate skeletal muscle myosin has remained obscure. Here we prepare heavy chains that are free of both light chains in order to determine by a motility assay whether the light chains are necessary for movement. We find that removal of light chains from myosin reduces the velocity of actin filaments from 8.8 microns s-1 to 0.8 microns s-1 without significantly decreasing the ATPase activity. Reconstitution of myosin with LC2 or alkali light chain increases filament velocity to intermediate rates, and readdition of both classes of light chains fully restores the original sliding velocity. We conclude that even though the light chains are not essential for enzymatic activity, light-chain/heavy-chain interactions play an important part in the conversion of chemical energy into movement. PMID:8413589

  8. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by {approx}60 degrees. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin's ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a see-saw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston/seesaw motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery stroke by using Principal Component Analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions.

  9. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M.; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  10. Filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is a region-specific modulator of myosin 2b and controls spine morphology and NMDA receptor accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hideshi; Nagano, Takashi; Xie, Min-Jue; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Komada, Munekazu; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Tariqur, Rahman M; Morikubo, Soichi; Noguchi, Koichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Masaru; Sato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on morphological and functional changes to neural spines. Non-muscle myosin 2b regulates actin dynamics downstream of long-term potentiation induction. However, the mechanism by which myosin 2b is regulated in the spine has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that filamin A-interacting protein (FILIP) is involved in the control of neural spine morphology and is limitedly expressed in the brain. FILIP bound near the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIb, an essential component of myosin 2b, and modified the function of myosin 2b by interfering with its actin-binding activity. In addition, FILIP altered the subcellular distribution of myosin 2b in spines. Moreover, subunits of the NMDA receptor were differently distributed in FILIP-expressing neurons, and excitation propagation was altered in FILIP-knockout mice. These results indicate that FILIP is a novel, region-specific modulator of myosin 2b. PMID:25220605

  11. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  12. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  13. Flagellar localization of a novel isoform of myosin, myosin XXI, in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2009-04-01

    Leishmania major genome analysis revealed the presence of putative genes corresponding to two myosins, which have been designated to class IB and a novel class, class XXI, specifically present in kinetoplastids. To characterize these myosin homologs in Leishmania, we have cloned and over-expressed the full-length myosin XXI gene and variable region of myosin IB gene in bacteria, purified the corresponding proteins, and then used the affinity purified anti-sera to analyze the expression and intracellular distribution of these proteins. Whereas myosin XXI was expressed in both the promastigote and amastigote stages, no expression of myosin IB could be detected in any of the two stages of these parasites. Further, myosin XXI expression was more predominant in the promastigote stage where it was preferentially localized in the proximal region of the flagellum. The observed flagellar localization was not dependent on the myosin head region or actin but was exclusively determined by the myosin tail region, as judged by over-expressing GFP conjugates of full-length myosin XXI, its head domain and its tail domain separately in Leishmania. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy analyses revealed that this protein was partly associated with paraflagellar rod proteins but not with tubulins in the flagellar axoneme. Our results, for the first time, report the expression and detailed analysis of cellular localization of a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI in trypanosomatids. PMID:19121339

  14. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  15. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  16. Affinity chromatography of immobilized actin and myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, R C; Trayer, I P

    1975-01-01

    Actin and myosin were immobilized by coupling them to agarose matrices. Both immobilized G-actin and immobilized myosin retain most of the properties of the proteins in free solution and are reliable over long periods of time. Sepharose-F-actin, under the conditions used in this study, has proved unstable and variable in its properties. Sepharose-G-actin columns were used to bind heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1 specifically and reversibly. The interaction involved is sensitive to variation in ionic strength, such that myosin itself is not retained by the columns at the high salt concentration required for its complete solubilization. Myosin, rendered soluble at low ionic strength by polyalanylation, will interact successfully with the immobilized actin. The latter can distinguish between active and inactive fractions of the proteolytic and polyalanyl myosin derivatives, and was used in the preparation of these molecules. The complexes formed between the myosin derivatives and Sepharose-G-actin can be dissociated by low concentrations of ATP, ADP and pyrophosphate in both the presence and the absence of Mg2+. The G-actin columns were used to evaluate the results of chemical modifications of myosin subfragments on their interactions with actin. F-Actin in free solution is bound specifically and reversibly to columns of insolubilized myosin. Thus, with elution by either ATP or pyrophosphate, actin has been purified in one step from extracts of acetone-dried muscle powder. PMID:241335

  17. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  18. Proteomics Analysis of the Non-Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIa-Enriched Actin-Myosin Complex Reveals Multiple Functions within the Podocyte

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Thomas; Ma’ayan, Avi; Clark, Neil R.; Tan, Christopher M.; Teixeira, Avelino; Teixeira, Angela; Choi, Jae W.; Burdis, Nora; Jung, Sung Yun; Bajaj, Amol O.; O’Malley, Bert W.; He, John C.; Hyink, Deborah P.; Klotman, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    MYH9 encodes non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHCIIA), the predominant force-generating ATPase in non-muscle cells. Several lines of evidence implicate a role for MYH9 in podocytopathies. However, NMMHCIIA‘s function in podocytes remains unknown. To better understand this function, we performed immuno-precipitation followed by mass-spectrometry proteomics to identify proteins interacting with the NMMHCIIA-enriched actin-myosin complexes. Computational analyses revealed that these proteins belong to functional networks including regulators of cytoskeletal organization, metabolism and networks regulated by the HIV-1 gene nef. We further characterized the subcellular localization of NMMHCIIA within podocytes in vivo, and found it to be present within the podocyte major foot processes. Finally, we tested the effect of loss of MYH9 expression in podocytes in vitro, and found that it was necessary for cytoskeletal organization. Our results provide the first survey of NMMHCIIA-enriched actin-myosin-interacting proteins within the podocyte, demonstrating the important role of NMMHCIIA in organizing the elaborate cytoskeleton structure of podocytes. Our characterization of NMMHCIIA’s functions goes beyond the podocyte, providing important insights into its general molecular role. PMID:24949636

  19. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. PMID:26226218

  20. The roles of the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis in tenderization during the aging of chicken muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Xu, X; Zhou, G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the changes in the actin-myosin interaction and proteolysis on meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Following slaughter, chicken breast muscles were removed and stored at 4°C. Changes in the actin-myosin interaction over 48 h of aging were determined by monitoring the Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Shear force values, pH, protein degradation, calpain activities, and myofibrillar ultrastructures were also investigated. Results showed that the initial weak actin-myosin interaction strengthened at 12 h postmortem followed by a gradual weakening, which was supported by a decrease in Mg(2+)-ATPase activities and a lengthening of the sarcomeres. According to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses, the 30-kDa troponin-T fragment could not be readily detected until 12 h, whereas, at the same time, desmin had been rapidly degraded. However, there was a gradual decline in μ-calpain activity, commencing after about 6 h. Meanwhile, the largest decline in shear force was observed between 12 and 24 h postmortem. These findings suggest that weakening of the strong actin-myosin interaction formed at rigor may play a large role in meat tenderization during the early period of storage. It is proposed that weakening of the actin-myosin interaction results in lengthening of the sarcomeres, and then activated calpains are more able to reach their targeted sites, enabling proteolysis. These 2 factors may be involved in the conversion of muscle to tender meat during postmortem storage. PMID:22184440

  1. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  2. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  3. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  4. A novel inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase, FR167356, which can discriminate between osteoclast vacuolar ATPase and lysosomal vacuolar ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Kazuaki; Takano, Mikiko; Sawada, Masae

    2004-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) has been proposed as a drug target in lytic bone diseases. Studies of bafilomycin derivatives suggest that the key issue regarding the therapeutic usefulness of V-ATPase inhibitors is selective inhibition of osteoclast V-ATPase. Previous efforts to develop therapeutic inhibitors of osteoclast V-ATPase have been frustrated by a lack of synthetically tractable and biologically selective leads. Therefore, we tried to find novel potent and specific V-ATPase inhibitors, which have new structural features and inhibition selectivity, from random screening using osteoclast microsomes. Finally, a novel V-ATPase inhibitor, FR167356, was obtained through chemical modification of a parental hit compound. FR167356 inhibited not only H+ transport activity of osteoclast V-ATPase but also H+ extrusion from cytoplasm of osteoclasts, which depends on the V-ATPase activity. As expected, FR167356 remarkably inhibited bone resorption in vitro. FR167356 also showed inhibitory effects on other V-ATPases, renal brush border V-ATPase, macrophage microsome V-ATPase and lysosomal V-ATPase. However, FR167356 was approximately seven-fold less potent in inhibiting lysosomal V-ATPase compared to osteoclast V-ATPase. Moreover, LDL metabolism in cells, which depends on acidification of lysosome, was blocked merely at higher concentration than bone resorption, suggesting that FR167356 inhibits V-ATPase of osteoclast ruffled border membrane still more selectively than lysosome at the cellular level. These results from the experiments seem to indicate that osteoclast V-ATPase may be different from lysosomal V-ATPase in respect of their structure. FR167356 had a novel chemical structural feature as well as inhibitory characteristics distinctly different from any previously known V-ATPase inhibitor family. Therefore, FR167356 is thought to be a useful tool for estimating the essential characteristics of V-ATPase inhibitors for drug development. PMID:15148249

  5. A mechanochemical model for myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehver, Riina; Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian

    Myosin VI is a motor protein that transports cellular cargo along actin filaments. This transport takes place as a result of a coordinated mechano-chemical cycle that is controlled by external variables including imposed force and nucleotide concentrations. We present a model that captures the different dynamic pathways that myosin VI can take in response to these variables. The results of our model for experimentally observable quantities, such as the motor velocity or run length, agree with available experimental data, and we can also make predictions beyond the tested regimes. Using the model, we study how myosin VI reacts to its environment and test its operational efficiency.

  6. Effect of alpha-actinin on actin structure. Actin ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Goll, D E; Robson, R M

    1981-08-28

    Alpha-Actinin increases the ATPase activity of actin by up to 84%, depending un pH, divalent cations present and the added Mg2+: ATP ratio. Dithiothreitol decreases actin ATPase activity approx. 20% but does not reduce the ability of alpha-actinin to increase actin ATP activity. Increasing amounts of added alpha-actinin up to 1 mos alpha-actinin to 49 mol actin cause in increasing increment in actin ATPase activity, but adding alpha-actinin beyond 1 mol alpha-actinin to 49 mol actin elicits only small additional increments in activity. Actin ATPase activity ranges from approx 100 nmol Pi/mg actin per h (4.3 mol Pi/mol actin per h) at high levels (10 mM) of ATP in the presence of lower amounts (1 mM) of added mg2+ to approx. 12.5 nmol Pi/mg actin per h (0.52 mol Pi/mol actin per h) at high pH (8.5) or at low levels (0.5-1.0 mM) of ATP in the presence of higher amounts (10 mM) of added Mg2+ ATp uncomplexed with Mg2+ inhibits the ability of alpha-actinin to increase F-actin ATPase activity. Activities with different divalent cations showed that the actin ATPase in these studies, which was 1/100 as great as Mg2+-modified actomyosin ATPase activity, was not due to trace amounts of myosin contaminating the actin preparations. The results are consistent with the concept that alpha-actinin can alter the structure of actin monomers. PMID:6456018

  7. An integrated in vitro and in situ study of kinetics of myosin II from frog skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Elangovan, R; Capitanio, M; Melli, L; Pavone, F S; Lombardi, V; Piazzesi, G

    2012-01-01

    A new efficient protocol for extraction and conservation of myosin II from frog skeletal muscle made it possible to preserve the myosin functionality for a week and apply single molecule techniques to the molecular motor that has been best characterized for its mechanical, structural and energetic parameters in situ. With the in vitro motility assay, we estimated the sliding velocity of actin on frog myosin II (VF) and its modulation by pH, myosin density, temperature (range 4–30°C) and substrate concentration. VF was 8.88 ± 0.26 μm s−1 at 30.6°C and decreased to 1.60 ± 0.09 μm s−1 at 4.5°C. The in vitro mechanical and kinetic parameters were integrated with the in situ parameters of frog muscle myosin working in arrays in each half-sarcomere. By comparing VF with the shortening velocities determined in intact frog muscle fibres under different loads and their dependence on temperature, we found that VF is 40–50% less than the fibre unloaded shortening velocity (V0) at the same temperature and we determined the load that explains the reduced value of VF. With this integrated approach we could define fundamental kinetic steps of the acto-myosin ATPase cycle in situ and their relation with mechanical steps. In particular we found that at 5°C the rate of ADP release calculated using the step size estimated from in situ experiments accounts for the rate of detachment of motors during steady shortening under low loads. PMID:22199170

  8. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B; Sweeney, H Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. PMID:26893369

  10. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-04-15

    Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  11. Dictyostelium Myosin Bipolar Thick Filament Formation: Importance of Charge and Specific Domains of the Myosin Rod

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) “head” is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  12. Dictyostelium myosin bipolar thick filament formation: importance of charge and specific domains of the myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Hostetter, Daniel; Rice, Sarah; Dean, Sara; Altman, David; McMahon, Peggy M; Sutton, Shirley; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Spudich, James A

    2004-11-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) "head" is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  13. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  14. Sliding distance per ATP molecule hydrolyzed by myosin heads during isotonic shortening of skinned muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, H; Goldman, Y E

    1995-01-01

    We measured isotonic sliding distance of single skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle when known and limited amounts of ATP were made available to the contractile apparatus. The fibers were immersed in paraffin oil at 20 degrees C, and laser pulse photolysis of caged ATP within the fiber initiated the contraction. The amount of ATP released was measured by photolyzing 3H-ATP within fibers, separating the reaction products by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and then counting the effluent peaks by liquid scintillation. The fiber stiffness was monitored to estimate the proportion of thick and thin filament sites interacting during filament sliding. The interaction distance, Di, defined as the sliding distance while a myosin head interacts with actin in the thin filament per ATP molecule hydrolyzed, was estimated from the shortening distance, the number of ATP molecules hydrolyzed by the myosin heads, and the stiffness. Di increased from 11 to 60 nm as the isotonic tension was reduced from 80% to 6% of the isometric tension. Velocity and Di increased with the concentration of ATP available. As isotonic load was increased, the interaction distance decreased linearly with decrease of the shortening velocity and extrapolated to 8 nm at zero velocity. Extrapolation of the relationship between Di and velocity to saturating ATP concentration suggests that Di reaches 100-190 nm at high shortening velocity. The interaction distance corresponds to the sliding distance while cross-bridges are producing positive (working) force plus the distance while they are dragging (producing negative forces). The results indicate that the working and drag distances increase as the velocity increases. Because Di is larger than the size of either the myosin head or the actin monomer, the results suggest that for each ATPase cycle, a myosin head interacts mechanically with several actin monomers either while working or while producing drag. PMID:8534820

  15. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-03-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by 60{sup o}. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a seesaw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston-like motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery-stroke by using principal component analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large-amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the seesaw motion of the relay helix dominates in the dynamics of the pre-recovery stroke structure, but not in the dynamics of the post-recovery stroke structure, and vice versa for the piston motion of the SH1 helix. This is consistent with the order of the proposed two-phase model for the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke. Molecular movies of these principal motions are available at http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/biocomp/fischer.

  16. Rapid Glucose Depletion Immobilizes Active Myosin-V on Stabilized Actin Cables

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Bretscher, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Polarization of eukaryotic cells requires organelles and protein complexes to be transported to their proper destinations along the cytoskeleton [1]. When nutrients are abundant, budding yeast grows rapidly transporting secretory vesicles for localized growth and actively segregating organelles [2, 3]. This is mediated by myosin-Vs transporting cargos along F-actin bundles known as actin cables [4]. Actin cables are dynamic structures regulated by assembly, stabilization and disassembly [5]. Polarized growth and actin filament dynamics consume energy. For most organisms, glucose is the preferred energy source and generally represses alternative carbon source usage [6]. Thus upon abrupt glucose depletion, yeast shuts down pathways consuming large amounts of energy, including the vacuolar-ATPase [7, 8], translation [9] and phosphoinositide metabolism [10]. Here we show that glucose withdrawal rapidly (<1 min) depletes ATP levels and the yeast myosin V, Myo2, responds by relocalizing to actin cables, making it the fastest response documented. Myo2 immobilized on cables releases its secretory cargo, defining a new rigor-like state of a myosin-V in vivo. Only actively transporting Myo2 can be converted to the rigor-like state. Glucose depletion has differential effects on the actin cytoskeleton resulting in disassembly of actin patches with concomitant inhibition of endocytosis, and strong stabilization of actin cables, thereby revealing a selective and previously unappreciated ATP requirement for actin cable disassembly. A similar response is seen in HeLa cells to ATP depletion. These findings reveal a new fast-acting energy conservation strategy halting growth by immobilizing myosin-V in a newly described state on selectively stabilized actin cables. PMID:25308080

  17. PRIMARY PEPTIDE SEQUENCES FROM SQUID MUSCLE AND OPTIC LOBE MYOSIN IIs: A STRATEGY TO IDENTIFY AN ORGANELLE MYOSIN

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, NELSON A.; REESE, THOMAS S.; JAFFE, HOWARD; DEGIORGIS, JOSEPH A.; BEARER, ELAINE L.

    2013-01-01

    The squid giant axon provides an excellent model system for the study of actin-based organelle transport likely to be mediated by myosins, but the identification of these motors has proven to be difficult. Here the authors purified and obtained primary peptide sequence of squid muscle myosin as a first step in a strategy designed to identify myosins in the squid nervous system. Limited digestion yielded fourteen peptides derived from the muscle myosin which possess high amino acid sequence identities to myosin II from scallop (60–95%) and chick pectoralis muscle (31–83%). Antibodies generated to this purified muscle myosin were used to isolate a potential myosin from squid optic lobe which yielded 11 peptide fragments. Sequences from six of these fragments identified this protein as a myosin II. The other five sequences matched myosin II (50–60%, identities), and some also matched unconventional myosins (33–50%). A single band that has a molecular weight similar to the myosin purified from optic lobe copurifies with axoplasmic organelles, and, like the optic lobe myosin, this band is also recognized by the antibodies raised against squid muscle myosin II. Hence, this strategy provides an approach to the identification of a myosin associated with motile axoplasmic organelles. PMID:9878103

  18. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  19. The unique enzymatic and mechanistic properties of plant myosins.

    PubMed

    Henn, Arnon; Sadot, Einat

    2014-12-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that move along actin-filament tracks. Plants express two main classes of myosins, myosin VIII and myosin XI. Along with their relatively conserved sequence and functions, plant myosins have acquired some unique features. Myosin VIII has the enzymatic characteristics of a tension sensor and/or a tension generator, similar to functions found in other eukaryotes. Interestingly, class XI plant myosins have gained a novel function that consists of propelling the exceptionally rapid cytoplasmic streaming. This specific class includes the fastest known translocating molecular motors, which can reach an extremely high velocity of about 60μms(-1). However, the enzymatic properties and mechanistic basis for these remarkable manifestations are not yet fully understood. Here we review recent progress in understanding the uniqueness of plant myosins, while emphasizing the unanswered questions. PMID:25435181

  20. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin “hinge” region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length. PMID:19450484

  1. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  2. Unconventional Myosins in Inner-Ear Sensory Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Tama; Gillespie, Peter G.; Garcia, Jesus A.; MacDonald, Richard B.; Zhao, Yi-dong; Yee, Ann G.; Mooseker, Mark S.; Corey, David P.

    1997-01-01

    To understand how cells differentially use the dozens of myosin isozymes present in each genome, we examined the distribution of four unconventional myosin isozymes in the inner ear, a tissue that is particularly reliant on actin-rich structures and unconventional myosin isozymes. Of the four isozymes, each from a different class, three are expressed in the hair cells of amphibia and mammals. In stereocilia, constructed of cross-linked F-actin filaments, myosin-Iβ is found mostly near stereociliary tips, myosin-VI is largely absent, and myosin-VIIa colocalizes with crosslinks that connect adjacent stereocilia. In the cuticular plate, a meshwork of actin filaments, myosin-Iβ is excluded, myosin-VI is concentrated, and modest amounts of myosin-VIIa are present. These three myosin isozymes are excluded from other actin-rich domains, including the circumferential actin belt and the cortical actin network. A member of a fourth class, myosin-V, is not expressed in hair cells but is present at high levels in afferent nerve cells that innervate hair cells. Substantial amounts of myosins-Iβ, -VI, and -VIIa are located in a pericuticular necklace that is largely free of F-actin, squeezed between (but not associated with) actin of the cuticular plate and the circumferential belt. Our localization results suggest specific functions for three hair-cell myosin isozymes. As suggested previously, myosin-Iβ probably plays a role in adaptation; concentration of myosin-VI in cuticular plates and association with stereociliary rootlets suggest that this isozyme participates in rigidly anchoring stereocilia; and finally, colocalization with cross-links between adjacent stereocilia indicates that myosin-VIIa is required for the structural integrity of hair bundles. PMID:9182663

  3. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  4. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain causes diastolic disturbance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Muthu, Priya; Duggal, Divya; Farman, Gerrie P; Sorensen, Lars; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P; Moore, Jeffrey R; Borejdo, Julian; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results were compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5 to 6month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype. PMID:24992035

  6. Extracellular ATP dissociates nonmuscle myosin from P2X(7) complex: this dissociation regulates P2X(7) pore formation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Rathsam, Catherine; Stokes, Leanne; McGeachie, Andrew B; Wiley, James S

    2009-08-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that is highly expressed on monocyte-macrophages and that mediates the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular ATP. Dilation of the P2X(7) channel and massive K(+) efflux follows initial channel opening, but the mechanism of secondary pore formation is unclear. The proteins associated with P2X(7) were isolated by using anti-P2X(7) monoclonal antibody-coated Dynabeads from both interferon-gamma plus LPS-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells and P2X(7)-transfected HEK-293 cells. Two nonmuscle myosins, NMMHC-IIA and myosin Va, were found to associate with P2X(7) in THP-1 cells and HEK-293 cells, respectively. Activation of the P2X(7) receptor by ATP caused dissociation of P2X(7) from nonmuscle myosin in both cell types. The interaction of P2X(7) and NMMHC-IIA molecules was confirmed by fluorescent life time measurements and fluorescent resonance of energy transfer-based time-resolved flow cytometry assay. Reducing the expression of NMMHC-IIA or myosin Va by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA led to a significant increase of P2X(7) pore function without any increase in surface expression or ion channel function of P2X(7) receptors. S-l-blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NMMHC-IIA ATPase, inhibited both ATP-induced ethidium uptake and ATP-induced dissociation of P2X(7)-NMMHC-IIA complex. In both cell types nonmuscle myosin closely interacts with P2X(7) and is dissociated from the complex by extracellular ATP. Dissociation of this anchoring protein may be required for the transition of P2X(7) channel to a pore. PMID:19494237

  7. On archaebacterial ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hochstein, L.; Altekar, W.

    1984-01-01

    The energy transducing ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum was studied in order to define the origin of energy transducing systems. The ATPase required high salt concentration (4M NaCl) for activity; activity was rapidly lost when NaCl was below 1 Molar. At low salt concentration, the membrane bound ATPase activity could be stabilized in presence of spermine. However, following solubilization spermine was ineffective. Furthermore, F1 ATPase activity was stabilized by ammonium sulfate even when the NaCl concentration was less than 1 Molar. These studies suggest that stabilization by hydrophobic interactions preceded ionic ones in the evolution of the energy transducing ATPases.

  8. A Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Mutation in an Invariant Proline at the Myosin Head/Rod Junction Enhances Head Flexibility and Function, Yielding Muscle Defects in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Achal, Madhulika; Trujillo, Adriana S; Melkani, Girish C; Farman, Gerrie P; Ocorr, Karen; Viswanathan, Meera C; Kaushik, Gaurav; Newhard, Christopher S; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Melkani, Anju; Suggs, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey R; Swank, Douglas M; Bodmer, Rolf; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2016-06-01

    An "invariant proline" separates the myosin S1 head from its S2 tail and is proposed to be critical for orienting S1 during its interaction with actin, a process that leads to muscle contraction. Mutation of the invariant proline to leucine (P838L) caused dominant restrictive cardiomyopathy in a pediatric patient (Karam et al., Congenit. Heart Dis. 3:138-43, 2008). Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to model this mutation and dissect its effects on the biochemical and biophysical properties of myosin, as well as on the structure and physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles. P838L mutant myosin isolated from indirect flight muscles of transgenic Drosophila showed elevated ATPase and actin sliding velocity in vitro. Furthermore, the mutant heads exhibited increased rotational flexibility, and there was an increase in the average angle between the two heads. Indirect flight muscle myofibril assembly was minimally affected in mutant homozygotes, and isolated fibers displayed normal mechanical properties. However, myofibrils degraded during aging, correlating with reduced flight abilities. In contrast, hearts from homozygotes and heterozygotes showed normal morphology, myofibrillar arrays, and contractile parameters. When P838L was placed in trans to Mhc(5), an allele known to cause cardiac restriction in flies, it did not yield the constricted phenotype. Overall, our studies suggest that increased rotational flexibility of myosin S1 enhances myosin ATPase and actin sliding. Moreover, instability of P838L myofibrils leads to decreased function during aging of Drosophila skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle, despite the strong evolutionary conservation of the P838 residue. PMID:27107639

  9. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load

    PubMed Central

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin’s ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31–41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  10. Visualization of Head–Head Interactions in the Inhibited State of Smooth Muscle Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Thomas; Taylor, Dianne; Messier, Terri; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    The structural basis for the phosphoryla- tion-dependent regulation of smooth muscle myosin ATPase activity was investigated by forming two- dimensional (2-D) crystalline arrays of expressed unphosphorylated and thiophosphorylated smooth muscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) on positively charged lipid monolayers. A comparison of averaged 2-D projections of both forms at 2.3-nm resolution reveals distinct structural differences. In the active, thiophosphorylated form, the two heads of HMM interact intermolecularly with adjacent molecules. In the unphosphorylated or inhibited state, intramolecular interactions position the actin-binding interface of one head onto the converter domain of the second head, thus providing a mechanism whereby the activity of both heads could be inhibited. PMID:10613897

  11. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  12. Relationship of the Membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to Vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Bowman, Emma J.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan in- hibited the hatobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide- protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggested that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuotar and the F-type ATPases.

  13. Relationship of the membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Bowman, Emma J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan inhibited the halobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide-protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggest that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuolar and the F-type ATPases.

  14. Indirect myosin immunocytochemistry for the identification of fibre types in equine skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rose, R. J.; Pozgaj, I.; Hoh, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The histochemical ATPase method for muscle fibre typing was first described by Brooke and Kaiser in 1970. However, problems have been found with the subdivision of type II fibres using this technique. To determine whether indirect myosin immunocytochemistry using anti-slow (5-4D), anti-fast (1A10) and anti-fast red (5-2B) monoclonal antibodies with cross reactivity for type I, II and IIa fibres, respectively, in a number of species, could identify three fibre types in equine skeletal muscle, data on fibre type composition and fibre size obtained using the two different techniques were compared. Results indicate that different myosin heavy chains can coexist in single equine muscle fibres. Type I and type II fibres were identified by immunocytochemistry, but subdivision of type II fibres was not possible. Although the percentage of type I and type II fibres was not significantly different for the two techniques, a few fibres reacted with both the 1A10 and 5-4D antibodies.

  15. Phosphate release coupled to rotary motion of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic domain of ATP synthase, synthesizes most of the ATP in living organisms. Running in reverse powered by ATP hydrolysis, this hexameric ring-shaped molecular motor formed by three αβ-dimers creates torque on its central γ-subunit. This reverse operation enables detailed explorations of the mechanochemical coupling mechanisms in experiment and simulation. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to construct a first atomistic conformation of the intermediate state following the 40° substep of rotary motion, and to study the timing and molecular mechanism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) release coupled to the rotation. In response to torque-driven rotation of the γ-subunit in the hydrolysis direction, the nucleotide-free αβE interface forming the “empty” E site loosens and singly charged Pi readily escapes to the P loop. By contrast, the interface stays closed with doubly charged Pi. The γ-rotation tightens the ATP-bound αβTP interface, as required for hydrolysis. The calculated rate for the outward release of doubly charged Pi from the αβE interface 120° after ATP hydrolysis closely matches the ∼1-ms functional timescale. Conversely, Pi release from the ADP-bound αβDP interface postulated in earlier models would occur through a kinetically infeasible inward-directed pathway. Our simulations help reconcile conflicting interpretations of single-molecule experiments and crystallographic studies by clarifying the timing of Pi exit, its pathway and kinetics, associated changes in Pi protonation, and changes of the F1-ATPase structure in the 40° substep. Important elements of the molecular mechanism of Pi release emerging from our simulations appear to be conserved in myosin despite the different functional motions. PMID:24062450

  16. Kinetics of the actomyosin ATPase in muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Y E

    1987-01-01

    Many characteristics expected from the cyclic ATPase mechanism of Scheme 1 are apparent in reactions measured directly in muscle fibers. ATP detaches rigor cross-bridges rapidly. Reattachment and force generation are also rapid compared to the overall cycling rate, but reversibility of many of the reactions allows significant population of detached states during contraction. ATP hydrolysis shows rapid, "burst" kinetics and is also readily reversible. Pi is released before ADP in the cycle. Pi release is slow in relaxed fibers but is promoted by the interaction between myosin and actin during contraction. Actomyosin kinetics differ in fibers from the ATPase reaction in solution in that Pi binds more readily to AM' X ADP in fibers, and complex, Ca2+-dependent kinetics are evident for ADP release. These properties suggest that the mechanical driving stroke of the cross-bridge cycle and events during physiological relaxation are closely linked to the product release steps. All of the reactions, except step 7a, in the main pathway for ATP hydrolysis, indicated in Scheme 1 by heavy arrows, are fast compared to the overall cycling rate in isometric contractions. Based on this finding, we expect step 7a (or isomerizations of the flanking states) to be relatively slow (approximately 3 s-1). But neither the rate-limiting reaction, nor the expected major dependence on mechanical load or shortening that would explain the Fenn effect, have actually been detected. Use of the pulse photolysis and oxygen exchange methods with structural and spectroscopic techniques and with perturbations of mechanical strain promise to reveal these aspects of the mechanism. PMID:2952053

  17. Myosin-induced changes in F-actin: fluorescence probing of subdomain 2 by dansyl ethylenediamine attached to Gln-41.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E; Miller, C J; Motoki, M; Seguro, K; Muhlrad, A; Reisler, E

    1996-01-01

    Actin labeled at Gln-41 with dansyl ethylenediamine (DED) via transglutaminase reaction was used for monitoring the interaction of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) with the His-40-Gly-42 site in the 38-52 loop on F-actin. Proteolytic digestions of F-actin with subtilisin and trypsin, and acto-S1 ATPase measurements on heat-treated F-actin revealed that the labeling of Gln-41 had a stabilizing effect on subdomain 2 and the actin filaments. DED on Gln-41 had no effect on the values of K(m) and Vmax of the acto-S1 ATPase and the sliding velocities of actin filaments in the in vitro motility assays. This suggests either that S1 does not bind to the 40-42 site on actin or that such binding is not functionally important. The binding of monoclonal antidansyl IgG to DED-F-actin did not affect acto-S1 binding in the absence of nucleotides, indicating that the 40-42 site does not contribute much to rigor acto-S1 binding. Myosin-induced changes in subdomain 2 on actin were manifested through an increase in the fluorescence of DED-F-actin, a decrease in the accessibility of the probe to collisional quenchers, and a partial displacement of antidansyl IgG from actin by S1. It is proposed that these changes in the 38-52 loop on actin originate from S1 binding to other myosin recognition sites on actin. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8785300

  18. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Tarantula Myosin Filaments Suggests How Phosphorylation May Regulate Myosin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Bártoli, Fulvia; Salazar, Leiría; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Summary Muscle contraction involves the interaction of the myosin heads of the thick filaments with actin subunits of the thin filaments. Relaxation occurs when this interaction is blocked by molecular switches on these filaments. In many muscles, myosin-linked regulation involves phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chains (RLC). Electron microscopy of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin molecules (regulated by phosphorylation) has provided insight into the relaxed structure, revealing that myosin is switched off by intramolecular interactions between its two heads, the free-head and the blocked head. Three-dimensional reconstruction of frozen-hydrated specimens reveals that this asymmetric head interaction is also present in native thick filaments of tarantula striated muscle. Our goal here has been to elucidate the structural features of the tarantula filament involved in phosphorylation-based regulation. A new reconstruction reveals intra- and intermolecular myosin interactions in addition to those seen previously. To help interpret the interactions, we sequenced the tarantula RLC, and fitted to the reconstruction an atomic model of the myosin head that included the predicted RLC atomic structure and an S2 crystal structure. The fitting suggests an intramolecular interaction between the cardiomyopathy loop of the free-head and its own S2 and two intermolecular interactions—between the cardio-loop of the free head and the ELC of the blocked head, and between the Leu-305 - Gln-327 “interaction loop” (loop I) of the free-head and the N-terminal fragment of the RLC of the blocked-head. These interactions, added to those previously described, would help to switch off the thick filament. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest how phosphorylation could increase the helical content of the RLC N-terminus, weakening these interactions, thus releasing both heads and activating the thick filament. PMID:18951904

  19. Oxidation-induced unfolding facilitates Myosin cross-linking in myofibrillar protein by microbial transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunqiang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2012-08-15

    Myofibrillar protein from pork Longissimus muscle was oxidatively stressed for 2 and 24 h at 4 °C with mixed 10 μM FeCl(3)/100 μM ascorbic acid/1, 5, or 10 mM H(2)O(2) (which produces hydroxyl radicals) and then treated with microbial transglutaminase (MTG) (E:S = 1:20) for 2 h at 4 °C. Oxidation induced significant protein structural changes (P < 0.05) as evidenced by suppressed K-ATPase activity, elevated Ca-ATPase activity, increased carbonyl and disulfide contents, and reduced conformational stability, all in a H(2)O(2) dose-dependent manner. The structural alterations, notably with mild oxidation, led to stronger MTG catalysis. More substantial amine reductions (19.8-27.6%) at 1 mM H(2)O(2) occurred as compared to 11.6% in nonoxidized samples (P < 0.05) after MTG treatment. This coincided with more pronounced losses of myosin in oxidized samples (up to 33.2%) as compared to 21.1% in nonoxidized (P < 0.05), which was attributed to glutamine-lysine cross-linking as suggested by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:22809283

  20. Nuclear myosin I regulates cell membrane tension.

    PubMed

    Venit, Tomáš; Kalendová, Alžběta; Petr, Martin; Dzijak, Rastislav; Pastorek, Lukáš; Rohožková, Jana; Malohlava, Jakub; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane tension is an important feature that determines the cell shape and influences processes such as cell motility, spreading, endocytosis and exocytosis. Unconventional class 1 myosins are potent regulators of plasma membrane tension because they physically link the plasma membrane with adjacent cytoskeleton. We identified nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) - a putative nuclear isoform of myosin 1c (Myo1c) - as a new player in the field. Although having specific nuclear functions, NM1 localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane. Deletion of NM1 causes more than a 50% increase in the elasticity of the plasma membrane around the actin cytoskeleton as measured by atomic force microscopy. This higher elasticity of NM1 knock-out cells leads to 25% higher resistance to short-term hypotonic environment and rapid cell swelling. In contrast, overexpression of NM1 in wild type cells leads to an additional 30% reduction of their survival. We have shown that NM1 has a direct functional role in the cytoplasm as a dynamic linker between the cell membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton, regulating the degree of effective plasma membrane tension. PMID:27480647

  1. Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive “search” by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric “catch” in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process. PMID:27493501

  2. Nuclear myosin I regulates cell membrane tension

    PubMed Central

    Venit, Tomáš; Kalendová, Alžběta; Petr, Martin; Dzijak, Rastislav; Pastorek, Lukáš; Rohožková, Jana; Malohlava, Jakub; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane tension is an important feature that determines the cell shape and influences processes such as cell motility, spreading, endocytosis and exocytosis. Unconventional class 1 myosins are potent regulators of plasma membrane tension because they physically link the plasma membrane with adjacent cytoskeleton. We identified nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) - a putative nuclear isoform of myosin 1c (Myo1c) - as a new player in the field. Although having specific nuclear functions, NM1 localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane. Deletion of NM1 causes more than a 50% increase in the elasticity of the plasma membrane around the actin cytoskeleton as measured by atomic force microscopy. This higher elasticity of NM1 knock-out cells leads to 25% higher resistance to short-term hypotonic environment and rapid cell swelling. In contrast, overexpression of NM1 in wild type cells leads to an additional 30% reduction of their survival. We have shown that NM1 has a direct functional role in the cytoplasm as a dynamic linker between the cell membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton, regulating the degree of effective plasma membrane tension. PMID:27480647

  3. Rac-mediated actin remodeling and myosin II are involved in KATP channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Eun; Lim, Ajin; Park, Sun-Hyun; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Suk-Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor activated during metabolic stress and it regulates various enzymes and cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We previously reported that activation of AMPK by glucose deprivation (GD) and leptin increases KATP currents by increasing the surface levels of KATP channel proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Here, we show that the signaling mechanisms that mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling are closely associated with AMPK-induced KATP channel trafficking. Using F-actin staining with Alexa 633-conjugated phalloidin, we observed that dense cortical actin filaments present in INS-1 cells cultured in 11 mM glucose were disrupted by GD or leptin treatment. These changes were blocked by inhibiting AMPK using compound C or siAMPK and mimicked by activating AMPK using AICAR, indicating that cytoskeletal remodeling induced by GD or leptin was mediated by AMPK signaling. AMPK activation led to the activation of Rac GTPase and the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). AMPK-dependent actin remodeling induced by GD or leptin was abolished by the inhibition of Rac with a Rac inhibitor (NSC23766), siRac1 or siRac2, and by inhibition of myosin II with a myosin ATPase inhibitor (blebbistatin). Immunocytochemistry, surface biotinylation and electrophysiological analyses of KATP channel activity and membrane potentials revealed that AMPK-dependent KATP channel trafficking to the plasma membrane was also inhibited by NSC23766 or blebbistatin. Taken together, these results indicate that AMPK/Rac-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling associated with myosin II motor function promotes the translocation of KATP channels to the plasma membrane in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26471000

  4. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times

  5. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt. Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. PMID:26893369

  6. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  7. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-18

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  8. Is myosin light-chain phosphorylation a regulatory signal for the osmotic activation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter?

    PubMed

    Di Ciano-Oliveira, Caterina; Lodyga, Monika; Fan, Lingzhi; Szászi, Katalin; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Rotstein, Ori D; Kapus, András

    2005-07-01

    Myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK)-dependent increase in MLC phosphorylation has been proposed to be a key mediator of the hyperosmotic activation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC). To address this hypothesis and to assess whether MLC phosphorylation plays a signaling or permissive role in NKCC regulation, we used pharmacological and genetic means to manipulate MLCK, MLC phosphorylation, or myosin ATPase activity and followed the impact of these alterations on the hypertonic stimulation of NKCC in porcine kidney tubular LLC-PK1 epithelial cells. We found that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 suppressed NKCC activity independently of MLC phosphorylation. Notably, ML-7 reduced both basal and hypertonically stimulated NKCC activity without influencing MLC phosphorylation under these conditions, and it inhibited NKCC activation by Cl- depletion, a treatment that did not increase MLC phosphorylation. Furthermore, prevention of the osmotically induced increase in MLC phosphorylation by viral induction of cells with a nonphosphorylatable, dominant negative MLC mutant (AA-MLC) did not affect the hypertonic activation of NKCC. Conversely, a constitutively active MLC mutant (DD-MLC) that mimics the diphosphorylated form neither stimulated isotonic nor potentiated hypertonic NKCC activity. Furthermore, a depolarization-induced increase in endogenous MLC phosphorylation failed to activate NKCC. However, complete abolition of basal MLC phosphorylation by K252a or the inhibition of myosin ATPase by blebbistatin significantly reduced the osmotic stimulation of NKCC without suppressing its basal or Cl- depletion-triggered activity. These results indicate that an increase in MLC phosphorylation is neither a sufficient nor a necessary signal to stimulate NKCC in tubular cells. However, basal myosin activity plays a permissive role in the optimal osmotic responsiveness of NKCC. PMID:15728707

  9. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    PubMed

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (P<0.05) regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX) and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX) and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX). Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B) such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C) such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training. PMID:15493580

  10. Evolution of Plant P-Type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae) were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a non-vascular moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant), and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant). Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Whereas Na+ and H+ pumps seem to mutually exclude each other in flowering plants and animals, they co-exist in chlorophytes, which show representatives for two kinds of Na+ pumps (P2C and P2D ATPases) as well as a primitive H+-ATPase. Both Na+ and H+ pumps also co-exist in the moss P. patens, which has a P2D Na+-ATPase. In contrast to the primitive H+-ATPases in chlorophytes and P. patens, the H+-ATPases from vascular plants all have a large C-terminal regulatory domain as well as a conserved Arg in transmembrane segment 5 that is predicted to function as part of a backflow protection mechanism. Together these features are predicted to enable H+ pumps in vascular plants to create large electrochemical gradients that can be modulated in response to diverse physiological cues. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps. PMID:22629273

  11. Modulation of myosin filament activation by telokin in smooth muscle liberation of myosin kinase and phosphatase from supramolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Sobieszek, Apolinary; Andruchov, Oleg Y; Grabarek, Zenon; Kulikova, Natalia; Liebetrau, Claudia; Matusovsky, Oleg S

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of telokin action on reversible phosphorylation of turkey gizzard myosin was investigated using a native-like filamentous myosin. This myosin contained endogenous calmodulin (CaM) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) at a molar ratio to myosin of about 1 to 40 or less depending on the initial extractions conditions. These levels were sufficient to fully phosphorylate myosin within 20-40 s or less after addition of [gamma-32P]ATP, but when the ATP was depleted, they became dephosphorylated indicating the presence of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Addition of telokin at the 1 to 1 or higher molar ratio to myosin caused a three- to five-fold inhibition of the initial phosphorylation rates (without reduction of the overall extent of phosphorylation) and produced a similar increase in the rate of dephosphorylation. The inhibition was also observed for myosin filaments free of MLCK and CaM together with constitutively active MLCKs produced by digestion, or by expression of a truncated mammalian kinase as well as for the wild-type enzyme. Thus, neither N- nor C-terminal of MLCK was necessary for interaction of myosin with telokin and the inhibition resulted from telokin-induced change of myosin head configuration within the filament that prevented their ordered, paracrystaline-like, aggregation. Sedimentation of the filamentous myosin in glycerol gradients showed that this change made the filaments less compact and facilitated release of the endogenous MLCK/CaM complex. For a mixture of the filaments with or without the complex, the configuration change resulted in an increase of the phosphorylation rate but not in its inhibition. The increase of the rate resulting from the liberation of the complex was also observed in mixtures of the filamentous myosin with added isolated regulatory light chain (ReLC) or soluble myosin head subfragment. This observation reinforces the above conclusions. The acceleration of the MLCP activity by telokin was shown to

  12. Four things to know about myosin light chains as reporters for non-muscle myosin-2 dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between non-muscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of non-muscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of non-muscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the non-muscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of non-muscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments. PMID:25712372

  13. Masticatory (;superfast') myosin heavy chain and embryonic/atrial myosin light chain 1 in rodent jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Chen, Qun; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Masticatory myosin is widely expressed among several vertebrate classes. Generally, the expression of masticatory myosin has been associated with high bite force for a carnivorous feeding style (including capturing/restraining live prey), breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting in different species. Masticatory myosin expression in the largest mammalian order, Rodentia, has not been reported. Several members of Rodentia consume large numbers of tree nuts that are encased in very hard shells, presumably requiring large forces to access the nutmeat. We, therefore, tested whether some rodent species express masticatory myosin in jaw-closing muscles. Myosin isoform expression in six Sciuridae species was examined, using protein gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and RNA analysis. The results indicate that masticatory myosin is expressed in some Sciuridae species but not in other closely related species with similar diets but having different nut-opening strategies. We also discovered that the myosin light chain 1 isoform associated with masticatory myosin heavy chain, in the same four Sciuridae species, is the embryonic/atrial isoform. We conclude that rodent speciation did not completely eliminate masticatory myosin and that its persistent expression in some rodent species might be related to not only diet but also to feeding style. PMID:19648394

  14. Association of a Nonmuscle Myosin II with Axoplasmic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Reese, Thomas S.; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    Association of motor proteins with organelles is required for the motors to mediate transport. Because axoplasmic organelles move on actin filaments, they must have associated actin-based motors, most likely members of the myosin superfamily. To gain a better understanding of the roles of myosins in the axon we used the giant axon of the squid, a powerful model for studies of axonal physiology. First, a ∼220 kDa protein was purified from squid optic lobe, using a biochemical protocol designed to isolate myosins. Peptide sequence analysis, followed by cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA, identified this ∼220 kDa protein as a nonmuscle myosin II. This myosin is also present in axoplasm, as determined by two independent criteria. First, RT-PCR using sequence-specific primers detected the transcript in the stellate ganglion, which contains the cell bodies that give rise to the giant axon. Second, Western blot analysis using nonmuscle myosin II isotype-specific antibodies detected a single ∼220 kDa band in axoplasm. Axoplasm was fractionated through a four-step sucrose gradient after 0.6 M KI treatment, which separates organelles from cytoskeletal components. Of the total nonmuscle myosin II in axoplasm, 43.2% copurified with organelles in the 15% sucrose fraction, while the remainder (56.8%) was soluble and found in the supernatant. This myosin decorates the cytoplasmic surface of 21% of the axoplasmic organelles, as demonstrated by immunogold electron-microscopy. Thus, nonmuscle myosin II is synthesized in the cell bodies of the giant axon, is present in the axon, and is associated with isolated axoplasmic organelles. Therefore, in addition to myosin V, this myosin is likely to be an axoplasmic organelle motor. PMID:11907281

  15. Effects of myosin light chain phosphorylation on length-dependent myosin kinetics in skinned rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pulcastro, Hannah C; Awinda, Peter O; Breithaupt, Jason J; Tanner, Bertrand C W

    2016-07-01

    Myosin force production is Ca(2+)-regulated by thin-filament proteins and sarcomere length, which together determine the number of cross-bridge interactions throughout a heartbeat. Ventricular myosin regulatory light chain-2 (RLC) binds to the neck of myosin and modulates contraction via its phosphorylation state. Previous studies reported regional variations in RLC phosphorylation across the left ventricle wall, suggesting that RLC phosphorylation could alter myosin behavior throughout the heart. We found that RLC phosphorylation varied across the left ventricle wall and that RLC phosphorylation was greater in the right vs. left ventricle. We also assessed functional consequences of RLC phosphorylation on Ca(2+)-regulated contractility as sarcomere length varied in skinned rat papillary muscle strips. Increases in RLC phosphorylation and sarcomere length both led to increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the force-pCa relationship, and both slowed cross-bridge detachment rate. RLC-phosphorylation slowed cross-bridge rates of MgADP release (∼30%) and MgATP binding (∼50%) at 1.9 μm sarcomere length, whereas RLC phosphorylation only slowed cross-bridge MgATP binding rate (∼55%) at 2.2 μm sarcomere length. These findings suggest that RLC phosphorylation influences cross-bridge kinetics differently as sarcomere length varies and support the idea that RLC phosphorylation could vary throughout the heart to meet different contractile demands between the left and right ventricles. PMID:26763941

  16. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the ‘bottom-up’ myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive ‘top-down’ phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  17. Myosin filament 3D structure in mammalian cardiac muscle☆

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Morris, Edward P.; Kensler, Robert W.; Squire, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of cardiac myopathies (e.g. familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy) are linked to mutations in cardiac muscle myosin filament proteins, including myosin and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). To understand the myopathies it is necessary to know the normal 3D structure of these filaments. We have carried out 3D single particle analysis of electron micrograph images of negatively stained isolated myosin filaments from rabbit cardiac muscle. Single filament images were aligned and divided into segments about 2 × 430 Å long, each of which was treated as an independent ‘particle’. The resulting 40 Å resolution 3D reconstruction showed both axial and azimuthal (no radial) myosin head perturbations within the 430 Å repeat, with successive crown rotations of approximately 60°, 60° and 0°, rather than the regular 40° for an unperturbed helix. However, it is shown that the projecting density peaks appear to start at low radius from origins closer to those expected for an unperturbed helical filament, and that the azimuthal perturbation especially increases with radius. The head arrangements in rabbit cardiac myosin filaments are very similar to those in fish skeletal muscle myosin filaments, suggesting a possible general structural theme for myosin filaments in all vertebrate striated muscles (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:18472277

  18. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ∼20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  19. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  20. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  1. On the kinetics that moves Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; O'Kelly de Galway, Winny

    2015-10-01

    Molecular motor proteins such as Myosin V, Dynein or Kinesin are no ratchets, at least not with a flashing asymmetric potential; the crucial asymmetry is in the dynamical activity. We make that explicit in terms of a simple Markov model, emphasizing the kinetic (and non-thermodynamic) aspects of stochastic transport. The analysis shows the presence of a fluctuation symmetry in that part of the dynamical activity which is antisymmetric under reversal of trailing and leading head of the motor. The direction of the motor motion is determined by it.

  2. Neuromuscular Development and Regulation of Myosin Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, Sue

    1997-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine whether the absence of gravity during embryogenesis influences the postnatal development of the neuromuscular system. Further, we examined the effects of reduced gravity on hindlimb muscles of the pregnant rats. Microgravity may have short and long-term effects on the development of muscle fiber type differentiation and force producing capabilities. Microgravity will reduce muscle fiber size and cause a shift in myosin heavy chain expression from slow to fast in hindlimb muscles of the adult pregnant rats.

  3. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Day, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. RESULTS: Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.

  4. Myosins and cell dynamics in cellular slime molds.

    PubMed

    Yumura, Shigehiko; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2003-01-01

    Myosin is a mechanochemical transducer and serves as a motor for various motile activities such as cell migration, cytokinesis, maintenance of cell shape, phagocytosis, and morphogenesis. Nonmuscle myosin in vivo does not either stay static at specific subcellular regions or construct highly organized structures, such as sarcomere in skeletal muscle cells. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is an ideal "model organism" for the investigation of cell movement and cytokinesis. The advantages of this organism prompted researchers to carry out pioneering cell biological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies on myosin II, which resulted in elucidation of many fundamental features of function and regulation of this most abundant molecular motor. Furthermore, recent molecular biological research has revealed that many unconventional myosins play various functions in vivo. In this article, how myosins are organized and regulated in a dynamic manner in Dictyostelium cells is reviewed and discussed. PMID:12722951

  5. Vacuolar ATPase in Phagosome-Lysosome Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kissing, Sandra; Hermsen, Christina; Repnik, Urska; Nesset, Cecilie Kåsi; von Bargen, Kristine; Griffiths, Gareth; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lee, Beth S.; Schwake, Michael; De Brabander, Jef; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) complex is instrumental in establishing and maintaining acidification of some cellular compartments, thereby ensuring their functionality. Recently it has been proposed that the transmembrane V0 sector of v-ATPase and its a-subunits promote membrane fusion in the endocytic and exocytic pathways independent of their acidification functions. Here, we tested if such a proton-pumping independent role of v-ATPase also applies to phagosome-lysosome fusion. Surprisingly, endo(lyso)somes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the V0 a3 subunit of the v-ATPase acidified normally, and endosome and lysosome marker proteins were recruited to phagosomes with similar kinetics in the presence or absence of the a3 subunit. Further experiments used macrophages with a knockdown of v-ATPase accessory protein 2 (ATP6AP2) expression, resulting in a strongly reduced level of the V0 sector of the v-ATPase. However, acidification appeared undisturbed, and fusion between latex bead-containing phagosomes and lysosomes, as analyzed by electron microscopy, was even slightly enhanced, as was killing of non-pathogenic bacteria by V0 mutant macrophages. Pharmacologically neutralized lysosome pH did not affect maturation of phagosomes in mouse embryonic cells or macrophages. Finally, locking the two large parts of the v-ATPase complex together by the drug saliphenylhalamide A did not inhibit in vitro and in cellulo fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Hence, our data do not suggest a fusion-promoting role of the v-ATPase in the formation of phagolysosomes. PMID:25903133

  6. The emerging structure of vacuolar ATPases.

    PubMed

    Drory, Omri; Nelson, Nathan

    2006-10-01

    Bioenergetics and physiology of primary pumps have been revitalized by new insights into the mechanism of energizing biomembranes. Structural information is becoming available, and the three-dimensional structure of F-ATPase is being resolved. The growing understanding of the fundamental mechanism of energy coupling may revolutionize our view of biological processes. The F- and V-ATPases (vacuolar-type ATPase) exhibit a common mechanical design in which nucleotide-binding on the catalytic sector, through a cycle of conformation changes, drives the transmembrane passage of protons by turning a membrane-embedded rotor. This motor can run in forward or reverse directions, hydrolyzing ATP as it pumps protons uphill or creating ATP as protons flow downhill. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. V- and F-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action, and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. Electron microscopy studies of V-ATPase revealed its general structure at low resolution. Recently, several structures of V-ATPase subunits, solved by X-ray crystallography with atomic resolution, were published. This, together with electron microscopy low-resolution maps of the whole complex, and biochemistry cross-linking experiments, allows construction of a structural model for a part of the complex that may be used as a working hypothesis for future research. PMID:16990452

  7. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-01-01

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  8. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made. PMID:21281603

  9. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  10. Axonal isoforms of myosin-I.

    PubMed

    Lund, Linda M; Machado, Victor M; McQuarrie, Irvine G

    2005-05-13

    We have examined spinal motor neurons in Sprague-Dawley rats to further characterize a mechanoenzyme, myosin-Igamma (myr4), which is found in high concentration during axon tract formation in neonates. We raised an antibody to myr4 and made riboprobes for in situ hybridization. Myr4 mRNA was abundant in spinal cord motor neurons (particularly during axon regrowth). Nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration (from a crush 7 days earlier) showed anti-myr4 labeling of the axolemma and SER--after microtubules, neurofilaments, and F-actin had already been degraded--which is consistent with a described lipid-binding domain in the tail region of myosin-Is. Newly synthesized myr4 was carried in axons by the slow component (SC) of axonal transport at 1-8 mm/day, whereas, none was carried by the fast component (FC). We conclude that SC delivers myr4 to the cytoplasmic surfaces of stationary axonal membranes (SER and axolemma). This positioning would anchor the tail domain of myr4 and leave the catalytic head domain free to interact with F-actin. PMID:15809075

  11. Roles for kinesin and myosin during cytokinesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Peter K; Valster, Aline; Molchan, Tasha; Vos, Jan W

    2002-01-01

    Cytokinesis in higher plants involves the phragmoplast, a complex cytoplasmic structure that consists of microtubules (MTs), microfilaments (MFs) and membrane elements. Both MTs and MFs are essential for cell plate formation, although it is not clear which motor proteins are involved. Some candidate processes for motor proteins include transport of Golgi vesicles to the plane of the cell plate and the spatiotemporal organization of the cytoskeletal elements in order to achieve proper deposition and alignment of the cell plate. We have focused on the kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) and, more broadly, on myosins. Using an antibody that constitutively activates KCBP, we find that this MT motor, which is minus-end directed, contributes to the organization of the spindle and phragmoplast MTs. It does not participate in vesicle transport; rather, because of the orientation of the phragmoplast MTs, it is supposed that plus-end kinesins fill this role. Myosins, on the other hand, based on their inhibition with 2,3-butanedione monoxime and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-7), are associated with the process of post-mitotic spindle/phragmoplast alignment and with late lateral expansion of the cell plate. They are also not the principal motors involved in vesicle transport. PMID:12079671

  12. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-05-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation.

  13. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae. PMID:16350755

  14. Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. PMID:23152195

  15. The Mechanism of Cu+ Transport ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; McCann, Courtney J.; Argüello, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Cu+-ATPases are membrane proteins that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to the efflux of cytoplasmic Cu+. In cells, soluble chaperone proteins bind and distribute cytoplasmic Cu+, delivering the ion to the transmembrane metal-binding sites in the ATPase. The structure of Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (Gourdon, P., Liu, X. Y., Skjørringe, T., Morth, J. P., Møller, L. B., Pedersen, B. P., and Nissen, P. (2011) Nature 475, 59–64) shows that a kinked transmembrane segment forms a “platform” exposed to the cytoplasm. In addition, neighboring invariant Met, Asp, and Glu are located at the “entrance” of the ion path. Mutations of amino acids in these regions of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cu+-ATPase CopA do not affect ATPase activity in the presence of Cu+ free in solution. However, Cu+ bound to the corresponding chaperone (CopZ) could not activate the mutated ATPases, and in parallel experiments, CopZ was unable to transfer Cu+ to CopA. Furthermore, mutation of a specific electronegative patch on the CopZ surface abolishes the ATPase activation and Cu+ transference, indicating that the region is required for the CopZ-CopA interaction. Moreover, the data suggest that the interaction is driven by the complementation of the electropositive platform in the ATPase and the electronegative Cu+ chaperone. This docking likely places the Cu+ proximal to the conserved carboxyl and thiol groups in the entrance site that induce metal release from the chaperone via ligand exchange. The initial interaction of Cu+ with the pump is transient because Cu+ is transferred from the entrance site to transmembrane metal-binding sites involved in transmembrane translocation. PMID:23184962

  16. Myosin-10 independently influences mitotic spindle structure and mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Joshua C; Larson, Matthew E; Hine, Ken J

    2016-06-01

    The iconic bipolar structure of the mitotic spindle is of extreme importance to proper spindle function. At best, spindle abnormalities result in a delayed mitosis, while worse outcomes include cell death or disease. Recent work has uncovered an important role for the actin-based motor protein myosin-10 in the regulation of spindle structure and function. Here we examine the contribution of the myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domain of the myosin-10 tail to the protein's spindle functions. The MyTH4 domain is known to mediate binding to microtubules and we verify the suspicion that this domain contributes to myosin-10's close association with the spindle. More surprisingly, our data demonstrate that some but not all of myosin-10's spindle functions require microtubule binding. In particular, myosin-10's contribution to spindle pole integrity requires microtubule binding, whereas its contribution to normal mitotic progression does not. This is demonstrated by the observation that dominant negative expression of the wild-type MyTH4 domain produces multipolar spindles and an increased mitotic index, whereas overexpression of a version of the MyTH4 domain harboring point mutations that abrogate microtubule binding results in only the mitotic index phenotype. Our data suggest that myosin-10 helps to control the metaphase to anaphase transition in cells independent of microtubule binding. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27220038

  17. Stochastic dynamics and mechanosensitivity of myosin II minifilaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Philipp J.; Erdmann, Thorsten; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2014-09-01

    Tissue cells are in a state of permanent mechanical tension that is maintained mainly by myosin II minifilaments, which are bipolar assemblies of tens of myosin II molecular motors contracting actin networks and bundles. Here we introduce a stochastic model for myosin II minifilaments as two small myosin II motor ensembles engaging in a stochastic tug-of-war. Each of the two ensembles is described by the parallel cluster model that allows us to use exact stochastic simulations and at the same time to keep important molecular details of the myosin II cross-bridge cycle. Our simulation and analytical results reveal a strong dependence of myosin II minifilament dynamics on environmental stiffness that is reminiscent of the cellular response to substrate stiffness. For small stiffness, minifilaments form transient crosslinks exerting short spikes of force with negligible mean. For large stiffness, minifilaments form near permanent crosslinks exerting a mean force which hardly depends on environmental elasticity. This functional switch arises because dissociation after the power stroke is suppressed by force (catch bonding) and because ensembles can no longer perform the power stroke at large forces. Symmetric myosin II minifilaments perform a random walk with an effective diffusion constant which decreases with increasing ensemble size, as demonstrated for rigid substrates with an analytical treatment.

  18. Temperature dependence of myosin-II tail fragment assembly.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Peggy M; Hostetter, Daniel R; Rice, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    Dictyostelium myosin-II bipolar thick filament (BTF) assembly is heavily dependent on ionic strength and temperature and is reversible by the phosphorylation of just three threonines. Truncated tail fragments of Dictyostelium myosin-II are commonly used as models for BTF assembly, as they self-assemble into regular paracrystals that recapitulate the ionic strength and phosphorylation dependence of full-length Dictyostelium myosin-II BTF assembly. Here we show that Dictyostelium myosin-II tail fragment assembly is highly temperature dependent, similar to full-length Dictyostelium myosin-II. Assembly of paracrystals was far more robust at 4 degrees C than at higher temperatures. Pre-assembled paracrystals disassembled completely when shifted to 37 degrees C, indicating that assembly does not greatly improve the thermostability of these tail fragments. The melting temperatures of individual Dictyostelium myosin-II tail coiled-coils under both low and high ionic strength conditions that prohibit paracrystal assembly are extremely low, 21 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively. These data are consistent with reversible thermal denaturation of the coiled-coil as the most likely explanation for assembly incompetence under either very low ionic strength or high temperature conditions. Assembled paracrystals of a structurally similar fragment of nonmuscle myosin-IIA were far more thermodynamically stable than their Dictyostelium counterparts at the temperatures examined here. PMID:18784979

  19. Effects of pathogenic proline mutations on myosin assembly.

    PubMed

    Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-02-01

    Laing distal myopathy (MPD1) is a genetically dominant myopathy characterized by early and selective weakness of the distal muscles. Mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain are the underlying genetic cause of MPD1. However, their pathogenic mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we measure the biological effects of the R1500P and L1706P MPD1 mutations in different cellular systems. We show that, while the two mutations inhibit myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells, they do not prevent incorporation of the mutant myosin into sarcomeres. Nevertheless, we find that the L1706P mutation affects proper antiparallel myosin association by accumulating in the bare zone of the sarcomere. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay shows that the α-helix containing the R1500P mutation folds into homodimeric (mutant/mutant) and heterodimeric [mutant/wild type (WT)] myosin molecules that are competent for sarcomere incorporation. Both mutations also form aggregates consisting of cytoplasmic vacuoles surrounding paracrystalline arrays and amorphous rod-like inclusions that sequester WT myosin. Myosin aggregates were also detected in transgenic nematodes expressing the R1500P mutation. By showing that the two MPD1 mutations can have dominant effects on distinct components of the contractile apparatus, our data provide the first insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22155079

  20. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  1. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Sarah F; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne M; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-03-29

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  2. Myosin motor isoforms direct specification of actomyosin function by tropomyosins

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Joseph E.; Pollard, Luther W.; Murray, George G.; Lord, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Myosins and tropomyosins represent two cytoskeletal proteins that often work together with actin filaments in contractile and motile cellular processes. While the specialized role of tropomyosin in striated muscle myosin-II regulation is well characterized, its role in non-muscle myosin regulation is poorly understood. We previously showed that fission yeast tropomyosin (Cdc8p) positively regulates myosin-II (Myo2p) and myosin-V (Myo52p) motors. To understand the broader implications of this regulation we examined the role of two mammalian tropomyosins (Tpm3.1cy/Tm5NM1 and Tpm4.2cy/Tm4) recently implicated in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Like Cdc8p, the Tpm3.1cy and Tpm4.2cy isoforms significantly enhance Myo2p and Myo52p motor activity, converting non-processive Myo52p molecules into processive motors that can walk along actin tracks as single molecules. In contrast to the positive regulation of Myo2p and Myo52p, Cdc8p and the mammalian tropomyosins potently inhibited skeletal muscle myosin-II, while having negligible effects on the highly processive mammalian myosin-Va. In support of a conserved role for certain tropomyosins in regulating non-muscle actomyosin structures, Tpm3.1cy supported normal contractile ring function in fission yeast. Our work reveals that actomyosin regulation by tropomyosin is dependent on the myosin isoform, highlighting a general role for specific isoforms of tropomyosin in sorting myosin motor outputs. PMID:25712463

  3. Phosphate and ADP differently inhibit coordinated smooth muscle myosin groups.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Mackey, Michael C; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 μm. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ≈150 nm average length in vivo--suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (ν) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ν and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state. PMID:25650929

  4. ATPase kinetics on activation of rabbit and frog permeabilized isometric muscle fibres: a real time phosphate assay.

    PubMed Central

    He, Z H; Chillingworth, R K; Brune, M; Corrie, J E; Trentham, D R; Webb, M R; Ferenczi, M A

    1997-01-01

    1. The rate of appearance of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and hence the ATPase activity of rabbit psoas muscle in single permeabilized muscle fibres initially in rigor was measured following laser flash photolysis of the P3-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ester of ATP (NPE-caged ATP) in the presence and absence of Ca2+. Pi appearance was monitored from the fluorescence signal of a Pi-sensitive probe, MDCC-PBP, a coumarin-labelled A197C mutant of the phosphate-binding protein from Escherichia coli. Fibres were immersed in oil to optimize the fluorescence signal and to obviate diffusion problems. The ATPase activity was also measured under similar conditions from the rate of NADH disappearance using an NADH-linked coupled enzyme assay. 2. On photolysis of NPE-caged ATP in the presence of Ca2+ at 20 degrees C, the fluorescence increase of MDCC-PBP was non-linear with time. ATPase activity was 41 s-1 in the first turnover based on a myosin subfragment 1 concentration of 150 microM. This was calculated from a linear regression of the fluorescence signal reporting 20-150 microM of Pi release. Tension was at 67% of its isometric level by the time 150 microM Pi was released. ATPase activities were 36 and 31 s-1 for Pi released in the ranges of 150-300 microM and 300-450 microM, respectively. The ATPase activity had a Q10 value of 2.9 based on measurements at 5, 12 and 20 degrees C. 3. An NADH-linked assay showed the ATPase activity had a lower limit of 12.7 s-1 at 20 degrees C. The response to photolytic release of ADP showed that the rate of NADH disappearance was partially limited by the flux through the coupled reactions. Simulations indicated that the linked assay data were consistent with an initial ATPase activity of 40 s-1. 4. On photolysis of NPE-caged ATP in the absence of Ca2+ the ATPase activity was 0.11 s-1 at 20 degrees C with no discernible rapid transient phase of Pi release during the first turnover of the ATPase. 5. To avoid the rigor state, the ATPase rate in the

  5. N-Terminus of Cardiac Myosin Essential Light Chain Modulates Myosin Step-Size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2016-01-12

    Muscle myosin cyclically hydrolyzes ATP to translate actin. Ventricular cardiac myosin (βmys) moves actin with three distinct unitary step-sizes resulting from its lever-arm rotation and with step-frequencies that are modulated in a myosin regulation mechanism. The lever-arm associated essential light chain (vELC) binds actin by its 43 residue N-terminal extension. Unitary steps were proposed to involve the vELC N-terminal extension with the 8 nm step engaging the vELC/actin bond facilitating an extra ∼19 degrees of lever-arm rotation while the predominant 5 nm step forgoes vELC/actin binding. A minor 3 nm step is the unlikely conversion of the completed 5 to the 8 nm step. This hypothesis was tested using a 17 residue N-terminal truncated vELC in porcine βmys (Δ17βmys) and a 43 residue N-terminal truncated human vELC expressed in transgenic mouse heart (Δ43αmys). Step-size and step-frequency were measured using the Qdot motility assay. Both Δ17βmys and Δ43αmys had significantly increased 5 nm step-frequency and coincident loss in the 8 nm step-frequency compared to native proteins suggesting the vELC/actin interaction drives step-size preference. Step-size and step-frequency probability densities depend on the relative fraction of truncated vELC and relate linearly to pure myosin species concentrations in a mixture containing native vELC homodimer, two truncated vELCs in the modified homodimer, and one native and one truncated vELC in the heterodimer. Step-size and step-frequency, measured for native homodimer and at two or more known relative fractions of truncated vELC, are surmised for each pure species by using a new analytical method. PMID:26671638

  6. ATP, uncomplexed by divalent cations, and the LC2 light chain are interdependent modifiers of the skeletal actomyosin MgATPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Pemrick, S M; Martinez, P A

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of troponin and tropomyosin, skeletal actomyosin MgATPase activity can be altered by 2-3-fold by divalent cations. The 'sign' of this effect (i.e. inhibition or activation) varies with ionic strength. To investigate the mechanism, P(i) liberation was analysed at both low and high ionic strength with three concentrations of MgATP and over a wide range of Mg2+ concentrations. This procedure separated the effects of two dependent variables, Mg2+ and ATP4-/3- (ATPfree), to provide the following observations. (1) ATPfree, not Mg2+ (nor Ca2+), was the modifier. (2) ATPfree was an activator at low ionic strength and an inhibitor at high ionic strength, with half-maximal activation/inhibition occurring between 0.75 and 0.8 mM-ATPfree. (3) The rate constants controlling Vmax. with respect to actin were increased up to 3-fold by ATPfree at low ionic strength, and decreased up to 3-fold by ATPfree at high ionic strength. (4) The effect of ATPfree required near-native levels of the LC2 light chain bound to myosin (i.e. 2 mol of LC2/mol of myosin). (5) Sensitivity of P(i) liberation to a 50% decrease in the LC2 content of myosin required high ATPfree concentrations. It is concluded that LC2 and ATPfree are interdependent, non-additive, modifiers of MgATPase. These results are consistent with thin filament regulation of skeletal muscle contraction, and begin to explain why both positive and negative effects on MgATPase have been attributed to LC2. PMID:1835841

  7. Myofibrillar ATPase activity in skinned human skeletal muscle fibres: fibre type and temperature dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, G J; Kiers, J L; Bottinelli, R; Reggiani, C

    1996-01-01

    1. Myofibrillar ATP consumption and isometric tension (P0) were determined in chemically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from human rectus abdominis and vastus lateralis muscle. Fibres were classified in four groups (I, IIA, IIB, IIA/B or mixed) based on myosin heavy chain composition. 2. ATP consumption (+/- S.E.M.) at 20 degrees C varied from 0.41 +/- 0.06 mmol l-1 s-1 in type IIB fibres (n = 5) to 0.10 +/- 0.01 mmol l-1 s-1 in type I fibres (n = 13). 3. The ratio between ATPase activity and P0 (tension cost) differed significantly between fast type II and slow type I fibres. At 12 degrees C tension cost was lower than the values found previously in corresponding fibre types in the rat. 4. The relative increase in ATPase activity for a 10 degrees C temperature change (Q10), determined in the range from 12 to 30 degrees C, was temperature independent and amounted to 2.60 +/- 0.06. The increase in P0 with temperature was smaller and declined when the temperature increased. 5. From these measurements, estimates were obtained for the maximum rate of isometric ATP consumption and force development at muscle temperature in vivo (35 degrees C). Images Figure 1 PMID:8782097

  8. A dichotomy in cortical actin and chemotactic actin activity between human memory and naive T cells contributes to their differential susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifeng; Guo, Jia; Yu, Dongyang; Vorster, Paul J; Chen, WanJun; Wu, Yuntao

    2012-10-12

    Human memory and naive CD4 T cells can mainly be identified by the reciprocal expression of the CD45RO or CD45RA isoforms. In HIV-1 infection, blood CD45RO memory CD4 T cells are preferentially infected and serve as a major viral reservoir. The molecular mechanism dictating this differential susceptibility to HIV-1 remains largely obscure. Here, we report that the different susceptibility of memory and naive T cells to HIV is not determined by restriction factors such as Apobec3G or BST2. However, we observed a phenotypic distinction between human CD45RO and CD45RA resting CD4 T cells in their cortical actin density and actin dynamics. CD45RO CD4 T cells possess a higher cortical actin density and can be distinguished as CD45RO(+)Actin(high). In contrast, CD45RA T cells are phenotypically CD45RA(+)Actin(low). In addition, the cortical actin in CD45RO memory CD4 T cells is more dynamic and can respond to low dosages of chemotactic induction by SDF-1, whereas that of naive cells cannot, despite a similar level of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 present on both cells. We further demonstrate that this difference in the cortical actin contributes to their differential susceptibility to HIV-1; resting memory but not naive T cells are highly responsive to HIV-mediated actin dynamics that promote higher levels of viral entry and early DNA synthesis in resting memory CD4 T cells. Furthermore, transient induction of actin dynamics in resting naive T cells rescues HIV latent infection following CD3/CD28 stimulation. These results suggest a key role of chemotactic actin activity in facilitating HIV-1 latent infection of these T cell subsets. PMID:22879601

  9. Simulations of the myosin II motor reveal a nucleotide-state sensing element that controls the recovery stroke.

    PubMed

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, Stefan

    2006-08-18

    During the recovery stroke, the myosin motor is primed for the next power stroke by a 60 degree rotation of its lever arm. This reversible motion is coupled to the activation of the ATPase function of myosin through conformational changes along the relay helix, which runs from the Switch-2 loop near the ATP to the converter domain carrying the lever arm. Via a hydrogen bond between the side-chain of Asn475 on the relay helix and the Gly457/Ser456 peptide group on the Switch-2, the rotation of the converter domain is coupled to the formation of a hydrogen bond between Gly457 and gamma-phosphate that is essential for ATP hydrolysis. Here, molecular dynamics simulations of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II in the two end conformations of the recovery stroke with different nucleotide states (ATP, ADP x Pi, ADP) reveal that the side-chain of Asn475 breaks away from Switch-2 upon ATP hydrolysis to make a hydrogen bond with Tyr573. This sensing of the nucleotide state is achieved by a small displacement of the cleaved gamma-phosphate towards Gly457 which in turn pushes Asn475 away. The sensing plays a dual role by (i) preventing the wasteful reversal of the recovery stroke while the nucleotide is in the ADP x Pi state, and (ii) decoupling the relay helix from Switch-2, thus allowing the power stroke to start upon initial binding to actin while Gly457 of Switch-2 keeps interacting with the Pi (known to be released only later after tight actin binding). A catalytically important salt bridge between Arg238 (on Switch-1) and Glu459 (on Switch-2), which covers the hydrolysis site, is seen to form rapidly when ATP is added to the pre-recovery stroke conformer and remains stable after the recovery stroke, indicating that it has a role in shaping the ATP binding site by induced fit. PMID:16859703

  10. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  11. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael

    2016-08-01

    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  12. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  13. Arginylation of myosin heavy chain regulates skeletal muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Cornachione, Anabelle S.; Leite, Felipe S.; Wang, Junling; Leu, Nicolae A.; Kalganov, Albert; Volgin, Denys; Han, Xuemei; Xu, Tao; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Yates, John R. R.; Rassier, Dilson E.; Kashina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginylation is a post-translational modification with an emerging global role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. To test the role of arginylation in the skeletal muscle, we generated a mouse model with Ate1 knockout driven by skeletal muscle-specific creatine kinase (Ckmm) promoter. Such Ckmm-Ate1 mice were viable and outwardly normal, however their skeletal muscle strength was significantly reduced compared to the control. Mass spectrometry of the isolated skeletal myofibrils showed a limited set of proteins arginylated on specific sites, including myosin heavy chain. Atomic force microscopy measurements of the contractile strength in individual myofibrils and isolated myosin filaments from these mice showed a significant reduction of contractile forces, which, in the case of the myosin filaments could be fully rescued by re-arginylation with purified Ate1. Our results demonstrate that arginylation regulates force production in the muscle and exerts a direct effect on muscle strength through arginylation of myosin. PMID:25017061

  14. Kinetic Adaptations of Myosins for Their Diverse Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-08-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are involved in all aspects of eukaryotic life. Their function ranges from the transport of organelles and cargos to the generation of membrane tension, and the contraction of muscle. The diversity of physiological functions is remarkable, given that all enzymatically active myosins follow a conserved mechanoenzymatic cycle in which the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate is coupled to either actin-based transport or tethering of actin to defined cellular compartments. Kinetic capacities and limitations of a myosin are determined by the extent to which actin can accelerate the hydrolysis of ATP and the release of the hydrolysis products and are indispensably linked to its physiological tasks. This review focuses on kinetic competencies that - together with structural adaptations - result in myosins with unique mechanoenzymatic properties targeted to their diverse cellular functions. PMID:26929436

  15. Dual role of myosin II during Drosophila imaginal disc metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Silvia; Escudero, Luis M; Freeman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The motor protein non-muscle myosin II is a major driver of the movements that sculpt three-dimensional organs from two-dimensional epithelia. The machinery of morphogenesis is well established but the logic of its control remains unclear in complex organs. Here we use live imaging and ex vivo culture to report a dual role of myosin II in regulating the development of the Drosophila wing. First, myosin II drives the contraction of a ring of cells that surround the squamous peripodial epithelium, providing the force to fold the whole disc through about 90°. Second, myosin II is needed to allow the squamous cells to expand and then retract at the end of eversion. The combination of genetics and live imaging allows us to describe and understand the tissue dynamics, and the logic of force generation needed to transform a relatively simple imaginal disc into a more complex and three-dimensional adult wing. PMID:23612302

  16. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction

    PubMed Central

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  17. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  18. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  19. Melanophilin Stimulates Myosin-5a Motor Function by Allosterically Inhibiting the Interaction between the Head and Tail of Myosin-5a

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Cao, Qing-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Yang; Li, Xiang-dong

    2015-01-01

    The tail-inhibition model is generally accepted for the regulation of myosin-5a motor function. Inhibited myosin-5a is in a folded conformation in which its globular tail domain (GTD) interacts with its head and inhibits its motor function, and high Ca2+ or cargo binding may reduce the interaction between the GTD and the head of myosin-5a, thus activating motor activity. Although it is well established that myosin-5a motor function is regulated by Ca2+, little is known about the effects of cargo binding. We previously reported that melanophilin (Mlph), a myosin-5a cargo-binding protein, is capable of activating myosin-5a motor function. Here, we report that Mlph-GTBDP, a 26 amino-acid-long peptide of Mlph, is sufficient for activating myosin-5a motor function. We demonstrate that Mlph-GTBDP abolishes the interaction between the head and GTD of myosin-5a, thereby inducing a folded-to-extended conformation transition for myosin-5a and activating its motor function. Mutagenesis of the GTD shows that the GTD uses two distinct, non-overlapping regions to interact with Mlph-GTBDP and the head of myosin-5a. We propose that the GTD is an allosteric protein and that Mlph allosterically inhibits the interaction between the GTD and head of myosin-5a, thereby activating myosin-5a motor function. PMID:26039755

  20. Does phosphate release limit the ATPases of soleus myofibrils? Evidence that (A)M. ADP.Pi states predominate on the cross-bridge cycle.

    PubMed

    Iorga, Bogdan; Candau, Robin; Travers, Franck; Barman, Tom; Lionne, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    The ATPases (+/-Ca2+) of myofibrils from rabbit soleus (a slow muscle) and psoas (a fast muscle) have different Ea: -Ca2+, 78 and 60 kJ/mol and +Ca2+, 155 and 71 kJ/mol, respectively. At physiological temperatures, the two types of myofibrillar ATPase are very similar and yet the mechanical properties of the muscles are different (Candau et al. (2003) Biophys J 85: 3132-3141). Muscle contraction relies on specific interactions of the different chemical states on the myosin head ATPase pathway with the thin filament. An explanation for the Ea data is that different states populate the pathways of the two types of myofibril because the rate limiting steps are different. Here, we put this to the test by a comparison of the transient kinetics of the initial steps of the ATPases of the two types of myofibril at 4 degrees C. We used two methods: rapid flow quench ('cold ATP chase': titration of active sites, ATP binding kinetics, k(cat); 'Pi burst': ATP cleavage kinetics) and fluorescence stopped-flow (MDCC-phosphate binding protein for free Pi; myofibrillar tryptophan fluorescence for myosin head-thin filament detachment and ATP cleavage kinetics). We find that, as with psoas myofibrils, the most populated state on the cross-bridge cycle of soleus myofibrils, whether relaxed or activated, is (A)M.ADP.Pi. We propose a reaction pathway that includes several (A)M.ADP.Pi sub-states that are either 'weak' or 'strong', depending on the mechanical condition. PMID:15548866

  1. Contribution of myosin II activity to cell spreading dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nisenholz, Noam; Paknikar, Aishwarya; Köster, Sarah; Zemel, Assaf

    2016-01-14

    Myosin II activity and actin polymerization at the leading edge of the cell are known to be essential sources of cellular stress. However, a quantitative account of their separate contributions is still lacking; so is the influence of the coupling between the two phenomena on cell spreading dynamics. We present a simple analytic elastic theory of cell spreading dynamics that quantitatively demonstrates how actin polymerization and myosin activity cooperate in the generation of cellular stress during spreading. Consistent with experiments, myosin activity is assumed to polarize in response to the stresses generated during spreading. The characteristic response time and the overall spreading time are predicted to determine different evolution profiles of cell spreading dynamics. These include, a (regular) monotonic increase of cell projected area with time, a non-monotonic (overshooting) profile with a maximum, and damped oscillatory modes. In addition, two populations of myosin II motors are distinguished based on their location in the lamella; those located above the major adhesion zone at the cell periphery are shown to facilitate spreading whereas those in deeper regions of the lamella are shown to oppose spreading. We demonstrate that the attenuation of myosin activity in the two regions may result in reciprocal effects on spreading. These findings provide important new insight into the function of myosin II motors in the course of spreading. PMID:26481613

  2. Determination of spin-label orientation within the myosin head.

    PubMed Central

    Fajer, P G

    1994-01-01

    Current methods of analyzing EPR spectra of spin-labeled muscle fibers allow the determination of spin-label orientation within the fiber, rather than the orientation of the myosin head itself. In order to describe the orientational distribution of spin labeled myosin heads within the muscle fibers, the orientation of the spin label within the myosin head must be known. The iodoacetamide label orientation in the myosin head was determined to be (16.8 degrees, 28.3 degrees, 4.2 degrees) or (16.6 degrees, 72.0 degrees, 4.3 degrees). These Eulerian angles were obtained from the analysis of EPR spectra of fibers decorated with labeled myosin heads in the absence of ATP, with the assumption that the head's tilt angle is 40 degrees, as observed in a recent EM study [Pollard, T., Bhandari, D., Maupin, P., Wachsstock, D., Weeds, A. & Zot, H. (1993) Biophys. J. 64, 454-471]. Knowledge of spin-label orientation will allow for quantitative determination of myosin head orientation in the various states of the contractile cycle. Images PMID:8302871

  3. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  4. A Perspective on the Role of Myosins as Mechanosensors.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael J; Arpağ, Göker; Tüzel, Erkan; Ostap, E Michael

    2016-06-21

    Cells are dynamic systems that generate and respond to forces over a range of spatial and temporal scales, spanning from single molecules to tissues. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in identifying the molecules and pathways responsible for sensing and transducing mechanical signals to short-term cellular responses and longer-term changes in gene expression, cell identity, and tissue development. In this perspective article, we focus on myosin motors, as they not only function as the primary force generators in well-studied mechanobiological processes, but also act as key mechanosensors in diverse functions including intracellular transport, signaling, cell migration, muscle contraction, and sensory perception. We discuss how the biochemical and mechanical properties of different myosin isoforms are tuned to fulfill these roles in an array of cellular processes, and we highlight the underappreciated diversity of mechanosensing properties within the myosin superfamily. In particular, we use modeling and simulations to make predictions regarding how diversity in force sensing affects the lifetime of the actomyosin bond, the myosin power output, and the ability of myosin to respond to a perturbation in force for several nonprocessive myosin isoforms. PMID:27332116

  5. Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step size

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Ronald S.; Rice, Sarah E.; Wells, Amber L.; Purcell, Thomas J.; Spudich, James A.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. To carry out its cellular functions myosin VI moves toward the pointed end of actin, backward in relation to all other characterized myosins. Myosin V, a motor that moves toward the barbed end of actin, is processive, undergoing multiple catalytic cycles and mechanical advances before it releases from actin. Here we show that myosin VI is also processive by using single molecule motility and optical trapping experiments. Remarkably, myosin VI takes much larger steps than expected, based on a simple lever-arm mechanism, for a myosin with only one light chain in the lever-arm domain. Unlike other characterized myosins, myosin VI stepping is highly irregular with a broad distribution of step sizes. PMID:11707568

  6. Changes in myosin isozyme expression during cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroid rabbits.

    PubMed

    Seiden, D; Srivatsan, M; Navidad, P A

    1989-01-01

    The myosin isozyme distribution in the left ventricle and in the interventricular septum of rabbits was studied after 3, 7, 11, 14 and 21 days of L-thyroxine (500 micrograms/kg/day) administration. Histochemical procedures were employed to identify V1 and V3 by their Ca2+ ATPase activity and their proportions were quantified through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the left ventricle, the subepicardium was the first to show the shift from V3 to V1, followed by the subendocardium. The intermediate region became heterogeneous by 11 days and remained so until 21 days. The right subendocardial and the intermediate regions of the interventricular septum were heterogeneous in the normal rabbit and hyperthyroidism resulted in a shift from V3 to V1 in both the right and left subendocardial regions of the septum. Like the left ventricle, the intermediate region of the interventricular septum remained heterogeneous. Localized accumulations of collagen were seen in all regions of the left ventricle and interventricular septum. From these results we conclude that in thyrotoxic myocardial hypertrophy the isozymic shift from V3 to V1 is progressive, region-specific and is directly correlated with the period of hyperthyroidism in the first 2 weeks. Prolonged hyperthyroidism results in localized accumulation of collagen which does not exhibit any regional specificity. PMID:2528881

  7. Tropomyosin and Myosin-II Cellular Levels Promote Actomyosin Ring Assembly in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Benjamin C.; Sladewski, Thomas E.; Pollard, Luther W.

    2010-01-01

    Myosin-II (Myo2p) and tropomyosin are essential for contractile ring formation and cytokinesis in fission yeast. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to understand how these proteins function at contractile rings. We find that ring assembly is delayed in Myo2p motor and tropomyosin mutants, but occurs prematurely in cells engineered to express two copies of myo2. Thus, the timing of ring assembly responds to changes in Myo2p cellular levels and motor activity, and the emergence of tropomyosin-bound actin filaments. Doubling Myo2p levels suppresses defects in ring assembly associated with a tropomyosin mutant, suggesting a role for tropomyosin in maximizing Myo2p function. Correspondingly, tropomyosin increases Myo2p actin affinity and ATPase activity and promotes Myo2p-driven actin filament gliding in motility assays. Tropomyosin achieves this by favoring the strong actin-bound state of Myo2p. This mode of regulation reflects a role for tropomyosin in specifying and stabilizing actomyosin interactions, which facilitates contractile ring assembly in the fission yeast system. PMID:20110347

  8. Torsin ATPases: structural insights and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laudermilch, Ethan; Schlieker, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Torsin ATPases are the only members of the AAA+ ATPase family that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and contiguous perinuclear space. Accordingly, they are well positioned to perform essential work in these compartments, but their precise functions remain elusive. Recent studies have deciphered an unusual ATPase activation mechanism relying on Torsin-associated transmembrane cofactors, LAP1 or LULL1. These findings profoundly change our molecular view of the Torsin machinery and rationalize several human mutations in TorsinA or LAP1 leading to congenital disorders, symptoms of which have recently been recapitulated in mouse models. Here, we review these recent advances in the Torsin field and discuss the most pressing questions in relation to nuclear envelope dynamics. PMID:26803745

  9. ATPases, ion exchangers and human sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Arias, Rubén D; Vívenes, Carmen Y; Camejo, María I; Piñero, Sandy; Proverbio, Teresa; Martínez, Elizabeth; Marín, Reinaldo; Proverbio, Fulgencio

    2015-05-01

    Human sperm has several mechanisms to control its ionic milieu, such as the Na,K-ATPase (NKA), the Ca-ATPase of the plasma membrane (PMCA), the Na(+)/Ca(2) (+)-exchanger (NCX) and the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE). On the other hand, the dynein-ATPase is the intracellular motor for sperm motility. In this work, we evaluated NKA, PMCA, NHE, NCX and dynein-ATPase activities in human sperm and investigated their correlation with sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis. It was found that the NKA activity is inhibited by ouabain with two Ki (7.9 × 10(-9) and 9.8 × 10(-5) M), which is consistent with the presence of two isoforms of α subunit of the NKA in the sperm plasma membranes (α1 and α4), being α4 more sensitive to ouabain. The decrease in NKA activity is associated with a reduction in sperm motility. In addition, sperm motility was evaluated in the presence of known inhibitors of NHE, PMCA and NCX, such as amiloride, eosin, and KB-R7943, respectively, as well as in the presence of nigericin after incubation with ouabain. Amiloride, eosin and KB-R7943 significantly reduced sperm motility. Nigericin reversed the effect of ouabain and amiloride on sperm motility. Dynein-ATPase activity was inhibited by acidic pH and micromolar concentrations of Ca(2) (+). We explain our results in terms of inhibition of the dynein-ATPase in the presence of higher cytosolic H(+) and Ca(2) (+), and therefore inhibition of sperm motility. PMID:25820902

  10. Continued Expression of Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain in Adult Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandman, Everett

    1985-02-01

    The expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was examined in normal and dystrophic chicken muscle with a monoclonal antibody specific for neonatal myosin. Adult dystrophic muscle continued to contain neonatal myosin long after it disappeared from adult normal muscle. A new technique involving western blotting and peptide mapping demonstrated that the immunoreactive myosin in adult dystrophic muscle was identical to that found in neonatal normal muscle. Immunocytochemistry revealed that all fibers in the dystrophic muscle failed to repress neonatal myosin heavy chain. These studies suggest that muscular dystrophy inhibits the myosin gene switching that normally occurs during muscle maturation.

  11. Aurora kinase A activates the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in kidney carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M; Alzamora, Rodrigo; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Ho, Pei-Yin; Marciszyn, Allison L; Gong, Fan; Li, Hui; Hallows, Kenneth R; Pastor-Soler, Núria M

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular proton-secreting transport systems that contribute to extracellular pH include the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). This pump, which mediates ATP-driven transport of H(+) across membranes, is involved in metastasis. We previously showed (Alzamora R, Thali RF, Gong F, Smolak C, Li H, Baty CJ, Bertrand CA, Auchli Y, Brunisholz RA, Neumann D, Hallows KR, Pastor-Soler NM. J Biol Chem 285: 24676-24685, 2010) that V-ATPase A subunit phosphorylation at Ser-175 is important for PKA-induced V-ATPase activity at the membrane of kidney intercalated cells. However, Ser-175 is also located within a larger phosphorylation consensus sequence for Aurora kinases, which are known to phosphorylate proteins that contribute to the pathogenesis of metastatic carcinomas. We thus hypothesized that Aurora kinase A (AURKA), overexpressed in aggressive carcinomas, regulates the V-ATPase in human kidney carcinoma cells (Caki-2) via Ser-175 phosphorylation. We found that AURKA is abnormally expressed in Caki-2 cells, where it binds the V-ATPase A subunit in an AURKA phosphorylation-dependent manner. Treatment with the AURKA activator anacardic acid increased V-ATPase expression and activity at the plasma membrane of Caki-2 cells. In addition, AURKA phosphorylates the V-ATPase A subunit at Ser-175 in vitro and in Caki-2 cells. Immunolabeling revealed that anacardic acid induced marked membrane accumulation of the V-ATPase A subunit in transfected Caki-2 cells. However, anacardic acid failed to induce membrane accumulation of a phosphorylation-deficient Ser-175-to-Ala (S175A) A subunit mutant. Finally, S175A-expressing cells had decreased migration in a wound-healing assay compared with cells expressing wild-type or a phospho-mimetic Ser-175-to-Asp (S175D) mutant A subunit. We conclude that AURKA activates the V-ATPase in kidney carcinoma cells via phosphorylation of Ser-175 in the V-ATPase A subunit. This regulation contributes to kidney carcinoma V-ATPase-mediated extracellular

  12. Cytoskeletal coherence requires myosin-IIA contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunfei; Rossier, Olivier; Gauthier, Nils C.; Biais, Nicolas; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Zhang, Xian; Miller, Lawrence W.; Ladoux, Benoit; Cornish, Virginia W.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining a physical connection across cytoplasm is crucial for many biological processes such as matrix force generation, cell motility, cell shape and tissue development. However, in the absence of stress fibers, the coherent structure that transmits force across the cytoplasm is not understood. We find that nonmuscle myosin-II (NMII) contraction of cytoplasmic actin filaments establishes a coherent cytoskeletal network irrespective of the nature of adhesive contacts. When NMII activity is inhibited during cell spreading by Rho kinase inhibition, blebbistatin, caldesmon overexpression or NMIIA RNAi, the symmetric traction forces are lost and cell spreading persists, causing cytoplasm fragmentation by membrane tension that results in ‘C’ or dendritic shapes. Moreover, local inactivation of NMII by chromophore-assisted laser inactivation causes local loss of coherence. Actin filament polymerization is also required for cytoplasmic coherence, but microtubules and intermediate filaments are dispensable. Loss of cytoplasmic coherence is accompanied by loss of circumferential actin bundles. We suggest that NMIIA creates a coherent actin network through the formation of circumferential actin bundles that mechanically link elements of the peripheral actin cytoskeleton where much of the force is generated during spreading. PMID:20067993

  13. Tropomyosin-Mediated Regulation of Cytoplasmic Myosins.

    PubMed

    Manstein, Dietmar J; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the actin-based cytoskeleton to rapidly reorganize is critical for maintaining cell organization and viability. The plethora of activities in which actin polymers participate require different biophysical properties, which can vary significantly between the different events that often occur simultaneously at separate cellular locations. In order to modify the biophysical properties of an actin polymer for a particular function, the cell contains diverse actin-binding proteins that modulate the growth, regulation and molecular interactions of actin-based structures according to functional requirements. In metazoan and yeast cells, tropomyosin is a key regulator of actin-based structures. Cells have the capacity to produce multiple tropomyosin isoforms, each capable of specifically associating as copolymers with actin at distinct cellular locations to fine-tune the functional properties of discrete actin structures. Here, we present a unifying theory in which tropomyosin isoforms critically define the surface landscape of copolymers with cytoplasmic β- or γ-actin. Decoration of filamentous actin with different tropomyosin isoforms determines the identity and modulates the activity of the interacting myosin motor proteins. Conversely, changes in the nucleotide state of actin and posttranslational modifications affect the composition, morphology, subcellular localization and allosteric coupling of the associated actin-based superstructures. PMID:27060364

  14. Myosin assembly critical for the enzyme activity of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase: effects of MgATP, ionic strength, and Mg(2+).

    PubMed

    Sato, O; Ogawa, Y

    2001-06-01

    We suggested that an assembled form of phosphorylated myosin (P-myosin) might exhibit higher affinity for smooth muscle myosin phosphatase (SMMP) than dissociated P-myosin on the basis of the effect of MgATP [Sato and Ogawa (1999) J. Biochem. 126, 787-797]. To further deepen our understanding, we examined the SMMP activity and P-myosin assembly with various ionic strengths and Mg(2+) concentrations, with and without MgATP, all of which are well known to be critical for myosin assembly. The structure of myosin molecules was directly observed by electron microscopy using a rotary shadowing procedure, which was found to be consistent with the sedimentation assay. We found that the SMMP activity was always high when P-myosin was assembled. MgATP, which disassembled P-myosin mostly into a folded conformation, in contrast, decreased the enzyme activity. We also found that glycerol had a dissociating action on P-myosin, primarily dissociating it into an extended conformation, resulting in reduced SMMP activity, and that increases in the ionic strength and Mg(2+) (>5 mM) inhibited SMMP. These results indicate that myosin assembly is essential for SMMP activity. PMID:11388902

  15. Arabidopsis myosin XI: a motor rules the tracks.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L; Szymanski, Daniel B; Staiger, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Plant cell expansion relies on intracellular trafficking of vesicles and macromolecules, which requires myosin motors and a dynamic actin network. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myosin XI powers the motility of diverse cellular organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endomembrane vesicles, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. Several recent studies show that there are changes in actin organization and dynamics in myosin xi mutants, indicating that motors influence the molecular tracks they use for transport. However, the mechanism by which actin organization and dynamics are regulated by myosin XI awaits further detailed investigation. Here, using high spatiotemporal imaging of living cells, we quantitatively assessed the architecture and dynamic behavior of cortical actin arrays in a mutant with three Myosin XI (XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K) genes knocked out (xi3KO). In addition to apparent reduction of organ and cell size, the mutant showed less dense and more bundled actin filament arrays in epidermal cells. Furthermore, the overall actin dynamicity was significantly inhibited in the xi3KO mutant. Because cytoskeletal remodeling is contributed mainly by filament assembly/disassembly and translocation/buckling, we also examined the dynamic behavior of individual actin filaments. We found that the xi3KO mutant had significantly decreased actin turnover, with a 2-fold reduction in filament severing frequency. Moreover, quantitative analysis of filament shape change over time revealed that myosin XI generates the force for buckling and straightening of both single actin filaments and actin bundles. Thus, our data provide genetic evidence that three Arabidopsis class XI myosins contribute to actin remodeling by stimulating turnover and generating the force for filament shape change. PMID:25237128

  16. Sans study of spinach CF 1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, P.; Girault, G.; Berger, G.; Galmiche, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    SANS experiments were performed on solutions of spinach chloroplast CF 1-ATPase in heavy water. Removal of the ɛ subunit partially activates the enzyme and further addition of dithiothreitol fully activates it. Molar masses and gyration radii values are given for these different conditions.

  17. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  18. Collective Dynamics of Elastically Coupled Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Krementsova, Elena B.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Diehl, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain. PMID:22718762

  19. Structural Basis for Myosin V Discrimination Between Distinct Cargoes

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkova,N.; Jin, Y.; Ramaswamy, S.; Weisman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin V molecular motors move cargoes on actin filaments. A myosin V may move multiple cargoes to distinct places at different times. The cargoes attach to the globular tail of myosin V via cargo-specific receptors. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 {angstrom} of the myosin V globular tail. The overall tertiary structure has not been previously observed. There are several patches of highly conserved regions distributed on the surface of the tail. These are candidate attachment sites for cargo-specific receptors. Indeed, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are solely required for vacuole inheritance. Likewise, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are required for secretory vesicle movement, but not vacuole movement. These two regions are at opposite ends of the oblong-shaped cargo-binding domain, and moreover are offset by 180{sup o}. The fact that the cargo-binding areas are distant from each other and simultaneously exposed on the surface of the globular tail suggests that major targets for the regulation of cargo attachment are organelle-specific myosin V receptors.

  20. Mammalian SEPT2 is required for scaffolding nonmuscle myosin II and its kinases.

    PubMed

    Joo, Emily; Surka, Mark C; Trimble, William S

    2007-11-01

    Mammalian septin SEPT2 belongs to a conserved family of filamentous GTPases that are associated with actin stress fibers in interphase cells and the contractile ring in dividing cells. Although SEPT2 is essential for cytokinesis, its role in this process remains undefined. Here, we report that SEPT2 directly binds nonmuscle myosin II (myosin II), and this association is important for fully activating myosin II in interphase and dividing cells. Inhibition of the SEPT2-myosin II interaction in interphase cells results in loss of stress fibers, while in dividing cells this causes instability of the ingressed cleavage furrow and dissociation of the myosin II from the Rho-activated myosin kinases ROCK and citron kinase. We propose that SEPT2-containing filaments provide a molecular platform for myosin II and its kinases to ensure the full activation of myosin II that is necessary for the final stages of cytokinesis. PMID:17981136

  1. Functions of plant-specific myosin XI: from intracellular motility to plant postures.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruko; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific protein motor class myosin XI is known to function in rapid bulk flow of the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic streaming) and in organellar movements. Recent studies unveiled a wide range of physiological functions of myosin XI motors, from intracellular motility to organ movements. Arabidopsis thaliana has 13 members of myosin XI class. In vegetative organs, myosins XIk, XI1, and XI2 primarily contribute to dynamics and spatial configurations of endoplasmic reticulum that develops a tubular network in the cell periphery and thick strand-like structures in the inner cell regions. Myosin XI-i forms a nucleocytoplasmic linker and is responsible for nuclear movement and shape. In addition to these intracellular functions, myosin XIf together with myosin XIk is involved in the fundamental nature of plants; the actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton regulates organ straightening to adjust plant posture. PMID:26432645

  2. Association of six YFP-myosin XI-tail fusions with mobile plant cell organelles

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Daniel; Hanson, Maureen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Myosins are molecular motors that carry cargo on actin filaments in eukaryotic cells. Seventeen myosin genes have been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. The myosin genes can be divided into two plant-specific subfamilies, class VIII with four members and class XI with 13 members. Class XI myosins are related to animal and fungal myosin class V that are responsible for movement of particular vesicles and organelles. Organelle localization of only one of the 13 Arabidopsis myosin XI (myosin XI-6; At MYA2), which is found on peroxisomes, has so far been reported. Little information is available concerning the remaining 12 class XI myosins. Results We investigated 6 of the 13 class XI Arabidopsis myosins. cDNAs corresponding to the tail region of 6 myosin genes were generated and incorporated into a vector to encode YFP-myosin tail fusion proteins lacking the motor domain. Chimeric genes incorporating tail regions of myosin XI-5 (At MYA1), myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), myosin XI-8 (At XI-B), myosin XI-15 (At XI-I), myosin XI-16 (At XI-J) and myosin XI-17 (At XI-K) were expressed transiently. All YFP-myosin-tail fusion proteins were targeted to small organelles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.0 μm. Despite the absence of a motor domain, the fluorescently-labeled organelles were motile in most cells. Tail cropping experiments demonstrated that the coiled-coil region was required for specific localization and shorter tail regions were inadequate for targeting. Myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), previously reported to localize to peroxisomes by immunofluorescence, labeled both peroxisomes and vesicles when expressed as a YFP-tail fusion. None of the 6 YFP-myosin tail fusions interacted with chloroplasts, and only one YFP-tail fusion appeared to sometimes co-localize with fluorescent proteins targeted to Golgi and mitochondria. Conclusion 6 myosin XI tails, extending from the coiled-coil region to the C-terminus, label specific vesicles and/or organelles when

  3. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases. PMID:20037196

  4. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Regulates Cell Migration in a Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation-independent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Wen, Cheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hua-Qun; Ye, An-Pei; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration. PMID:25122766

  5. Dictyostelium discoideum myoJ: a member of a broadly defined myosin V class or a class XI unconventional myosin?

    PubMed

    Peterson, M D; Urioste, A S; Titus, M A

    1996-08-01

    The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum contains at least 12 unconventional myosin genes. Here we report the characterization of one of these, myoJ, a gene initially identified through a physical mapping screen. The myoJ gene encodes a high molecular weight myosin, and analysis of the available deduced amino acid sequence reveals that it possesses six IQ motifs and sequences typical of alpha helical coiled coils in the tail region. Therefore, myoJ is predicted to exist as a dimer with up to 12 associated light chains (six per heavy chain). The 7.8 kb myoJ mRNA is expressed all throughout the life cycle of D. discoideum. The myoJ gene has been disrupted and a phenotypic analysis of the mutant cells initiated. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the head region reveals that myoJ is most similar to two plant myosin genes, Arabidopsis MYA1 and MYA2, that have been alternatively suggested to be either members of the myosin V class or founding members of the myosin XI class. PMID:8884597

  6. Leveraging the membrane-cytoskeleton interface with myosin-1

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Russell E.; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 myosins are small motor proteins with the ability to simultaneously bind to actin filaments and cellular membranes. Given their ability to generate mechanical force, and their high prevalence in many cell types, these molecules are well positioned to carry out a number of important biological functions at the interface of membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, recent studies implicate these motors in endocytosis, exocytosis, release of extracellular vesicles, and the regulation of tension between membrane and the cytoskeleton. Many class 1 myosins also exhibit a load-dependent mechano-chemical cycle that enables them to maintain tension for long periods of time without hydrolyzing ATP. These properties put myosins-1 in a unique position to regulate dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and respond to physical forces during these events. PMID:20471271

  7. Diverse functions of myosin VI elucidated by an isoform-specific α-helix domain.

    PubMed

    Wollscheid, Hans-Peter; Biancospino, Matteo; He, Fahu; Magistrati, Elisa; Molteni, Erika; Lupia, Michela; Soffientini, Paolo; Rottner, Klemens; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mapelli, Marina; Walters, Kylie J; Polo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Myosin VI functions in endocytosis and cell motility. Alternative splicing of myosin VI mRNA generates two distinct isoform types, myosin VIshort and myosin VIlong, which differ in the C-terminal region. Their physiological and pathological roles remain unknown. Here we identified an isoform-specific regulatory helix, named the α2-linker, that defines specific conformations and hence determines the target selectivity of human myosin VI. The presence of the α2-linker structurally defines a new clathrin-binding domain that is unique to myosin VIlong and masks the known RRL interaction motif. This finding is relevant to ovarian cancer, in which alternative myosin VI splicing is aberrantly regulated, and exon skipping dictates cell addiction to myosin VIshort in tumor-cell migration. The RRL interactor optineurin contributes to this process by selectively binding myosin VIshort. Thus, the α2-linker acts like a molecular switch that assigns myosin VI to distinct endocytic (myosin VIlong) or migratory (myosin VIshort) functional roles. PMID:26950368

  8. Expression, Splicing, and Evolution of the Myosin Gene Family in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mockler, Todd C.; Filichkin, Sergei A.; Fox, Samuel E.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2011-01-01

    Plants possess two myosin classes, VIII and XI. The myosins XI are implicated in organelle transport, filamentous actin organization, and cell and plant growth. Due to the large size of myosin gene families, knowledge of these molecular motors remains patchy. Using deep transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics, we systematically investigated myosin genes in two model plants, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon). We improved myosin gene models and found that myosin genes undergo alternative splicing. We experimentally validated the gene models for Arabidopsis myosin XI-K, which plays the principal role in cell interior dynamics, as well as for its Brachypodium ortholog. We showed that the Arabidopsis gene dubbed HDK (for headless derivative of myosin XI-K), which emerged through a partial duplication of the XI-K gene, is developmentally regulated. A gene with similar architecture was also found in Brachypodium. Our analyses revealed two predominant patterns of myosin gene expression, namely pollen/stamen-specific and ubiquitous expression throughout the plant. We also found that several myosins XI can be rhythmically expressed. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the last common ancestor of the angiosperms possessed two myosins VIII and five myosins XI, many of which underwent additional lineage-specific duplications. PMID:21233331

  9. Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicola; Hamilton, Graham; Wilkes, Jonathan M; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Barrett, Michael P; Horn, David

    2015-07-21

    Kinetoplastid parasites cause lethal diseases in humans and animals. The kinetoplast itself contains the mitochondrial genome, comprising a huge, complex DNA network that is also an important drug target. Isometamidium, for example, is a key veterinary drug that accumulates in the kinetoplast in African trypanosomes. Kinetoplast independence and isometamidium resistance are observed where certain mutations in the F1-γ-subunit of the two-sector F1Fo-ATP synthase allow for Fo-independent generation of a mitochondrial membrane potential. To further explore kinetoplast biology and drug resistance, we screened a genome-scale RNA interference library in African trypanosomes for isometamidium resistance mechanisms. Our screen identified 14 V-ATPase subunits and all 4 adaptin-3 subunits, implicating acidic compartment defects in resistance; V-ATPase acidifies lysosomes and related organelles, whereas adaptin-3 is responsible for trafficking among these organelles. Independent strains with depleted V-ATPase or adaptin-3 subunits were isometamidium resistant, and chemical inhibition of the V-ATPase phenocopied this effect. While drug accumulation in the kinetoplast continued after V-ATPase subunit depletion, acriflavine-induced kinetoplast loss was specifically tolerated in these cells and in cells depleted for adaptin-3 or endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunits, also identified in our screen. Consistent with kinetoplast dispensability, V-ATPase defective cells were oligomycin resistant, suggesting ATP synthase uncoupling and bypass of the normal Fo-A6-subunit requirement; this subunit is the only kinetoplast-encoded product ultimately required for viability in bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Thus, we describe 30 genes and 3 protein complexes associated with kinetoplast-dependent growth. Mutations affecting these genes could explain natural cases of dyskinetoplasty and multidrug resistance. Our results also reveal potentially conserved communication between the

  10. Myopathy-causing Q147P TPM2 mutation shifts tropomyosin strands further towards the open position and increases the proportion of strong-binding cross-bridges during the ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Karpicheva, Olga E; Simonyan, Armen O; Kuleva, Nadezhda V; Redwood, Charles S; Borovikov, Yurii S

    2016-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction in congenital myopathies remain unclear. The present study examines the effect of a myopathy-causing mutation Q147P in β-tropomyosin on the position of tropomyosin on troponin-free filaments and on the actin–myosin interaction at different stages of the ATP hydrolysis cycle using the technique of polarized fluorimetry. Wild-type and Q147P recombinant tropomyosins, actin, and myosin subfragment-1 were modified by 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS or FITC-phalloidin, and 1,5-IAEDANS, respectively, and incorporated into single ghost muscle fibers, containing predominantly actin filaments which were free of troponin and tropomyosin. Despite its reduced affinity for actin in co-sedimentation assay, the Q147P mutant incorporates into the muscle fiber. However, compared to wild-type tropomyosin, it locates closer to the center of the actin filament. The mutant tropomyosin increases the proportion of the strong-binding myosin heads and disrupts the co-operation of actin and myosin heads during the ATPase cycle. These changes are likely to underlie the contractile abnormalities caused by this mutation. PMID:26708479

  11. The parietal cell gastric H, K-ATPase also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump) seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump) and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump) depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM) fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg)-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF), the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg)-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM) shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM) and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump. PMID:24555080

  12. The parietal cell gastric H, K-ATPase also functions as the Na, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in altered states

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an explanation for the apparent lack of Na, K-ATPase activity in parietal cells although ouabain has been known to inhibit gastric acid secretion since 1962. The gastric H, K-ATPase (proton-pump) seems to be acting in altered states, thus behaving like a Na, K-ATPase (Na-pump) and/or Ca-ATPase (Ca-pump) depending on cellular needs.  This conclusion is based on the following findings. First, parietal cell fractions do not exhibit Na, K-ATPase activity at pH 7.0 but do at pH 8.5. Second, the apical plasma membrane (APM) fraction exhibits a (Ca or Mg)-ATPase activity with negligible H, K-ATPase activity. However, when assayed with Mg alone in presence of the 80 k Da cytosolic proton-pump activator (HAF), the APM fraction reveals remarkably high H, K-ATPase activity, suggesting the observed low affinity of Ca (or Mg)-ATPase is an altered state of the latter. Third, calcium (between 1 and 4 µM) shows both stimulation and inhibition of the HAF-stimulated H, K-ATPase depending on its concentration, revealing a close interaction between the  proton-pump activator and local Ca concentration in gastric H, K-ATPase function. Such interactions suggest that Ca is acting as a terminal member of the intracellular signaling system for the HAF-regulated proton-pump. It appears that during resting state, the HAF-associated H, K-ATPase remains inhibited by Ca (>1 µM) and, prior to resumption of acid secretion the gastric H, K-ATPase acts temporarily as a Ca-pump for removing excess Ca from its immediate environment. This conclusion is consistent with the recent reports of immunochemical co-localization of the gastric H, K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase by superimposition in parietal cells, and a transitory efflux of Ca immediately preceding the onset of acid secretion. These new perspectives on proton-pump function would open new avenues for a fuller understanding of the intracellular regulation of the ubiquitous Na-pump. PMID:24555080

  13. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases. PMID:25631710

  14. The heavy chain has its day

    PubMed Central

    Dulyaninova, Natalya G; Bresnick, Anne R

    2013-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin-II is an actin-based motor that converts chemical energy into force and movement, and thus functions as a key regulator of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Although it is established that phosphorylation on the regulatory light chain increases the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the motor and promotes myosin-II filament assembly, studies have begun to characterize alternative mechanisms that regulate filament assembly and disassembly. These investigations have revealed that all three nonmuscle myosin-II isoforms are subject to additional regulatory controls, which impact diverse cellular processes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the oligomerization state of nonmuscle myosin-II filaments by targeting the myosin heavy chain. PMID:24002531

  15. Computational Classification of P-Type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Dan; Knudsen, Michael; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of sequence data is inevitable in modern molecular biology, and important information about for example proteins can be inferred efficiently using computational methods. Here, we explain how to use the information in freely available databases together with computational methods for classification and motif detection to assess whether a protein sequence corresponds to a P-type ATPase (and if so, which subtype) or not. PMID:26695056

  16. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  17. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  18. Myosin-I molecular motors at a glance.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Betsy B; Ostap, E Michael

    2016-07-15

    Myosin-I molecular motors are proposed to play various cellular roles related to membrane dynamics and trafficking. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we review and illustrate the proposed cellular functions of metazoan myosin-I molecular motors by examining the structural, biochemical, mechanical and cell biological evidence for their proposed molecular roles. We highlight evidence for the roles of myosin-I isoforms in regulating membrane tension and actin architecture, powering plasma membrane and organelle deformation, participating in membrane trafficking, and functioning as a tension-sensitive dock or tether. Collectively, myosin-I motors have been implicated in increasingly complex cellular phenomena, yet how a single isoform accomplishes multiple types of molecular functions is still an active area of investigation. To fully understand the underlying physiology, it is now essential to piece together different approaches of biological investigation. This article will appeal to investigators who study immunology, metabolic diseases, endosomal trafficking, cell motility, cancer and kidney disease, and to those who are interested in how cellular membranes are coupled to the underlying actin cytoskeleton in a variety of different applications. PMID:27401928

  19. Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kull, F. Jon; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss mechanisms of motor force transduction, based on their mechanochemical cycles and conformational changes observed in crystal structures. Distortion or twisting of the central β-sheet – proposed to trigger actin-induced Pi and ADP release by myosin, and microtubule-induced ADP release by kinesins – is shown in a movie depicting the transition between myosin ATP-like and nucleotide-free states. Structural changes in the switch I region form a tube that governs ATP hydrolysis and Pi release by the motors, explaining the essential role of switch I in hydrolysis. Comparison of the motor power strokes reveals that each stroke begins with the force-amplifying structure oriented opposite to the direction of rotation or swing. Motors undergo changes in their mechanochemical cycles in response to small-molecule inhibitors, several of which bind to kinesins by induced fit, trapping the motors in a state that resembles a force-producing conformation. An unusual motor activator specifically increases mechanical output by cardiac myosin, potentially providing valuable information about its mechanism of function. Further study is essential to understand motor mechanochemical coupling and energy transduction, and could lead to new therapies to treat human disease. PMID:23487037

  20. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Tony D; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s(-1). PMID:24240432

  1. Force Generation by Membrane-Associated Myosin-I

    PubMed Central

    Pyrpassopoulos, Serapion; Arpağ, Göker; Feeser, Elizabeth A.; Shuman, Henry; Tüzel, Erkan; Ostap, E. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate myosin-IC (Myo1c) is a type-1 myosin that links cell membranes to the cytoskeleton via its actin-binding motor domain and its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2)-binding tail domain. While it is known that Myo1c bound to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in fluid-lipid bilayers can propel actin filaments in an unloaded motility assay, its ability to develop forces against external load on actin while bound to fluid bilayers has not been explored. Using optical tweezers, we measured the diffusion coefficient of single membrane-bound Myo1c molecules by force-relaxation experiments, and the ability of ensembles of membrane-bound Myo1c molecules to develop and sustain forces. To interpret our results, we developed a computational model that recapitulates the basic features of our experimental ensemble data and suggests that Myo1c ensembles can generate forces parallel to lipid bilayers, with larger forces achieved when the myosin works away from the plane of the membrane or when anchored to slowly diffusing regions. PMID:27156719

  2. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Tony D.; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells1 and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2. High processivity — the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating3 — is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances of microns in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins4,5 are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads6–8. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (i) formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins; and (ii) introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both the forward and backward direction, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured to date, reaching a speed of 10 μm/s. PMID:24240432

  3. Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Kull, F Jon; Endow, Sharyn A

    2013-01-01

    Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss mechanisms of motor force transduction, based on their mechanochemical cycles and conformational changes observed in crystal structures. Distortion or twisting of the central β-sheet - proposed to trigger actin-induced Pi and ADP release by myosin, and microtubule-induced ADP release by kinesins - is shown in a movie depicting the transition between myosin ATP-like and nucleotide-free states. Structural changes in the switch I region form a tube that governs ATP hydrolysis and Pi release by the motors, explaining the essential role of switch I in hydrolysis. Comparison of the motor power strokes reveals that each stroke begins with the force-amplifying structure oriented opposite to the direction of rotation or swing. Motors undergo changes in their mechanochemical cycles in response to small-molecule inhibitors, several of which bind to kinesins by induced fit, trapping the motors in a state that resembles a force-producing conformation. An unusual motor activator specifically increases mechanical output by cardiac myosin, potentially providing valuable information about its mechanism of function. Further study is essential to understand motor mechanochemical coupling and energy transduction, and could lead to new therapies to treat human disease. PMID:23487037

  4. Engineering myosins for long-range transport on actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Tony D.; Chen, Lu; Lebel, Paul; Nakamura, Muneaki; Bryant, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors act as cargo transporters in cells and may be harnessed for directed transport applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. High processivity, the ability to take many steps along a track before dissociating, is often a desirable characteristic because it allows nanoscale motors to transport cargoes over distances on the scale of micrometres, in vivo and in vitro. Natural processive myosins are dimeric and use internal tension to coordinate the detachment cycles of the two heads. Here, we show that processivity can be enhanced in engineered myosins using two non-natural strategies designed to optimize the effectiveness of random, uncoordinated stepping: (1) the formation of three-headed and four-headed myosins and (2) the introduction of flexible elements between heads. We quantify improvements using systematic single-molecule characterization of a panel of engineered motors. To test the modularity of our approach, we design a controllably bidirectional myosin that is robustly processive in both forward and backward directions, and also produce the fastest processive cytoskeletal motor measured so far, reaching a speed of 10 µm s-1.

  5. Model of Rho-Mediated Myosin Recruitment to the Cleavage Furrow during Cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Alexander; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2010-03-01

    The formation and constriction of the contractile ring during cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, depends on the recruitment of motor protein myosin to the cell's equatorial region. During cytokinesis, the myosin attached to the cell's cortex progressively disassembles at the flanking regions and concentrates in the equator [1]. This recruitment depends on myosin motor activity and activation by Rho proteins. Central spindle and astral microtubules establish a spatial pattern of differential Rho activity [2]. We propose a reaction-diffusion model for the dynamics of myosin and Rho proteins during cytokinesis. In the model, the mitotic spindle activates Rho at the equator. Active Rho promotes, in a switch-like manner, myosin assembly into cortical minifilaments. Mechanical stress by cortical myosin causes disassembly of myosin minifilaments and deactivates Rho. Our results explain both the recruitment of myosin to the cleavage furrow and the observed damped myosin oscillations in the cell's flanking regions [1]. Spatial extent, period and decay rate of myosin oscillations are calculated. Various regimes of myosin recruitment are predicted. [1] Zhou & Wang, Mol. Biol. Cell 19:318 (2008) [2] Murthy & Wadsworth, J. Cell Sci. 121:2350 (2008)

  6. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  7. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  8. The myosin X motor is optimized for movement on actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Virginie; Yang, Zhaohui; Isabet, Tatiana; Blanc, Florian; Zhou, Kaifeng; Lin, Tianming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hissier, Pascale; Samazan, Frédéric; Amigues, Béatrice; Yang, Eric D; Park, Hyokeun; Pylypenko, Olena; Cecchini, Marco; Sindelar, Charles V; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Myosin X has features not found in other myosins. Its structure must underlie its unique ability to generate filopodia, which are essential for neuritogenesis, wound healing, cancer metastasis and some pathogenic infections. By determining high-resolution structures of key components of this motor, and characterizing the in vitro behaviour of the native dimer, we identify the features that explain the myosin X dimer behaviour. Single-molecule studies demonstrate that a native myosin X dimer moves on actin bundles with higher velocities and takes larger steps than on single actin filaments. The largest steps on actin bundles are larger than previously reported for artificially dimerized myosin X constructs or any other myosin. Our model and kinetic data explain why these large steps and high velocities can only occur on bundled filaments. Thus, myosin X functions as an antiparallel dimer in cells with a unique geometry optimized for movement on actin bundles. PMID:27580874

  9. Molecular mechanism regulating myosin and cardiac functions by ELC.

    PubMed

    Lossie, Janine; Köhncke, Clemens; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Steffen, Walter; Canepari, Monica; Maffei, Manuela; Taube, Martin; Larchevêque, Oriane; Baumert, Philipp; Haase, Hannelore; Bottinelli, Roberto; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Morano, Ingo

    2014-07-18

    The essential myosin light chain (ELC) is involved in modulation of force generation of myosin motors and cardiac contraction, while its mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that ELC could modulate myosin stiffness which subsequently determines its force production and cardiac contraction. Therefore, we generated heterologous transgenic mouse (TgM) strains with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of ELC with human ventricular ELC (hVLC-1; TgM(hVLC-1)) or E56G-mutated hVLC-1 (hVLC-1(E56G); TgM(E56G)). hVLC-1 or hVLC-1(E56G) expression in TgM was around 39% and 41%, respectively of total VLC-1. Laser trap and in vitro motility assays showed that stiffness and actin sliding velocity of myosin with hVLC-1 prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (1.67 pN/nm and 2.3 μm/s, respectively) were significantly higher than myosin with hVLC-1(E56G) prepared from TgM(E56G) (1.25 pN/nm and 1.7 μm/s, respectively) or myosin with mouse VLC-1 (mVLC-1) prepared from C57/BL6 (1.41 pN/nm and 1.5 μm/s, respectively). Maximal left ventricular pressure development of isolated perfused hearts in vitro prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (80.0 mmHg) were significantly higher than hearts from TgM(E56G) (66.2 mmHg) or C57/BL6 (59.3±3.9 mmHg). These findings show that ELCs decreased myosin stiffness, in vitro motility, and thereby cardiac functions in the order hVLC-1>hVLC-1(E56G)≈mVLC-1. They also suggest a molecular pathomechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by hVLC-1 mutations. PMID:24911555

  10. [The effect of tetrandrine on rat myocardial ATPases].

    PubMed

    Chen, N H; Wang, Y L; Ding, J H; Li, D X

    1991-01-01

    The effect of tetrandrine (Tet) on Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in rat myocardial microsomes was investigated in vitro. Under optimal condition, Tet did not influence Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity but concentration-dependently inhibited Mg(2+)-ATPase with an IC50 of 179 mumol/L. At 10 or 100 mumol/L, Tet caused the concentration-inhibition curves for ouabain a parallel shift to the right. Tet 100 mumol/L markedly increased the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase under suboptimal K+ or excessive Ca2+ condition. However, it did not significantly increase the enzyme activity when the Na+ concentration was lower. A kinetic analysis showed that Tet increased the affinity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to ATP, but did not change the maximal velocity of the enzyme reaction. PMID:1668215

  11. Abundant expression of myosin heavy-chain IIB RNA in a subset of human masseter muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Michael J.; Brandon, Carla A.; Morris, Terence J.; Braun, Thomas W.; Yaw, Kenneth M.; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Type IIB fast fibres are typically demonstrated in human skeletal muscle by histochemical staining for the ATPase activity of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms. However, the monoclonal antibody specific for the mammalian IIB isoform does not detect MyHC IIB protein in man and MyHC IIX RNA is found in histochemically identified IIB fibres, suggesting that the IIB protein isoform may not be present in man; if this is not so, jaw-closing muscles, which express a diversity of isoforms, are likely candidates for their presence. ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in situ hybridization, which included a MyHC IIB-specific mRNA riboprobe, were used to compare the composition and RNA expression of MyHC isoforms in a human jaw-closing muscle, the masseter, an upper limb muscle, the triceps, an abdominal muscle, the external oblique, and a lower limb muscle, the gastrocnemius. The external oblique contained a mixture of histochemically defined type I, IIA and IIB fibres distributed in a mosaic pattern, while the triceps and gastrocnemius contained only type I and IIA fibres. Typical of limb muscle fibres, the MyHC I-specific mRNA probes hybridized with histochemically defined type I fibres, the IIA-specific probes with type IIA fibres and the IIX-specific probes with type IIB fibres. The MyHC IIB mRNA probe hybridized only with a few histochemically defined type I fibres in the sample from the external oblique; in addition to this IIB message, these fibres also expressed RNAs for MyHC I, IIA and IIX. MyHC IIB RNA was abundantly expressed in histochemical and immunohistochemical type IIA fibres of the masseter, together with transcripts for IIA and in some cases IIX. No MyHC IIB protein was detected in fibres and extracts of either the external oblique or masseter by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and electrophoresis. Thus, IIB RNA, but not protein, was found in the fibres of two different human skeletal muscles. It is

  12. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  13. The modulatory effect of MgATP on heterotrimeric smooth muscle myosin phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sato, O; Ogawa, Y

    1999-10-01

    Regulation of the enzymatic activity of heterotrimeric smooth muscle myosin phosphatase (SMMP) by MgATP was examined using phosphorylated myosin (P-myosin), heavy meromyosin (P-HMM), subfragment-1 (P-S1), and 20 kDa myosin light chain (P-MLC(20)) as substrates. The activity toward P-myosin and P-HMM was dose-dependently reduced by MgATP, whereas that toward P-S1 or P-MLC(20) was unchanged. The reduction was mainly due to a decrease in the affinity of SMMP for the substrate with the unchanged maximum activity. This regulation is entirely new in the respect that the responsible molecule is the substrate, not SMMP. Because P-myosin derived from myosin stored in 50% glycerol at -20 degrees C was insensitive to MgATP, the proper integrity of P-myosin is required. Coexisting myosin did not affect this regulation, but it inhibited the SMMP activity in the absence of MgATP. With P-myosin, the enzyme activity was biphasically steeply dependent on the ionic strength. This requires that determinations are conducted with a fixed ionic strength. The Q(10) value was about 2, which was quite similar to that for myosin light chain kinase. These results suggest that the rate of dephosphorylation of P-myosin is lowered at rest, but that it may reach a value comparable to the rate of phosphorylation of myosin in the sarcoplasm with the increased level of P-myosin during muscle activation. This regulation by MgATP may underlie the "latch mechanism" in some respects. PMID:10502690

  14. The Δ14 Mutation of Human Cardiac Troponin T Enhances ATPase Activity and Alters the Cooperative Binding of S1-ADP to Regulated Actin†

    PubMed Central

    Gafurov, Boris; Fredricksen, Scott; Cai, Anmei; Brenner, Bernhard; Chase, P. Bryant; Chalovich, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    The complex of tropomyosin and troponin binds to actin and inhibits activation of myosin ATPase activity and force production of striated muscles at low free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2+ stimulates ATP activity, and at subsaturating actin concentrations, the binding of NEM-modified S1 to actin–tropomyosin–troponin increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis even further. We show here that the Δ14 mutation of troponin T, associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, results in an increase in ATPase rate like that seen with wild-type troponin in the presence of NEM-S1. The enhanced ATPase activity was not due to a decreased incorporation of mutant troponin T with troponin I and troponin C to form an active troponin complex. The activating effect was more prominent with a hybrid troponin (skeletal TnI, TnC, and cardiac TnT) than with all cardiac troponin. Thus it appears that changes in the troponin–troponin contacts that result from mutations or from forming hybrids stabilize a more active state of regulated actin. An analysis of the effect of the Δ14 mutation on the equilibrium binding of S1-ADP to actin was consistent with stabilization of an active state of actin. This change in activation may be important in the development of cardiac disease. PMID:15568820

  15. Effects of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Colson, Brett A; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-01

    We have performed 50 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the effect of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) regulatory light chain (RLC). We previously showed that the N-terminal phosphorylation domain of RLC simultaneously populates two structural states in equilibrium, closed and open, and that phosphorylation at S19 induces a modest shift toward the open state, which is sufficient to activate smooth muscle. However, it remains unknown why pseudophosphorylation mutants poorly mimic phosphorylation-induced activation of SMM. We performed MD simulations of unphosphorylated, phosphorylated, and three pseudophosphorylated RLC mutants: S19E, T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E. We found that the S19E mutation does not shift the equilibrium toward the open state, indicating that simple charge replacement at position S19 does not mimic the activating effect of phosphorylation, providing a structural explanation for previously published functional data. In contrast, mutants T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E shift the equilibrium toward the open structure and partially activate in vitro motility, further supporting the model that an increase in the mol fraction of the open state is coupled to SMM motility. Structural analyses of the doubly-charged pseudophosphorylation mutants suggest that alterations in an interdomain salt bridge between residues R4 and D100 results in impaired signal transmission from RLC to the catalytic domain of SMM, which explains the low ATPase activity of these mutants. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation produces a unique structural balance in the RLC. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the structural aspects of activation and force potentiation in smooth and striated muscle. PMID:25091814

  16. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  17. Na(+),K (+)-ATPase as a docking station: protein-protein complexes of the Na(+),K (+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Linda; Tidow, Henning; Clausen, Michael J; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, or sodium pump, is well known for its role in ion transport across the plasma membrane of animal cells. It carries out the transport of Na(+) ions out of the cell and of K(+) ions into the cell and thus maintains electrolyte and fluid balance. In addition to the fundamental ion-pumping function of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, recent work has suggested additional roles for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in signal transduction and biomembrane structure. Several signaling pathways have been found to involve Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which serves as a docking station for a fast-growing number of protein interaction partners. In this review, we focus on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a signal transducer, but also briefly discuss other Na(+),K(+)-ATPase protein-protein interactions, providing a comprehensive overview of the diverse signaling functions ascribed to this well-known enzyme. PMID:22695678

  18. A P-type ATPase from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii similar to animal Na,K-ATPases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, F S; Gomes, S L

    1998-04-01

    We have cloned a P-type ATPase gene from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii (BePAT1) using a probe obtained with degenerate oligonucleotides, corresponding to two amino acid sequences highly conserved among all P-type ATPase isoforms, and the polymerase chain reaction technique. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 3.4 kb open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 1080 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 119 kDa, which presents all diagnostic features of P-type transporting ATPases. Comparison to other members of the family and phylogenetic analyses have shown that the BePAT1 protein belongs to the subfamily of Na,K- and H,K-ATPases, indicating that the divergence between the alpha-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase and other members of the P-type ATPase family has occurred before the divergence between the animal and fungal lineages in evolution. PMID:9602120

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of myosin subfragment-one-with 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, R.

    1985-01-01

    The photoaffinity analogue 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz/sub 2/ATP) contains the photoreactive benzophenone group esterified at the 2' or 3' hydroxyl groups of ribose. MgBz/sub 2/ADP has a single binding site on skeletal myosin chymotryptic subfragment-one (SF/sub 1/) with a binding constant of 3.2 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/. Bz/sub 2/ATP is also a substrate for the ATPase activity of SF/sub 1/ in the presence of different cations. The irradiation of SF/sub 1/ with (/sup 3/H)Bz/sub 2/ATP photoinactivates the ATPase activity with concomitant incorporation of the analogue into the enzyme. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photolabeled SF/sub 1/ after milk trypsin digestion shows that all three tryptic peptides, 25 K, 50K, and 20 K, and both light chains are labeled. The presence of ATP during irradiation reduces labeling of the 50 K peptide only indicating that the other peptides are non-specifically labeled. To reduce the non-specific labeling (/sup 3/H)Bz/sub 2/ATP is trapped on SF/sub 1/ by cross-linking the two reactive thiols, SH/sub 1/ and SH/sub 2/, by N,N'-p-phenylene dimaleimide or Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline complexes. The Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline modified (/sup 14/C)Bz/sub 2/ATP-SF/sub 1/, after proteolytic digestion, yields five labeled peptides which were purified by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography.

  20. Identification of the Isoform-specific Interactions between the Tail and the Head of Class V Myosin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Shen, Mei; Lu, Zekuan; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Li, Xiang-dong

    2016-04-01

    Vertebrates have three isoforms of class V myosin (Myo5), Myo5a, Myo5b, and Myo5c, which are involved in transport of multiple cargoes. It is well established that the motor functions of Myo5a and Myo5b are regulated by a tail inhibition mechanism. Here we found that the motor function of Myo5c was also inhibited by its globular tail domain (GTD), and this inhibition was abolished by high Ca(2+), indicating that the tail inhibition mechanism is conserved in vertebrate Myo5. Interestingly, we found that Myo5a-GTD and Myo5c-GTD were not interchangeable in terms of inhibition of motor function, indicating isoform-specific interactions between the GTD and the head of Myo5. To identify the isoform-specific interactions, we produced a number of Myo5 chimeras by swapping the corresponding regions of Myo5a and Myo5c. We found that Myo5a-GTD, with its H11-H12 loop being substituted with that of Myo5c, was able to inhibit the ATPase activity of Myo5c and that Myo5a-GTD was able to inhibit the ATPase activity of Myo5c-S1 and Myo5c-HMM only when their IQ1 motif was substituted with that of Myo5a. Those results indicate that the H11-H12 loop in the GTD and the IQ1 motif in the head dictate the isoform-specific interactions between the GTD and head of Myo5. Because the IQ1 motif is wrapped by calmodulin, whose conformation is influenced by the sequence of the IQ1 motif, we proposed that the calmodulin bound to the IQ1 motif interacts with the H11-H12 loop of the GTD in the inhibited state of Myo5. PMID:26912658

  1. The RhoA-Rok-Myosin II Pathway is Involved in Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Regulation of Prolactin Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Meng-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsing; Brackenbury, Lisa; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wu, Yi-Ying; Yang, Zhihong; Streuli, Charles H; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In mammary epithelial cells (MECs), prolactin-induced signaling and gene expression requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion to basement membrane (BM). In the absence of proper cell–BM interactions, for example, culturing cells on collagen-coated plastic dishes, signal propagation is substantially impaired. Here we demonstrate that the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway accounts for the ineffectiveness of prolactin signaling in MECs cultured on collagen I. Under these culture conditions, the RhoA pathway is activated, leading to downregulation of prolactin receptor expression and reduced prolactin signaling. Enforced activation of RhoA in MECs cultured on BM suppresses prolactin receptor levels, and prevents prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. Overexpression of dominant negative RhoA in MECs cultured on collagen I, or inhibiting Rok activity, increases prolactin receptor expression, and enhances prolactin signaling. In addition, inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity by blebbistatin also exerts a beneficial effect on prolactin receptor expression and prolactin signaling, suggesting that tension exerted by the collagen substratum, in collaboration with the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway, contributes to the failure of prolactin signaling. Furthermore, MECs cultured on laminin-coated plastic have similar morphology and response to prolactin as those cultured on collagen I. They display high levels of RhoA activity and are inefficient in prolactin signaling, stressing the importance of matrix stiffness in signal transduction. Our results reveal that RhoA has a central role in determining the fate decisions of MECs in response to cell–matrix interactions. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1553–1560, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21678418

  2. Quantitative determination of type I myosin heavy chain in bovine muscle with anti myosin monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Picard, B; Leger, J; Robelin, J

    1994-01-01

    Bovine type I muscle fibers were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody specific for slow myosin heavy chains (MHC 1). Two bovine muscles, the Masseter and Cutaneus trunci, were analyzed by different complementary techniques: electrophoresis, immunoblotting and immunohistiology. The results showed that the two muscles have extreme characteristics. The Masseter contains only slow MHC and the Cutaneus trunci is composed solely of rapid MHC (MHC 2a and 2b). A standard for this ELISA was obtained by mixing the two muscles and was used as a reference in the determination of the percentage of MHC 1 in a given muscle. In this study, the Longissimus thoracis of 27 Charolais cattle were examined. The different conditions under which assays were carried out were described and the accuracy of the measurement was calculated. In view of the results, ELISA was chosen for the analysis of muscle fiber types in large numbers of animal specimens. This technique could be used in several research projects to study the muscle characteristics that determine beef quality. PMID:22061628

  3. Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kekic, M; Huang, W; Moens, P D; Hambly, B D; dos Remedios, C G

    1996-01-01

    We reacted a fluorescent probe, N-methyl-2-anilino-6-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride (MNS-Ci), with a specific lysine residue of porcine cardiac myosin located in the S-2 region of myosin. We performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy measurements between this site and three loci (Cys109, Cys125, and Cys154) located within different myosin light-chain 2s (LC2) bound to the myosin "head". We used LC2s from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (Cys125), chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (Cys109), or a genetically engineered mutant of chicken skeletal muscle myosin (Cys154). The atomic coordinates of these LC2 loci can be closely approximated, and the FRET measurements were used to determine the position of the MNS-labeled lysine with respect to the myosin head. The C-terminus of myosin subfragment-1 determined by Rayment et al. ends abruptly after a sharp turn of its predominantly alpha-helical structure. We have constructed a model based on our FRET distance data combined with the known structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. This model suggests that the loci that bracket the head-rod junction will be useful for evaluating dynamic changes in this region. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8804587

  4. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of a myosin subfragment-1 docking with an actin filament.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Myosins are typical molecular motor proteins, which convert the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. The fundamental mechanism of this energy conversion is still unknown. To explain the experimental results observed in molecular motors, Masuda has proposed a theory called the "Driven by Detachment (DbD)" mechanism for the working principle of myosins. Based on this theory, the energy used during the power stroke of the myosins originates from the attractive force between a detached myosin head and an actin filament, and does not directly arise from the energy of ATP. According to this theory, every step in the myosin working process may be reproduced by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, except for the ATP hydrolysis step. Therefore, MD simulations were conducted to reproduce the docking process of a myosin subfragment-1 (S1) against an actin filament. A myosin S1 directed toward the barbed end of an actin filament was placed at three different positions by shifting it away from the filament axis. After 30 ns of MD simulations, in three cases out of ten trials on average, the myosin made a close contact with two actin monomers by changing the positions and the orientation of both the myosin and the actin as predicted in previous studies. Once the docking was achieved, the distance between the myosin and the actin showed smaller fluctuations, indicating that the docking is stable over time. If the docking was not achieved, the myosin moved randomly around the initial position or moved away from the actin filament. MD simulations thus successfully reproduced the docking of a myosin S1 with an actin filament. By extending the similar MD simulations to the other steps of the myosin working process, the validity of the DbD theory may be computationally demonstrated. PMID:23791790

  6. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  7. Non-Muscle Myosin II Regulation of Lung Epithelial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Plosa, Erin J.; Gooding, Kimberly A.; Zent, Roy; Prince, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The regulation of epithelial cell shape and orientation during lung branching morphogenesis is not clearly understood. Non-muscle myosins regulate cell size, morphology, and planar cell polarity. Here we test the hypothesis that non-muscle myosin II (NM II) regulates lung epithelial morphology in a spatially restricted manner. Results Epithelial cell orientation at airway tips in fetal mouse lungs underwent a significant transformation at E17. Treatment of E15 lung explants with the NM II inhibitor blebbistatin increased airway branching, epithelial cell size, and the degree of anisotropy in epithelial cells lining the airway stalks. In cultured MLE-12 lung epithelial cells, blebbistatin increased cell velocity, but left the migratory response to FGF-10 unchanged. Conclusions In the developing lung, NM II acts to constrain cell morphology and orientation, but may be suppressed at sites of branching and cell migration. The regulation of epithelial orientation may therefore undergo dynamic variations from E15 to E17. PMID:22972683

  8. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K.

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  9. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Bekyarova, T I; Reedy, M C; Baumann, B A J; Tregear, R T; Ward, A; Krzic, U; Prince, K M; Perz-Edwards, R J; Reconditi, M; Gore, D; Irving, T C; Reedy, M K

    2008-07-29

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the "steric blocking" mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca(2+) with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca(2+)], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca(2+)], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored "actin target zones." Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca(2+)] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca(2+)], Vi-"paralyzed" fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa approximately 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding "brakes" by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions. PMID:18658238

  10. Myosin VI small insert isoform maintains exocytosis by tethering secretory granules to the cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Papadopulos, Andreas; Malintan, Nancy T.; Martin, Sally; Wallis, Tristan; Gormal, Rachel S.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI–specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane. PMID:23382463

  11. Cell-cell contact modulation of myosin organization in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J S

    1983-11-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos are characterized by a polarized distribution of cortical myosin (J. S. Sobel (1983). Dev. Biol. 95, 227-231.). Myosin was present in the peripheral regions of the blastomers and was not detectable in regions of cell contact. Disaggregation of the embryos yielded blastomeres which had a continuous layer of cortical myosin. Development of new contact relations in aggregates, between daughter cells of divided blastomeres, and in chimaeras resulted in renewed polarization of cortical myosin. The results indicate that continuous cell contact interaction modulates the distribution of myosin throughout the preimplantation stages of development. The loss of detectable myosin from regions of cell contact was correlated with development of cell contacts that remained stable after Triton X-100 extraction. PMID:6617992

  12. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  13. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  14. Quercetin interaction with the chloroplast ATPase complex.

    PubMed

    Shoshan, V; Shahak, Y; Shavit, N

    1980-07-01

    1. Quercetin, a flavonoid which acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation is shown to inhibit the P-ATP exchange activity of membrane-bound CF1 and the ATPase activity of isolated CF1. Quercetin, affects also the proton uptake in chloroplasts in a manner similar to that of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 2. The light-dependent proton uptake in EDTA-treated chloroplasts is stimulated by quercetin. In untreated chloroplasts quercetin has a dual effect: it enhances at pH above 7.5 while at lower pH values it decreases the extent of H+ uptake. Similar effects were obtained with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. 3. Like quercetin, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was also found to inhibit the ATPase activity of isolated CF1. 4. Quercetin inhibits uncoupled electron transport induced by either EDTA-treatment of chloroplasts or by addition of uncouplers. Quercetin restores H+ uptake in both types of uncoupled chloroplasts. 5. The mode of action of quercetin and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in photophosphorylation is discussed, and interaction with both CF1 and F0 is suggested. PMID:6446936

  15. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  16. Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, Libera; Chang, Fred; Martin, Sophie G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin V motors are believed to contribute to cell polarization by carrying cargoes along actin tracks. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Myosin Vs transport secretory vesicles along actin cables, which are dynamic actin bundles assembled by the formin For3 at cell poles. How these flexible structures are able to extend longitudinally in the cell through the dense cytoplasm is unknown. Here we show that in myosin V (myo52 myo51) null cells, actin cables are curled, bundled, and fail to extend into the cell interior. They also exhibit reduced retrograde flow, suggesting that formin-mediated actin assembly is impaired. Myo52 may contribute to actin cable organization by delivering actin regulators to cell poles, as myoV∆ defects are partially suppressed by diverting cargoes toward cell tips onto microtubules with a kinesin 7–Myo52 tail chimera. In addition, Myo52 motor activity may pull on cables to provide the tension necessary for their extension and efficient assembly, as artificially tethering actin cables to the nuclear envelope via a Myo52 motor domain restores actin cable extension and retrograde flow in myoV mutants. Together these in vivo data reveal elements of a self-organizing system in which the motors shape their own tracks by transporting cargoes and exerting physical pulling forces. PMID:23051734

  17. Structural determinants of cooperativity in acto-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Moraczewska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Regulation of muscle contraction is a very cooperative process. The presence of tropomyosin on the thin filament is both necessary and sufficient for cooperativity to occur. Data recently obtained with various tropomyosin isoforms and mutants help us to understand better the structural requirements in the thin filament for cooperative protein interactions. Forming an end-to-end overlap between neighboring tropomyosin molecules is not necessary for the cooperativity of the thin filament activation. When direct contacts between tropomyosin molecules are disrupted, the conformational changes in the filament are most probably transmitted cooperatively through actin subunits, although the exact nature of these changes is not known. The function of tropomyosin ends, alternatively expressed in various isoforms, is to confer specific actin affinity. Tropomyosin's affinity or actin is directly related to the size of the apparent cooperative unit defined as the number of actin subunits turned into the active state by binding of one myosin head. Inner sequences of tropomyosin, particularly actin-binding periods 3 to 5, play crucial role in myosin-induced activation of the thin filament. A plausible mechanism of tropomyosin function in this process is that inner tropomyosin regions are either specifically recognized by myosin or they define the right actin conformation required for tropomyosin movement from its blocking position. PMID:12545187

  18. Proper expression of myosin genes in transgenic nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Fire, A; Waterston, R H

    1989-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has four genes which encode skeletal myosin heavy chain isoforms. We have re-introduced clones of two of these genes, myo-3 and unc-54 at low copy number into the germline of C. elegans. The resulting loci behave as functional copies of the genes by two genetic criteria: (i) they can result in phenotypic rescue of strains carrying inactivating myo-3 or unc-54 mutations, and (ii) their presence in strains with wild-type copies of the endogenous myosin loci has genetic consequences similar to duplicating the endogenous loci. The re-introduced genes function at a level close to that of the endogenous loci. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the different isoforms have been used to localize the expressed proteins. The re-introduced genes express in precisely the same cell types as the endogenous genes, and the myosin products produced assemble into filament structures as in wild-type. Unexpectedly, we have found in the course of this work that very high copy numbers of the unc-54 gene lead to a disruption of muscle structure which may result from overexpression of the protein product. Images PMID:2583105

  19. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M. )

    1990-11-30

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol (32P)phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the (32P)phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in (32P)phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively.

  20. Transmission of force and displacement within the myosin molecule.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Takashi; Mikhailenko, Sergey V; Morales, Manuel F; Onishi, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2004-11-01

    Myosin is a repetitive impeller of actin, using its catalysis of ATP hydrolysis to derive repeatedly the required free energy decrements. In each impulsion, changes at the myosin active site are transmitted through a series of structural elements to the myosin propeller (lever arm), almost 5 nm away. While the nature of transmission through most elements is evident, that through the so-called converter is not. To investigate how the converter changes linear displacement into rotation, we tested (one at a time) the effect of two Phe residue mutations (at 721 and 775) in the converter on the overall function of a heavy meromyosin (or subfragment 1) system, after first showing by observing kinetic behaviors that neither mutation affects other elements in the transmission. Using three tests (direct movement of the lever arm, activity in a motility assay with actin filaments, and direct force measurement of lever arm function), we found that these mutations affected only movements of the converter and the lever arm. From interpreting our observations in terms of the structure of the converter, we deduce that the linear-rotational transformation in the converter is mediated by a little machine (two Phe residues linked to a Gly) within a machine. PMID:15504033

  1. Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Libera; Chang, Fred; Martin, Sophie G

    2012-12-01

    Myosin V motors are believed to contribute to cell polarization by carrying cargoes along actin tracks. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Myosin Vs transport secretory vesicles along actin cables, which are dynamic actin bundles assembled by the formin For3 at cell poles. How these flexible structures are able to extend longitudinally in the cell through the dense cytoplasm is unknown. Here we show that in myosin V (myo52 myo51) null cells, actin cables are curled, bundled, and fail to extend into the cell interior. They also exhibit reduced retrograde flow, suggesting that formin-mediated actin assembly is impaired. Myo52 may contribute to actin cable organization by delivering actin regulators to cell poles, as myoV defects are partially suppressed by diverting cargoes toward cell tips onto microtubules with a kinesin 7-Myo52 tail chimera. In addition, Myo52 motor activity may pull on cables to provide the tension necessary for their extension and efficient assembly, as artificially tethering actin cables to the nuclear envelope via a Myo52 motor domain restores actin cable extension and retrograde flow in myoV mutants. Together these in vivo data reveal elements of a self-organizing system in which the motors shape their own tracks by transporting cargoes and exerting physical pulling forces. PMID:23051734

  2. Characterization of the Catalytic and Nucleotide Binding Properties of the α-Kinase Domain of Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidai; Ye, Qilu; Jia, Zongchao; Côté, Graham P

    2015-09-25

    The α-kinases are a widely expressed family of serine/threonine protein kinases that exhibit no sequence identity with conventional eukaryotic protein kinases. In this report, we provide new information on the catalytic properties of the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase-A (termed A-CAT). Crystallization of A-CAT in the presence of MgATP yielded structures with AMP or adenosine in the catalytic cleft together with a phosphorylated Asp-766 residue. The results show that the β- and α-phosphoryl groups are transferred either directly or indirectly to the catalytically essential Asp-766. Biochemical assays confirmed that A-CAT hydrolyzed ATP, ADP, and AMP with kcat values of 1.9, 0.6, and 0.32 min(-1), respectively, and showed that A-CAT can use ADP to phosphorylate peptides and proteins. Binding assays using fluorescent 2'/3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) analogs of ATP and ADP yielded Kd values for ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine of 20 ± 3, 60 ± 20, 160 ± 60, and 45 ± 15 μM, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Glu-713, Leu-716, and Lys-645, all of which interact with the adenine base, were critical for nucleotide binding. Mutation of the highly conserved Gln-758, which chelates a nucleotide-associated Mg(2+) ion, eliminated catalytic activity, whereas loss of the highly conserved Lys-722 and Arg-592 decreased kcat values for kinase and ATPase activities by 3-6-fold. Mutation of Asp-663 impaired kinase activity to a much greater extent than ATPase, indicating a specific role in peptide substrate binding, whereas mutation of Gln-768 doubled ATPase activity, suggesting that it may act to exclude water from the active site. PMID:26260792

  3. A cardiac myosin-specific autoimmune response is induced by immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi proteins.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Daniels, Melvin D; Toriello, Krista M; Wang, Kegiang; Engman, David M

    2004-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' heart disease, a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy prevalent in Central and South America. Infection with T. cruzi induces cardiac myosin autoimmunity in susceptible humans and mice, and this autoimmunity has been suggested to contribute to cardiac inflammation. To address how T. cruzi induces cardiac myosin autoimmunity, we investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce cardiac myosin-specific autoimmunity in the absence of live parasites. We immunized A/J mice with a T. cruzi Brazil-derived protein extract emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and found that these mice developed cardiac myosin-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and autoantibodies in the absence of detectable cardiac damage. The induction of autoimmunity was specific since immunization with extracts of the related protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis did not induce myosin autoimmunity. The immunogenetic makeup of the host was important for this response, since C57BL/6 mice did not develop cardiac myosin DTH upon immunization with T. cruzi extract. Perhaps more interesting, mice immunized with cardiac myosin developed T. cruzi-specific DTH and antibodies. This DTH was also antigen specific, since immunization with skeletal myosin and myoglobin did not induce T. cruzi-specific immunity. These results suggest that immunization with cardiac myosin or T. cruzi antigen can induce specific, bidirectionally cross-reactive immune responses in the absence of detectable cardiac damage. PMID:15155647

  4. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Progress report, [July 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have evidence for at least nine myosin-like genes in Arbidopsis, six of which have been cloned by a PCR-based method from genomic DNA, two have been isolated by genomic DNA cloning, and four have been identified by cDNA cloning. Most of our attention has been focused on the four myosin genes for which we have cDNA clones, and these cDNAs have now been sequenced to completion. Each of these myosins is similar in overall structure, with each containing the characteristic myosin head (motor) domain, which possesses ATP- and actin-binding motifs, a series of IQ repeats, which may be involved in calmodulin binding, a domain with a high probability of forming an alpha-helical coiled-coil secondary structure, which may allow the polypeptides to form dimers, and a variable tail domain, which may serve to define the specific cellular component that each myosin interacts with. One of these myosin genes, called MYA1, displays structural similarity to class of myosins that includes the yeast MYO2, mouse Dilute, and chicken p190 proteins, and this group of myosins is thought to play a role in intracellular trafficking of organelles. Because MYA1 is similar to this interesting class of myosins, we have chosen to conduct detailed studies of MYA1.

  5. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, R F; Sommese, R F; Adhikari, A S; Taylor, R E; Sutton, S; Spudich, J A; Sivaramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes. PMID:26149240

  6. Tracking UNC-45 Chaperone-Myosin Interaction with a Titin Mechanical Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christian M.; Bujalowski, Paul J.; Ma, Liang; Anderson, John; Epstein, Henry F.; Oberhauser, Andres F.

    2012-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. Allosterically coupling ATP-binding, hydrolysis, and binding/dissociation to actin filaments requires precise and coordinated structural changes that are achieved by the structurally complex myosin motor domain. UNC-45, a member of the UNC-45/Cro1/She4p family of proteins, acts as a chaperone for myosin and is essential for proper folding and assembly of myosin into muscle thick filaments in vivo. The molecular mechanisms by which UNC-45 interacts with myosin to promote proper folding of the myosin head domain are not known. We have devised a novel approach, to our knowledge, to analyze the interaction of UNC-45 with the myosin motor domain at the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy. By chemically coupling a titin I27 polyprotein to the motor domain of myosin, we introduced a mechanical reporter. In addition, the polyprotein provided a specific attachment point and an unambiguous mechanical fingerprint, facilitating our atomic force microscopy measurements. This approach enabled us to study UNC-45–motor domain interactions. After mechanical unfolding, the motor domain interfered with refolding of the otherwise robust I27 modules, presumably by recruiting them into a misfolded state. In the presence of UNC-45, I27 folding was restored. Our single molecule approach enables the study of UNC-45 chaperone interactions with myosin and their consequences for motor domain folding and misfolding in mechanistic detail. PMID:22824286

  7. Analysis of the interactions between Rab GTPases and class V myosins.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Andrew J; Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Goud, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as membrane transport, muscle contraction, and cell division. Humans have over 40 myosins that can be placed into 18 classes, the malfunctioning of a number of which can lead to disease. There are three members of the human class V myosin family, myosins Va, Vb, and Vc. People lacking functional myosin Va suffer from a rare autosomal recessive disease called Griscelli's Syndrome type I (GS1) that is characterized by severe neurological defects and partial albinism. Mutations in the myosin Vb gene lead to an epithelial disorder called microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) that is often fatal in infants. The class V myosins have been implicated in the transport of diverse cargoes such as melanosomes in pigment cells, synaptic vesicles in neurons, RNA transcripts in a variety of cell types, and organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The Rab GTPases play a critical role in recruiting class V myosins to their cargo. We recently published a study in which we used the yeast two-hybrid system to systematically test myosin Va for its ability to interact with each member of the human Rab GTPase family. We present here a detailed description of this yeast two-hybrid "living chip" assay. Furthermore, we present a protocol for validating positive interactions obtained from this screen by coimmunoprecipitation. PMID:25800833

  8. A quasi-elastic light scattering study of smooth muscle myosin in the presence of ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Blank, P S; Carlson, F D

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrodynamic properties of turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin in solution using quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS). The effects of ionic strength (0.05-0.5 M KCl) and light chain phosphorylation on the conformational transition of myosin were examined in the presence of ATP at 20 degrees C. Cumulant analysis and light scattering models were used to describe the myosin system in solution. A nonlinear least squares fitting procedure was used to determine the model that best fits the data. The conformational transition of the myosin monomer from a folded form to an extended form was clearly demonstrated in a salt concentration range of 0.15-0.3 M KCl. Light chain phosphorylation regulates the transition and promotes unfolding of the myosin. These results agree with the findings obtained using sedimentation velocity and electron microscopy (Onishi and Wakabayashi, 1982; Trybus et al., 1982; Trybus and Lowey, 1984). In addition, we present evidence for polymeric myosin coexisting with the two monomeric myosin species over a salt concentration range from 0.05 to 0.5 M KCl. The size of the polymeric myosin varied with salt concentration. This observation supports the hypothesis that, in solution, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the two conformations of myosin monomer and filaments. PMID:1420864

  9. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  10. Myosin VI: an innovative motor that challenged the swinging lever arm hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2010-01-01

    The swinging crossbridge hypothesis states that energy from ATP hydrolysis is transduced to mechanical movement of the myosin head while bound to actin. The light chain-binding region of myosin is thought to act as a lever arm that amplifies movements near the catalytic site. This model has been challenged by findings that myosin VI takes larger steps along actin filaments than early interpretations of its structure seem to allow. We now know that myosin VI does indeed operate by an unusual ~ 180° lever arm swing and achieves its large step size using special structural features in its tail domain. PMID:20094053

  11. The amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit confer ouabain sensitivity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides such as G-strophanthin (ouabain) bind to and inhibit the plasma membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase but not the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase, whereas thapsigargin specifically blocks the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. The chimera [n/c]CC, in which the amino-terminal amino acids Met1 to Asp162 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Met1 to Asp200), retained thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, although the activity was lower than that of the wild-type SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, this Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. The chimera NCC, in which Met1-Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase, lost the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity seen in CCC and [n/c]CC. [3H]Ouabain binding to [n/c]CC and NCC demonstrated that the affinity for this inhibitor seen in the wild-type chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase was restored in these chimeric molecules. Thus, the ouabain-binding domains are distinct from the thapsigargin sites; ouabain binds to the amino-terminal portion (Met1 to Asp200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, whereas thapsigargin interacts with the regions after Asp162 of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, the amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit are sufficient to exert ouabain-dependent inhibition even after incorporation into the corresponding portion of the Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the segment Ile163 to Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is critical for thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8415625

  12. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  13. Kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase and inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by ATP.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Yuwen, Liu; Jie, Li; Huilin, Li; Xi, Yang; Cunxin, Wang; Zhiyong, Wang

    2004-08-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) is an important membrane-bound enzyme. In this paper, kinetic studies on Na+/K+-ATPase were carried out under mimetic physiological conditions. By using microcalorimeter, a thermokinetic method was employed for the first time. Compared with other methods, it provided accurate measurements of not only thermodynamic data (deltarHm) but also the kinetic data (Km and Vmax). At 310.15K and pH 7.4, the molar reaction enthalpy (deltarHm) was measured as -40.514 +/- 0.9kJmol(-1). The Michaelis constant (Km) was determined to be 0.479 +/- 0.020 mM and consistent with literature data. The reliability of the thermokinetic method was further confirmed by colorimetric studies. Furthermore, a simple and reliable kinetic procedure was presented for ascertaining the true substrate for Na+/K+-ATPase and determining the effect of free ATP. Results showed that the MgATP complex was the real substrate with a Km value of about 0.5mM and free ATP was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.253 mM. PMID:15558949

  14. Capsazepine, a synthetic vanilloid that converts the Na,K-ATPase to Na-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A

    2008-02-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ), a synthetic capsaicin analogue, inhibits ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase in the presence but not in the absence of K(+). Studies with purified membranes revealed that CPZ reduced Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation by interference with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane. Kinetic analyses showed that CPZ stabilized an enzyme species that constitutively occluded K(+). Low-affinity ATP interaction with the enzyme was strongly reduced after CPZ treatment; in contrast, indirectly measured interaction with ADP was much increased, which suggests that composite regulatory communication with nucleotides takes place during turnover. Studies with lipid vesicles revealed that CPZ reduced ATP-dependent digitoxigenin-sensitive (22)Na(+) influx into K(+)-loaded vesicles only at saturating ATP concentrations. The drug apparently abolishes the regulatory effect of ATP on the pump. Drawing on previous homology modeling studies of Na,K-ATPase to atomic models of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and on kinetic data, we propose that CPZ uncouples an Na(+) cycle from an Na(+)/K(+) cycle in the pump. The Na(+) cycle possibly involves transport through the recently characterized Na(+)-specific site. A shift to such an uncoupled mode is believed to produce pumps mediating uncoupled Na(+) efflux by modifying the transport stoichiometry of single pump units. PMID:18230728

  15. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  16. Use of Fluorescent Techniques to Study the In Vitro Movement of Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Myosins are a large superfamily of actin-dependent molecule motors that carry out many functions in cells. Some myosins are cargo carriers that move processively along actin which means that a single molecule of myosin can take many ATP-dependent steps on actin per initial encounter. Other myosins are designed to work in large ensembles such as myosin thick filaments. In vitro motility assays are a powerful method for studying the function of myosins. These assays in general use small amounts of protein, are simple to implement, and can be done on microscopes commonly found in many laboratories. There are two basic versions of the assay which involve different geometries. In the sliding actin in vitro motility assay, myosin molecules are bound to a coverslip surface in a simply constructed microscopic flow chamber. Fluorescently labeled actin filaments are added to the flow chamber in the presence of ATP, and the movement of these actin filaments powered by the surface-bound myosins is observed. This assay has been used widely for a variety of myosins including both processive and nonprocessive ones. From this assay, one can easily measure the rate at which myosin is translocating actin. The single-molecule motility assay uses an inverted geometry compared to the sliding actin in vitro motility assay. It is most useful for processive myosins. Here, actin filaments are affixed to the coverslip surface. Fluorescently labeled single molecules of myosins (usually ones with processive kinetics) are introduced, and the movement of single molecules along the actin filaments is observed. This assay typically uses total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy to reduce the background signal arising from myosins in solution. From this assay, one can measure the velocity of movement, the frequency of movement, and the run length. If sufficient photons can be collected, one can use Gaussian fitting of the point spread function to determine the position of the labeled

  17. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  18. In vitro and in vivo single myosin step-sizes in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a "second characterization" is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover "bottom-up" and "top-down" assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  19. Smooth muscle and skeletal muscle myosins produce similar unitary forces and displacements in the laser trap.

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, W H; Dupuis, D E; Kennedy, G; Wu, J; Patlak, J B; Warshaw, D M

    1997-01-01

    Purified smooth muscle myosin in the in vitro motility assay propels actin filaments at 1/10 the velocity, yet produces 3-4 times more force than skeletal muscle myosin. At the level of a single myosin molecule, these differences in force and actin filament velocity may be reflected in the size and duration of single motion and force-generating events, or in the kinetics of the cross-bridge cycle. Specifically, an increase in either unitary force or duty cycle may explain the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth muscle myosin. Similarly, an increase in attached time or decrease in unitary displacement may explain the reduced actin filament velocity of smooth muscle myosin. To discriminate between these possibilities, we used a laser trap to measure unitary forces and displacements from single smooth and skeletal muscle myosin molecules. We analyzed our data using mean-variance analysis, which does not rely on scoring individual events by eye, and emphasizes periods in the data with constant properties. Both myosins demonstrated multiple but similar event populations with discrete peaks at approximately +11 and -11 nm in displacement, and 1.5 and 3.5 pN in force. Mean attached times for smooth muscle myosin were longer than for skeletal-muscle myosin. These results explain much of the difference in actin filament velocity between these myosins, and suggest that an increased duty cycle is responsible for the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth over skeletal-muscle myosin. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9138552

  20. Two independent mechanical events in the interaction cycle of skeletal muscle myosin with actin.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, M; Canepari, M; Cacciafesta, P; Lombardi, V; Cicchi, R; Maffei, M; Pavone, F S; Bottinelli, R

    2006-01-01

    During skeletal muscle contraction, regular arrays of actin and myosin filaments slide past each other driven by the cyclic ATP-dependent interaction of the motor protein myosin II (the cross-bridge) with actin. The rate of the cross-bridge cycle and its load-dependence, defining shortening velocity and energy consumption at the molecular level, vary widely among different isoforms of myosin II. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have addressed this question by applying a single-molecule approach to rapidly ( approximately 300 mus) and precisely ( approximately 0.1 nm) detect acto-myosin interactions of two myosin isoforms having large differences in shortening velocity. We show that skeletal myosin propels actin filaments, performing its conformational change (working stroke) in two steps. The first step ( approximately 3.4-5.2 nm) occurs immediately after myosin binding and is followed by a smaller step ( approximately 1.0-1.3 nm), which occurs much faster in the fast myosin isoform than in the slow one, independently of ATP concentration. On the other hand, the rate of the second phase of the working stroke, from development of the latter step to dissociation of the acto-myosin complex, is very similar in the two isoforms and depends linearly on ATP concentration. The finding of a second mechanical event in the working stroke of skeletal muscle myosin provides the molecular basis for a simple model of actomyosin interaction. This model can account for the variation, in different fiber types, of the rate of the cross-bridge cycle and provides a common scheme for the chemo-mechanical transduction within the myosin family. PMID:16371472

  1. Class I Myosins Have Overlapping and Specialized Functions in Left-Right Asymmetric Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Takashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Inatomi, Momoko; Hozumi, Shunya; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Hatori, Ryo; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Suzuki, Emiko; Maeda, Reo; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The class I myosin genes are conserved in diverse organisms, and their gene products are involved in actin dynamics, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Drosophila melanogaster has three class I myosin genes, Myosin 31DF (Myo31DF), Myosin 61F (Myo61F), and Myosin 95E (Myo95E). Myo31DF, Myo61F, and Myo95E belong to the Myosin ID, Myosin IC, and Myosin IB families, respectively. Previous loss-of-function analyses of Myo31DF and Myo61F revealed important roles in left–right (LR) asymmetric development and enterocyte maintenance, respectively. However, it was difficult to elucidate their roles in vivo, because of potential redundant activities. Here we generated class I myosin double and triple mutants to address this issue. We found that the triple mutant was viable and fertile, indicating that all three class I myosins were dispensable for survival. A loss-of-function analysis revealed further that Myo31DF and Myo61F, but not Myo95E, had redundant functions in promoting the dextral LR asymmetric development of the male genitalia. Myo61F overexpression is known to antagonize the dextral activity of Myo31DF in various Drosophila organs. Thus, the LR-reversing activity of overexpressed Myo61F may not reflect its physiological function. The endogenous activity of Myo61F in promoting dextral LR asymmetric development was observed in the male genitalia, but not the embryonic gut, another LR asymmetric organ. Thus, Myo61F and Myo31DF, but not Myo95E, play tissue-specific, redundant roles in LR asymmetric development. Our studies also revealed differential colocalization of the class I myosins with filamentous (F)-actin in the brush border of intestinal enterocytes. PMID:25659376

  2. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  3. Human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, H; Kjeldsen, K

    1996-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is of major importance for active ion transport across the sarcolemma and thus for electrical as well as contractile function of the myocardium. Furthermore, it is receptor for digitalis glycosides. In human studies of the regulatory aspects of myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration a major problem has been to obtain tissue samples. Methodological accomplishments in quantification of myocardial Na,K-ATPase using vanadate facilitated 3H-ouabain binding to intact samples have, however, made it possible to obtain reliable measurements on human myocardial necropsies obtained at autopsy as well as on biopsies of a wet weight of only 1-2 mg obtained during heart catheterisation. However, access to the ultimately, normal, vital myocardial tissue has come from the heart transplantation programs, through which myocardial samples from cardiovascular healthy organ donors have become available. In the present paper we evaluate the various values reported for normal human myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration, its regulation in heart disease and the association with digitalization. Normal myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration level is found to be 700 pmol/g wet weight. No major variations were found between or within the walls of the heart ventricles. During the first few years of life a marked decrease in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration is followed by a stable level obtained in early adulthood and normally maintained throughout life. In patients with enlarged cardiac x-ray silhouette a significant positive, linear correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and Na,K-ATPase concentration was established. A maximum reduction in Na,K-ATPase concentration of 89% was obtained when EF was reduced to 20%. Generally, heart failure associated with heart dilatation, myocardial hypertrophy as well as ischaemic heart disease is associated with reductions in myocardial Na,K-ATPase concentration of around 25%. During digoxin treatment of heart failure

  4. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  5. Modular activation of Rho1 by GPCR signalling imparts polarized myosin II activation during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Stephen; Munjal, Akankshi; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Jha, Ankita; de las Bayonas, Alain Garcia; Saurin, Andrew J; Lecuit, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Polarized cell shape changes during tissue morphogenesis arise by controlling the subcellular distribution of myosin II. For instance, during Drosophila melanogaster gastrulation, apical constriction and cell intercalation are mediated by medial-apical myosin II pulses that power deformations, and polarized accumulation of myosin II that stabilizes these deformations. It remains unclear how tissue-specific factors control different patterns of myosin II activation and the ratchet-like myosin II dynamics. Here we report the function of a common pathway comprising the heterotrimeric G proteins Gα12/13, Gβ13F and Gγ1 in activating and polarizing myosin II during Drosophila gastrulation. Gα12/13 and the Gβ13F/γ1 complex constitute distinct signalling modules, which regulate myosin II dynamics medial-apically and/or junctionally in a tissue-dependent manner. We identify a ubiquitously expressed GPCR called Smog required for cell intercalation and apical constriction. Smog functions with other GPCRs to quantitatively control G proteins, resulting in stepwise activation of myosin II and irreversible cell shape changes. We propose that GPCR and G proteins constitute a general pathway for controlling actomyosin contractility in epithelia and that the activity of this pathway is polarized by tissue-specific regulators. PMID:26780298

  6. A Role for Myosin 1e in Cortical Granule Exocytosis in Xenopus Oocytes*s

    PubMed Central

    Schietroma, Cataldo; Yu, Hoi-Ying; Wagner, Mark C.; Umbach, Joy A.; Bement, William M.; Gundersen, Cameron B.

    2010-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes undergo dynamic structural changes during maturation and fertilization. Among these, cortical granule exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis provide effective models to study membrane trafficking. This study documents an important role for myosin1e in cortical granule exocytosis. Myosin1e is expressed at the earliest stage that cortical granule exocytosis can be detected in oocytes. Prior to exocytosis, myosin1e relocates to the surface of cortical granules. Overexpression of myosin1e augments the kinetics of cortical granule exocytosis, whereas tail-derived fragments of myosin1e inhibit this secretory event (but not constitutive exocytosis). Finally, intracellular injection of myosin1e antibody inhibits cortical granule exocytosis. Further experiments identified cysteine string proteins as interacting partners for myosin1e. As constituents of the membrane of cortical granules, cysteine string proteins are also essential for cortical granule exocytosis. Future investigation of the link between myosin1e and cysteine string proteins should help to clarify basic mechanisms of regulated exocytosis. PMID:17702742

  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel RING finger protein that interacts with class V myosins.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, A E; Vincent, S R

    1999-07-01

    We have identified a novel protein (BERP) that is a specific partner for the tail domain of myosin V. Class V myosins are a family of molecular motors thought to interact via their unique C-terminal tails with specific proteins for the targeted transport of organelles. BERP is highly expressed in brain and contains an N-terminal RING finger, followed by a B-box zinc finger, a coiled-coil (RBCC domain), and a unique C-terminal beta-propeller domain. A yeast two-hybrid screening indicated that the C-terminal beta-propeller domain mediates binding to the tail of the class V myosin myr6 (myosin Vb). This interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, which also demonstrated that BERP could associate with myosin Va, the product of the dilute gene. Like myosin Va, BERP is expressed in a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm as well as in the neurites and growth cones of PC12 cells. We also found that the RBCC domain of BERP is involved in protein dimerization. Stable expression of a mutant form of BERP lacking the myosin-binding domain but containing the dimerization domain resulted in defective PC12 cell spreading and prevented neurite outgrowth in response to nerve growth factor. Our studies present a novel interaction for the beta-propeller domain and provide evidence for a role for BERP in myosin V-mediated cargo transport. PMID:10391919

  8. Myosin XI Is Essential for Tip Growth in Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Vidali, Luis; Burkart, Graham M.; Augustine, Robert C.; Kerdavid, Erin; Tüzel, Erkan; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Class XI myosins are plant specific and responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. Because of the large number of myosin XI genes in angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role, particularly with respect to tip growth. The moss Physcomitrella patens provides an ideal system to study myosin XI function. P. patens has only two myosin XI genes, and these genes encode proteins that are 94% identical to each other. To determine their role in tip growth, we used RNA interference to specifically silence each myosin XI gene using 5′ untranslated region sequences. We discovered that the two myosin XI genes are functionally redundant, since silencing of either gene does not affect growth or polarity. However, simultaneous silencing of both myosin XIs results in severely stunted plants composed of small rounded cells. Although similar to the phenotype resulting from silencing of other actin-associated proteins, we show that this phenotype is not due to altered actin dynamics. Consistent with a role in tip growth, we show that a functional, full-length fusion of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region of actively growing protonemal cells. PMID:20525854

  9. Excessive Myosin Activity in Mbs Mutants Causes Photoreceptor Movement Out of the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Arnold; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal cells must extend a motile growth cone while maintaining the cell body in its original position. In migrating cells, myosin contraction provides the driving force that pulls the rear of the cell toward the leading edge. We have characterized the function of myosin light chain phosphatase, which down-regulates myosin activity, in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the myosin binding subunit of this enzyme cause photoreceptors to drop out of the eye disc epithelium and move toward and through the optic stalk. We show that this phenotype is due to excessive phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain Spaghetti squash rather than another potential substrate, Moesin, and that it requires the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain Zipper. Myosin binding subunit mutant cells continue to express apical epithelial markers and do not undergo ectopic apical constriction. In addition, mutant cells in the wing disc remain within the epithelium and differentiate abnormal wing hairs. We suggest that excessive myosin activity in photoreceptor neurons may pull the cell bodies toward the growth cones in a process resembling normal cell migration. PMID:15075368

  10. Association of kinesin and myosin with pigment granules in crustacean chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Robert Tew; McNamara, John Campbell

    2006-02-01

    Chromatic adaptation in crustaceans results from the differential distribution of colored pigment granules within their chromatophores consequent to cell signaling by neurosecretory peptides. However, the force transducing, mechanochemical protein motors responsible for granule translocation, and their molecular mechanisms of action, are not well understood. The present study uses immunocytochemical techniques and a motility assay in vitro to demonstrate that protein motors from the kinesin and myosin superfamilies are stably associated with membrane-bounded pigment granules in the red, ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater, palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium olfersii. Monoclonal antibodies against conventional kinesin heavy chain, and an anti-myosin whole serum, labeled pigment-containing fragments prepared from homogenates of chromatophores with fully dispersed or aggregated pigments: this finding infers a permanent association between the protein motors and the pigment granules, and suggests that such motors may be regulated while bound to their cargos. The pigment aggregator appears to be a myosin since the anti-myosin whole serum attenuated hormonally triggered pigment aggregation in the motility assay in vitro, and induced pigment hyper-dispersion in some chromatophores. Western blots of the chromatophore-containing, ovarian tissue homogenate demonstrated protein bands consistent with myosin II and myosin XII, either of which may be the pigment aggregator. This study provides the first direct evidence for myosin and kinesin protein motors directly and stably associated with pigment granules in crustacean chromatophores, and may represent the first successful isolation of myosin class XII. PMID:16420248

  11. Using Fluorescent Myosin to Directly Visualize Cooperative Activation of Thin Filaments*♦

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rama; Geeves, Michael A.; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Contraction of striated muscle is tightly regulated by the release and sequestration of calcium within myocytes. At the molecular level, calcium modulates myosin's access to the thin filament. Once bound, myosin is hypothesized to potentiate the binding of further myosins. Here, we directly image single molecules of myosin binding to and activating thin filaments. Using this approach, the cooperative binding of myosin along thin filaments has been quantified. We have found that two myosin heads are required to laterally activate a regulatory unit of thin filament. The regulatory unit is found to be capable of accommodating 11 additional myosins. Three thin filament activation states possessing differential myosin binding capacities are also visible. To describe this system, we have formulated a simple chemical kinetic model of cooperative activation that holds across a wide range of solution conditions. The stochastic nature of activation is strongly highlighted by data obtained in sub-optimal activation conditions where the generation of activation waves and their catastrophic collapse can be observed. This suggests that the thin filament has the potential to be turned fully on or off in a binary fashion. PMID:25429108

  12. Reciprocal and dynamic polarization of planar cell polarity core components and myosin

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Smith, Erin; Kourakis, Matthew J; Reeves, Wendy; Veeman, Michael; Smith, William C

    2015-01-01

    The Ciona notochord displays planar cell polarity (PCP), with anterior localization of Prickle (Pk) and Strabismus (Stbm). We report that a myosin is polarized anteriorly in these cells and strongly colocalizes with Stbm. Disruption of the actin/myosin machinery with cytochalasin or blebbistatin disrupts polarization of Pk and Stbm, but not of myosin complexes, suggesting a PCP-independent aspect of myosin localization. Wash out of cytochalasin restored Pk polarization, but not if done in the presence of blebbistatin, suggesting an active role for myosin in core PCP protein localization. On the other hand, in the pk mutant line, aimless, myosin polarization is disrupted in approximately one third of the cells, indicating a reciprocal action of core PCP signaling on myosin localization. Our results indicate a complex relationship between the actomyosin cytoskeleton and core PCP components in which myosin is not simply a downstream target of PCP signaling, but also required for PCP protein localization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05361.001 PMID:25866928

  13. Using fluorescent myosin to directly visualize cooperative activation of thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rama; Geeves, Michael A; Kad, Neil M

    2015-01-23

    Contraction of striated muscle is tightly regulated by the release and sequestration of calcium within myocytes. At the molecular level, calcium modulates myosin's access to the thin filament. Once bound, myosin is hypothesized to potentiate the binding of further myosins. Here, we directly image single molecules of myosin binding to and activating thin filaments. Using this approach, the cooperative binding of myosin along thin filaments has been quantified. We have found that two myosin heads are required to laterally activate a regulatory unit of thin filament. The regulatory unit is found to be capable of accommodating 11 additional myosins. Three thin filament activation states possessing differential myosin binding capacities are also visible. To describe this system, we have formulated a simple chemical kinetic model of cooperative activation that holds across a wide range of solution conditions. The stochastic nature of activation is strongly highlighted by data obtained in sub-optimal activation conditions where the generation of activation waves and their catastrophic collapse can be observed. This suggests that the thin filament has the potential to be turned fully on or off in a binary fashion. PMID:25429108

  14. Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  15. Intra-axonal myosin and actin in nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Irvine G; Lund, Linda M

    2009-10-01

    A focused review of sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat model, based on research conducted by the authors, is presented. We examine structural proteins carried distally in the axon by energy-requiring motor enzymes, using protein chemistry and molecular biology techniques in combination with immunohistochemistry. Relevant findings from other laboratories are cited and discussed. The general conclusion is that relatively large amounts of actin and tubulin are required to construct a regenerating axon and that these materials mainly originate in the parent axon. The motor enzymes that carry these proteins forward as macromolecules include kinesin and dynein but probably also include myosin. PMID:19927086

  16. On the mechanism of energy transduction in myosin subfragment 1.

    PubMed Central

    Botts, J; Takashi, R; Torgerson, P; Hozumi, T; Muhlrad, A; Mornet, D; Morales, M F

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the myosin subfragment 1 moiety of the muscle contractile apparatus is a self-contained "engine" whose operational plan is based on the interactive nature of ATP (or degradation intermediate) binding and actin binding, made possible by an intersite communication system. It is suggested that the spatial information required for examining this engine can, at least provisionally, be derived from fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements interpreted by the Förster equation and that the existence of an intersite communication system can be deduced from piece-wise detection of interacting pairs of points. PMID:6585786

  17. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1

  18. Ozz-E3 ubiquitin ligase targets sarcomeric embryonic myosin heavy chain during muscle development.

    PubMed

    Campos, Yvan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Zanoteli, Edmar; Moshiach, Simon; Vergani, Naja; Bongiovanni, Antonella; Harris, A John; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Muscle contractile proteins are expressed as a series of developmental isoforms that are in constant dynamic remodeling during embryogenesis, but how obsolete molecules are recognized and removed is not known. Ozz is a developmentally regulated protein that functions as the adaptor component of a RING-type ubiquitin ligase complex specific to striated muscle. Ozz(-/-) mutants exhibit defects in myofibrillogenesis and myofiber differentiation. Here we show that Ozz targets the rod portion of embryonic myosin heavy chain and preferentially recognizes the sarcomeric rather than the soluble pool of myosin. We present evidence that Ozz binding to the embryonic myosin isoform within sarcomeric thick filaments marks it for ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation, allowing its replacement with neonatal or adult isoforms. This unique function positions Ozz within a system that facilitates sarcomeric myosin remodeling during muscle maturation and regeneration. Our findings identify Ozz-E3 as the ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts with and regulates myosin within its fully assembled cytoskeletal structure. PMID:20352047

  19. Heat-induced formation of myosin oligomer-soluble filament complex in high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masato; Takai, Eisuke; Ejima, Daisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Heat-induced aggregation of myosin into an elastic gel plays an important role in the water-holding capacity and texture of meat products. Here, we investigated thermal aggregation of porcine myosin in high-salt solution over a wide temperature range by dynamic light scattering experiments. The myosin samples were readily dissolved in 1.0 M NaCl at 25 °C followed by dilution into various salt concentrations. The diluted solutions consistently contained both myosin monomers and soluble filaments. The filament size decreased with increasing salt concentration and temperature. High temperatures above Tm led to at least partial dissociation of soluble filaments and thermal unfolding, resulting in the formation of soluble oligomers and binding to the persistently present soluble filaments. Such a complex formation between the oligomers and filaments has never been observed. Our results provide new insight into the heat-induced myosin gelation in high-salt solution. PMID:25445683

  20. Modeling Hand-Over-Hand and Inchworm Steps in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian; Tehver, Riina

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor protein that moves along actin filaments to transport cargo within a cell. There is much experimental evidence that the myosin VI dimer moves ``hand-over-hand'' along actin; however, recent experiments suggest that the protein can also move via an ``inchworm'' mechanism. We created a mechanochemical kinetic model to predict myosin VI's behavior under different ATP, ADP, and force conditions, taking these alternative mechanisms into account. Our model's calculations agree well with experimental results and can also be used to predict myosin VI's behavior outside experimentally tested regimes, such as under forward force. We also predict an optimized motor function for the protein around physiological (-2 pN) load and anchoring under -3 pN load. By using our model to predict myosin VI's response to environmental change, we can gain insight into the behavior of a protein that can be difficult to observe experimentally.

  1. Biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of the MYO19 motor domain

    PubMed Central

    Adikes, Rebecca C.; Unrath, William C.; Yengo, Christopher M.; Quintero, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletal systems. Evidence for the involvement of myosin motors has been described in many systems, and until recently a candidate mitochondrial transport motor had not been described in vertebrates. Myosin-XIX (MYO19) was predicted to represent a novel class of myosin and had previously been shown to bind to mitochondria and increase mitochondrial network dynamics when ectopically expressed. Our analyses comparing ∼40 MYO19 orthologs to ∼2000 other myosin motor domain sequences identified instances of homology well-conserved within class XIX myosins that were not found in other myosin classes, suggesting MYO19-specific mechanochemistry. Steady-state biochemical analyses of the MYO19 motor domain indicate that Homo sapiens MYO19 is a functional motor. Insect cell-expressed constructs bound calmodulin as a light chain at the predicted stoichiometry and displayed actin-activated ATPase activity. MYO19 constructs demonstrated high actin affinity in the presence of ATP in actin-cosedimentation assays, and translocated actin filaments in gliding assays. Expression of GFP-MYO19 containing a mutation impairing ATPase activity did not enhance mitochondrial network dynamics, as occurs with wild-type MYO19, indicating that myosin motor activity is required for mitochondrial motility. The measured biochemical properties of MYO19 suggest it is a high-duty ratio motor that could serve to transport mitochondria or anchor mitochondria, depending upon the cellular microenvironment. PMID:23568824

  2. The properties of the actin-myosin interaction in the heart muscle depend on the isoforms of myosin but not of α-actin.

    PubMed

    Kopylova, G; Nabiev, S; Nikitina, L; Shchepkin, D; Bershitsky, S

    2016-08-01

    In myocardium of mammals there are two isoforms of myosin heavy chains, α and β. In ventricle, together with ventricular isoforms of light chains they form two isomyosins: V1 and V3, homodimers of α- and β-heavy chains, respectively. In atria, α- and β-heavy chains together with atrial light chains form A1 (αα) and A2 (ββ) isomyosins. Besides in myocardium two isoforms of α-actin, skeletal and cardiac, are expressed. We assume that the differences in the amino acid sequence of cardiac and skeletal actin may affect its interaction with myosin. To test this hypothesis, we investigated characteristics of actin-myosin interactions of cardiac and skeletal isoforms of α-actin with the isoforms of cardiac myosin using an optical trap technique and an in vitro motility assay. It was found that the mechanical and kinetic characteristics of the interactions of the isoforms of cardiac myosin with actin depend on the isoforms of myosin not α-actin. PMID:27264951

  3. Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 regulate nonmuscle myosin IIA activity by anchoring myosin phosphatase complex

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kang; Li, Chun-Chun; Ye, Guan; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 activate, through their Sec7 domains, ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of Arf-bound GDP with GTP for initiation of vesicular transport or activation of specific enzymes that modify important phospholipids. They are also implicated in regulation of cell polarization and actin dynamics for directed migration. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous HeLa cell BIG1 and BIG2 with myosin IIA was demonstrably independent of Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity, because effects of BIG1 and BIG2 depletion were reversed by overexpression of the cognate BIG molecule C-terminal sequence that follows the Arf activation site. Selective depletion of BIG1 or BIG2 enhanced specific phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) and F-actin content, which impaired cell migration in Transwell assays. Our data are clear evidence of these newly recognized functions for BIG1 and BIG2 in transduction or integration of mechanical signals from integrin adhesions and myosin IIA-dependent actin dynamics. Thus, by anchoring or scaffolding the assembly, organization, and efficient operation of multimolecular myosin phosphatase complexes that include myosin IIA, protein phosphatase 1δ, and myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, BIG1 and BIG2 serve to integrate diverse biophysical and biochemical events in cells. PMID:23918382

  4. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of T. gondii Motility Induces the Posttranslational Modification of Myosin Light Chain-1 and Inhibits Myosin Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Carey, Kimberly L.; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains. PMID:20084115

  5. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  6. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life. PMID:25072053

  7. Canine cardiac myosin with special referrence to pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. I. Subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Siemankowski, R F; Dreizen, P

    1978-12-10

    In studies of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal hearts and hypertrophic hearts at 5 weeks and 13 weeks after aortic banding, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows intermediate molecular weight components which derive from heavy chains fragmented in the presence of dodecyl sulfate. The proportion of degraded heavy chains is greater in myosin from hypertrophic hearts than normal hearts, with comparable degradation in left and right ventricle myosin. The observed fragmentation of myosin results from proteolysis due to contaminant proteases or a thermally activated, heat-stable nonenzymatic process, or both. The susceptibility of heavy chains to crude myofibrillar proteases differs in normal and hypertrophic cardiac myosin; however, the kinetics of tryptic digestion are identical for both myosins. With precautions to minimize proteolytic artifacts on dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, preparations of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal and hypertrophic hearts exhibit comparable subunit composition, with approximately molar ratios of heavy chains, light chain L1, and light chain L2. Comparable stoichiometry for the light chain fraction is determined by high speed sedimentation equilibrium at pH 11 and direct fractionation of the different cardiac myosins. We do not confirm reports (e.g. Wikman-Coffelt, J., Fenner, C., Smith, A., and Mason, D. T. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1257-1262) of different proportions of light chains in left and right ventricle myosin of normal and hypertrophic canine hearts. The light chains display microheterogeneity, with L1 generating two isoelectric variants and L2 generating two major and two minor variants, but identical mobilities and isoelectric values are obtained in the different myosin preparations. PMID:152317

  8. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A.

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  9. The Function of V-ATPases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stransky, Laura; Cotter, Kristina; Forgac, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of proton pumps that couple ATP hydrolysis to proton transport into intracellular compartments and across the plasma membrane. They function in a wide array of normal cellular processes, including membrane traffic, protein processing and degradation, and the coupled transport of small molecules, as well as such physiological processes as urinary acidification and bone resorption. The V-ATPases have also been implicated in a number of disease processes, including viral infection, renal disease, and bone resorption defects. This review is focused on the growing evidence for the important role of V-ATPases in cancer. This includes functions in cellular signaling (particularly Wnt, Notch, and mTOR signaling), cancer cell survival in the highly acidic environment of tumors, aiding the development of drug resistance, as well as crucial roles in tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Of greatest excitement is evidence that at least some tumors express isoforms of V-ATPase subunits whose disruption is not lethal, leading to the possibility of developing anti-cancer therapeutics that selectively target V-ATPases that function in cancer cells. PMID:27335445

  10. Na+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit containing Q905-V930 of gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha preferentially assembles with H+-K+-ATPase beta.

    PubMed

    Wang, S G; Eakle, K A; Levenson, R; Farley, R A

    1997-03-01

    Amino acids N886-A911 of the rat Na+-K+-ATPase alpha3-subunit were replaced by the corresponding region (Q905-V930) of the rat gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit. The chimera (NGH26) was expressed in yeast with the rat Na+-K+ -ATPase beta1-subunit (rbeta1), the rat H+-K+-ATPase beta-subunit (HKbeta), the chimeric beta-subunit NHbeta1 (containing the carboxy-terminal ectodomain of HKbeta), or the chimeric beta-subunit HNbeta1 (containing the carboxy-terminal ectodomain of rbeta1). Increased resistance to trypsin digestion indicated that NGH26 preferentially assembled with HKbeta and NHbeta1 rather than with rbeta1 or HNbeta1. Ouabain binding also indicated that more functional complexes were assembled when NGH26 was expressed with HKbeta or NHbeta1. These results suggest that the sequence Q905-V930 interacts with the HKbeta-subunit on the extracellular side of the cell membrane. The NGH26 + HKbeta complex is less stable than alpha3 + HKbeta when heated and also has a lower binding affinity for ouabain [dissociation constant (Kd) = 63 nM] compared with alpha3 + rbeta1 or alpha3 + HKbeta (K(d) = 5-10 nM). In contrast, the NGH26+NHbeta1 complex is thermally as stable as alpha3 + rbeta1 complexes, and its ouabain binding affinity (K(d) = 10 nM) is the same as the wild type. These results indicate that the amino acids Q905-V930 of the rat gastric H+-K+-ATPase alpha-subunit preferentially associate with the extracellular domain of H+-K+-ATPase beta-subunit to form functional pump complexes and that the cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane region of the beta-subunit influences the stability of the alpha beta complexes. PMID:9124528

  11. Unconventional processive mechanics of non-muscle myosin IIB.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, Melanie F; Smithback, Philip A; Rock, Ronald S

    2010-08-20

    Proper tension maintenance in the cytoskeleton is essential for regulated cell polarity, cell motility, and division. Non-muscle myosin IIB (NMIIB) generates tension along actin filaments in many cell types, including neuronal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Using a three-bead optical trapping assay, we recorded NMIIB interactions with actin filaments to determine if a NMIIB dimer cycles along an actin filament in a processive manner. Our results show that NMIIB is the first myosin II to exhibit evidence of processive stepping behavior. Analysis of these data reveals a forward displacement of 5.4 nm and, surprisingly, frequent backward steps of -5.9 nm. Processive stepping along the long pitch helix of actin may provide a mechanism for disassembly of fascin-actin bundles. Forward steps and detachment are weakly force-dependent at all forces, consistent with rate-limiting and force-dependent ADP release. However, backward steps are nearly force-independent. Our data support a model in which NMIIB can readily move in both directions at stall, which may be important for a general regulator of cytoskeleton tension. PMID:20511646

  12. Minimum energy reaction profiles for ATP hydrolysis in myosin.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Bella L; Kaliman, Ilya A; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2011-11-01

    The minimum energy reaction profiles corresponding to two possible reaction mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis in myosin are computed in this work within the framework of the quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method by using the same partitioning of the model system to the QM and MM parts and the same computational protocol. On the first reaction route, one water molecule performs nucleophilic attack at the phosphorus center P(γ) from ATP while the second water molecule in the closed protein cleft serves as a catalytic base assisted by the Glu residue from the myosin salt bridge. According to the present QM/MM calculations consistent with the results of kinetic studies this reaction pathway is characterized by a low activation energy barrier about 10 kcal/mol. The computed activation energy barrier for the second mechanism, which assumes the penta-coordinated oxyphosphorane transition state upon involvement of single water molecule in the reaction, is considerably higher than that for the two-water mechanism. PMID:21839658

  13. Calcium can mobilize and activate myosin-VI

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Brack, Dario; Ellrich, Heike; Averbeck, Beate; Veigel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The ability to coordinate the timing of motor protein activation lies at the center of a wide range of cellular motile processes including endocytosis, cell division, and cancer cell migration. We show that calcium dramatically alters the conformation and activity of the myosin-VI motor implicated in pivotal steps of these processes. We resolved the change in motor conformation and in structural flexibility using single particle analysis of electron microscopic data and identified interacting domains using fluorescence spectroscopy. We discovered that calcium binding to calmodulin increases the binding affinity by a factor of 2,500 for a bipartite binding site on myosin-VI. The ability of calcium-calmodulin to seek out and bridge between binding site components directs a major rearrangement of the motor from a compact dormant state into a cargo binding primed state that is nonmotile. The lack of motility at high calcium is due to calmodulin switching to a higher affinity binding site, which leaves the original IQ-motif exposed, thereby destabilizing the lever arm. The return to low calcium can either restabilize the lever arm, required for translocating the cargo-bound motors toward the center of the cell, or refold the cargo-free motors into an inactive state ready for the next cellular calcium flux. PMID:26811464

  14. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  15. Adaptations in myosin heavy chain profile in chronically unloaded muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmadge, R. J.; Roy, R. R.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    In this review, myosin heavy chain (MHC) adaptations in response to several models of decreased neuromuscular activity (i.e. electrical activation and loading of a muscle) are evaluated. In each of these "reduced-activity" models it is important to: a) quantify the changes in electrical activation of the muscle as a result of the intervention; b) quantify the forces generated by the muscle; and c) determine whether the neuromuscular junction remains normal. Most of the models, including spaceflight, hindlimb suspension, spinal cord isolation, spinal cord transection, denervation, and limb immobilization in a shortened position, result in increases in the percentage of fast MHCs (or fast MHC mRNA) in normally slow rat muscles. It also can be inferred from histochemical data that increases in fast MHCs occur with TTX application and bed rest. The only "reduced-activity" model to consistently increase slow muscle myosin mRNA, and slow fibers is limb immobilization in a stretched position; however, this model results in at least a temporary increase in tension. It appears that the most common feature of these models that might induce MHC adaptations is the modification in loading rather than a change in the neuromuscular activity.

  16. Ouabain binding sites and (Na/sup +/,K/sup +/)-ATPase activity in rat cardiac hypertrophy: expression of the neonatal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    The adaptation of the myocardium to mechanical overload which results in cardiac hypertrophy involved several membrane functions. The digitalis receptor in sarcolemma vesicles from hypertrophied rat hearts is characterized by binding of (/sup 3/H)ouabain and ouabain-induced inhibition of (Na/sup +/,K/sup +/)-ATPase. The results show the existence of two families of ouabain binding sites with apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) of 1.8-3.2 x 10/sup -8/ M and 1-8 x 10/sup -6/ M, respectively, which are similar to those found in normal hearts. The presence of the high affinity receptor in hypertrophied rat heart is correlated to a detectable inhibition of the (Na/sup +/,K/sup +/)-ATPase (IC/sub 50/ = 1-3 x 10/sup -8/ M). However, the high and low affinity sites in hypertrophied hearts bind and release ouabain at 4-5-fold slower rates than the corresponding sites in normal hearts. These properties are similar to that observed in newborn rat cardiac preparations. Taken together with the expression of myosin isoforms, the data show that the physiological adaptation of the heart also involves the resurgence of the neonatal forms of the digitalis receptor.

  17. Transport of ER vesicles on actin filaments in neurons by myosin V.

    PubMed

    Tabb, J S; Molyneaux, B J; Cohen, D L; Kuznetsov, S A; Langford, G M

    1998-11-01

    Axoplasmic organelles in the giant axon of the squid have been shown to move on both actin filaments and microtubules and to switch between actin filaments and microtubules during fast axonal transport. The objectives of this investigation were to identify the specific classes of axoplasmic organelles that move on actin filaments and the myosin motors involved. We developed a procedure to isolate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from extruded axoplasm and to reconstitute its movement in vitro. The isolated ER vesicles moved on exogenous actin filaments adsorbed to coverslips in an ATP-dependent manner without the addition of soluble factors. Therefore myosin was tightly bound and not extracted during isolation. These vesicles were identified as smooth ER by use of an antibody to an ER-resident protein, ERcalcistorin/protein disulfide isomerase (EcaSt/PDI). Furthermore, an antibody to squid myosin V was used in immunogold EM studies to show that myosin V localized to these vesicles. The antibody was generated to a squid brain myosin (p196) that was classified as myosin V based on comparisons of amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of this myosin with those of other known members of the myosin V family. Dual labeling with the squid myosin V antibody and a kinesin heavy chain antibody showed that the two motors colocalized on the same vesicles. Finally, antibody inhibition experiments were performed with two myosin V-specific antibodies to show that myosin V motor activity is required for transport of vesicles on actin filaments in axoplasm. One antibody was made to a peptide in the globular tail domain and the other to the globular head fragment of myosin V. Both antibodies inhibited vesicle transport on actin filaments by greater than 90% compared to controls. These studies provide the first direct evidence that ER vesicles are transported on actin filaments by myosin V. These data confirm the role of actin filaments in fast axonal transport and provide support for

  18. Cadmium inhibits motility, activities of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and axonemal dynein-ATPase of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, R; Botana, D; Piñero, S; Proverbio, F; Marín, R

    2016-05-01

    Cd(2+) has been associated with decreased sperm motility in individuals exposed to this element, such as smokers. Among other factors, this lowered motility could be the result of inhibition exerted by Cd(2+) on the activity of the sperm ATPases associated with sperm motility. In this study, we evaluated the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and the axonemal dynein-ATPase activities as well as sperm motility, in the presence of different free Cd(2+) concentrations in the assay media. It was found that spermatozoa incubated for 5 h in a medium containing 25 nm free Cd(2+) showed a significant inhibition of progressive motility, reaching values even lower at higher Cd(2+) concentrations. In addition, it was found that the activity of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase reached maximal inhibition at 50 nm free Cd(2+), with a K50% inhibition of 18.3 nm free Cd(2+). The dynein-ATPase activity was maximally inhibited by 25 nm free Cd(2+) in the assay medium, with a K50% inhibition of 11.3 nm Cd(2+). Our results indicate that the decreased activity of the sperm ATPases might have a critical importance in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the decreased sperm motility of individuals exposed to Cd(2+). PMID:26259968

  19. Rotating with the brakes on and other unresolved features of the vacuolar ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Shaun; Harrison, Michael A.; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The rotary ATPase family comprises the ATP synthase (F-ATPase), vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and archaeal ATPase (A-ATPase). These either predominantly utilize a proton gradient for ATP synthesis or use ATP to produce a proton gradient, driving secondary transport and acidifying organelles. With advances in EM has come a significant increase in our understanding of the rotary ATPase family. Following the sub nm resolution reconstructions of both the F- and V-ATPases, the secondary structure organization of the elusive subunit a has now been resolved, revealing a novel helical arrangement. Despite these significant developments in our understanding of the rotary ATPases, there are still a number of unresolved questions about the mechanism, regulation and overall architecture, which this mini-review aims to highlight and discuss. PMID:27284051

  20. Rotating with the brakes on and other unresolved features of the vacuolar ATPase.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Shaun; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The rotary ATPase family comprises the ATP synthase (F-ATPase), vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and archaeal ATPase (A-ATPase). These either predominantly utilize a proton gradient for ATP synthesis or use ATP to produce a proton gradient, driving secondary transport and acidifying organelles. With advances in EM has come a significant increase in our understanding of the rotary ATPase family. Following the sub nm resolution reconstructions of both the F- and V-ATPases, the secondary structure organization of the elusive subunit a has now been resolved, revealing a novel helical arrangement. Despite these significant developments in our understanding of the rotary ATPases, there are still a number of unresolved questions about the mechanism, regulation and overall architecture, which this mini-review aims to highlight and discuss. PMID:27284051

  1. Antibodies to mammalian and plant V-ATPases cross react with the V-ATPase of insect cation-transporting plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Russell, V E; Klein, U; Reuveni, M; Spaeth, D D; Wolfersberger, M G; Harvey, W R

    1992-05-01

    In immunobiochemical blots, polyclonal antibodies against subunits of plant and mammalian vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) cross-react strongly with corresponding subunits of larval Manduca sexta midgut plasma membrane V-ATPase. Thus, rabbit antiserum against Kalanchoe daigremontiana tonoplast V-ATPase holoenzyme cross-reacts with the 67, 56, 40, 28 and 20 kDa subunits of midgut V-ATPase separated by SDS-PAGE. Antisera against bovine chromaffin granule 72 and 39 kDa V-ATPase subunits cross-react with the corresponding 67 and 43 kDa subunits of midgut V-ATPase. Antisera against the 57 kDa subunit of both beet root and oat root V-ATPase cross-react strongly with the midgut 56 kDa V-ATPase subunit. In immunocytochemical light micrographs, antiserum against the beet root 57 kDa V-ATPase subunit labels the goblet cell apical membrane of both posterior and anterior midgut in freeze-substituted and fixed sections. The plant antiserum also labels the apical brush-border plasma membrane of Malpighian tubules. The ability of antibodies against plant V-ATPase to label these insect membranes suggests a high sequence homology between V-ATPases from plants and insects. Both of the antibody-labelled insect membranes transport K+ and both membranes possess F1-like particles, portasomes, on their cytoplasmic surfaces. This immunolabelling by xenic V-ATPase antisera of two insect cation-transporting membranes suggests that the portasomes on these membranes may be V-ATPase particles, similar to those reported on V-ATPase-containing vacuolar membranes from various sources. PMID:1534830

  2. Orthologous myosin isoforms and scaling of shortening velocity with body size in mouse, rat, rabbit and human muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, M A; Canepari, M; Rossi, R; D'Antona, G; Reggiani, C; Bottinelli, R

    2003-01-01

    Maximum shortening velocity (V0) was determined in single fibres dissected from hind limb skeletal muscles of rabbit and mouse and classified according to their myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition. The values for rabbit and mouse V0 were compared with the values previously obtained in man and rat under identical experimental conditions. Significant differences in V0 were found between fibres containing corresponding myosin isoforms in different species: as a general rule for each isoform V0 decreased with body mass. Myosin isoform distributions of soleus and tibialis anterior were analysed in mouse, rat, rabbit and man: the proportion of slow myosin generally increased with increasing body size. The diversity between V0 of corresponding myosin isoforms and the different myosin isoform composition of corresponding muscles determine the scaling of shortening velocity of whole muscles with body size, which is essential for optimisation of locomotion. The speed of actin translocation (Vf) in in vitro motility assay was determined with myosins extracted from single muscle fibres of all four species: significant differences were found between myosin isoforms in each species and between corresponding myosin isoforms in different species. The values of V0 and Vf determined for each myosin isoform were significantly correlated, strongly supporting the view that the myosin isoform expressed is the major determinant of maximum shortening velocity in muscle fibres. PMID:12562996

  3. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. PMID:26555750

  4. Electrostatic interactions in catalytic centers of F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnaya, Alexandra F.; Romanovsky, Yury M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2003-10-01

    F1-ATPase is one of the most important enzymes of membrane bioenergetics. F1-ATPase is the constituent complex that provides the ATP formation from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) at the expense of energy of electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions generated across the energy transducing mitochondrial, chloroplast or bacterial membrane. F1-ATPase is a reversible molecular machine that can work as a proton pump due to energy released in the course of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase reaction). The unusual feature of this enzyme is that it operates as a rotary molecular motor. Recently, using the fluorescence microscopy method for the real time visualization of molecular mobility of individual molecules, it was demonstrated directly that the ATP hydrolysis by F1-ATPase is accompanied by unidirectional rotations of mobile subunits (rotor) of F1F0-ATP synthase. In this work, we calculated the contribution of electrostatic interactions between charged groups of a substrate (MgATP), products molecules (MgADP and Pi), and charged amino acid residuals of ATPase molecule to the energy changes associated with the substrate binding and their chemical transformations in the catalytic centers located at the interface of α and β subunits of the enzyme (oligomer complex α3β3γ of bovine mitochondria ATPase). A catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis considered in our work includes conformational changes of α and β subunits caused by unidirectional rotations of an eccentric γ subunit. The knowledge of energy characteristics and force field in catalytic center of an enzyme in different conformational states may be important for further simulation dynamic properties of ATP synthase complex.

  5. Sequence analysis of the myosin regulatory light chain gene of the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila.

    PubMed

    Ravaux, J; Hassanin, A; Deutsch, J; Gaill, F; Markmann-Mulisch, U

    2001-01-24

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA (DNA complementary to RNA) clone (Rf69) from the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila. The cDNA insert consists of 1169 base pairs. The aminoacid sequence deduced from the longest reading frame is 193 residues in length, and clearly characterized it as a myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC primary structure is described in relation to its function in muscle contraction. The comparison with other RLCs suggested that Riftia myosin is probably regulated through its RLC either by phosphorylation like the vertebrate smooth muscle myosins, and/or by Ca2+-binding like the mollusk myosins. Riftia RLC possesses a N-terminal extension lacking in all other species besides the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Aminoacid sequence comparisons with a number of RLCs from vertebrates and invertebrates revealed a relatively high identity score (64%) between Riftia RLC and the homologous gene from Lumbricus. The relationships between the members of the myosin RLCs were examined by two phylogenetic methods, i.e. distance matrix and maximum parsimony. The resulting trees depict the grouping of the RLCs according to their role in myosin activity regulation. In all trees, Riftia RLC groups with RLCs that depend on Ca2+-binding for myosin activity regulation. PMID:11223252

  6. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects.

    PubMed

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B; Krenc, Agata K; Meyers, David J; Rock, Ronald S; Anders, Robert A; Freel Meyers, Caren L; Robinson, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  7. PAR-4 and anillin regulate myosin to coordinate spindle and furrow position during asymmetric division

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Perrine; Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate furrow and spindle positions during asymmetric division. In Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos, myosin localizes at the anterior cortex whereas the mitotic spindle localizes toward the posterior. We find that PAR-4/LKB1 impinges on myosin via two pathways, an anillin-dependent pathway that also responds to the cullin CUL-5 and an anillin-independent pathway involving the kinase PIG-1/MELK. In the absence of both PIG-1/MELK and the anillin ANI-1, myosin accumulates at the anterior cortex and induces a strong displacement of the furrow toward the anterior, which can lead to DNA segregation defects. Regulation of asymmetrically localized myosin is thus critical to ensure that furrow and spindle midzone positions coincide throughout cytokinesis. PMID:26416962

  8. ALPK1 phosphorylates myosin IIA modulating TNF-α trafficking in gout flares

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Pin; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Liu, Yu-Fan; Ma, Che; Lu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Chung-Ming; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Chen, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Gout is characterized by the monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU)-induced arthritis. Alpha kinase-1 (ALPK1) has shown to be associated with MSU-induced inflammation and gout. Here, we used bioinformatics, proteomics, cell models, and twenty in vitro human assays to clarify some of its role in the inflammatory response to MSU. We found myosin IIA to be a frequent interacting protein partner of ALPK1, binding to its N-terminal and forming a protein complex with calmodulin and F-actin, and that MSU-induced ALPK1 phosphorylated the myosin IIA. A knockdown of endogenous ALPK1 or myosin IIA significantly reduced the MSU-induced secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, all gouty patients expressed higher basal protein levels of ALPK1, myosin IIA, and plasma TNF-α, however those medicated with colchicine has shown reduced myosin IIA and TNF-α but not ALPK1. The findings suggest ALPK1 is a kinase that participates in the regulation of Golgi-derived TNF-α trafficking through myosin IIA phosphorylation in the inflammation of gout. This novel pathway could be blocked at the level of myosin by colchicine in gout treatment. PMID:27169898

  9. Flow-dependent myosin recruitment during Drosophila cellularization requires zygotic dunk activity.

    PubMed

    He, Bing; Martin, Adam; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Actomyosin contractility underlies force generation in morphogenesis ranging from cytokinesis to epithelial extension or invagination. In Drosophila, the cleavage of the syncytial blastoderm is initiated by an actomyosin network at the base of membrane furrows that invaginate from the surface of the embryo. It remains unclear how this network forms and how it affects tissue mechanics. Here, we show that during Drosophila cleavage, myosin recruitment to the cleavage furrows proceeds in temporally distinct phases of tension-driven cortical flow and direct recruitment, regulated by different zygotic genes. We identify the gene dunk, which we show is transiently transcribed when cellularization starts and functions to maintain cortical myosin during the flow phase. The subsequent direct myosin recruitment, however, is Dunk-independent but requires Slam. The Slam-dependent direct recruitment of myosin is sufficient to drive cleavage in the dunk mutant, and the subsequent development of the mutant is normal. In the dunk mutant, cortical myosin loss triggers misdirected flow and disrupts the hexagonal packing of the ingressing furrows. Computer simulation coupled with laser ablation suggests that Dunk-dependent maintenance of cortical myosin enables mechanical tension build-up, thereby providing a mechanism to guide myosin flow and define the hexagonal symmetry of the furrows. PMID:27226317

  10. Regulation of Melanosome Movement in the Cell Cycle by Reversible Association with Myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stephen L.; Karcher, Ryan L.; Roland, Joseph T.; Minin, Alexander A.; Steffen, Walter; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that melanosomes of Xenopus laevis melanophores are transported along both microtubules and actin filaments in a coordinated manner, and that myosin V is bound to purified melanosomes (Rogers, S., and V.I. Gelfand. 1998. Curr. Biol. 8:161–164). In the present study, we have demonstrated that myosin V is the actin-based motor responsible for melanosome transport. To examine whether myosin V was regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, purified melanosomes were treated with interphase- or metaphase-arrested Xenopus egg extracts and assayed for in vitro motility along Nitella actin filaments. Motility of organelles treated with mitotic extract was found to decrease dramatically, as compared with untreated or interphase extract-treated melanosomes. This mitotic inhibition of motility correlated with the dissociation of myosin V from melanosomes, but the activity of soluble motor remained unaffected. Furthermore, we find that myosin V heavy chain is highly phosphorylated in metaphase extracts versus interphase extracts. We conclude that organelle transport by myosin V is controlled by a cell cycle-regulated association of this motor to organelles, and that this binding is likely regulated by phosphorylation of myosin V during mitosis. PMID:10491390

  11. SLOW MYOSIN ATP TURNOVER IN THE SUPER-RELAXED STATE IN TARANTULA MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg-muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog, mantATP, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when mantATP is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multi-exponential process, with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant, ~30 minutes. This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in mantADP and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with the very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the “interacting-heads motif” observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. PMID:21763701

  12. folded gastrulation, cell shape change and the control of myosin localization.

    PubMed

    Dawes-Hoang, Rachel E; Parmar, Kush M; Christiansen, Audrey E; Phelps, Chris B; Brand, Andrea H; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2005-09-01

    The global cell movements that shape an embryo are driven by intricate changes to the cytoarchitecture of individual cells. In a developing embryo, these changes are controlled by patterning genes that confer cell identity. However, little is known about how patterning genes influence cytoarchitecture to drive changes in cell shape. In this paper, we analyze the function of the folded gastrulation gene (fog), a known target of the patterning gene twist. Our analysis of fog function therefore illuminates a molecular pathway spanning all the way from patterning gene to physical change in cell shape. We show that secretion of Fog protein is apically polarized, making this the earliest polarized component of a pathway that ultimately drives myosin to the apical side of the cell. We demonstrate that fog is both necessary and sufficient to drive apical myosin localization through a mechanism involving activation of myosin contractility with actin. We determine that this contractility driven form of localization involves RhoGEF2 and the downstream effector Rho kinase. This distinguishes apical myosin localization from basal myosin localization, which we find not to require actinomyosin contractility or FOG/RhoGEF2/Rho-kinase signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that once localized apically, myosin continues to contract. The force generated by continued myosin contraction is translated into a flattening and constriction of the cell surface through a tethering of the actinomyosin cytoskeleton to the apical adherens junctions. Our analysis of fog function therefore provides a direct link from patterning to cell shape change. PMID:16123312

  13. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects

    PubMed Central

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B.; Krenc, Agata K.; Meyers, David J.; Rock, Ronald S.; Anders, Robert A.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  14. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  15. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  16. Identification and characterization of multiple novel Rab–myosin Va interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Andrew J.; Jollivet, Florence; Horgan, Conor P.; Khan, Amir R.; Raposo, Graça; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Goud, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Myosin Va is a widely expressed actin-based motor protein that binds members of the Rab GTPase family (3A, 8A, 10, 11A, 27A) and is implicated in many intracellular trafficking processes. To our knowledge, myosin Va has not been tested in a systematic screen for interactions with the entire Rab GTPase family. To that end, we report a yeast two-hybrid screen of all human Rabs for myosin Va-binding ability and reveal 10 novel interactions (3B, 3C, 3D, 6A, 6A′, 6B, 11B, 14, 25, 39B), which include interactions with three new Rab subfamilies (Rab6, Rab14, Rab39B). Of interest, myosin Va interacts with only a subset of the Rabs associated with the endocytic recycling and post-Golgi secretory systems. We demonstrate that myosin Va has three distinct Rab-binding domains on disparate regions of the motor (central stalk, an alternatively spliced exon, and the globular tail). Although the total pool of myosin Va is shared by several Rabs, Rab10 and Rab11 appear to be the major determinants of its recruitment to intracellular membranes. We also present evidence that myosin Va is necessary for maintaining a peripheral distribution of Rab11- and Rab14-positive endosomes. PMID:24006491

  17. Approaches to myosin modelling in a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimpton, L. S.; Whiteley, J. P.; Waters, S. L.; Oliver, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of biological processes rely on the ability of cells to move through their environment. Mathematical models have been developed to improve our understanding of how cells achieve motion. Here we develop models that explicitly track the cell's distribution of myosin within a two-phase flow framework. Myosin is a small motor protein which is important for contracting the cell's actin cytoskeleton and enabling cell motion. The two phases represent the actin network and the cytosol in the cell. We start from a fairly general description of myosin kinetics, advection and diffusion in the two-phase flow framework, then identify a number of sub-limits of the model that may be relevant in practice, two of which we investigate further via linear stability analyses and numerical simulations. We demonstrate that myosin-driven contraction of the actin network destabilizes a stationary steady state leading to cell motion, but that rapid diffusion of myosin and rapid unbinding of myosin from the actin network are stabilizing. We use numerical simulation to investigate travelling-wave solutions relevant to a steadily gliding cell and we consider a reduction of the model in which the cell adheres strongly to the substrate on which it is crawling. This work demonstrates that a number of existing models for the effect of myosin on cell motility can be understood as different sub-limits of our two-phase flow model.

  18. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  19. Molecular biological approaches to study myosin functions in cytokinesis of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, T Q; Yumura, S

    2000-04-15

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is amenable to biochemical, cell biological, and molecular genetic analyses, and offers a unique opportunity for multifaceted approaches to dissect the mechanism of cytokinesis. One of the important questions that are currently under investigation using Dictyostelium is to understand how cleavage furrows or contractile rings are assembled in the equatorial region. Contractile rings consist of a number of components including parallel filaments of actin and myosin II. Phenotypic analyses and in vivo localization studies of cells expressing mutant myosin IIs have demonstrated that myosin II's transport to and localization at the equatorial region does not require regulation by phosphorylation of myosin II, specific amino acid sequences of myosin II, or the motor activity of myosin II. Rather, the transport appears to depend on a myosin II-independent flow of cortical cytoskeleton. What drives the flow of cortical cytoskeleton is still elusive. However, a growing number of mutants that affect assembly of contractile rings have been accumulated. Analyses of these mutations, identification of more cytokinesis-specific genes, and information deriving from other experimental systems, should allow us to understand the mechanism of contractile ring formation and other aspects of cytokinesis. PMID:10816252

  20. ALPK1 phosphorylates myosin IIA modulating TNF-α trafficking in gout flares.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Pin; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Liu, Yu-Fan; Ma, Che; Lu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Chung-Ming; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Chen, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Gout is characterized by the monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU)-induced arthritis. Alpha kinase-1 (ALPK1) has shown to be associated with MSU-induced inflammation and gout. Here, we used bioinformatics, proteomics, cell models, and twenty in vitro human assays to clarify some of its role in the inflammatory response to MSU. We found myosin IIA to be a frequent interacting protein partner of ALPK1, binding to its N-terminal and forming a protein complex with calmodulin and F-actin, and that MSU-induced ALPK1 phosphorylated the myosin IIA. A knockdown of endogenous ALPK1 or myosin IIA significantly reduced the MSU-induced secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, all gouty patients expressed higher basal protein levels of ALPK1, myosin IIA, and plasma TNF-α, however those medicated with colchicine has shown reduced myosin IIA and TNF-α but not ALPK1. The findings suggest ALPK1 is a kinase that participates in the regulation of Golgi-derived TNF-α trafficking through myosin IIA phosphorylation in the inflammation of gout. This novel pathway could be blocked at the level of myosin by colchicine in gout treatment. PMID:27169898

  1. Flow-dependent myosin recruitment during Drosophila cellularization requires zygotic dunk activity

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Actomyosin contractility underlies force generation in morphogenesis ranging from cytokinesis to epithelial extension or invagination. In Drosophila, the cleavage of the syncytial blastoderm is initiated by an actomyosin network at the base of membrane furrows that invaginate from the surface of the embryo. It remains unclear how this network forms and how it affects tissue mechanics. Here, we show that during Drosophila cleavage, myosin recruitment to the cleavage furrows proceeds in temporally distinct phases of tension-driven cortical flow and direct recruitment, regulated by different zygotic genes. We identify the gene dunk, which we show is transiently transcribed when cellularization starts and functions to maintain cortical myosin during the flow phase. The subsequent direct myosin recruitment, however, is Dunk-independent but requires Slam. The Slam-dependent direct recruitment of myosin is sufficient to drive cleavage in the dunk mutant, and the subsequent development of the mutant is normal. In the dunk mutant, cortical myosin loss triggers misdirected flow and disrupts the hexagonal packing of the ingressing furrows. Computer simulation coupled with laser ablation suggests that Dunk-dependent maintenance of cortical myosin enables mechanical tension build-up, thereby providing a mechanism to guide myosin flow and define the hexagonal symmetry of the furrows. PMID:27226317

  2. PAR-4 and anillin regulate myosin to coordinate spindle and furrow position during asymmetric division.

    PubMed

    Pacquelet, Anne; Uhart, Perrine; Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-09-28

    During asymmetric cell division, the mitotic spindle and polarized myosin can both determine the position of the cytokinetic furrow. However, how cells coordinate signals from the spindle and myosin to ensure that cleavage occurs through the spindle midzone is unknown. Here, we identify a novel pathway that is essential to inhibit myosin and coordinate furrow and spindle positions during asymmetric division. In Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos, myosin localizes at the anterior cortex whereas the mitotic spindle localizes toward the posterior. We find that PAR-4/LKB1 impinges on myosin via two pathways, an anillin-dependent pathway that also responds to the cullin CUL-5 and an anillin-independent pathway involving the kinase PIG-1/MELK. In the absence of both PIG-1/MELK and the anillin ANI-1, myosin accumulates at the anterior cortex and induces a strong displacement of the furrow toward the anterior, which can lead to DNA segregation defects. Regulation of asymmetrically localized myosin is thus critical to ensure that furrow and spindle midzone positions coincide throughout cytokinesis. PMID:26416962

  3. Involvement of myosin light-chain kinase in endothelial cell retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wysolmerski, R.B.; Lagunoff, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were used to investigate the mechanism of endothelial cell retraction. Postconfluent endothelial cells permeabilized with saponin retracted upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}. Retraction was accompanied by thiophosphorylation of 19,000-Da myosin light chains when adenosine 5'-(gamma-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate was included in the medium. Both retraction and thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains exhibited a graded quantitative dependence on Ca{sup 2+}. When permeabilized monolayers were extracted in buffer D containing 100 mM KCl and 30 mM MgCl2 for 30 min, the cells failed to retract upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}, and no thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains occurred. The ability both to retract and to thiophosphorylate myosin light chains was restored by the addition to the permeabilized, extracted cells of myosin light-chain kinase and calmodulin together but not by either alone. These studies indicate that endothelial cell retraction, as does smooth muscle contraction, depends on myosin light-chain kinase phosphorylation of myosin light chains.

  4. Thermodynamic evidence of non-muscle myosin II-lipid-membrane interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schewkunow, Vitali; Sharma, Karan P.; Diez, Gerold; Klemm, Anna H.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2008-02-08

    A unique feature of protein networks in living cells is that they can generate their own force. Proteins such as non-muscle myosin II are an integral part of the cytoskeleton and have the capacity to convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into directional movement. Non-muscle myosin II can move actin filaments against each other, and depending on the orientation of the filaments and the way in which they are linked together, it can produce contraction, bending, extension, and stiffening. Our measurements with differential scanning calorimetry showed that non-muscle myosin II inserts into negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Using lipid vesicles made of DMPG/DMPC at a molar ratio of 1:1 at 10 mg/ml in the presence of different non-muscle myosin II concentrations showed a variation of the main phase transition of the lipid vesicle at around 23 deg. C. With increasing concentrations of non-muscle myosin II the thermotropic properties of the lipid vesicle changed, which is indicative of protein-lipid interaction/insertion. We hypothesize that myosin tail binds to acidic phospholipids through an electrostatic interaction using the basic side groups of positive residues; the flexible, amphipathic helix then may partially penetrate into the bilayer to form an anchor. Using the stopped-flow method, we determined the binding affinity of non-muscle myosin II when anchored to lipid vesicles with actin, which was similar to a pure actin-non-muscle myosin II system. Insertion of myosin tail into the hydrophobic region of lipid membranes, a model known as the lever arm mechanism, might explain how its interaction with actin generates cellular movement.

  5. The Role of Structural Dynamics of Actin in Class-Specific Myosin Motility

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Taro Q. P.; Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Iwane, Atsuko H.; Yanagida, Toshio; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2015-01-01

    The structural dynamics of actin, including the tilting motion between the small and large domains, are essential for proper interactions with actin-binding proteins. Gly146 is situated at the hinge between the two domains, and we previously showed that a G146V mutation leads to severe motility defects in skeletal myosin but has no effect on motility of myosin V. The present study tested the hypothesis that G146V mutation impaired rotation between the two domains, leading to such functional defects. First, our study showed that depolymerization of G146V filaments was slower than that of wild-type filaments. This result is consistent with the distinction of structural states of G146V filaments from those of the wild type, considering the recent report that stabilization of actin filaments involves rotation of the two domains. Next, we measured intramolecular FRET efficiencies between two fluorophores in the two domains with or without skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin or the heavy meromyosin equivalent of myosin V in the presence of ATP. Single-molecule FRET measurements showed that the conformations of actin subunits of control and G146V actin filaments were different in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin. This altered conformation of G146V subunits may lead to motility defects in myosin II. In contrast, distributions of FRET efficiencies of control and G146V subunits were similar in the presence of myosin V, consistent with the lack of motility defects in G146V actin with myosin V. The distribution of FRET efficiencies in the presence of myosin V was different from that in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin, implying that the roles of actin conformation in myosin motility depend on the type of myosin. PMID:25945499

  6. Myosin-Va and dynamic actin oppose microtubules to drive long-range organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard D; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A; Tooth, David J; Ramalho, Jose S; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Hume, Alistair N

    2014-08-01

    In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the "highways and local roads" model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks. The "cooperative capture" model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning. PMID:25065759

  7. Myosin filament polymerization and depolymerization in a model of partial length adaptation in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ijpma, Gijs; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M; Cairns, Simeon P; Sieck, Gary C

    2011-09-01

    Length adaptation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) is attributed to reorganization of the cytoskeleton, and in particular the contractile elements. However, a constantly changing lung volume with tidal breathing (hence changing ASM length) is likely to restrict full adaptation of ASM for force generation. There is likely to be continuous length adaptation of ASM between states of incomplete or partial length adaption. We propose a new model that assimilates findings on myosin filament polymerization/depolymerization, partial length adaptation, isometric force, and shortening velocity to describe this continuous length adaptation process. In this model, the ASM adapts to an optimal force-generating capacity in a repeating cycle of events. Initially the myosin filament, shortened by prior length changes, associates with two longer actin filaments. The actin filaments are located adjacent to the myosin filaments, such that all myosin heads overlap with actin to permit maximal cross-bridge cycling. Since in this model the actin filaments are usually longer than myosin filaments, the excess length of the actin filament is located randomly with respect to the myosin filament. Once activated, the myosin filament elongates by polymerization along the actin filaments, with the growth limited by the overlap of the actin filaments. During relaxation, the myosin filaments dissociate from the actin filaments, and then the cycle repeats. This process causes a gradual adaptation of force and instantaneous adaptation of shortening velocity. Good agreement is found between model simulations and the experimental data depicting the relationship between force development, myosin filament density, or shortening velocity and length. PMID:21659490

  8. Stretching Actin Filaments within Cells Enhances their Affinity for the Myosin II Motor Domain

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, Taro Q. P.; Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Nagasaki, Akira; Yumura, Shigehiko

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the myosin II motor domain (S1) preferentially binds to specific subsets of actin filaments in vivo, we expressed GFP-fused S1 with mutations that enhanced its affinity for actin in Dictyostelium cells. Consistent with the hypothesis, the GFP-S1 mutants were localized along specific portions of the cell cortex. Comparison with rhodamine-phalloidin staining in fixed cells demonstrated that the GFP-S1 probes preferentially bound to actin filaments in the rear cortex and cleavage furrows, where actin filaments are stretched by interaction with endogenous myosin II filaments. The GFP-S1 probes were similarly enriched in the cortex stretched passively by traction forces in the absence of myosin II or by external forces using a microcapillary. The preferential binding of GFP-S1 mutants to stretched actin filaments did not depend on cortexillin I or PTEN, two proteins previously implicated in the recruitment of myosin II filaments to stretched cortex. These results suggested that it is the stretching of the actin filaments itself that increases their affinity for the myosin II motor domain. In contrast, the GFP-fused myosin I motor domain did not localize to stretched actin filaments, which suggests different preferences of the motor domains for different structures of actin filaments play a role in distinct intracellular localizations of myosin I and II. We propose a scheme in which the stretching of actin filaments, the preferential binding of myosin II filaments to stretched actin filaments, and myosin II-dependent contraction form a positive feedback loop that contributes to the stabilization of cell polarity and to the responsiveness of the cells to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:22022566

  9. Genetic Variation in Myosin 1H Contributes to Mandibular Prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Tassopoulou-Fishell, Maria; Deeley, Kathleen; Harvey, Erika M.; Sciote, James; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several candidate loci have been suggested as influencing mandibular prognathism (1p22.1, 1p22.2, 1p36, 3q26.2, 5p13-p12, 6q25, 11q22.2-q22.3, 12q23, 12q13.13, and 19p13.2). The goal of this study was to replicate these results in a well-characterized homogeneous sample set. Methods Thirty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning all candidate regions were studied in 44 prognathic and 35 Class I subjects from the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine Dental Registry and DNA Repository. The 44 mandibular prognathism subjects had an average age of 18.4 years, 31 were females and 13 males, and 24 were White, 15 African American, two Hispanic, and three Asian. The 35 Class I subjects had an average age of 17.6 years, 27 were females and 9 males, and 27 were White, six African Americans, one Hispanic, and two Asian. Skeletal mandibular prognathism diagnosis included cephalometric values indicative of Class III such as ANB smaller than two degrees, negative Witts appraisal, and positive A–B plane. Additional mandibular prognathism criteria included negative OJ and visually prognathic (concave) profile as determined by the subject's clinical evaluation. Orthognathic subjects without jaw deformations were used as a comparison group. Mandibular prognathism and orthognathic subjects were matched based on race, sex and age. Genetic markers were tested by polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to determine overrepresentation of marker allele with alpha of 0.05. Results An association was unveiled between a marker in MYO1H (rs10850110) and the mandibular prognathism phenotype (p=0.03). MYO1H is a Class-I myosin that is in a different protein group than the myosin isoforms of muscle sarcomeres, which are the basis of skeletal muscle fiber typing. Class I myosins are necessary for cell motility, phagocytosis and vesicle transport. Conclusions More strict clinical definitions may increase

  10. An isoform of myosin XI is responsible for the translocation of endoplasmic reticulum in tobacco cultured BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Ueda, Shunpei; Tamura, Kentaro; Orii, Hidefumi; Uchi, Satoko; Sonobe, Seiji; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimmen, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of myosin XI in generating the motive force for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is becoming evident. For a comprehensive understanding of the physiological roles of myosin XI isoforms, it is necessary to elucidate the properties and functions of each isoform individually. In tobacco cultured BY-2 cells, two types of myosins, one composed of 175 kDa heavy chain (175 kDa myosin) and the other of 170 kDa heavy chain (170 kDa myosin), have been identified biochemically and immunocytochemically. From sequence analyses of cDNA clones encoding heavy chains of 175 kDa and 170 kDa myosin, both myosins have been classified as myosin XI. Immunocytochemical studies using a polyclonal antibody against purified 175 kDa myosin heavy chain showed that the 175 kDa myosin is distributed throughout the cytoplasm as fine dots in interphase BY-2 cells. During mitosis, some parts of 175 kDa myosin were found to accumulate in the pre-prophase band (PPB), spindle, the equatorial plane of a phragmoplast and on the circumference of daughter nuclei. In transgenic BY-2 cells, in which an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific retention signal, HDEL, tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was stably expressed, ER showed a similar behaviour to that of 175 kDa myosin. Furthermore, this myosin was co-fractionated with GFP–ER by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. From these findings, it was suggested that the 175 kDa myosin is a molecular motor responsible for translocating ER in BY-2 cells. PMID:19039101

  11. An RNA polymerase II transcription factor has an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1989-01-01

    A transcription factor required for synthesis of accurately initiated run-off transcripts by RNA polymerase II has been purified and shown to have an associated DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) activity that is strongly stimulated by the TATA region of promoters. This transcription factor, designated delta, was purified more than 3000-fold from extracts of crude rat liver nuclei and has a native molecular mass of approximately 230 kDa. DNA-dependent ATPase (dATPase) and transcription activities copurify when delta is analyzed by hydrophobic interaction and ion-exchange HPLC, arguing that transcription factor delta possesses an ATPase (dATPase) activity. ATPase (dATPase) is specific for adenine nucleotides; ATP and dATP, but not CTP, UTP, or GTP, are hydrolyzed. ATPase (dATPase) is stimulated by both double-stranded and single-stranded DNAs, including pUC18, ssM13, and poly(dT); however, DNA fragments containing the TATA region of either the adenovirus 2 major late or mouse interleukin 3 promoters stimulate ATPase as much as 10-fold more effectively than DNA fragments containing nonpromoter sequences. These data suggest the intriguing possibility that delta plays a critical role in the ATP (dATP)-dependent activation of run-off transcription through a direct interaction with the TATA region of promoters. Images PMID:2552440

  12. Imaging the bipolarity of myosin filaments with Interferometric Second Harmonic Generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Maxime; Couture, Charles-André; Miri, Amir K.; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Mongeau, Luc; Légaré, François

    2013-01-01

    We report that combining interferometry with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy provides valuable information about the relative orientation of noncentrosymmetric structures composing tissues. This is confirmed through the imaging of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. The inteferometric Second Harmonic Generation (ISHG) images reveal that each side of the myosin filaments composing the A band of the sarcomere generates π phase shifted SHG signal which implies that the myosin proteins at each end of the filaments are oriented in opposite directions. This highlights the bipolar structural organization of the myosin filaments and shows that muscles can be considered as a periodically poled biological structure. PMID:24156065

  13. Molecular Modulation of Actomyosin Function by Cardiac Myosin-Binding Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Michael J.; Michalek, Arthur J.; Warshaw, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-binding protein C is a key regulator of cardiac contractility and is capable of both activating the thin filament to initiate actomyosin motion generation and governing maximal sliding velocities. While MyBP-C’s C-terminus localizes the molecule within the sarcomere the N-terminus appears to confer regulatory function by binding to the myosin motor domain and/or actin. Literature pertaining to how MyBP-C binding to the myosin motor domain and or actin leads to MyBP-C’s dual modulatory roles that can impact actomyosin interactions are discussed. PMID:24407948

  14. Solution NMR assignment of the heavy chain complex of the human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Rostkova, Elena; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory light chain (RLC) of striated and cardiac muscle myosin plays a complex role in muscle function and regulation. Together with the essential light chain it provides stability to the lever arm, which is essential for force generation. Furthermore, phosphorylation and interaction with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) suggest an additional role in the regulation of muscle contraction. The former is of particular importance in the heart, where RLC phosphorylation appears to be correlated to the wringing motion of heart contraction. To address these questions and because of a lack of mammalian RLC structures, we initiated an NMR study of the human cardiac regulatory myosin light chain. PMID:24414277

  15. H/sup +/-translocating ATPases: advances using membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, two primary active transport systems (H/sup +/ -ATPases) in plant cells are examined using membrane vesicles as a simple experimental tool. One electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPase is vanadate-sensitive and associated with the plasma membrane. Another electrogenic, H/sup +/ -translocating ATPases is anion-sensitive, and localized on the tonoplast (and perhaps other membranes). According to the working model, the plasma membrane and tonoplast-type H/sup +/ -ATPases are detectable in inside-out plasma membrane and right-side-out tonoplast vesicles. The direction of H/sup +/ pumping into these vesicles would be consistent with the results from intact cells where H/sup +/ are extruded from the cell across the plasma membrane and pumped into the vacuole from the cytoplasm. Understanding the properties of H/sup +/ -pumping ATPases using membrane vesicles has paved the way for studies to identify secondary active transport systems coupled to the proton electrochemical gradient. Redox-driven transport systems can also be studied directly using the isolated vesicles. As transport proteins are identified, the functional activities can be specifically studied after reconstitution of the purified protein(s) into phospholipid membrane vesicles. 154 references.

  16. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  17. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  18. The mitochondrial ATPase. Evidence for a single essential tyrosine residue.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, S J; Lloyd, W J; Lyons, M H; Radda, G K

    1975-05-01

    1. Evidence is presented which indicates that inactivation of the mitochondrial ATPase from bovine heart by the reagent 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan results from modification of one tyrosine residue per enzyme molecule. Activity can be restored by a variety of sulphydryl reagents. 2. In sodium dodecyl sulphate, the nitrogenzofurazan group on tyrosine is transfered to newly exposed sulphydryl groups on the enzyme. 3. The rate of transfer of the nitrobenzofurazan moiety from theenzyme to sulphydryl compounds is compared with that for transfer from the model compound N-acetyl-tyrosine-0(7-nitrobenzo-furazan) ethyl ester, the synthesis and properties of which are also described. 4. The ligands ATP and ADP exert a protective effect on the rate of reaction between the mitochondrial ATPase and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The variation in rate of this reaction with change in pH has also been examined and a pKa of 9.5 estimated for the tyrosine residue. 5. The modification does not prevent substrate binding as judged by changes in the fluorescence of aurovertin, an antibiotic with specific affinity for mitochondiral ATPases. 6. When the ATPase activity of submitochondrial particles is inhibited by 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan, there is a parallel decrease in the extent of the energy-linked fluorescence enhancement of 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulphonate induced by ATP hydrolysis. Both ATPase activity and the fluorescence enhancement are restored by sluphydryl reagents. PMID:238839

  19. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  20. Thermodynamic efficiency and mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a nanosized biological energy transducer working as part of FoF1-ATP synthase. Its rotary machinery transduces energy between chemical free energy and mechanical work and plays a central role in the cellular energy transduction by synthesizing most ATP in virtually all organisms. However, information about its energetics is limited compared to that of the reaction scheme. Actually, fundamental questions such as how efficiently F1-ATPase transduces free energy remain unanswered. Here, we demonstrated reversible rotations of isolated F1-ATPase in discrete 120° steps by precisely controlling both the external torque and the chemical potential of ATP hydrolysis as a model system of FoF1-ATP synthase. We found that the maximum work performed by F1-ATPase per 120° step is nearly equal to the thermodynamical maximum work that can be extracted from a single ATP hydrolysis under a broad range of conditions. Our results suggested a 100% free-energy transduction efficiency and a tight mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase. PMID:21997211

  1. Myosin Vc Is Specialized for Transport on a Secretory Superhighway.

    PubMed

    Sladewski, Thomas E; Krementsova, Elena B; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2016-08-22

    A hallmark of the well-studied vertebrate class Va myosin is its ability to take multiple steps on actin as a single molecule without dissociating, a feature called "processivity." Therefore, it was surprising when kinetic and single-molecule assays showed that human myosin Vc (MyoVc) was not processive on single-actin filaments [1-3]. We explored the possibility that MyoVc is processive only under conditions that resemble its biological context. Recently, it was shown that zymogen vesicles are transported on actin "superhighways" composed of parallel actin cables nucleated by formins from the plasma membrane [4]. Loss of these cables compromises orderly apical targeting of vesicles. MyoVc has been implicated in transporting secretory vesicles to the apical membrane [5]. We hypothesized that actin cables regulate the processive properties of MyoVc. We show that MyoVc is unique in taking variable size steps, which are frequently in the backward direction. Results obtained with chimeric constructs implicate the lever arm/rod of MyoVc as being responsible for these properties. Actin bundles allow single MyoVc motors to move processively. Remarkably, even teams of MyoVc motors require actin bundles to move continuously at physiological ionic strength. The irregular stepping pattern of MyoVc, which may result from flexibility in the lever arm/rod of MyoVc, appears to be a unique structural adaptation that allows the actin track to spatially restrict the activity of MyoVc to specialized actin cables in order to co-ordinate and target the final stages of vesicle secretion. PMID:27498562

  2. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone—an enigmatic ATPase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of ‘client’ proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co‐chaperones proteins with which it collaborates. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally‐coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 594–607, 2016. PMID:26991466

  3. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone-an enigmatic ATPase.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Laurence H

    2016-08-01

    The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of 'client' proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co-chaperones proteins with which it collaborates. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally-coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 594-607, 2016. PMID:26991466

  4. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle–like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle–like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  5. The C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 of the regulatory light chain is essential for myosin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, T; Kendrick-Jones, J

    1993-01-01

    In vertebrate smooth/non-muscle myosins, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains by a specific calmodulin-activated kinase controls both myosin head interaction with actin and assembly of the myosin into filaments. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is crucial for the regulation of these myosin functions. To further dissect the role of this region of the light chain in myosin regulation, a series of chicken smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain mutants has been constructed with successive C-terminal deletions. These mutants were synthesized in Escherichia coli and analysed by their ability to restore Ca2+ regulation to scallop myosin that had been stripped of its native regulatory light chains ('desensitized'). The results show that regulatory light chain mutants with deletions in the C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 were able to reform the regulatory Ca2+ binding site on the scallop myosin head, but had lost the ability to suppress scallop myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin in the absence of Ca2+. Further deletions in the C-terminal domain led to a gradual loss of ability to restore the regulatory Ca2+ binding site. Thus, the regions in the C-terminal half of the regulatory light chain responsible for myosin regulation can be identified. Images PMID:8223496

  6. Analysis of Methionine Oxidation in Myosin Isoforms in Porcine Skeletal Muscle by LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Jung, Eun-Young; Jeong, Tae-Chul; Yang, Han-Sul; Kim, Gap-Don

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze oxidized methionines in the myosin isoforms of porcine longissimus thoracis, psoas major, and semimembranosus muscles by liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 836 queries matched to four myosin isoforms (myosin-1, -2, -4, and -7) were analyzed and each myosin isoform was identified by its unique peptides (7.3-13.3). Forty-four peptides were observed from all three muscles. Seventeen peptides were unique to the myosin isoform and the others were common peptides expressed in two or more myosin isoforms. Five were identified as oxidized peptides with one or two methionine sulfoxides with 16 amu of mass modification. Methionines on residues 215 (215), 438 (438), 853 (851), 856 (854), 1071 (1069), and 1106 (1104) of myosin-1 (myosin-4) were oxidized by the addition of oxygen. Myosin-2 had two oxidized methionines on residues 215 and 438. No queries matched to myosin-7 were observed as oxidized peptides. LC-MS/MS allows analysis of the oxidation of specific amino acids on specific residue sites, as well as in specific proteins in the food system. PMID:27194935

  7. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-04-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematodeCaenorhabditis eleganshas nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle-like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle-like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  8. Infrared spectroscopic studies on the V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Hideki; Furutani, Yuji; Murata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    V-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary motor that vectorially transports ions. Together with F-ATPase, a homologous protein, several models on the ion transport have been proposed, but their molecular mechanisms are yet unknown. V-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae forms a large supramolecular protein complex (total molecular weight: ~700,000) and physiologically transports Na⁺ and Li⁺ across a hydrophobic lipid bilayer. Stabilization of these cations in the binding site has been discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structures of a membrane-embedded domain, the K-ring (Na⁺ and Li⁺ bound forms). Sodium or lithium ion binding-induced difference FTIR spectra of the intact E. hirae V-ATPase have been measured in aqueous solution at physiological temperature. The results suggest that sodium or lithium ion binding induces the deprotonation of Glu139, a hydrogen-bonding change in the tyrosine residue and rigid α-helical structures. Identical difference FTIR spectra between the entire V-ATPase complex and K-ring strongly suggest that protein interaction with the I subunit does not cause large structural changes in the K-ring. This result supports the previously proposed Na⁺ transport mechanism by V-ATPase stating that a flip-flop movement of a carboxylate group of Glu139 without large conformational changes in the K-ring accelerates the replacement of a Na⁺ ion in the binding site. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. PMID:25111748

  9. The Lever Arm Effects a Mechanical Asymmetry of the Myosin-V-Actin Bond

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, J. Christof M.; Ökten, Zeynep; Rief, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Myosin-V is a two-headed molecular motor taking multiple ATP-dependent steps toward the plus end (forward) of actin filaments. At high mechanical loads, the motor processively steps toward the minus end (backward) even in the absence of ATP, whereas analogous forward steps cannot be induced. The detailed mechanism underlying this mechanical asymmetry is not known. We investigate the effect of force on individual single headed myosin-V constructs bound to actin in the absence of ATP. If pulled forward, the myosin-V head dissociates at forces twice as high than if pulled backward. Moreover, backward but not forward distances to the unbinding barrier are dependent on the lever arm length. This asymmetry of unbinding force distributions in a single headed myosin forms the basis of the two-headed asymmetry. Under load, the lever arm functions as a true lever in a mechanical sense. PMID:20338849

  10. Differential regulation of myosin heavy chains defines new muscle domains in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Hanna; Burguiere, Anne-Cecile; Muck, Joscha; Nord, Christoffer; Ahlgren, Ulf; von Hofsten, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous muscle lineages are formed during myogenesis within both slow- and fast-specific cell groups. In this study, we show that six fast muscle–specific myosin heavy chain genes have unique expression patterns in the zebrafish embryo. The expression of tail-specific myosin heavy chain (fmyhc2.1) requires wnt signaling and is essential for fast muscle organization within the tail. Retinoic acid treatment results in reduced wnt signaling, which leads to loss of the fmyhc2.1 domain. Retinoic acid treatment also results in a shift of muscle identity within two trunk domains defined by expression of fmyhc1.2 and fmyhc1.3 in favor of the anteriormost myosin isoform, fmyhc1.2. In summary, we identify new muscle domains along the anteroposterior axis in the zebrafish that are defined by individual nonoverlapping, differentially regulated expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms. PMID:24523292

  11. Hold on tightly, let go lightly: myosin functions at adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Joshua C.; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Adherens junctions, the sites of cadherin-dependent cell–cell adhesion, are also important for dynamic tension sensing, force transduction and signalling. Different myosin motors contribute to adherens junction assembly and versatility in distinct ways. PMID:20596044

  12. Lamellipodial actin mechanically links myosin activity with adhesion-site formation.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Grégory; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin J; Rossier, Olivier; Cai, Yunfei; Chaga, Oleg; Jiang, Guoying; Beaver, William; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Freund, Yoav; Borisy, Gary; Sheetz, Michael P

    2007-02-01

    Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion, and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. We find that myosin II pulls the rear of the lamellipodial actin network, causing upward bending, edge retraction, and initiation of new adhesion sites. The network then separates from the edge and condenses over the myosin. Protrusion resumes as lamellipodial actin regenerates from the front and extends rearward until it reaches newly assembled myosin, initiating the next cycle. Upward bending, observed by evanescence and electron microscopy, results in ruffle formation when adhesion strength is low. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy shows that the regenerating lamellipodium forms a cohesive, separable layer of actin above the lamellum. Thus, actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process. PMID:17289574

  13. Chemomechanical coupling of F1-ATPase under hydrolysis conditions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the smallest rotary motor protein that couples ATP hydrolysis/synthesis to rotary motion in a highly reversible manner. F1 is unique compared with other motor proteins because of its high efficiency and reversibility in converting chemical energy into mechanical work. To determine the energy conversion mechanism of F1-ATPase, we developed a novel single-molecule manipulation technique with magnetic tweezers and determined the timing of Pi release, which was the last unknown piece of the chemomechanical coupling scheme of F1. The established fundamental chemomechanical coupling scheme provides evidence to explain the high reversibility between catalysis and mechanical work.

  14. Regulation of cough by neuronal Na(+)-K(+) ATPases.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J; Farmer, David G S

    2015-06-01

    The Na(+)-K(+) ATPases play an essential role in establishing the sodium gradients in excitable cells. Multiple isoforms of the sodium pumps have been identified, with tissue and cell specific expression patterns. Because the vagal afferent nerves regulating cough must be activated at sustained high frequencies of action potential patterning to achieve cough initiation thresholds, it is a certainty that sodium pump function is essential to maintaining cough reflex sensitivities in health and in disease. The mechanisms by which Na(+)-K(+) ATPases regulate bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerve excitability are reviewed as are potential therapeutic strategies targeting the sodium pumps in cough. PMID:26048736

  15. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy. PMID:22146938

  16. The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase confer Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1995-01-01

    The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the rat brain plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+)-ATPase II containing the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain was connected to the C-terminus of the ouabain sensitive chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Expression of this chimeric molecule in ouabain resistant mouse L cells was assured by the high-affinity binding of [3H]ouabain. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, this chimeric molecule exhibited ouabain inhibitable Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; the putative chimeric ATPase activity was absent in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and activated by Ca2+/calmodulin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this chimeric molecule could bind monoclonal IgG 5 specific to the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit only in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, suggesting that the epitope for IgG 5 in this chimera is masked in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and uncovered in their presence. These results propose a direct interaction between the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase and the specific regions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit that are structurally homologous to the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed several possible regions within the Na+,K(+)-ATPase that might interact with the auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. Images PMID:7828596

  17. Isoforms Confer Characteristic Force Generation and Mechanosensation by Myosin II Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jon; Gardel, Margaret L.; Munro, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) arrays to generate contractile forces in muscle and nonmuscle cells. How myosin II force production is shaped by isoform-specific motor properties and environmental stiffness remains poorly understood. Here, we used computer simulations to analyze force production by an ensemble of myosin motors against an elastically tethered actin filament. We found that force output depends on two timescales: the duration of F-actin attachment, which varies sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load; and the time to build force, which scales with the ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and environmental stiffness. Although force-dependent kinetics were not required to sense changes in stiffness, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between the attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from transient attachments, generating small forces, to high-force-generating runs. Using parameters representative of skeletal muscle myosin, nonmuscle myosin IIB, and nonmuscle myosin IIA revealed three distinct regimes of behavior, respectively: 1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness; 2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force buildup times that exceed physiological timescales; and 3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds are poised to respond sharply to changes in mechanical context—at low force or stiffness, they serve as low-affinity cross-links, but they can transition to force production via the positive-feedback mechanism described above. Together, these results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment. PMID:25902439

  18. Possible roles of actin and myosin during anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether the mechanisms of chromosome movement during anaphase in locust (Locusta migratoria L.) spermatocytes might be similar to those described for crane-fly spermatocytes. Actin and myosin have been implicated in anaphase chromosome movements in crane-fly spermatocytes, as indicated by the effects of inhibitors and by the localisations of actin and myosin in spindles. In this study, we tested whether locust spermatocyte spindles also utilise actin and myosin, and whether actin is involved in microtubule flux. Living locust spermatocytes were treated with inhibitors of actin (latrunculin B and cytochalasin D), myosin (BDM), or myosin phosphorylation (Y-27632 and ML-7). We added drugs (individually) during anaphase. Actin inhibitors alter anaphase: chromosomes either completely stop moving, slow, or sometimes accelerate. The myosin inhibitor, BDM, also alters anaphase: in most cases, the chromosomes drastically slow or stop. ML-7, an inhibitor of MLCK, causes chromosomes to stop, slow, or sometimes accelerate, similar to actin inhibitors. Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, drastically slows or stops anaphase chromosome movements. The effects of the drugs on anaphase movement are reversible: most of the half-bivalents resumed movement at normal speed after these drugs were washed out. Actin and myosin were present in the spindles in locations consistent with their possible involvement in force production. Microtubule flux along kinetochore fibres is an actin-dependent process, since LatB completely removes or drastically reduces the gap in microtubule acetylation at the kinetochore. These results suggest that actin and myosin are involved in anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes. PMID:17922265

  19. Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

  20. Non-muscle myosin-II-B filament regulation of paracellular resistance in cervical epithelial cells is associated with modulation of the cortical acto-myosin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Gorodeski, George

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand myosin regulation of epithelial permeability. Methods Experimental study, using human cervical epithelial cells CaSki. Endpoints were paracellular permeability (determined in terms of transepithelial electrical resistance); non-muscle myosin-II-B (NMM-II-B) cellular localization; NMM-II-B phosphorylation status; NMM-II-B – actin interaction (determined in-vitro by the immunoprecipitation-immunoreactivity method); and NMM-II-B filamentation (determined in-vitro using purified NMM-II-B filaments in terms of filaments disassembly / assembly ratios. Results Treatment of cells with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 or with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid decreased the Resistance of the Lateral Intercellular Space (RLIS), and increased phosphorylation of non-muscle myosin-II-B (NMM-II-B) on threonine and serine residues. Y-27632 induced disorganization of the cortical acto-myosin and decreased co-immunoprecipitation of actin with NMM-II-B. Homodimerization assays using NMM-II-B filaments from cells treated with Y-27632 or okadaic acid revealed decreased filamentation compared to control cells. However, okadaic acid blocked Y-27632 decreased filamentation. Treatment with DRB, CK2 inhibitor, induced opposing effects to those of Y-27632 and okadaic acid. Treatment with DRB did not involve modulation of actin depolymerization, suggesting that NMM-II-B regulation of the RLIS was independent of actin polymerization status. Exposure of NMM-II-B filaments to CK2 increased filamentation, regardless of prior treatments in-vivo with Y-27632, okadaic acid, or DRB. Conclusions The results suggest that NMM-II-B filaments are in steady-state equilibrium of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mediated by CK2 and by ROCK-regulated myosin heavy chain phosphatase, respectively. Increased phosphorylation would tend to inhibit assembly of NMM-II-B filaments and lead to decreased actin-myosin interaction, which would tend to decrease the RLIS and increase the

  1. Structure determination using poorly diffracting membrane-protein crystals: the H+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase case history.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Morth, J Preben; Nissen, Poul

    2010-03-01

    An approach is presented for the structure determination of membrane proteins on the basis of poorly diffracting crystals which exploits molecular replacement for heavy-atom site identification at 6-9 A maximum resolution and improvement of the heavy-atom-derived phases by multi-crystal averaging using quasi-isomorphous data sets. The multi-crystal averaging procedure allows real-space density averaging followed by phase combination between non-isomorphous native data sets to exploit crystal-to-crystal nonisomorphism despite the crystals belonging to the same space group. This approach has been used in the structure determination of H(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase using Ca(2+)-ATPase models and its successful application to the Mhp1 symporter using LeuT as a search model is demonstrated. PMID:20179343

  2. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  3. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  4. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor’s oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  5. Multicomponent Analysis of Junctional Movements Regulated by Myosin II Isoforms at the Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Smutny, Michael; Wu, Selwin K.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Mangold, Sabine; Yap, Alpha S.; Hamilton, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    The zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial cells is a site of cell-cell adhesion where cellular forces are exerted and resisted. Increasing evidence indicates that E-cadherin adhesion molecules at the ZA serve to sense force applied on the junctions and coordinate cytoskeletal responses to those forces. Efforts to understand the role that cadherins play in mechanotransduction have been limited by the lack of assays to measure the impact of forces on the ZA. In this study we used 4D imaging of GFP-tagged E-cadherin to analyse the movement of the ZA. Junctions in confluent epithelial monolayers displayed prominent movements oriented orthogonal (perpendicular) to the ZA itself. Two components were identified in these movements: a relatively slow unidirectional (translational) component that could be readily fitted by least-squares regression analysis, upon which were superimposed more rapid oscillatory movements. Myosin IIB was a dominant factor responsible for driving the unilateral translational movements. In contrast, frequency spectrum analysis revealed that depletion of Myosin IIA increased the power of the oscillatory movements. This implies that Myosin IIA may serve to dampen oscillatory movements of the ZA. This extends our recent analysis of Myosin II at the ZA to demonstrate that Myosin IIA and Myosin IIB make distinct contributions to junctional movement at the ZA. PMID:21799860

  6. Two-headed binding of a processive myosin to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Walker, M L; Burgess, S A; Sellers, J R; Wang, F; Hammer, J A; Trinick, J; Knight, P J

    2000-06-15

    Myosins are motor proteins in cells. They move along actin by changing shape after making stereospecific interactions with the actin subunits. As these are arranged helically, a succession of steps will follow a helical path. However, if the myosin heads are long enough to span the actin helical repeat (approximately 36 nm), linear motion is possible. Muscle myosin (myosin II) heads are about 16 nm long, which is insufficient to span the repeat. Myosin V, however, has heads of about 31 nm that could span 36 nm and thus allow single two-headed molecules to transport cargo by walking straight. Here we use electron microscopy to show that while working, myosin V spans the helical repeat. The heads are mostly 13 actin subunits apart, with values of 11 or 15 also found. Typically the structure is polar and one head is curved, the other straighter. Single particle processing reveals the polarity of the underlying actin filament, showing that the curved head is the leading one. The shape of the leading head may correspond to the beginning of the working stroke of the motor. We also observe molecules attached by one head in this conformation. PMID:10866203

  7. Myosin molecule packing within the vertebrate skeletal muscle thick filaments. A complete bipolar model.

    PubMed

    Skubiszak, Ludmila; Kowalczyk, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    Computer modelling related to the real dimensions of both the whole filament and the myosin molecule subfragments has revealed two alternative modes for myosin molecule packing which lead to the head disposition similar to that observed by EM on the surface of the cross-bridge zone of the relaxed vertebrate skeletal muscle thick filaments. One of the modes has been known for three decades and is usually incorporated into the so-called three-stranded model. The new mode differs from the former one in two aspects: (1) myosin heads are grouped into asymmetrical cross-bridge crowns instead of symmetrical ones; (2) not the whole myosin tail, but only a 43-nm C-terminus of each of them is straightened and near-parallel to the filament axis, the rest of the tail is twisted. Concurrent exploration of these alternative modes has revealed their influence on the filament features. The parameter values for the filament models as well as for the building units depicting the myosin molecule subfragments are verified by experimental data found in the literature. On the basis of the new mode for myosin molecule packing a complete bipolar structure of the thick filament is created. PMID:12545190

  8. Myosins XI modulate host cellular responses and penetration resistance to fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Long; Qin, Li; Liu, Guosheng; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Wei, Yangdou

    2014-01-01

    The rapid reorganization and polarization of actin filaments (AFs) toward the pathogen penetration site is one of the earliest cellular responses, yet the regulatory mechanism of AF dynamics is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging in Arabidopsis, we show that polarization coupled with AF bundling involves precise spatiotemporal control at the site of attempted penetration by the nonadapted barley powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We further show that the Bgh-triggered AF mobility and organelle aggregation are predominately driven by the myosin motor proteins. Inactivation of myosins by pharmacological inhibitors prevents bulk aggregation of organelles and blocks recruitment of lignin-like compounds to the penetration site and deposition of callose and defensive protein, PENETRATION 1 (PEN1) into the apoplastic papillae, resulting in attenuation of penetration resistance. Using gene knockout analysis, we demonstrate that highly expressed myosins XI, especially myosin XI-K, are the primary contributors to cell wall-mediated penetration resistance. Moreover, the quadruple myosin knockout mutant xi-1 xi-2 xi-i xi-k displays impaired trafficking pathway responsible for the accumulation of PEN1 at the cell periphery. Strikingly, this mutant shows not only increased penetration rate but also enhanced overall disease susceptibility to both adapted and nonadapted fungal pathogens. Our findings establish myosins XI as key regulators of plant antifungal immunity. PMID:25201952

  9. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  10. Dynamics of the coiled-coil unfolding transition of myosin rod probed by dissipation force spectrum.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukinori; Khatri, Bhavin S; Brockwell, David J; Paci, Emanuele; Kawakami, Masaru

    2010-07-01

    The motor protein myosin II plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. The mechanical properties of its coiled-coil region, the myosin rod, are important for effective force transduction during muscle function. Previous studies have investigated the static elastic response of the myosin rod. However, analogous to the study of macroscopic complex fluids, how myosin will respond to physiological time-dependent loads can only be understood from its viscoelastic response. Here, we apply atomic force microscopy using a magnetically driven oscillating cantilever to measure the dissipative properties of single myosin rods that provide unique dynamical information about the coiled-coil structure as a function of force. We find that the friction constant of the single myosin rod has a highly nontrivial variation with force; in particular, the single-molecule friction constant is reduced dramatically and increases again as it passes through the coiled-uncoiled transition. This is a direct indication of a large free-energy barrier to uncoiling, which may be related to a fine-tuned dynamic mechanosignaling response to large and unexpected physiological loads. Further, from the critical force at which the minimum in friction occurs we determine the asymmetry of the bistable landscape that controls uncoiling of the coiled coil. This work highlights the sensitivity of the dissipative signal in force unfolding to dynamic molecular structure that is hidden to the elastic signal. PMID:20655854

  11. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  12. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  13. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  14. New insight into role of myosin motors for activation of RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sarshad, Aishe A; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, actin and myosin are emerging as essential regulators of nuclear function. At gene level, they regulate chromatin and modulate RNA polymerase transcription, and at the RNA level, they are involved in the metabolism of ribonucleoprotein complexes. Furthermore, actin and myosin are involved in maintaining the structure of cell nucleus by mediating chromatin movement and by interacting with components of the nuclear lamina. This plethora of functions is now supported by evidence that nuclear actin polymerizes just like the cytoplasmic actin fraction. Based on these considerations, we now hypothesize that the nuclear myosin forms function as actin-based motors. In this chapter, our goal is to start from the knowledge acquired in the cytoplasmic field to explore how nuclear myosin functions in gene transcription. One of the pressing issues discussed here is whether nuclear myosin produces local tension or functions as transporters. Based on two current models reported in the literature, we discuss the topology of the actin-based nuclear myosin 1 motor and how it is believed to facilitate propulsion of the RNA polymerase machinery while maintaining chromatin that is compatible with transcription. These mechanisms will be placed in the context of cell cycle progression. PMID:24952918

  15. Supervillin binding to myosin II and synergism with anillin are required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Fridy, Peter C.; Li, Yinyin; Basil, Shruti; Arjun, Sneha; Friesen, Ryan M.; Leszyk, John; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the process by which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking, and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II–binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831–1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1–170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form of myosin light-chain kinase. MHC binding is required to rescue supervillin deficiency, and mutagenesis of this site creates a dominant-negative phenotype. Supervillin concentrates activated and total myosin II at the furrow, and simultaneous knockdown of supervillin and anillin additively increases cell division failure. Knockdown of either protein causes mislocalization of the other, and endogenous anillin increases upon supervillin knockdown. Proteomic identification of interaction partners recovered using a high-affinity green fluorescent protein nanobody suggests that supervillin and anillin regulate the myosin II and actin cortical cytoskeletons through separate pathways. We conclude that supervillin and anillin play complementary roles during vertebrate cytokinesis. PMID:24088567

  16. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  17. Calmodulin regulates dimerization, motility, and lipid binding of Leishmania myosin XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Ellrich, Heike; Helbig, Constanze; Woodall, Katy Anna; Hundschell, Christian; Brack, Dario; Veigel, Claudia

    2014-01-14

    Myosin XXI is the only myosin expressed in Leishmania parasites. Although it is assumed that it performs a variety of motile functions, the motor's oligomerization states, cargo-binding, and motility are unknown. Here we show that binding of a single calmodulin causes the motor to adopt a monomeric state and to move actin filaments. In the absence of calmodulin, nonmotile dimers that cross-linked actin filaments were formed. Unexpectedly, structural analysis revealed that the dimerization domains include the calmodulin-binding neck region, essential for the generation of force and movement in myosins. Furthermore, monomeric myosin XXI bound to mixed liposomes, whereas the dimers did not. Lipid-binding sections overlapped with the dimerization domains, but also included a phox-homology domain in the converter region. We propose a mechanism of myosin regulation where dimerization, motility, and lipid binding are regulated by calmodulin. Although myosin-XXI dimers might act as nonmotile actin cross-linkers, the calmodulin-binding monomers might transport lipid cargo in the parasite. PMID:24379364

  18. Lycopene protects against atrazine-induced hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance by modulating ion-transporting ATPases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Xiang, Li-Run; Xia, Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible chemoprotective role of lycopene (LYC) against atrazine (ATR)-induced ionic disorder and hepatotoxicity in mice. Male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5mg/kg) and/or ATR (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) by lavage administration for 21days. Ionic disorder was assessed by determining the Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the alteration in ATP enzymes (ATPases) including Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in liver. ATR caused the increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and histological changes. LYC pretreatment significantly protected liver against ATR-caused alternation. The significant effect of ATR and LYC on the K(+) and Mg(2+) content in liver was not observed, but ATR increased hepatic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The mRNA expressions of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits were regulated significantly by ATR. A significant increase of Ca(2+) content and seven down-regulated mRNA expressions of Ca(2+)-ATPase subunits and a decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were observed in the ATR-treated mice. Notably, LYC modulated these ATR-induced alterations of ATPase activity and mRNA expression of their subunits. These results suggest that ATR presents hepatotoxicity via regulating hepatic ATPase's activities and their subunit transcriptions and inducing ionic disorder. LYC protects liver against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly. LYC modulated hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance via regulation of ATPase activities and their subunits' (1a1, 1b3, 1b4 and 2b4) transcriptions. In summary, these effects play a critical role of LYC-mediated chemoprevention against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26476475

  19. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand; Olesen, Claus; Andersen, Jens Peter; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2016-04-01

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca(2+). Vanadate is bound at the catalytic site as a planar VO3(-) in complex with water and Mg(2+) in a dephosphorylation transition-state-like conformation. Validating bound VO3(-) by anomalous difference Fourier maps using long-wavelength data we also identify a hitherto undescribed Cl(-) site near the dephosphorylation site. Crystallization was facilitated by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-derivatized nucleotides that bind with the TNP moiety occupying the binding pocket that normally accommodates the adenine of ATP, rationalizing their remarkably high affinity for E2P-like conformations of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the configurations of bound nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3(-) structure with that in E2·BeF3(-) (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:27050689

  20. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested. PMID:2449129

  1. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  2. Structural changes of CF 1-ATPase in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmettes, P.; Pezennec, S.; Berger, G.; Girault, G.

    1992-06-01

    Small changes in neutron scattering spectra were observed when spinach CF 1-ATPase is activated by dithiothreitol or allowed to bind to a nucleotide. It is shown that activation induces a significant conformation change whereas substrate binding does not. In solution, MgATP or MgAMP mainly modifies the interactions between the solute molecules.

  3. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini

    2016-06-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26608610

  4. Fluoride inhibition of proton-translocating ATPases of oral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S V; Bender, G R; Marquis, R E

    1987-01-01

    The ATPases of isolated membranes of lactic acid bacteria were found to be inhibited by fluoride in a complex manner. Among the enzymes tested, that of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was the most sensitive to fluoride, and the initial rate of hydrolysis of ATP was reduced 50% by approximately 3 mM fluoride. The enzyme of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 was the most resistant, and about 25 mM fluoride was required for 50% inhibition. The response to fluoride appeared to involve reversible, noncompetitive inhibition during short exposure to low levels of fluoride and nonreversible inhibition at higher fluoride levels. In addition, kinetic studies of the effects of fluoride on the enzymes of membranes of S. mutans and L. casei indicated that reversible inhibition was at least partly overcome at high levels of either ATP or Mg. The effects of pH on fluoride inhibition of ATPases were markedly different from the effects of pH on inhibition of acid/base regulation of intact cells by fluoride. It appeared that formation of HF was not required for inhibition of the ATPases. F1 ATPases isolated from the membranes by washing with buffers of low ionic strength proved to be less sensitive to fluoride than the membrane-associated F1F0 holoenzymes, and it was concluded that the F0 or membrane sector of the holoenzyme is involved in fluoride inhibition. PMID:2889674

  5. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  6. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  7. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB-type Cu+-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu+ across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu+-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu+ recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu+ is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  8. Myosin Va Participates in Acrosomal Formation and Nuclear Morphogenesis during Spermatogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Hou, Lin; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis belongs to the Class Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura. The spermatozoon of this species is of aflagellated type, it has a spherical acrosome surrounded by the cup-shaped nucleus, which are unique to brachyurans. For the past several decades, studies on the spermatogenesis of the mitten crab mainly focus on the morphology. Compared with the extensive study of molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis in mammals, relatively less information is available in crustacean species. Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, has been implicated in acrosome biogenesis and vesicle transport during spermatogenesis in mammals. In the present study we demonstrate the expression and cellular localization of myosin Va during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blot demonstrated that myosin Va is expressed during spermatogenesis. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses showed that myosin Va mainly localizes in the cytoplasm in spermatocytes. At the early stage of spermiogenesis, myosin Va binds to the endoplasmic reticulum vesicle (EV) and proacrosomal granule (PG). Subsequently, myosin Va localizes within the proacrosomal vesicle (PV) formed by PG and EV fusion and locates in the membrane complex (MC) at the mid spermatid stage. At the late spermatid stage, myosin Va is associated with the shaping nucleus and mitochondria. In mature spermatozoon, myosin Va predominates in acrosomal tubule (AT) and nucleus. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that myosin Va may be involved in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear morphogenesis during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. Considering the distribution and molecular characteristics of myosin Va, we also propose a hypothesis of AT formation in this species. It is the first time to uncover the role of myosin Va in crustacean spermatogenesis. PMID:20856877

  9. The acquisition of mechano‐electrical transducer current adaptation in auditory hair cells requires myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Marcotti, Walter; Corns, Laura F.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K.; Avraham, Karen B.; Steel, Karen P.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The transduction of sound into electrical signals occurs at the hair bundles atop sensory hair cells in the cochlea, by means of mechanosensitive ion channels, the mechano‐electrical transducer (MET) channels.The MET currents decline during steady stimuli; this is termed adaptation and ensures they always work within the most sensitive part of their operating range, responding best to rapidly changing (sound) stimuli.In this study we used a mouse model (Snell's waltzer) for hereditary deafness in humans that has a mutation in the gene encoding an unconventional myosin, myosin VI, which is present in the hair bundles.We found that in the absence of myosin VI the MET current fails to acquire its characteristic adaptation as the hair bundles develop.We propose that myosin VI supports the acquisition of adaptation by removing key molecules from the hair bundle that serve a temporary, developmental role. Abstract Mutations in Myo6, the gene encoding the (F‐actin) minus end‐directed unconventional myosin, myosin VI, cause hereditary deafness in mice (Snell's waltzer) and humans. In the sensory hair cells of the cochlea, myosin VI is expressed in the cell bodies and along the stereocilia that project from the cells’ apical surface. It is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanosensitive hair bundles formed by the stereocilia. In this study we investigate whether myosin VI contributes to mechano‐electrical transduction. We report that Ca2+‐dependent adaptation of the mechano‐electrical transducer (MET) current, which serves to keep the transduction apparatus operating within its most sensitive range, is absent in outer and inner hair cells from homozygous Snell's waltzer mutant mice, which fail to express myosin VI. The operating range of the MET channels is also abnormal in the mutants, resulting in the absence of a resting MET current. We found that cadherin 23, a component of the hair bundle's transient lateral links

  10. ATPaseTb2, a Unique Membrane-bound FoF1-ATPase Component, Is Essential in Bloodstream and Dyskinetoplastic Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Zíková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    In the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei, an important parasite of humans and livestock, the mitochondrial (mt) membrane potential (Δψm) is uniquely maintained by the ATP hydrolytic activity and subsequent proton pumping of the essential FoF1-ATPase. Intriguingly, this multiprotein complex contains several trypanosome-specific subunits of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that one of the largest novel subunits, ATPaseTb2, is membrane-bound and localizes with monomeric and multimeric assemblies of the FoF1-ATPase. Moreover, RNAi silencing of ATPaseTb2 quickly leads to a significant decrease of the Δψm that manifests as a decreased growth phenotype, indicating that the FoF1-ATPase is impaired. To further explore the function of this protein, we employed a trypanosoma strain that lacks mtDNA (dyskinetoplastic, Dk) and thus subunit a, an essential component of the proton pore in the membrane Fo-moiety. These Dk cells generate the Δψm by combining the hydrolytic activity of the matrix-facing F1-ATPase and the electrogenic exchange of ATP4- for ADP3- by the ATP/ADP carrier (AAC). Surprisingly, in addition to the expected presence of F1-ATPase, the monomeric and multimeric FoF1-ATPase complexes were identified. In fact, the immunoprecipitation of a F1-ATPase subunit demonstrated that ATPaseTb2 was a component of these complexes. Furthermore, RNAi studies established that the membrane-bound ATPaseTb2 subunit is essential for maintaining normal growth and the Δψm of Dk cells. Thus, even in the absence of subunit a, a portion of the FoF1-ATPase is assembled in Dk cells. PMID:25714685

  11. Assembly of ATPase protein in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Scales, D; Giuseppeinesi

    1976-01-01

    Three specimen preparation techniques for electron microscopy were used to investigate the incorporation of the ATPase polypeptide chains in the membranes of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) obtained from rabbit skeletal muscle. Observations were made of both normal vesicles and vesicles exposed to trypsin, which is known to cleave the ATPase protein and to alter the ultrastructure of the vesicles in predictable ways. Freeze-fracture replicas reveal the typical 90-A particles on the concave (PF) faces with a density of 5,730 +/- 520/mum2. On the other hand both negatively stained and deeply etched preparations display outer projections, which are absent on trypsin-incubated vesicles. The etched specimens afford for the first time top views of the vesicles in the absence of any stain. These views reveal outer projections on the PS surface with a density of 21,000 +/- 3,900/mum2, a value nearly approximating the density of the ATPase polypeptide chains (106,000 mol wt) calculated on the basis of protein and membrane area determinations. On the other hand, this value is three to four times higher than that found for the density of the 90-A particles on the concave fracture faces. Since both outer projections and 90-A particles are identified with the ATPase protein, it is suggested that the ATPase polypeptide chains are amphiphilic molecules, with polar ends protruding individually as outer projections on the surface of the vesicles, and hydrophobic ends appearing as 90-A particles on the concave fracture faces. The discrepancy between the densities of the outer projections and the 90-A particles may be attributed either to variable penetration of the polypeptide chains into the membrane bilayer, or to formation of oligomers containing three or four hydrophobic ends and appearing as single 90-A particles. Each ATPase chain forms a complex with 20-30 phospholipid molecules. The remaining phospholipids (approximately 70% of the total SR phospholipids) account for

  12. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  13. A vital role for myosin-9 in puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte injury by affecting actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanggang; Zhao, Chuanyan; An, Xiaofei; Wu, Lin; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Min; Bai, Mi; Duan, Suyan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Aihua; Xing, Changying

    2016-06-01

    Podocyte injury is an early pathological change of many kidney diseases. In particular, the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining the normal function of podocytes. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton is a feature of podocyte injury in proteinuric nephropathies. Recent studies showed that myosin-9 was localized in the podocyte foot processes and was necessary in maintaining podocyte structural homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether myosin-9 maintains podocyte structure by affecting actin cytoskleton. Here, the role of myosin-9 in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte injury was explored both in vitro and in vivo. In cultured mouse podocytes (MPC5), it was determined that PAN downregulated myosin-9 expression, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton and reduced the adhesion ability. Reduced myosin-9 expression by siRNA precipitated podocyte cytoskeletal damage and accelerated PAN-induced podocyte detachment. Overexpression of myosin-9 protected against PAN-induced podocyte detachment. Furthermore, administration of an antioxidant Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) inhibited PAN-induced podocyte cytoskeletal damage and podocyte detachment by restoring the expression of myosin-9. In the rat PAN nephropathy model, MnTBAP could also attenuate PAN-induced reduction of myosin-9 and podocyte loss. Taken together, these findings pinpointed that oxidative stress contributed to PAN-induced podocyte injury through the repression of a cytoskeletal protein myosin-9, which provided novel insights into a potential target for the treatment of podocyte injury-associated glomerulopathies. PMID:26902808

  14. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2008-10-15

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity.

  15. Bovine brain kinesin is a microtubule-activated ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, S A; Gelfand, V I

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a protein called kinesin was described, which is capable of inducing movement of inert particles along microtubules. To purify this protein from bovine brain, we used the ability of kinesin to bind to taxol-stabilized microtubules in the presence of inorganic tripolyphosphate. The brain kinesin preparation contained one major polypeptide of 135 kDa and four minor polypeptides of 45-70 kDa. The minor polypeptides were eluted from a gel-permeation chromatography column at the same position as the major component. All the polypeptides of the preparation were capable of binding to the microtubules under identical conditions. The kinesin molecule is most probably a complex of these polypeptides. Brain kinesin had a very low ATPase activity (0.06-0.08 mumol X min-1 X mg-1 in 3 mM Mg2+ at pH 6.7). ATPase activity was strongly stimulated by microtubules (Vmax = 4.6 mumol per min per mg of kinesin). Microtubule-activated kinesin ATPase had a Km for ATP between 10 and 12 X 10(-6) M and a Kapp for microtubules (i.e., polymerized tubulin concentration required for a half-maximal activation) of 12-14 X 10(-6) M. Kinesin had a significant ATPase activity even without microtubules if 2 mM Ca2+ was substituted for Mg2+ (Vmax = 1.6 mumol X min-1 X mg-1; Km = 800 X 10(-6) M). Kinesin is therefore a mechanochemical ATPase that is activated by microtubules. Images PMID:2946042

  16. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance.

    PubMed

    Schep, Daniel G; Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-03-22

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacteriumThermus thermophilusis similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined theT. thermophilusV/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of theT. thermophilusV/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase fromSaccharomyces cerevisiaeallowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in theS. cerevisaeV-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases. PMID:26951669

  17. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, V N; Boyer, P D

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F1,F0-ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F1,F0-ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and Pi as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the Pi formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F1,F0-ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an even more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F1-type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F1,F0-ATPases. PMID:2530585

  18. Improving human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain fiber typing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R; McLeland, Kathryn A; Arevalo, Jose A; Ciccone, Anthony B; Malyszek, Kylie K; Wen, Yuan; Galpin, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Single muscle fiber sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a sensitive technique for determining skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of human biopsy samples. However, the number of fibers suitable to represent fiber type distribution via this method is undefined. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) of nine resistance-trained males (25 ± 1 year, height = 179 ± 5 cm, mass = 82 ± 8 kg). Single fiber MHC composition was determined via SDS-PAGE. VL fiber type distribution [percent MHC I, I/IIa, IIa, IIa/IIx, and total "hybrids" (i.e. I/IIa + IIa/IIx)] was evaluated according to number of fibers analyzed per person (25 vs. 125). VL fiber type distribution did not differ according to number of fibers analyzed (P > 0.05). VL biopsy fiber type distribution of nine subjects is represented by analyzing 25 fibers per person. These data may help minimize cost, personnel-time, and materials associated with this technique, thereby improving fiber typing efficiency in humans. PMID:26842420

  19. Myosin heavy chain pattern in the Akhal-Teke horses.

    PubMed

    Leisson, K; Alev, K; Kaasik, P; Jaakma, Ü; Seene, T

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition in the gluteus medius muscle of the Akhal-Teke horses using SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Fifteen horses aged between 1.5 and 23.5 years were used in this study and divided into three age groups: 1.5 to 4 (n = 6), 9 to 13 (n = 5) and 18.5 to 23.5 years (n = 4). The average content of the MyHC I isoform was 11.72 ± 1.07% (variation between individuals: 7.09% to 20.14%). The relative content of the MyHC IIa and IIx isoforms was subsequently 38.20 ± 1.46% (30.73% to 48.78%) and 50.07 ± 1.10% (43.8% to 56.78%) from the total MyHC. The MyHC pattern in the skeletal muscles of the Akhal-Teke horses shows that the muscles of these horses have a high capacity both for endurance and speed. PMID:22439988

  20. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K; Lee, Richard T; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2015-07-21

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpc(t/t)) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpc(t/t) myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpc(t/t) myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpc(t/t) mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3(+/-) individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3(-/-) mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  1. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G.; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M.; O’Meara, Caitlin C.; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K.; Lee, Richard T.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpct/t) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpct/t myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpct/t myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpct/t mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3+/− individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3−/− mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  2. Characterization of the macrocyclic carbon suboxide factors as potent Na,K-ATPase and SR Ca-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kerek, Franz; Stimac, Robert; Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Freudenmann, Frank; Moroder, Luis

    2002-12-23

    Recently discovered macrocyclic carbon suboxide (MCS) factors with the general formula (C(3)O(2))(n) were found to strongly inhibit rabbit and rat Na,K-ATPase as well as SR Ca-ATPase. Highly active MCS factors were obtained by a base/acid treatment of their lipophilic precursor isolated from plants. In the ESI-MS spectra, the dominant molar mass ion of 431 Da corresponds to a 1:1 complex of the carbon suboxide hexamer (n=6; M(r)=408 Da) with a Na(+) ion. Additional mass ions identified in positive and negative ion mode were assigned as complexes of the MCS hexamer (n=6) and octamer (n=8) with Na(+) or with TFA(-) in various ratios. The dominant mass ion values of these active MCS factors from plants are also found in mass spectra of previously described endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF) from animals. This would suggest that ubiquitously distributed MCS factors may function as putative endogenous regulatory substances of Na,K-ATPase and possibly of other ATPases. With the symmetric display of several equivalent carbonyl or hydroxy groups, the structure of MCS factors is particularly suited for interactions with proteins and other bio-molecules. This could explain the high biological activity and the unusual properties of the MCS factors. PMID:12488055

  3. Synthesis and assembly of functional mammalian Na,K-ATPase in yeast.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B; Eakle, K A; Scheiner-Bobis, G; Randolph, G R; Chen, C Y; Hitzeman, R A; Farley, R A

    1990-03-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated as an in vivo protein expression system for mammalian Na,K-ATPase. Unlike animal cells, yeast cells lack endogenous Na,K-ATPase. Expression of high affinity ouabain binding sites, ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity, or ouabain-sensitive p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in membrane fractions of yeast cells was observed to require the expression of both alpha subunit and beta subunit polypeptides of Na,K-ATPase in the same cell. High affinity ouabain binding sites are also expressed at the cell surface of intact yeast cells containing both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase. These observations demonstrate that both the alpha subunit and the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase are required for the expression of functional Na,K-ATPase activity and that yeast cells can correctly assemble this oligomeric membrane protein and transport it to the cell surface. PMID:1689721

  4. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  5. Myosin MyTH4-FERM structures highlight important principles of convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Planelles-Herrero, Vicente José; Blanc, Florian; Sirigu, Serena; Sirkia, Helena; Clause, Jeffrey; Sourigues, Yannick; Johnsrud, Daniel O; Amigues, Beatrice; Cecchini, Marco; Gilbert, Susan P; Houdusse, Anne; Titus, Margaret A

    2016-05-24

    Myosins containing MyTH4-FERM (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin, or MF) domains in their tails are found in a wide range of phylogenetically divergent organisms, such as humans and the social amoeba Dictyostelium (Dd). Interestingly, evolutionarily distant MF myosins have similar roles in the extension of actin-filled membrane protrusions such as filopodia and bind to microtubules (MT), suggesting that the core functions of these MF myosins have been highly conserved over evolution. The structures of two DdMyo7 signature MF domains have been determined and comparison with mammalian MF structures reveals that characteristic features of MF domains are conserved. However, across millions of years of evolution conserved class-specific insertions are seen to alter the surfaces and the orientation of subdomains with respect to each other, likely resulting in new sites for binding partners. The MyTH4 domains of Myo10 and DdMyo7 bind to MT with micromolar affinity but, surprisingly, their MT binding sites are on opposite surfaces of the MyTH4 domain. The structural analysis in combination with comparison of diverse MF myosin sequences provides evidence that myosin tail domain features can be maintained without strict conservation of motifs. The results illustrate how tuning of existing features can give rise to new structures while preserving the general properties necessary for myosin tails. Thus, tinkering with the MF domain enables it to serve as a multifunctional platform for cooperative recruitment of various partners, allowing common properties such as autoinhibition of the motor and microtubule binding to arise through convergent evolution. PMID:27166421

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation for the reversed power stroke motion of a myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    Myosins are typical molecular motor proteins that convert the chemical energy from the ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. The fundamental mechanism of this energy conversion is still unknown. To explain the experimental results already obtained, Masuda has proposed a hypothesis called the "Driven by Detachment" theory for the working principle of the myosins. This theory insists that the energy used during the power stroke of the myosins does not directly originate from the chemical energy of ATP, but is converted from the elastic energy within the molecule at the joint between the head and neck domains. One method for demonstrating the validity of this theory is a computational simulation using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The MD software used was GROMACS. The target of the MD simulations was myosin subfragment-1 (S1), for which the initial structure was obtained from the Protein Data Bank entry 1M8Q. The AFM pull code of GROMACS was used to apply an external force of 17 pN at the end of the neck domain in the direction opposite to the power stroke to observe whether the myosin S1 takes the pre-power stroke conformation. The residues assumed to be engaged in the docking with an actin filament were fixed to the space. Starting from exactly the same initial position, 10 simulations were repeated by varying the random seeds for generating the initial velocities of the atoms. After 64ns of calculations, the myosin S1 took the conformation of the pre-power stroke state in which the neck domain was bent around the joint between the head and the neck domains. This result agrees with the prediction expected by the DbD theory, the validity of which may be established by conducting similar simulations for the other steps of the myosin working processes. PMID:25864376

  7. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953

  8. Cloning of the genes encoding two murine and human cochlear unconventional type I myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Crozet, F.; El Amraoui, Z.; Blanchard, S.

    1997-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for unconventional myosins in the function of the sensory hair cells of the inner ear. We report here the characterization of the cDNAs encoding two unconventional type I myosins from a mouse cochlear cDNA library. The first cDNA encodes a putative protein named Myo1c, which is likely to be the murine orthologue of the bullfrog myosin I{beta} and which may be involved in the gating of the mechanotransduction channel of the sensory hair cells. This myosin belongs to the group of short-tailed myosins I, with its tail ending shortly after a polybasic, TH-1-like domain. The second cDNA encodes a novel type I myosin Myo1f which displays three regions: a head domain with the conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, a neck domain with a single IQ motif, and a tail domain with the tripartite structure initially described in protozoan myosins I. The tail of Myo1f includes (1) a TH-1 region rich in basic residues, which may interact with anionic membrane phospholipids; (2) a TH-2 proline-rich region, expected to contain an ATP-insensitive actin-binding site; and (3) an SH-3 domain found in a variety of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that the genes encoding Myo1c and Myo1f display a widespread tissue expression in the adult mouse. Myo1c and Myo1f were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomal regions 11D-11E and 17B-17C, respectively. The human orthologuous genes MYO1C and MYO1F were also characterized, and mapped to the human chromosomal regions 17p13 and 19p13.2- 19p1.3.3, respectively. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Motor coupling through lipid membranes enhances transport velocities for ensembles of myosin Va

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shane R.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Warshaw, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin Va is an actin-based molecular motor responsible for transport and positioning of a wide array of intracellular cargoes. Although myosin Va motors have been well characterized at the single-molecule level, physiological transport is carried out by ensembles of motors. Studies that explore the behavior of ensembles of molecular motors have used nonphysiological cargoes such as DNA linkers or glass beads, which do not reproduce one key aspect of vesicular systems—the fluid intermotor coupling of biological lipid membranes. Using a system of defined synthetic lipid vesicles (100- to 650-nm diameter) composed of either 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) (fluid at room temperature) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) (gel at room temperature) with a range of surface densities of myosin Va motors (32–125 motors per μm2), we demonstrate that the velocity of vesicle transport by ensembles of myosin Va is sensitive to properties of the cargo. Gel-state DPPC vesicles bound with multiple motors travel at velocities equal to or less than vesicles with a single myosin Va (∼450 nm/s), whereas surprisingly, ensembles of myosin Va are able to transport fluid-state DOPC vesicles at velocities significantly faster (>700 nm/s) than a single motor. To explain these data, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation that suggests that these reductions in velocity can be attributed to two distinct mechanisms of intermotor interference (i.e., load-dependent modulation of stepping kinetics and binding-site exclusion), whereas faster transport velocities are consistent with a model wherein the normal stepping behavior of the myosin is supplemented by the preferential detachment of the trailing motor from the actin track. PMID:25201964

  10. Proposed modification of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin head motion along an actin filament.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, T; Chiba, H

    1996-09-21

    A model is proposed for myosin head motion along an actin filament which accommodates recent experimental data. The model includes three attached states of a myosin head and is thus similar to the classical Huxley & Simmons (1971) model, but differs in that an explicit expression is given for the spatial distribution of potential energy wells for the myosin head. Our model also differs from the classical model, in that it assumes that the proportion of myosin heads attached to actin filament is constant and independent of shortening velocity, as suggested by X-ray diffraction data. Furthermore, it posits that the crossbridge is string-like rather than spring-like. This modified model fits well to the experimental data in the following respects. (1) The calculated tension dependence of muscle stiffness agrees with the observation by Ford et al. (1985 J. Physiol. 361, 131-150). (2) A myosin head under low load can move as far as 60 nm along an actin filament during one ATP hydrolysis cycle in muscle, in agreement with the results by Yanagida et al. (1985 Nature 316, 366-369) and others. (3) The model predicts that such movements consist of a series of elementary steps of 11 nm. (4) A single myosin head hardly moves after the first step of 11 nm under the condition of in vitro experiment carried out by Finer et al. (1994 Nature 368, 113-119), in agreement with their observation. (5) The calculated energy liberation rate reproduces the characteristics of Hill's equation. (6) The "double-hyperbolic force-velocity relation" reported by Edman (1988 J. Physiol. 404, 301-321) can be understood in terms of a potential barrier against movement of a potential well in which a myosin head is trapped. PMID:8944146

  11. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  12. Effect of colchicine on sensitivity of duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase to Na+.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, S S; Kumskova, E M; Rubtsov, A M; Lopina, O D

    2008-09-01

    Low molecular mass proteins of the FXYD family that affect the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ and K+ are known to be present in Na,K-ATPases in various tissues. In particular, in Na,K-ATPase from kidney a gamma-subunit (with electrophoretic mobility corresponding to molecular mass of about 10 kD) is present, and Na,K-ATPase preparations from heart contain phospholemman (electrophoretic mobility of this protein corresponds to molecular mass of 13-14 kD), which provides for the interaction of heart Na,K-ATPase with cytoskeletal microtubules. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine removes phospholemman from heart Na,K-ATPase preparations. The goal of the present study was to reveal a low molecular mass protein (probably a member of FXYD family) in preparation of Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands. Immunoprecipitation of solubilized duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase using antibodies against alpha1-subunit results in the coprecipitation of a 13 kD protein with the Na,K-ATPase complex. Treatment of homogenate from duck salt glands with colchicine removes this protein from the purified preparation of Na,K-ATPase. Simultaneously, we observed a decrease in the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+ at pH 6.5. However, colchicine treatment of homogenate from rabbit kidney does not affect either the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase obtained from this homogenate to Na+ or the content of 10 kD protein (presumably gamma-subunit). The data suggest that phospholemman (or a similar member of the FXYD family) tightly interacts with Na,K-ATPase from duck salt glands and binds it to microtubules, simultaneously participating in the regulation of the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to Na+. PMID:18976215

  13. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-09-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (nu(max)) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of nu(max) versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (-0.51+/-0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (-0.15+/-0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092+/-0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084+/-0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  14. "Oxygen Sensing" by Na,K-ATPase: These Miraculous Thiols.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Anna; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase "oxygen-sensitive." This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the processes

  15. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  16. Determination of the myosin step size from mechanical and kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, E; White, H; Cooke, R

    1993-01-01

    During muscle contraction, work is generated when a myosin cross-bridge attaches to an actin filament and exerts a force on it through some power-stroke distance, h. At the end of this power stroke, attached myosin heads are carried into regions where they exert a negative force on the actin filament (the drag stroke) and where they are released rapidly from actin by ATP binding. Although the length of the power stroke remains controversial, average distance traversed in the drag-stroke region can be determined when one knows both rate of cross-bridge dissociation and filament-sliding velocity. At maximum contraction velocity, the average force exerted in the drag stroke must balance that exerted in the power stroke. We discuss here a simple model of cross-bridge interaction that allows one to calculate the force exerted in the drag stroke and to relate this to the power-stroke distance h traversed by cross-bridges in the positive-force region. Both the rate at which myosin can be dissociated from actin and the velocity at which an actin filament can be translated have been measured for a series of myosin isozymes and for different substrates, producing a wide range of values for each. Nonetheless, we show here that the rate of myosin dissociation from actin correlates well with the velocity of filament sliding, providing support for the simple model presented and suggesting that the power stroke is approximately 10 nm in length. PMID:8460156

  17. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Bredman, J J; Weijs, W A; Korfage, H A; Brugman, P; Moorman, A F

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin transitions take place from neonatal and fast (IIA, IIA/IIB--referring to a fibre containing both IIA and IIB MHCs) MHC to adult 'cardiac' alpha-MHC and I/alpha-MHC. Since there is a temporary population of fibres containing IIA/alpha-MHC during the first 4 wk of development with a peak in the 3rd to 4th wk, the transition from IIA-MHC to alpha-MHC may occur in these IIA/alpha-MHC-containing fibres. The appearance of 'cardiac' alpha-MHC coincides with the timing of weaning, suggesting that the changes in MHC content, that probably result in a transition to a lower speed of contraction, have functional significance related to weaning. The finding of neonatal MHC in adult rabbits indicates that the masseter develops at a rate and in a way that is distinct from most other skeletal muscles. A spatiotemporal variation in expression of myosin isozymes within the masseter was observed, with many fibres containing more than one myosin type, indicating developmentally regulated spatial differences in function. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:1387129

  18. Myosin-dependent endoplasmic reticulum motility and F-actin organization in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Haruko; Yokota, Etsuo; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Shimmen, Teruo; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Dolja, Valerian V.; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2010-01-01

    Plants exhibit an ultimate case of the intracellular motility involving rapid organelle trafficking and continuous streaming of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although it was long assumed that the ER dynamics is actomyosin-driven, the responsible myosins were not identified, and the ER streaming was not characterized quantitatively. Here we developed software to generate a detailed velocity-distribution map for the GFP-labeled ER. This map revealed that the ER in the most peripheral plane was relatively static, whereas the ER in the inner plane was rapidly streaming with the velocities of up to ∼3.5 μm/sec. Similar patterns were observed when the cytosolic GFP was used to evaluate the cytoplasmic streaming. Using gene knockouts, we demonstrate that the ER dynamics is driven primarily by the ER-associated myosin XI-K, a member of a plant-specific myosin class XI. Furthermore, we show that the myosin XI deficiency affects organization of the ER network and orientation of the actin filament bundles. Collectively, our findings suggest a model whereby dynamic three-way interactions between ER, F-actin, and myosins determine the architecture and movement patterns of the ER strands, and cause cytosol hauling traditionally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:20351265

  19. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb). PMID:9548927

  20. The role of